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Bill Thayer
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CAP. XI: Germaniae magnae situs (Europae tabula quarta)
Book II, Chapter 10: Greater Germany (Fourth Map of Europe)

My notes on the map:

No information has been added to Ptolemy's text as I have it: there is no topographic data and except for the Danube, the courses of the rivers remain unmapped, since at best, Ptolemy gives only the mouth and the source.

To accommodate Ptolemy's own data, three adjustments had to be made to the coast. He does not list Phleum and Laciburgium in his plotting of the coast, so they must be at least slightly inland; conversely, he calls the asterisked point on the NW coast of Cimbria a promontory (as indeed it is) so I adjusted the coast after it, drawing a bay of arbitrary depth.

Notice that while the orientation of the rest of the map is more or less accurate, Cimbria — modern Denmark — is tilted clockwise by about 60°. As in the even more striking case of Scotland in Ptolemy's map of Britannia, I attribute the rotation to the fact that Roman troops never reached the region: Ptolemy thus had no land measurements available and had to rely on pilots' accounts, influenced by winds and sea-currents.

Germaniae latus occidentale Rhenus fluvius terminat, septentrionale vero Germanicus Oceanus, cuius lateris descriptio haec est.

Post Rheni fluvii ostia

The western boundary of Germany is the river Rhine, and its northern boundary is the Germanic Ocean, of the shore of which the following is a description.

After the mouths of the Rhine river:

Vidri fluvii ostia The mouths of the Vidrus river 27*30 54°45
Marnamanis portus Marnamanis, a port 28*00 54°15
Amisiae fluvii ostia The mouths of the Amisia river 29*00 55°00
fontes fluvii The sources of the river 32*00 53°00
Visurgis fluvii ostia The mouths of the Visurgis river 31*00 55°00
fontes fluvii the sources of the river 34*00 52°30
Albis fluvii ostia The mouths of the Albis river 31*00 56°15
fontes fluvii the sources of the river 39*00 50°00

Cimbricae Chersonesi The Cimbrian peninsula
post Albim prominentia the cape after the Albis 32*00 56°50
proxima prominentia the next cape 35*00 58°20
sequens maxime borealis the next one, the northernmost 38*40 59°30
prima post conversionem prominentia the first cape after the bend 39*20 59°20
pars maxime orientalis the easternmost part of it 40*15 58°30
proxima infra hanc the next one below this one 37*00 57°00
ad ortum solis inflexio a bend towards the east 35*00 56°00
Chalusi fluvii ostia the mouths of the Chalusus river 37*00 56°00
Suevi fluvii ostia the mouths of the Suevus river 39*30 56°00
Viaduae fluvii ostia the mouths of the Viadua river 42*30 56°00
Vistulae fluvii ostia the mouths of the Vistula river 45*00 56°00
caput fluvii the head of the river 44*00 52°30
fons qui ab eo ad occasum est et ad Albim fertur the source which is to the west and is said to be towards the Albis 40*10 52°40

Meridianum vero latus terminat Danubii fluminis pars occidentalis, cuius haec positio est: The south side is bounded by the western part of the Danube river, whose position is this:
caput fluminis [Danubii] the head of the Danube river 30*00 46°20
ubi primus qui ex Germania decurrit in eum influit fluvius where the first river that flows into it from Germany enters 32*00 47°15
ubi a latere meridiano fluvius in eum influit, qui appellatur Ænus where a river flows into it from the south side; it is called the Aenus 34*00 47°20
ubi secundus a septentrionali parte fluvius in eum influit ex Gabretae Silvae regione decurrens where a second river flows into it from the northern side from the region of the Forest of Gabreta 36*00 46°40
ubi proximus a septentrionibus Lunam Silvam praeterfluens fluvius in eum effunditur where next from the north a river traversing the Luna Forest throws itself into it 39*20 47°20
sequens inflexio, a qua meridiem versus [Danubius] inflectitur the next bend, from which the Danube turns southwards 40*40 47°50
ubi a meridiana parte fluvius in eum influit, qui appellatur Arabo where a river flows into it from the north, which is called Arabo 41*00 47°40
flexio prope Curtam a bend near Curta 42*00 47°00
proxima inflexio prope Carpin, quae omnium est maxime septentrionalis the next bend near Carpis, which is the northernmost one of all 42*30 48°00

Orientale latus terminatur eo intervallo, quod est inter hanc inflexionem et Sarmaticos montes supra eam sitos, quorum The eastern side is bounded by that interval, which is between this last bend and the abovementioned Sarmatian mountains,
australis terminus the southern boundary of which is in 42*30 48°30
septentrionalis vero and the northern boundary of which is in 43*30 50°30
atque intervallo inter hos montes et Vistulae caput quod supra indicavimus; deinde mari tenus ipso flumine. and the interval between these mountains and the head of the Vistulae is that which we indicated above; then to the sea by the river itself.

Montium qui Germaniam intersecant celeberrimi sunt quos modo diximus quique proprie nuncupantur Sarmatici, atque ii, qui Alpibus cognomines supra Danubii caput sunt, Of the mountains that traverse Germany the most famous are those we have mentioned and are properly called the Sarmatian Mountains, and those, which under the name of Alps are above the head of the Danube,
quorumque extremae partes sitae the farthest parts of which are at 29*00 47°00
et and 33*00 48°30
atque qui Abnobaei dicuntur, quorum extremae partes sitae sunt and those that are called Abnoba, the farthest parts of which are located in 31*00 49°00
et and 31*00 52°00
et Melibocus, cuius partes extremae sitae sunt and the Melibocus, the farthest parts of which are located in 33*00 52°30
et and 37*00 52°30
infra quem est Semanus Silva; et Asciburgius mons, cuius extrema sita sunt below which is the Semanus Forest; and Mt. Asciburgius, the farthest parts of which are 39*00 54°00
et and 44*00 52°30
atque qui dicuntur Sudeti montes, quorum extrema sita sunt and those mountains that are called Sudeti, the farthest parts of which are at 34*00 50°00
et and 40*00 50°00
infra quos est Gabreta Silva; inter hos vero et Sarmaticos montes est Orcynius Saltus. below which is the Gabreta Forest; and between them and the Sarmatian mountains is the Orcynian valley.

Habitant autem Germaniam praeter Rhenum fluvium, si a septentrionibus progredimur, Bructeri minores et Sygambri, infra quos Suevi Langobardi; deinde Tencteri et Incriones inter Rhenum et Abnobaeos montes; atque deinde Intuergi et Vargiones et Caritni, infra quos Vispi et Helvetiorum Desertum usque ad eos quos diximus Alpes montes. Those that inhabit Germany on the other side of the river Rhine, if we go towards the north, are the Bructeri minores and the Sygambri, below whom the Suevi Langobardi; then the Tencteri and the Incriones between the Rhine and the Abnobaei mountains; and then the Intuergi and the Vargiones and the Caritni, below whom the Vispi and the Desert of the Helvetii until those mountains we referred to as the Alps.

Oram praeter Oceanum inhabitant supra Bructeros Frisii usque ad Amisiam fluvium; post hos Cauchi minores usque ad Visurgim fluvium; deinde Cauchi maiores usque ad Albim fluvium; inde per cervicem Cimbricae Chersonesi Saxones, ipsam autem Chersonesum supra Saxones ab occasu Sigulones, deinde Sabalingii, deinde Cobandi, supra quos Chali, et rursus supra hos ad occasum Fundusii, ad ortum Charudes, omnium vero maxime ad septentriones Cimbri; post Saxones a Chaluso fluvio ad Suevum fluvium Farodini, deinde Sidini usque ad Viaduam fluvium, et post eos Rugiclei usque ad Vistulam fluvium.

Ex gentibus introrsum et in media terra habitantibus maximae sunt gentes Suevorum Angilorum, qui ad orientem sunt a Langobardis septentriones versus extenti usque ad mediam Albis fluvii partem, et Suevorum Semnonum, quorum fines ultra Albim ab ea quam diximus parte orientem versus pertingunt usque ad Suevum fluvium, et Burguntarum, qui inde usque ad Vistulam habitant. Of the people of the interior and those wo live inland the most important are the Suevi Angili, who are to the east of the Langobardi extending towards the north and up to the central part of the Albis river, and the Suevi Semnones, whose boundaries beyond the Albis extend from the area we mentioned towards the east up to the Suevus river, and the Burguntae, who inhabit from there to the Vistula.

Minores vero etiam interiacent gentes et quidem inter Cauchos minores et Suevos Bructeri maiores, infra quos Chaemae; inter Cauchos maiores et Suevos Angrivarii, deinde Laccobardi, infra quos Dulgubnii; inter Saxones et Suevos Teutonoari atque Viruni; inter Pharodinos et Suevos Teutones atque Avarni; inter Rugicleos et Burguntas Aelvaeones.

Rursus infra Semnones sedes habent Silingae, et infra Burguntas Lugi Omani, infra quos Lugi Diduni usque ad Asciburgium montem; et infra Silingas Calucones ad utramque ripam Albis fluminis, infra quos Chaerusci et Camavi usque ad Melibocum montem, a quibus ad orientem circa Albim fluvium Baenochaemae, supra quos Batini, et supra hos infra Asciburgium montem Corconti et Lugi Buri usque ad Vistulae fluvii caput; infra hos autem primi Sidones, deinde Cotini, deinde Visburgii supra Orcynium Saltum. Back below the Semnones the Silingae have their seat, and below the Burguntae the Lugi Omani, below whom the Lugi Diduni up to Mt. Asciburgius; and below the Silingae the Calucones and the Camavi up to Mt. Melibocus, from whom to the east near the Albis river and above them, below Mt. Asciburgius, the Corconti and the Lugi Buri up to the head of the Vistula river; and below them first the Sidones, then the Cotini, then the Visburgii above the Orcynius valley.

Rursus ad orientem ab Abnobaeis montibus sedes habent infra Suevos Casuari, deinde Nertereani, deinde Danduti, infra quos Turoni et Marvingi; infra Camavos Chattae et Tubanti, atque supra Sudetos montes Teuriochaemae, infra montes vero Varisti; deinde Gabreta Silva; et infra Marvingos Curiones, deinde Chaetuori, atque Danubio tenus Parmaecampi; infra Gabretam Silvam Marcomani, infra quos Sudini, et usque ad Danubium fluvium Adrabaecampi; infra Orcynium Saltum Quadi, infra quos ferri fodinae et Luna Silva, infra quam magna gens Baemorum Danubio tenus, et finitimi eis iuxta fluvium Racatriae quique ad fluminis flexiones habitant Racatae.

Oppida vero per Germaniam ponuntur in climate septentrionali haec: The following towns are found in Germany in the northern climate:
Phleum Phleum 28*45 54°45
Siatutanda Siatutanda 29*20 54°20
Tecelia Tecelia 31*00 55°00
Fabiranum Fabiranum 31*30 55°20
Treva Treva 33*00 55°40
Leufana Leufana 34*15 54°40
Lirimiris Lirimiris 34*30 55°30
Marionis Marionis 34*30 54°50
altera Marionis another Marionis 36*00 55°50
Coenoënum Coenoënum 36*20 55°30
Cistuia Cistuia 37*20 54°30
Alisus Alisus 38*00 55°00
Laciburgium Laciburgium 39*00 56°00
Bunitium Bunitium 39*30 55°30
Virunum Virunum 40*30 55°00
Viritium Viritium 41*00 54°30
Rugium Rugium 42*30 55°40
Scurgum Scurgum 43*00 55°00
Ascaucalis Ascaucalis 44*00 54°15

In climate infra illud sito oppida sunt haec: In the climate located below that one, there are the following towns:
Asciburgium Asciburgium 27*30 52°30
Navalia Navalia 27*20 54°00
Mediolanium Mediolanium 28*45 53°50
Teuderium Teuderium 29*20 53°20
Bogadium Bogadium 30*15 52°00
Stereontium Stereontium 31*00 52°10
Amisia Amisia 31*30 51°30
Munitium Munitium 31*40 52°30
Tulifurdum Tulifurdum 32*00 54°00
Ascalingium Ascalingium 32*30 53°45
Tulisurgium Tulisurgium 32*40 53°20
Pheugarum Pheugarum 32*40 52°15
Canduum Canduum 33*00 51°50
Tropaea Drusi the Trophy of Drusus 33*45 52°45
Luppia Luppia 34*30 52°45
Mersovium Mersovium 35*30 53°50
Aregelia Aregelia 36*30 52°20
Galaegia Galaegia 37*30 52°20
Lupfurdum Lupfurdum 38*10 51°40
Susudata Susudata 38*30 53°50
Colancorum Colancorum 39*00 53°30
Lugidunum Lugidunum 39*30 52°30
Stragona Stragona 39*40 52°20
Limis lucus the grove of Limis 41*00 53°30
Budorigum Budorigum 41*00 52°40
Leucaristus Leucaristus 41*45 52°40
Arsonium Arsonium 43*30 52°20
Calisia Calisia 43*45 52°50
Setidava Setidava 44*00 53°30

In climate infra illud sito oppida sunt haec: In the climate located below that one there are the following towns:
Alisum Alisum 28*00 51°30
Budoris Budoris 28*00 51°00
Mattiacum Mattiacum 30*00 50°50
Arctaunum Arctaunum 30*10 50°00
Novaesium Novaesium 31*30 51°10
Melocabus Melocabus 31*30 50°40
Gravionarium Gravionarium 31*30 50°10
Locoritum Locoritum 31*30 49°20
Segodunum Segodunum 31*30 49°00
Devona Devona 32*30 48°45
Bergium Bergium 33*00 49°30
Menosgada Menosgada 34*00 49°30
Bicurgium Bicurgium 34*30 51°15
Marobudum Marobudum 35*00 49°00
Redintuinum Redintuinum 38*30 50°30
Nomisterium Nomisterium 39*00 51°00
Meliodunum Meliodunum 39*00 49°00
Casurgis Casurgis 39*15 50°10
Strevinta Strevinta 39*15 49°30
Hegetmatia Hegetmatia 39*40 51°00
Budorgis Budorgis 40*00 50°30
Eburum Eburum 41*00 49°30
Arsicua Arsicua 41*40 49°00
Parienna Parienna 42*00 49°20
Setovia Setovia 42*30 50°00
Carrodunum Carrodunum 42*40 51°30
Asanca Asanca 43*00 50°20

In reliquo et prope Danubium fluvium oppida sunt haec: In the remainder and near the Danube river these are the towns:
Tarodunum Tarodunum 28*20 47°50
Arae Flaviae the Flavian Altars 30*40 48°00
Riusiava Riusiava 31*00 47°30
Alcimoënnis Alcimoënnis 32*30 47°30
Cantioebis Cantioebis 32*40 48°20
Bibacum Bibacum 33*00 48°00
Brodentia Brodentia 33*45 48°00
Setuacotum Setuacotum 34*00 48°20
Usbium Usbium 35*00 47°00
Abilunum Abilunum 35*20 47°20
Furgisatis Furgisatis 36*00 48°00
Coridorgis Coridorgis 37*15 48°30
Mediolanium Mediolanium 38*00 47°10
Felicia Felicia 39*00 48°30
Eburodunum Eburodunum 39*00 48°00
Anduaetium Anduaetium 40*30 47°40
Celamantia Celamantia 41*00 47°40
Singone Singone 41*30 48°15
Anavum (Adiabum?) Anavum (Adiabum?) 41*20 47°30

Insulae supra Germaniam sitae sunt ad Albis ostia quae nominantur Saxonum tres, earumque medium situm est There are three islands located above Germany at the mouths of the Albis, which are called Saxon, and the one in the middle is located at 31*00 57°20
Supra Cimbricam Chersonesum aliae tres insulae quae Alociae dicuntur, quarum medium situm est Above the Cimbrian peninsula there are three other islands which are called the Alociae islands: the one in the middle is located at 37*00 59°20
Orientem versus a Cimbrica Chersoneso quattuor insulae quae dicuntur Scandiae, tres minores, quarum quae media est positionem habet East of the Cimbrian peninsula there are four islands called the Scandian islands, three of them smaller, of which the one in the middle has the following position: 41*30 58°00
una vero maxima et maxime orientem versus ad ostia Vistulae fluvii; partes eius extremae sitae sunt but one of them very large and the most eastwards at the mouth of the river Vistula; its ends are located
ad occasum to the West 43*00 58°00
ad ortum to the East 46*00 58°00
ad septentriones to the North 44*30 58°30
ad meridiem to the south 45*00 57°40
Appellatur vero proprie et ipsa Scandia atque inhabitant partes eius occidentales Chaedini, orientales Favonae et Firaesi, septentrionales Finni, meridianas Gutae (Gautae) et Dauciones, medias Levoni. It is properly called Scandia itself; and its western region is inhabited by the Chaedini, its eastern region by the Favonae and the Firaesi, its northern region by the Finni, its southern region by the Gutae (Gautae) and the Dauciones, and its central region by the Levoni.

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Page updated: 10 Sep 09