The final period of our study opened quietly but the Spanish War and the hostilities in the Philippines served to bring the army in general before the public eye and indirectly to draw attention to the Military Academy. The last year (1902) being the Centennial year was the occasion of enlarged ceremonies in June at graduation time and served the purpose of directing attention to the necessity for completing rosters, reports, official studies and so on, so as to round out the record of 100 years. The result was the accumulation of many valuable records at the Military Academy which have facilitated the completion of its history to this point.
It is possible that the West Point Y. M. C. A. was formed in this year. A pamphlet in the U. S. M. A. Library refers to it and no earlier record is to be found.
A minor change in the uniforms of cadets was the issue of riding breeches suitable to the purpose for the first time.2
More important events were the arrival of a new Superintendent and the trip to Chicago. Oswald H. Ernest, Major of Engineers, reported as Superintendent, March 31, 1893. In August (17th to 30th) the Corps of Cadets went to the World's Columbian Exposition under the command of Lieutenant-Colonel S. M. Mills.3
The trip marked the first appearance of the Corps of Cadets so far west (the last one to Chicago until an Army-Navy football game was played in Chicago thirty years later). The Corps made p55a strong and favorable impression. An impression was also made upon the cadets in return. Western hospitality was experienced and appreciated. The trip seems to have engendered much good feeling.
It was in 1893 also that the first annual meeting of the Army Officers Athletic Association convened formally4 and took action to encourage athletics.
In June, 1894, there was a serious fire near the gas house.5 New regulations were published this year.
The first rain coat to be used at the Military Academy was issued in 1894.6 A rain coat has been part of the regular equipment ever since.
The Board of Visitors was favorably impressed this year, saying in their report:7 ". . . individually (the cadets are) young athletes in whom the lessons of love of country and devotion to duty, of discipline, honor, and integrity — which are part and parcel of their daily life at West Point — have already borne abundant fruit, and will abide with them for all time . . ."8
Athletics were an increasingly important place. They seemed to deserve at least the small time allotted. Some concern was felt over the attendant injuries however.9
Guard, police and fire regulations were issued in 1895.
The Board of Visitors made an unusually careful study this year. They examined admission methods at West Point12 saying, "The schools and colleges had also one strong inducement to keep down the admission requisites, as the rejection of applicants meant to them diminished numbers and revenue. But the examiners at West Point were untouched by these influences."
It was mentioned that there had been only one change in admission standards since 1812 (that of 1866) and new (higher) standards reflecting the "educational improvements of the country" were recommended.13
In an Appendix (B) the Military Academy was compared with the school at Ixelles, Belgium, and the schools in Italy, England, Austria, and France.
Malaria had made inroads upon the health of the Corps of Cadets in recent years and a thorough study was made of the situation in 1896.15
Battle Monument was completed.16
The magazine rifle replaced the Springfield Cadet rifle.17
The first "year book" on record is the Howitzer of the class of 1896. Previously it had been merely a pamphlet of jokes; this year it became a serious record of cadet life.18
Interesting data concerning the days of 1892‑6 are to be obtained from this book. "Finning out" was mentioned as in p57vogue when '96 were plebes i.e., in 1892. This method of holding the hands palm to the front (more to be connected in our minds with embarrassment and indecision than military bearing) was mistakenly supposed to be beneficial.19 Other details of plebe camp show it to be of traditional character.
While this Howitzer lacked certain features which later years were to bring20 it gave short individual write-ups, a history of the class, and accounts of athletics, the 100th Night Entertainment; the YMCA; and was rounded out by a few short essays, poems and jokes.21
Another source of information in regard to conditions in 1896 is Colonel Reed's book.22 In it we are told that the new cadet still stood at attention with "palms to the front." The neat arrangement of personal articles in the clothes press is emphasized.23 Cadets still obtained water from hydrants in the area of barracks. (It had been brought into the buildings, for the first floor only, by 1896.) The custom of the predecessor24 giving his plebe clothing is mentioned, one plebe receiving "20 pair of white pants."25
Hazing was "little more than harmless badgering, which had the effect of reducing a possibly conceited or bumptious youth to a (better) frame of mind . . ."26
p58 (Fights) ". . . unless army officers on duty . . . have27 'official knowledge' of a cadet fight no notice is taken of it . . ."
"Old Bentz," the bugler, blew calls.28
Flirtation Walk was in use.29
Furlough was still the chief date for anticipation in the cadet calendar.30
In 1897 Battle Monument was formally dedicated.31
The uniform was much like that worn today except for the forage cap.32 The final examination by the Academic Board was oral.33 Cadet teams were organized in baseball and football34 but played home games only. The spirit of play at this time is reflected in the words: "Cadets can afford to be beaten but cannot afford to play unfairly."35
In June, 1898, the Board of Visitors reported36 that "a very high degree of respect is entertained by the cadets toward the officers and professors, and also . . . these gentlemen fully reciprocate this feeling . . . which tends to increase manliness and self-respect on the part of the cadets."
p59 Albert L. Mills, First Lieutenant of Cavalry, reported as Superintendent August 22, 1898.37
The class of '98 graduated in April (the 26th) instead of in June, because of the Spanish War.40
Lusk reservoir was built at a cost of $100,000. It has constituted the water supply of the post since then, and also furnished a hockey rink in winter.
In June, 1898, when the Association of Graduates assembled, P. S. Michie, veteran instructor at the Academy, was the oldest graduate present.41
The Board of Visitors reported the Academy as42 ". . . the peer of any institution of learning in the world . . ."43 They found that the members of the football and baseball teams ". . . compare favorably in their classes in academic standing p60with those who did not participate in these games . . ."44 They said that ". . . the pure democracy which characterizes the institution is above all things to be commended."45 The board notes (with satisfaction) that Lieutenant Koehler has been commissioned at last.46
An experiment was made in 1899 with three conduct grades for the cadets.47 This system did not endure. A more lasting innovation was the adoption of "colors"48 for athletic use.49 Another lasting change was the adoption of service stripes50 worn on the sleeve to show length of service at the Academy. These are still worn.51
In September of this year the Corps of Cadets enjoyed a trip to New York City when they paraded in honor of Admiral Dewey.52
Early graduation came to '99 as it had to the previous class, but even earlier. They left the Academy February 15, 1899.53
In spite of war and rumors of war West Point was still afflicted with its own private conflict, "hazing."54 This deep-rooted tradition resisted all efforts to dislodge it.
War influence was responsible for an even more practical type of training for the cadet than heretofore. "Full field equipment" was issued and the cadets trained to use it.55 The "blouse" was introduced as an article of uniform. It was grey56 with black trim and standing collar. Its style has changed but little since.
A report from Professor Larned, this year, gives a definite list p61of buildings that existed.57 These were 163 in number and included: 6 Barracks, 1 Academic Building, 1 Headquarters Building, 1 Mess Hall, 1 Gymnasium, 2 Chapels, 1 Library, 2 Hospitals, 1 Store, 1 Riding Hall, 1 Memorial Hall, 29 Officers' Quarters, and so on. "These structures have been erected at various periods . . . from 1816 to the present day."58
To Farrow's book59 we are indebted for a description of entrance requirements and cadet life in 1899. Many less frequently recorded items appear as well. Interesting to the graduate of West Point is Farrow's "Vocabulary of the expressions and phrases used in the Corps of Cadets." Among these appeared such words as "Beast," a new cadet;60 "bone," to study; "bugle it," to keep from reciting until bugle blows; "fess," to make poor recitation; and so on. Farrow gives us 17 verses of "Benny Havens, Oh."61 He tells us that the Dialectic Society was founded in 1824.62
Another private source of certain details not to be found in official documents is Reade's Scrap Book.63
A clear picture of the Military Academy in 1900 may be obtained from the many official and unofficial records available. A Guide to West Point64 in this year shows it to be essentially unchanged. The Corps organization was now six Companies65 instead of four, it is true, but the appearance of the battalion at p62ceremonies would have seemed much as before to the casual observer.
An appropriation of $78,999 was made for new officers' mess and quarters.66 All of the new buildings were of appropriate style and enough like those already in use to preserve the uniform appearance which had continued to make West Point a national "show place" and to keep it fully as attractive as the better college campus.
Memorial tablets of the Revolutionary and Spanish wars (in chapel) were presented by the New York Daughters of the American Revolution.67
The Howitzer68 (very similar to that of 1896) showed individual pictures of the graduating class. It mentions that 83 colleges were represented by cadets in the Corps69 and says that ". . . the curriculum has been improved from time to time and new departments have been introduced. Various other minor changes have taken place, but, on the whole, the Academy changes but slowly and has very nearly the same customs, habits, and traditions now that it had 50 years ago . . ."70
Interesting studies made in this year throw some light on the Military Academy. Who's Who made a statistical study71 in which Annapolis and West Point were included. Of the former institution 75 out of 1,700 graduates were listed as distinguished, while 117 out of 1,900 graduates of West Point were so listed. This constituted the largest per cent for any American college or university at the time.
Another interesting study the same year was included in the Annual Report of the Board of Visitors72 who said: ". . . the most important change in the conditions of the Academy is that resulting from the legislation in the last Academy appropriation . . . providing for an increase of 100 in the number of p63cadets."73 The great mortality, academically speaking, was again referred to by the Board who found that ". . . only ⅓ of those who present themselves yearly for admission . . . (graduate) 4 years later."74 Reference was also made to hazing.75
Hundredth Night was again celebrated elaborately.76
The weight assigned each subject in 1900, together with that which had been assigned in 1820, 1840, 1860, and 1880, was made a part of a study by Colonel Tillman77 and shows the emphasis to have been upon mathematics, engineering and natural philosophy throughout the Academy's history.
There was no graduating class in June, 1901. The class of '01 had been graduated several months earlier on account of war in the Philippines.78
Colonel Mills (appointed Superintendent in 1898) had by now practically eradicated hazing.79
Congressional appropriations continued to care for the physical growth of the Academy.80 $29,960 additional was obtained for officers' mess and quarters.
Two trips marked the year pleasantly for the Corps of Cadets. In March the Battalion went to Washington to honor President McKinley83 and in August they went to Buffalo84 in connection with the Exhibition.
A subject which has commanded much attention ever since p64was thoroughly studied in 1901 for the first time when a medical officer studied the possible detrimental physical features of the hard course at West Point.85
The first clear picture of the new emphasis on athletics and interest in them is given by reports of the Army Officers Athletic Association. That in 1901 is replete with details. The Academy had enjoyed ". . . the best football season in the history of the Army team." The team was rated third to Harvard and Yale nationally. This was in the days of heavy linemen and the figures are of interest. Average weights are recorded as: line, 180; backs, 156.3; team, 171.5.86
The interest in athletics continued into the last year of our present account, of course, for the next thirty years was to mark similar growing interest everywhere in the United States. West Point as usual was not in the lead but followed the national trend. The first "Navy Game" had been played in 1900; this contest was finally to be a huge spectacle of national sports world importance.87 The Army team of 1901‑2 was reported to be even better than the one before. The satisfaction in this record seems to mark the trend away from interest in athletics because of individual benefits toward athletics for the glory of the institution and the building of competitive spirit. Several players were mentioned as "All America" selections.88
The sponsors of athletics at the Academy seemed sincere however. W. P. Edgerton, President of the Association, wrote "Now without sacrificing in any degree the rigid exactions of discipline and study, in fact while these requirements are materially increased, the cadets have the athletic recreations natural and wholesome for their time of life. Through . . . (them) . . . they bear burdens of the curriculum with lighter hearts . . ."89 p65 There was also varsity baseball90 and a tennis tournament,91 and an annual Indoor Meet92 and intercollegiate fencing developed a championship team.93
A new set of Regulations was issued in 1902.
Because of the completion of 100 years of service to the country many statistical studies were made at this time, and an attempt made to evaluate the contribution of the Academy as a whole and to record the personal work of the several departments. The bibliography developed is too large to find a place here but a few quotations will help round out the period completely. Punishments and rewards in 1902, much as they had been from the beginning, consisted of demerits (affecting class standing), extra duty, confinement, and courts-martial, on the debit side of the ledger. On the other side were: greater leisure and a few more days of "leave" from the Academy at Christmas time.94
The maximum number of cadets was now 492.95
The pay of a cadet was now $500 per year, plus a ration worth 30 cents per day.96
The First Class made an official outing to the Gettysburg battlefield;97 a trip that became a fixture in the schedules.
Attempting to evaluate the Academy's distinctive contributions to education through the 100 years of its existence the President of Chicago University mentioned98 concentration of effort, thoroughness, and spirit of subordination.
A gray flag with a black and gold fringe showing the United States Military Academy coat of arms was adopted in 1902 as battalion colors.99
Public attention, as well as the affectionate scrutiny of the alumni, was turned to the Academy as the 100‑year period drew p66to a close. Writers, such as Frederick Palmer100 and James Barnes,101 summed up the Academy's history briefly. The latter said:102 "The epitome of it all lies in the three words on the scroll of the West Point shield: 'Duty, Honor, Country.' The result of living with these words as the motto of existence brings to them the reverence of a personal religion."
The Board of Visitors commented as follows this year:103
"The Board commends the change in the policy of the institution under which the cadets have enlarged social privileges, and . . . closer relationships with the students of other institutions in athletic sports . . ."
In the history of any educational institution it is likely that intangibles would be mentioned. Duty, honor and country are believed to be more than words at West Point. Recent writers often use "The Spirit of Old West Point" as synonymous with one of the intangible influences at the Military Academy. Searching for concrete illustrations of the existence of unseen factors the writer came across references to the life of the Warner sisters.104 These fine women had an influence at West Point which lasted many years. What it may have lacked in breadth of contacts was possibly made up in the depth of those established. Colonel C. L. Fenton105 spoke from personal memory when he mentioned F. Smith, D. McKell and S. Godfrey as members of the Warner Bible Classes. Summer Sundays a few cadets would go to Constitution Island by canoe or rowboat and enjoy tea, Bible study, prayer, discussion and Christian fellowship with Miss Susan Warner, and after her death with Miss Anna. Of Miss Warner the outstanding facts mentioned were her "angelic personality, courage, character, and genuine interest in people." Colonel McKell supplemented Colonel Fenton's account with a fine letter.106 Olive Stokes has given the sisters a permanent place in p67 literature.107 The 1915 Howitzer108 says of Miss Anna, "her wide acquaintance with the Bible, deep religious thought, and knowledge of human nature, made her talks a revelation . . ."
The question of the fitness or unfitness of the graduates of a military school for civil life was sometimes raised in 1902. In a civil institution such a study would have constituted material for a thesis no doubt. At West Point it was undertaken, through interest alone, by Colonel Larned, Professor of Drawing.109 He found that over 2,000 graduates of the Military Academy had entered other professions than the military and had been successful. Stript of its technical aspects and treated in the most elementary statistical way the study shows sufficient versatility on the part of the persons studied to warrant a conclusion that their training at West Point had not injured their prospects in civil life. Indeed Colonel Larned drew more sweeping conclusions as may be gathered from the title of his report "The Genius of West Point." He said of his study that ". . . it is a convincing refutation of the assertion that a military education unfits for civil functions and occupations . . ."110
Another study by Colonel Larned, in the same connection, showed that West Point deserved its reputation for true democracy, and that the frequently heard characterization of the Corps of Cadets as "sons of the idle rich" was false.111 The occupations of parents of candidates (1842‑1891) and cadets (1892‑1899) show ". . . at a glance that no institution in the land not excepting Congress, is at once so representative of every condition and locality, so purely democratic . . ."
The statistics gathered by Colonel Larned are so vital to the considerations involved that he should possibly be heard in conclusion in his own words: "In a fundamental112 respect, West Point stands alone among military schools. The continental system is one of separated schools for the different arms of the p68service, and there is no high-grade general academy education for all. West Point, however, has always and above all stood for something more — something which the foreign systems have lacked and which we have believed preeminently desirable; something which it would appear has been well accomplished, and whose superlative worth has been abundantly proved and acclaimed in the achievements of the career of a century and the test of the greatest war of modern times. That something has three constituent principles:
I. Morale. The molding of character by a thorough, consistent, and continued discipline.
II. Mental Discipline. A thorough general training of the rational faculties.
III. The Military University. A general and comprehensive instruction of officers of all arms of the service in the elements of every military branch."
The end of the academic year 1901‑1902 was the scene of the Centennial Celebration at West Point. An official volume113 to which frequent reference has been made, was prepared. An elaborate program was followed.
Monday, June 9th, with designated as Alumni Day. There was music in the afternoon and a large number of graduates were on hand.114 Addresses were made by veterans of the Spanish and Civil Wars. (Confederate veterans mingled with Union veterans.) In the evening there was a reception in Memorial Hall.
Tuesday, June 10th, was Field Day. In the afternoon a baseball game took place, Yale University playing the cadets. In the evening Graduation Ball was held.
Wednesday, June 11th, was set aside as Centennial Day. In the morning there was a reception and military review for the President of the United States. In the afternoon there were exercises in Memorial Hall which included addresses and music. Graduation parade followed. In the evening there was a banquet.
Thursday, June 12th, with graduation day. Diplomas were awarded at the usual exercises in the morning.
p69 A concluding quotation is taken from the remarks of the President, Wednesday afternoon of the week in question:
"This institution has completed its first hundred years of life. During that century no other educational institution in the land has contributed so many names as West Point to the honor roll of the nation's greatest citizens . . . The average graduate of West Point during these hundred years has given a greater sum of service to the country through his life than has the average graduate of any other institution in this broad land."
1 Annual Report, Board of Visitors, 1893, p28.
2 Centennial of the U. S. M. A., p520.
3 Centennial of the U. S. M. A., pp381‑382.
4 Report of First Annual Meeting, Army Officers Athletic Association. Out of this small beginning grew the large powerful association which has helped finance the more pretentious program of recent years. This first year they sponsored a field day; held a bowling tournament, and organized a tennis club. The West Point baseball team defeated Columbia and Rutgers; lost to Lehigh and Princeton. The football team (of the previous Fall) defeated Stevens, Princeton Reserves and Trinity; tied Wesleyan; lost to the Navy, 12‑14. Pp11‑30.
5 Report, Board of Visitors, 1894. (June 9th.)
6 Centennial of the U. S. M. A., p521.
7 Report, Board of Visitors, 1894, p12.
8 Mr. H. J. Koehler was again commended and recommended for commission in the army, p28.
9 Report, Board of Visitors, 1895, p57.
10 Act of Congress, January 16, 1895.
11 This was the "old" chapel of course. The new one was not built until 1912. G.
12 Report, Board of Visitors, 1895, p16.
13 Ibid., p18.
15 Report, Board of Visitors, 1896, pp18‑30.
16 Report of the Superintendent, 1896, p8.
17 Centennial of U. S. M. A., p521.
18 The Howitzer, 1896.
19 The practice continued in military schools which aped the Military Academy's faults as well as its virtues, many years after it had been discontinued at West Point.
20 (No individual pictures and detailed records for example.) G.
21 As a member of the Howitzer Board of my own class, I had charge of the humor department and can state from careful study that the "cadet grinds" vary little from year to year.
22 Reed, H. T., Cadet Life at West Point.
23 Ibid., p33. This matter of neatness in the arrangement of personal articles, clothing and so on, has always been considered important. The plebe learns in an exacting school (sometimes called "Beast Barracks"). If his clothes press is not neat an inspecting officer or cadet will rip the contents out on the floor to be replaced in better order. The same practice obtains in regard to the bedding which is kept folded except when in use. G.
24 When the cadet appointed by a certain Congressman graduates he is called the "pred." (predecessor) of the new cadet who enters that June from the same Congressional district. The practice of passing on articles of uniform has continued. G.
25 Ibid., p50.
26 Ibid., p70.
27 Ibid., p80. This practice continued until well past the end of the century. Some fights were merely the result of high spirit and personal feeling, others were the result of class or group feeling over a point of honor, and the abuse of the code led to its eventual abolition.
28 Ibid., p97.
29 Ibid., p101.
30 Ibid., p153. The "yearling" class has traditionally "piped" (anticipated) furlough to the exclusion of any other break in the routine. Connected with the practice certain additions were made: a "Furlough Show" to which many of the class went the first night of freedom; a class or "furlough-song, which would be sung by groups of Thirdclassmen in the evenings before "call to quarters" the Spring preceding their furlough; as well as less dignified but equally popular practices such as baying at the moon, and yelling "Yea, Furlough." G.
32 Brown, A. H., "Cadet Life at West Point," article in Pall Mall Magazine, Vol. XI, No. 45, Jan., 1897. Photograph, p123.
33 Ibid., p124.
34 Ibid., p126.
35 Ibid., p127.
36 Report, Board of Visitors, June, 1898.
37 An interesting story, not to be found in print, explains, possibly, the appointment of such a young officer (a Lieutenant) to a position held before and after by Colonels and Generals. Colonel T. R. Roosevelt, of Rough Rider fame, had met Mills during the Spanish War, had liked him, and had once asked him what assignment he would prefer. Mills had said "Commandant of Cadets at West Point." When the time came that Roosevelt had the influence to bring about such an appointment the position of Commandant was not due to change but a new Superintendent was to be selected. Oblivious or unmindful of the relative importance of the positions Roosevelt had his friend appointed Superintendent. It remains to be said that Mills made an excellent Superintendent. G.
38 Through an error in the proper application of the rules of heraldry this seal had the Roman helmet facing to the left instead of to the right. It has since been changed. It is interesting to note that although it had been changed over fifteen years previously the seal was used in its original design in 1931 when Wedgwoodº designed distinctive table china for the Corps of Cadets. The plates have West Point scenes (from photographs) on the front and a sketch by Whistler on the reverse. The front decorations around the edge are taken largely from the diploma ornaments but the helmet is not used as in 1931, but is incorrectly facing left. G.
39 Report of a Committee, MS. in U. S. M. A. Library, Jan. 14, 1898. Post Orders, Vol. 14, p372, G. O. No. 24, October 13, 1898.
40 Post Orders, Vol. 14, p275, April 26, 1898.
41 Annual Report, Association of Graduates, June 9, 1898.
42 Report, Board of Visitors, June, 1899.
43 Ibid., p10.
44 Ibid., p11.
45 Ibid., p13.
46 Ibid., p23.
47 Post Orders, Vol. 15, p34.
48 The colors are: black, gold, and gray. G.
49 Circular No. 11, Post Orders, Vol. 14, p454.
50 Post Orders, Vol. 15, p34, October 24, 1899.
51 The First Class wears three (gold on the full dress coat, black on the dress coat); the Second Class wears two; the Third Class wears one; the Fourth Class wears none. G.
52 Post Orders, Vol. 15, p25, September 30, 1899.
53 Post Orders, Vol. 14, p436, February 15, 1899.
54 Report of the Superintendent, 1899, pp7 and 24‑5.
55 Centennial of U. S. M. A., Vol. I, p521.
56 Ibid., p520.
57 Larned, Prof. C. W., Report on the Proposed New Academic Building at the U. S. M. A., West Point, N. Y.
58 Ibid., pp11‑12.
59 Farrow, E. S., (West Point '76) West Point.
60 Ibid., p81.
61 Ibid., pp128‑130.
62 Ibid., p130.
63 Reade, General Philip. Private Scrap Book. Much absolutely unique material referring specifically to conditions in Cuba during the war with Spain, and dealing only indirectly with West Point and West Pointers. The Scrap Book is a fine example of original material available for research. It was used by W. A. Ganoe (West Point 1907) in preparing his fine History of the United States Army in 1924. G.
64 Trip, W. H., Guide to West Point.
65 Annual Report of Superintendent, 1900, p8.
66 Act of Congress, June 6, 1900.
67 Pamphlet, U. S. M. A. Library.
68 Howitzer, Class of 1900.
69 Ibid., p89.
70 Ibid., p209.
71 Who's Who in America, 1900.
72 Annual Report, Board of Visitors, 1900.
73 Ibid., p4.
74 Ibid., p8.
75 Ibid., p22.
78 Annual Report, Board of Visitors, 1901, p4; also, Post Orders, Vol. 15, p248, February 16, 1901.
79 Ibid., p5.
80 Act of Congress, March 2, 1901.
81 Centennial of the U. S. M. A., Vol. I, p228.
82 Act of Congress, March 2, 1901.
83 Post Orders, Vol. 15, p257, March 2, 1901.
84 Post Orders, Vol. 15, p343, August 12, 1901.
85 Woodruff, C. C., U. S. Army, "Nerve Exhaustion Due to West Point Training," an article in American Medicine (magazine), June 22, 1901, p558.
86 Annual Report, Army Officers' Athletic Association, 1901, pp3, 5, and 6.
87 Annual Report, Army Officers' Athletic Association, 1902.
88 Ibid., pp6 to 12.
89 Ibid., p4.
90 Ibid., p32.
91 Ibid., p35.
92 Ibid., p36.
93 Ibid., p37.
94 Centennial U. S. M. A., Vol. I, p237.
95 Ibid., p226.
96 Act of Congress, June 28, 1902.
97 Report of the Superintendent, 1902, p97.
98 Harper, Dr. W. R., Centennial U. S. M. A., Vol. I, p114.
99 Ibid., p524.
100 Palmer, Frederick, "West Point After a Century," an article in World's Work (magazine), August, 1902, p2433.
101 Barnes, James, "A Hundred Years of West Point," an article in Outlook (magazine), July 5, 1902, p591.
102 Ibid., p592.
103 Report, Board of Visitors, 1902.
104 Susan (1819‑1885) and Anna Bartlett (1827‑1915).
105 Class of 1904 U. S. M. A. Present Professor of Chemistry.
107 Stokes, O. E. P., Letters and Memories of Susan Warner.
108 Ibid., p313.
112 Centennial U. S. M. A., Vol. I, pp470‑1.
113 Centennial U. S. M. A. in two volumes.
114 Ibid., p3. (There were now 4,121 graduates, living and dead.)
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