Juan Mackenna O'Reilly (1771‑1814) was of Irish extraction. Sent to Spain at the age of thirteen under the patronage of his maternal uncle Count O'Reilly, he entered the engineer corps in 1787. He saw service in Peru, while the elder O'Higgins was viceroy. He came to Santiago in 1808, and his plan of defense for that city attracted prompt preferment. He became governor ad interim of Valparaiso in 1811, but was later banished on the order of the Carreras, whose jealousy had had aroused. He coöperated with O'Higgins in the campaigns of 1813‑1814 and after Rancagua took refuge in the Argentine. He was killed at Buenos Aires in a duel with Luis Carrera (see p193). — E, XXXI, 1202; F, IV, 153‑154.
Fernando de Magallanes (ca. 1480‑1521) is commonly known in English as Ferdinand Magellan. The Portuguese form of his name is Fernão Magalhães. He was of lesser noble blood, and his birthplace is unknown. After early service at the court of Portugal, he accompanied Almeida to India and continued to serve there under Albuquerque. He p490made a second voyage to the Far East in 1509. On both occasions marked differences occurred between him and his commanders. He returned to Portugal in 1512 to vindicate himself, but, being denied justice, he fled to Spain and proposed to undertake a westward voyage to the Spice Islands with Ruy Falero. After a year of preparation, marked by jealous opposition on the part of Spanish rivals, he started in August, 1519, on his world-encircling voyage. After a winter of mutiny and privation, in the Bay of San Julián on the Argentine coast, on October 21, 1520, he discovered the strait that bears his name and, after a stormy passage of thirty-six days, entered the Pacific Ocean. He touched the Ladrone Islands on March 6, 1521, and on April 27 he was killed in an encounter with the natives of the Philippines. These dates simply set off chapters in an unparalleled struggle to overcome distance, disaffection, famine, superstition, and nature in its worst phases. Juan Sebastián de Elcano (q.v.) brought the surviving vessel of the expedition back to Spain. — E, XXXII, 55‑59. See also James Alexander Robertson (ed.), Magellan's Voyage Around the World, by Antonio Pigafetta (Cleveland, 1906); F. H. H. Guillemard, Life of Ferdinand Magellan, and the First Circumnavigation of the Globe, 1480‑1521 (London, 1890); and Stefan Zweig, Conqueror of the Seas: The Story of Magellan (New York, 1938).
José Antonio Manso de Velasco (b. 1688) was born in Logroño. After extensive military experience in Spain and Italy, he came to Chile in 1737, where he served as lieutenant-governor, captain-general, and president. In 1738 he assembled the principal Chilean caciques in Tapihue and ratified the peace already agreed upon. He founded seven cities in Chile and in 1744, after acquiring the rank of field marshal became viceroy of Peru. He also wrote a narrative of the principal events of his term of office. As a result of his long service in Peru, he gained the title of Conde de Superunda. On returning to Spain he had the misfortune to be among those who were at Havana when it was surrendered to the English in 1762. — M, pp496‑498; E, XXXII, 1004; B, VI, 95.
Francisco Casimiro Marcó del Pont (1770‑1819) was born in Vigo. Fourteen years later he became a cadet in the infantry of Saragoza,º where he later distinguished himself in the siege of 1808, and where he was taken prisoner by the French and remained in captivity until the restoration of Ferdinand VII, who in 1815 sent him to Chile with the rank of brigadier and field marshal. He spent the rest of his life in Chile. — E, XXXII, 1368.
José Gaspar Esquivel Marín (1772‑1839) was born in La Serena and educated in the College of San Carlos. He became a doctor of canon p491and civil law, and obtained a professorship of law by competition. He acquired considerable renown as a jurisconsult and was legal adviser of the consulado and of Mateo del Toro Zambrano, Conde de la Conquista. After Rancagua he went to Buenos Aires and upon his return to Chile, disapproving of the policy of O'Higgins, he kept out of politics for a time and devoted himself to the practice of law. In 1823 he was appointed minister of the supreme court and in 1825 was elected to congress from San Fernando. He signed the liberal constitution of 1828 and also the constitution of 1833. For some time he was president of the Academia de Abogados. — F, IV.191‑192.
Tomás Marín de Poveda (1650‑1703) was a native of Lucar in Granada. As a boy he accompanied his uncle, Bartolomé González de Poveda to Charcas, where the latter served as president of the audiencia and later as archbishop of the diocese. The boy embraced the career of arms in the new world, serving without distinction first in Peru and later in 1670, in Chile. Such was the decadence of the home government that, on his return to Spain, he purchased a commission as lieutenant-general of cavalry and it is said that he also bought the governorship of Chile. On January 5, 1692, he entered Santiago with great pomp and during the next two years undertook campaigns against the pirates and the Indians. The first noteworthy dramatic representations in Chile were given at Concepción in 1693, in connection with his marriage. He founded the towns of Buena Esperanza, Itata, Rere, Talca, and Chimborazo, but Rere and Talca were the only ones to survive. His governorship, which lasted until 1700, was not regarded with favor. In 1702 he was given the title of Marqués de Cañada Hermosa. — M, pp500‑502; E, XXXIII, 130; B, V, 254.
Ventura Marín Recabarren (1806‑1877) devoted his youth to the study of science, and early gained repute as a lawyer and philosopher. His Elementos de la filosofía del espíritu humano (Santiago, 1834) long served in Chile as a textbook. Ascetic by nature, he finally retired to a convent, but without assuming any religious profession. — E, XXXIII, 129; F, IV, 192.
Rafael Maroto (1783‑1847) was born in the town of Lorca, Spain. He distinguished himself in the wars against Napoleon by his part in the siege of Zaragoza. He was taken prisoner by the French but escaped. In December, 1813, he sailed for Peru at the head of the regiment of Talavera, and was sent to reconquer Chile. After the victory of the patriots Maroto returned to Spain in 1825, where he took part in the Carlist wars and, on the failure of other leaders, commanded the forces of Don Carlos. Despite opposition he maintained his position and finally made with Espartero the treaty that ended the seven years p492of conflict. He died in Chile, where he had gone to arrange some business affairs. — E, XXXIII, 284; F, V, 198.
Fernando Márquez de la Plata y Orozco (1740‑1818) was born in Seville, the son of an oidor of that city. His services in America began in 1775 and, after holding minor positions in the Peruvian and the Platine provinces, he became in turn a member of the audiencias of Lima and Quito and in 1803 a member of the audiencia of Santiago. A consistent supporter of the revolution, he suffered exile in Mendoza, but returned to die in Santiago. — M., pp506‑508.
Juan Martínez de Rozas Correa (1759‑1813) was born in Mendoza and began his studies at the University of Córdoba. Completing his higher education at the University of San Felipe, he became attorney in 1784 and for five years filled the chair of philosophy in the royal college of San Carlos. He obtained his doctorate in canon and civil law in 1786, and during the later colonial period he filled various legal and military posts in Chile, which brought him into relations with royal officials, especially García Carrasco. At the same time he was gradually being influenced by the revolutionary ideas that made him the philosopher of independence. After the break with García Carrasco he retired to Concepción and began a vigorous correspondence with prospective insurgents in Chile and in the Platine provinces. He was formerly given credit for composing the Catecismo político-cristiano, the authorship of which is now attributed to Irisarri. He died shortly after his exile to Mendoza (see p172), his birthplace. In view of his cultural and official background and his services in behalf of independence, he has been called the founder and teacher of the Chilean nation. — E, XXXIII, 547‑548; F, IV, 209‑211. See also Domingo Amunátegui Solar, "Noticias inéditas sobre Don Juan Martínez de Rozas," in Anales de la Universidad de Chile, CXXVII (Santiago, 1910), 27‑106.
José Antonio Martínez Garcés de Aldunate (1730‑1811) was born in Santiago. Studying theology and law, he was graduated from the University of San Felipe with the degree of doctor in 1755. He filled many ecclesiastical posts and was thrice rector his alma mater. In 1805 he was made bishop of Guamanga, Peru. Before departing for his see, he divided his property among his relatives and the poor, endowed various institutions, and performed other charitable works. He became bishop of Santiago in 1810. — E, XXXIII, 530; F, I, 320‑321.
Guillermo Matta Goyenechea (1829‑1899) was born in Copiapó and educated at the National Institute and in Germany. He published his first poems in 1847 and later developed an original philosophic type p493of verse that involved him in furious controversies with his fellows. In addition, in the radical press he opposed the Montt administration so vigorously that he suffered three years of exile, during which he visited different European countries and continued his literary tasks in Madrid. His return to Chile in 1862 did not free him from polemic strife, for he served one prison sentence for his revolutionary propaganda. Nevertheless his verse assumed a patriotic note in the contest against Spain and Peru and after 1870 he served as deputy in congress, as intendant of Atacama, and, after 1882, as minister to Germany and Italy. He returned to Chile in 1887 to be hailed as the Victor Hugo of America. His ministry to Buenos Aires was interrupted by civil war, during which he espoused the cause of congress. He returned to fill the office of intendant at Concepción and at Atacama and to add to his reputation as a patriotic poet. He was a prominent mason. One of the leading public schools of Santiago, endowed by his wife, bears his name. — F, IV, 217‑218.
Manuel Antonio Matta Goyenechea (1828‑1892) was born at possible. He pursued his studies at the Conciliar Seminary at Santiago, at the National Institute, and later in the universities of Germany. In the latter he gained an unusual cultural equipment, especially in philosophy and political science, and so perfected himself for later translations from the German language. As orator and writer, both in prose and verse, he was reserved to the point of coldness, often prolix, sometimes vague, and apt to give an impression of philosophic calm that bordered on indecision. As the years wore on, however, he overcame many of these earlier handicaps and finished his course as the undisputed leader of the radical party. He began to contribute to liberal papers immediately upon his return from Europe, became a deputy from Copiapó in 1855, joined with his brother Guillermo (see p298), Benjamín Vicuña Mackenna, and other men in publishing a reform paper called La asamblea constituyente, and with his associates speedily found himself in prison, where he uttered a memorable oration to encourage his fellow prisoners. Condemned with two companions to death, he was instead exiled to England, whereupon he spent two years in European travel and after some delay in Lima was permitted to return to his native land. The remaining years of his life were divided between literary work and politics. For more than twenty years he continued as deputy from Copiapó, holding an occasional cabinet office, but devoting himself primarily to party leadership and reform. He espoused the congressional side in the civil war of 1891, and later became minister of foreign relations and public worship. This phase of his career was not in keeping with his life-long anticlerical attitude, but p494he warmly defended the cause of Chile in the Baltimore affair (see p403), and, when the administration neglected to support him, resigned from the ministry and died shortly thereafter. — F, IV, 218‑219; Justo and Domingo Arteaga Alemparte, Los constituyentes chilenos de 1870, pp56‑63.
Claudio Matte Pérez (1852‑1956)a was born in Santiago and obtained his license as lawyer in 1879. After travel abroad, he devoted himself to educational administration and to the writing of textbooks. During the revolution of 1891, he acted as confidential agent of the revolutionists at Berlin, later became a deputy, and served in one ministry under President Jorge Montt. He retired from politics and devoted himself to work for the primary schools. In 1926 he became rector of the University of Chile, but his attempts at reform led to serious strikes among the students and to his own resignation in 1927. He has since, from his own funds, constructed one of the model schools of the city. — F, IV, 224.
José Maza Fernández (1889‑1964),b born in Los Angeles, was noted from student days as a political organizer and public speaker. He gained his degree as attorney in 1913, was elected as deputy in 1921 became minister of justice and public instruction in 1925, and a year later was chosen as senator from Valdivia. He opposed the method of selecting parliament in 1930 (see p384), was charged with conspiracy, but escaped sentence by voluntary exile. Returning from exile, he was again elected to the senate and in 1936 became its presiding officer. He is regarded as a shrewd, conciliatory politician. — F, IV, 234; Hoy, March 10, 1936, p25, and June 12, 1936, p10.
Diego de Medellín (1496‑1593) was born in 1496 in the Estremaduran city of that name and entered the Franciscan order in the province of Salamanca. Coming to Peru in the early years of the conquest, he taught philosophy, theology, and jurisprudence in the University of San Marcos, was nominated as third bishop of Santiago in 1573, and arrived in Chile in 1576. Some irregularity clouded the beginning of his administration, because for months he lacked the necessary papal confirmation and hence assumed office solely by royal order. For seventeen years he performed the duties of his office with "rare skill and singular energy" and died at the advanced age of ninety-sevenº years. — Errázuriz, Los oríjenes de la iglesia chilena, 1540‑1603, chaps. xxi‑xxxv.
José Toribio Medina Zavala (1852‑1930) was born in Santiago and educated at the National Institute and the University of Chile, where he obtained his degree as advocate in 1873. After practicing law for two years, he held a minor diplomatic post in Peru, meanwhile devoting p495himself to bibliographic and historical work, which thenceforth became his sole occupation, except during the war with Bolivia and Peru. Even in the midst of military service he collaborated on a biography of Arturo Prat (see p327). Long voyages to Europe permitted him to gather the multitudinous documents which in the course of a half-century bore fruit in more than three hundred titles. His first pioneer work mentioned in the text appeared in 1878 and the second, in 1884. His writings upon the colonial press and the Inquisition alone fill a score of volumes. He was a recognized authority on the coins and maps of the colonial period and on its bibliography, a prolific biographer, the restless editor of documents — varied tasks which have lightened all research in the field and greatly helped to enrich the early chapters of the present work. In 1923 the University of Chile held a special session in honor of Señor Medina on his completing fifty years of unusually productive work, a celebration in which learned societies outside of Chile also participated. He was spared for seven more active years, during which, as he expressed it, he "worked much and wearied little." — F, IV, 238‑240; Revista de historia y geografía, XLVII (July‑Sept., 1923), 7‑453. Pages 333‑452 of this article are devoted to a catalogue of his writings and to biographical data.
José Toribio Medina, bibliographer and historian, recognized as the leading man in his field in Latin America.
Courtesy Instituto de Cinematografía Educativa, Universidad de Chile.
Thayer's Note: In the print edition, this photo accompanies those of Diego Barros Arana, Benjamín Vicuña Mackenna, and a statue of the Amunátegui brothers; together the four photos are additionally captioned
Casto Méndez Núñez (1824‑1869) was a native of Vigo, a province of Galicia. After preliminary studies for his profession, Méndez Núñez began his career as a sailor — a career which included the Carlist wars in Spain, service on the African coast, in the La Plata region, the Philippines, and finally in the Spanish intervention on the west coast of South America. His most disagreeable duty — the bombardment of Valparaiso — is noted in the text (p309). He was wounded in a later bombardment of Callao, relinquished command of the fleet to another, and returned to Spain. Despite the inglorious ending of this campaign future honors awaited him, but he did not long survive to enjoy them. — E, XXXIV, 588‑590.
Francisco de Meneses, or Menezes (1614‑1679), member of a noble Portuguese family, was born at Cádiz. Entering the Spanish army as a mere youth, he gained reputation through his skill as a horseman and as a bullfighter rather than on the battlefield. He served for twenty-five years in Milan, Flanders, Portugal, and Catalonia and was in constant difficulty with his companions and superiors, but escaped punishment, although once condemned to death through the influence of Don Juan of Austria, natural son of Philip IV. In 1663, as general of artillery, he was appointed governor of Chile. He had no qualifications for the office and his appointment shows the decadence then prevalent p496in the Spanish service. On reaching Buenos Aires, where he first landed, he was put under arrest because of quarrels with his companions and on his arrival at Santiago entered upon a dispute with the bishop, which resulted in his prompt excommunication. The bellicose governor in turn tried unsuccessfully to exile the bishop. The term of Meneses was marked by all sorts of disorders while his services amounted to little. On being finally dismissed, he sought safety in flight, but was arrested, imprisoned, and fined heavily. He died in prison, leaving a large fortune. — E, XXXIV, 663‑664. For a more favorable sketch see M, pp529‑531; B, V, 39, et seq.
Juan Ignacio Molina (1737‑1829) was born near the banks of the Maule River. An orphan from early childhood, he was educated by the Jesuits at Talca and Concepción, where he took his first vows. Distinguished as a student, he was early put in charge of the library of the principal Jesuit house in Santiago. He was still a simple "brother" of the order when with his fellow Jesuits he was exiled from Chile in 1768, and about two years later settled in Bologna. In this city, in 1776, he published anonymously his Compendio de la historia geográfica, natural, i civil del reino de Chile and in 1782 his Compendio sobre la historia natural de Chile, which established his literary and scientific reputation. His Historia civil appeared in 1787 and was translated and published in Madrid in 1795. While his work is not scientific in the modern sense, it is characterized by keen observation and clear expression. He was obliged to write most of it from memory. Linguist, philosopher, and man of science, he was also distinguished for the love of Chile, to which he always hoped to return. His most fervent wish, during his last illness, was for a drink of water from the Cordillera. A monument to his memory stands in front of the university in Santiago. — M, pp541‑544; B, VII, 531‑540. See also Medina, Historia de la literatura colonial de Chile, II, 420‑421, 523‑533; Rev. chil. de hist. y geog., LXXIII (Sept.‑Dec., 1932), 71‑82.
Enrique Molina Garmendía (1871‑1964)c was born in La Serena and received the customary law degree. After preliminary work as teacher of history and philosophy in the liceos of Chillán and Concepción, he became rector of the liceo of Talca, where for ten years he made a remarkable record as instructor and writer upon educational topics. In 1916 he was again transferred to Concepción and in the following year expanded the local liceo into the "free" University of Concepción, became its president in 1919, and speedily made it a powerful force in contemporary education. He fitted himself for its leadership by travel and study in Europe and in the United States and on his return through his energy, ability, and practical management made the university p497in methods, equipment, and curriculum the leading institution of higher learning in Chile. His success in Concepción led to his being summoned in 1927 to head the University of Chile in Santiago and to take over the new post of superintendent of public education. Differences arising between him and the minister of education soon led to his resignation. He returned to Concepción, after a brief journey to Europe, and in 1930 contracted a loan that enabled him to house the university more effectively than any similar institution in the country. It is maintained in large part by a general lottery. — F, IV, 287.
Juan Esteban Montero Rodríguez (1879‑1948)d was born in Santiago. He became advocate in 1901 and thereafter devoted himself almost exclusively to the teaching and practice of his profession. He served as counsel for the state railways and for the Council of Fiscal Defense, represented prominent nitrate interests, and gave instruction in civil law at the University of Chile. He had held no prominent political office before the events of 1931 called him to high executive responsibilities. During the troublous days of July, 1931, he was twice minister of the interior for a few days each time. Since his brief administration as president he has lived in retirement. — F, IV, 309; Hoy, November 20, 1931, p9.
Jorge Montt Álvarez (1845‑1922) was born in Casablanca,º entered the Naval School in 1858, and three years later began his active service on the Independencia. During the war with Spain, he participated in the capture of the Covadonga (see p308). Both before and after that conflict, he filled routine naval offices with distinction. During the war with Peru, he served with like distinction as commander of the O'Higgins. In 1884 he discharged an important naval mission to Europe and in 1887 was named maritime governor at Valparaiso. This position enabled him to further the designs of the revolutionary party in 1891. His services on this occasion made him president of the republic — a position for which he possessed few qualifications. His efforts, therefore, were largely directed to routine tasks. More skillful hands determined the course of political development, but the president employed his personal honesty and good sense to correct obvious mistakes. After retiring from the presidency, he filled minor posts which afforded him a comfortable livelihood but permitted him to leave little to his family aside from an honorable name. Obviously he did not belong to the family of the great Manuel Montt, but he helped bridge an important period in Chilean politics. — E, XXXVI, 810; F, IV, 311‑312.
Luis Montt Montt (1848‑1909) became deputy in 1876, gained his title as advocate in 1880, and in the same year became professor of literature in the National Institute. From 1886 until his death he was p498director of the National Library. His publications were largely historical but he also published one volume of poems. — F, IV, 316.
Pedro Montt Montt (1848‑1910), son of President Manuel Montt (see p289), was born in Santiago and trained for a life-long public career in the National Institute and the University of Chile. He became advocate in 1870 and four years later entered the chamber of deputies. An accomplished linguist and an orator of torrential caliber, he became a successful champion of educational and charitable causes and, as the recognized half of the nationalist Montt-Varista party, gained both hearty friends and active enemies. In 1886, as president of the chamber of deputies, he brought to an end the bitter debate over the budget (see p341), and thus ensured the succession of Balmaceda. In the latter's first cabinet he served as minister of justice and public instruction. In 1887 he headed the newly created ministry of industry and public works, and in 1889 held the portfolio of the treasury. In 1891 he was one of the leading opponents of Balmaceda and represented the insurgent government at Washington, where he was obliged to defend Chile in the unfortunate Baltimore affair. He served as minister in the cabinets of Don Jorge Montt, became senator in 1901, and president in 1906. Through his election, with the prestige of his father's name and of his own meritorious career, the Chilean public expected a moral regeneration of the country. In this they were disappointed; the disruptive tendencies in politics and public finance were too strong for him. He repressed the strikes of 1907 with the armed forces of the republic, but he could not turn the tide of corruption which then permeated national life and hampered his most notable undertakings. Wearied with his losing fight against general corruption and the unceasing round of festivities to which public life and family tradition subjected him, he died during the fourth year of his presidency while on a voyage to Europe for medical treatment. — F, IV, 317‑318; E, XXXVI, 811.
Manuel Montt Torres (1809‑1880) was born in Petorca of a distinguished Catalonian family that had been impoverished by espousing the revolutionary cause. The poverty of his childhood permitted only casual instruction but in 1822 he was fortunate enough to secure a scholarship in the National Institute, where his character and ability at once attracted favorable notice. He received the degree of bachelor in 1830. He spent some time in the law office of Manuel José Gandarillas and in 1831 gained the rank of attorney. In swift succession, he became vice rector of the institute, professor of Roman and civil law, deputy ad interim in congress and rector of the institute, displaying in the last-named post that energy and insistence on orderly progress, discipline, and conformity to law which characterized him through life. He became p499subsecretary in the ministry of the interior in time to help suppress the revolt of Quillota (see p269) and to organize the expedition against Peru (see p270); at the same time he was ad interim member and attorney of the supreme court. In 1840 he was elected as regular deputy to congress. That same year he became minister of the interior and again held this office in 1845, serving also the ministry of war and marine, and after 1841 he took over the post of minister of justice, worship, and public instruction. In all these tasks he displayed conspicuous organizing and administrative ability. His efforts in behalf of education were especially fruitful. Under his direction the university and the normal school for men were organized and the entire system of public instruction given new impetus. The astronomical observatory, the school for deaf-mutes, and various charitable and correctional institutions date from his ministry. He stimulated scientific exploration, organized new provinces, negotiated new commercial treaties, introduced railroads, modified taxes, and projected new fiscal establishments. His manifold activities marked him, in the estimation of some, as the true organizer of the government of Chile, but he is rather to be regarded as the one who most definitely continued the work of Portales, rather than as the one who supplanted that great leader. His efficiency was measurably counteracted by his severity and inflexibility, and for that reason his administration was a tempestuous one. His personal following became prominent as a political party. After leaving the presidential office, he continued in the supreme court, where he provoked an attempt in 1868 to impeach him (see p313).º He was then elected senator, and served as counselor of state and as envoy to Peru. Few Chileans have equaled him in public usefulness, none has surpassed him. — E, XXXVI, 810; F, IV, 318‑321. See also Galdames, El decenio de Montt; Blanco Cuartín, Artículos escogidos, pp537‑542; Alberto Edwards, El gobierno de Don Manuel Montt, 1851‑1861 (Santiago, 1932).
José Joaquín de Mora (1783‑1864) was born in Cádiz and studied law in Granada, but took up arms during the French invasion of Spain. During this conflict, he was taken prisoner and on his return to Spain became known for his work as a journalist, poet, translator of drama, and politician. His liberal views forced him into exile after 1823. Going first to London, he was there brought into sympathy with the American struggle for independence and in 1827 came to Buenos Aires, on the invitation of Rivadavia. In succession he resided in Chile, Peru, and Bolivia, engaging in each country in newspaper and general literary and educational work and heralding in each many important political posts. In 1839 he returned to Spain, still keeping up his literary and educational activities, and for some years served as Spanish consul general p500in London. — E, XXXVI, 864‑865; B, XV, 222, 223, 304, and XVI, 28‑30; F, IV, 324.
Luizº Muñoz de Guzmán (1735‑1808), born in Seville, was a well-known Spanish naval officer and a magistrate. He served in many parts of the world, including Hispanic America and, because of his excellent record, was appointed president of the audiencia of Quito from 1791 to 1796, being succeeded in that office by the Baron de Carondelet. In 1802 he was commissioned lieutenant general and appointed governor and captain general of Chile. — E, XXXVII, 423‑424.
Esteban Muñoz Donoso (1844‑1907) was born in Curicó, studied in the seminary of Santiago, became presbyter in 1868, and for the next quarter-century served as professor in the seminary and later combined with his professorship the editorial work of El estandarte católico. His most significant poem bears the title La Colombia.º — F, IV, 341.
a The year of his death is filled in here from a biographical sketch once found in Icarito, the Chilean school encyclopedia, where his year of birth is given as 1858. With the continued shrinking of the Web, the page has vanished, not to be replaced.
b His mother's name and the year of his death are filled in here from the biographical sketch (with photo and bibliography) on the website of the Chilean National Congressional Library.
d The year of his death is filled in here from a biographical sketch once found in Icarito, the Chilean school encyclopedia. With the continued shrinking of the Web, the page has vanished, not to be replaced.
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