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History of North Carolina
by
R. D. W. Connor • W. K. Boyd • J. G. de R. Hamilton

Volume I

The full title-page to Vol. I reads

History of North Carolina
Volume I
The Colonial and Revolutionary Periods
1584‑1783

by R. D. W. Connor

Secretary North Carolina Historical Commission


Illustrated

Publishers
The Lewis Publishing Company
Chicago and New York
1919

You may be coming here from my site on American Railroad History; articles more particularly relevant to that field are marked on this page with a ® (a searchable character: copy and paste in your "find" box).

p. iii Preface

In the preparation of this volume, I have approached the history of North Carolina somewhat from a different point of view from that adopted by the historians of this period of our history who have preceded me. My purpose has been to bring out more fully than has heretofore been attempted the relations of North Carolina to the British Empire in America of which it was a part. Those incidents, therefore, in our colonial history in which North Carolina participated in Continental affairs have been more fully stressed than has been the custom with our historians, while others of purely local interest and importance which they have set forth in detail have been but briefly told or omitted altogether. The plan adopted made necessary, of course, the rejection of the chronological order in narrating historical incidents and movements.

These volumes are long overdue and my colleagues and I feel that it is but right to say that the publishers are in no way responsible for the delay. Like everybody else during the past two years we have been constantly interrupted and diverted from our work by numerous extra duties incident to the crisis through which our country has been passing, so that it has been impossible to complete these three volumes of narrative history within the time originally set for their publication. To the publishers who have done everything possible to facilitate our work and have displayed the utmost patience at the delay, we are under many obligations.

To Colonel Fred A. Olds I am under obligations for invaluable assistance in securing illustrations for this volume.

R. D. W. Connor.

Raleigh, North Carolina,
May 16th, 1919.

p. vii Contents

1

The Beginnings of English-America

1

2

Explorations and Settlement

21

3

The Proprietary Government

32

4

Wars and Rebellions

47

5

Growth and Expansion

64

6

The Cary Rebellion

84

7

Indian Wars of 1711‑1715

100

8

Problems of Reconstruction

111

p. viii 9

The Passing of the Proprietary

124

10

English and Scotch-Highlanders on the Cape Fear

143

11

The Coming of the Scotch-Irish and Germans

162

12

Society, Religion and Education

180

13

Political and Constitutional Controversies

210

14

Inter-Colonial and Imperial Relations

239

15

Colonial Wars

258

16

Westward Expansion

287

17

The War of the Regulation

302

18

The Stamp Act and the Continental Association

321

19

Downfall of the Royal Government

338

p. ix 20

Committees of Safety

354

21

The Provincial Council

367

22

Independence

389

23

The Independent State

411

24

Military Problems

437

25

The War in the South

455

26

The Invasion of 1780‑1781

475

27

Peace

495

Bibliography

503

Illustrations

[The table of illustrations is mine, the printed edition having none.]

Sir Walter Raleigh

frontispiece

The Arrival of the English in "Virginia"
(Roanoke Island)

p5

Indian Warriors of Roanoke

p11

Seal of the Lords Proprietors of Carolina

p36

Seal of the Government of Albemarle

p39

Governor Philip Ludwell

p66

St. Paul's Church at Edenton

p89

Colonial Currency

p96

St. Thomas' Church at Bath

p119

Christopher Gale

p131

Orton

p151

Arthur Dobbs

p166

Augustus Gottlieb Spangenberg

p172

Seal of the Province of North Carolina, 1739‑1767

p211

Currency Issued During French and Indian War

p270

Hugh Waddell

p279

Daniel Boone

p290

The Tryon Palace

p300

Samuel Johnston

p368

William Hooper

p401

Joseph Hewes

p401

Bronze Tablet on State Highway Near Kinston

p420

Governor Abner Nash

p426

Cannon Purchased by Governor Caswell
During the Revolution

p450

Isaac Shelby

p470

Colonel Joseph McDowell, of "Quaker Meadows"

p473

Nathanael Greene

p482

Volume II

The full title-page to Vol. II reads

History of North Carolina
Volume II
The Federal Period
1783‑1860

by William K. Boyd, Ph. D.

Professor of History, Trinity College


Illustrated

Publishers
The Lewis Publishing Company
Chicago and New York
1919

p. v Preface

In the present volume the effort has been to emphasize movements rather than events, ideals rather than men, orderly development rather than phenomena of antiquarian interest. Such an undertaking has required a constant reference to contemporary records and the exposition of many movements which have been hitherto neglected or slightly treated. Consequently the volume may leave the impression of series of monographic studies rather than a conventional narrative history. That perhaps is necessarily the character of the treatment of any subject in which social and economic forces are emphasized.

The year 1836 is the first dividing line in the history of the state after the Revolution. Prior to that date political conceptions and ideals of social and economic duty bore the stamp of British heritage; thereafter the spirit of American democracy made rapid progress. The constitutional convention of 1835, the rise of the whig and democratic parties, the establishment of a public school system, the foundation of asylums, the building of railways through state aid, and reform of law — these matters, treated in considerable detail, are evidence of a new order. It has also been my effort to outline the regime they displaced; to the antiquarian it has the greater interest, whereas to him who prefer life in action the epoch after 1836 will always make a stronger appeal.

I wish to express my sense of obligation to many who have upheld my hands in gathering material. To a number of former students in Trinity College I am indebted for use of their researches in North Carolina history. To the authorities of the Trinity College Library and the State Library I am under obligation for special courtesies. To the South Atlantic Quarterly and the Historical Papers of the Trinity p. viCollege Historical Society I am obligated for permission to embody in the text portions of articles I have contributed to their pages. Col. Fred A. Olds of the State Hall of History at Raleigh has rendered indispensable service in securing illustrations.

William K. Boyd.

January, 1919.

p. vii Contents

1

Political and Social Conditions, 1783‑1787

1

2

Federal Relations, 1783‑1787

21

3

Federalists and Republicans, 1790‑1815

47

4

Courts, Boundaries, Land Disputes, Indian Removal, Locating the Capital

66

5

Social and Economic Conditions, 1800‑1836

83

6

State of the Finances

105

7

Banking Problems, 1804‑1835

119

8

® The Agitation for Constitutional Reform and the Convention of 1835

139

p. viii 9

Federal Politics, 1824‑1836

166

10

Religious Development After the Revolution

185

11

Slavery and the Free Negro; Legal, Economic and Social

202

12

® Railroads and Financeº

225

13

The Whig Regime; Domestic Policy

242

14

The Whig Regime; Politics, State and Federal, 1836‑1847

263

15

Decline of the Whig Party, 1848‑1852

288

16

Party Politics, 1852‑1860

308

17

® Agriculture, Manufactures, Mining, Transportation

331

18

Academies and Higher Education

354

19

The Press, Literature, Professional and Moral Organizations

374

Bibliography and Authorities

393

Illustrations

[The table of illustrations is mine, the printed edition having none.]

The Capitol

frontispiece

Revolutionary and Post-Revolutionary Currency

p5

John Sevier

p15

North Carolina Delegates
to the Convention of 1787

p22

James Iredell

p32

Willie Jones

p36

Convention Hall, Fayetteville,
in Which the Constitution Was Ratified

p44

Joseph Gales

p53

Congressional Medal of Honor of Captain Johnston Blakeley

p61

Supreme Court, 1818:
John Taylor, John Hall, Leonard Henderson

p71

Indian Removal from North Carolina (map)

p78

The First State House, Burned in 1831

p81

Residence of Joel Lane

p81

Archibald DeBow Murphey

p92

State Bank Building,
Now Rectory Christ Church, Raleigh

p120

State Treasury Notes

p124

William Gaston

p131

State Bank Noteº

p134

David L. Swain

p140

John Branch

p176

Willie P. Mangum

p182

Green Hill House

p188

Bartholomew F. Moore

p215

Lunsford Lane

p223

Governor Edward B. Dudley

p226

First Railway Office in Halifax County

p229

Locomotive, Raleigh & Gaston Railroad

p235

Calvin H. Wiley

p246

William D. Cooke

p252

James C. Dobbin

p256

Justice Thomas Ruffin

p261

John M. Morehead

p269

William W. Holden

p276

William A. Graham

p278

Senator William H. Haywood

p282

Gov. Charles Manly

p290

David S. Reid

p290

George E. Badger

p298

Gov. John W. Ellis

p321

Old Alamance Mill, Burlington, North Carolina, and Its Founder, Edwin M. Holt

p337

Die Used by Bechtler
and $2.50 Gold Piece Coined by Him

p342

Railroads in North Carolina prior to 1860 (map)

p351

Joseph Caldwell, President of the State University

p364

Samuel Wait,
First President, Wake Forest College

p366

Robert Hall Morrison,
First President, Davidson College

p368

Braxton Craven,
First President, Trinity College

p371

Salem Female Academy

p372

Francis Lister Hawks

p381

Residence of John Louis Taylor,
Where Gaston wrote "Carolina"

p386

Volume III

The full title-page to Vol. III reads

History of North Carolina
Volume III
North Carolina since 1860

by J. G. de Roulhac Hamilton, Ph. D.

ALumni Professor of History, University of North Carolina


Illustrated

Publishers
The Lewis Publishing Company
Chicago and New York
1919

p. iii Preface

This final volume of the present series is concluded with the full consciousness that, because it deals in great part with a period so recent, it cannot be regarded in its entirety as a definitive history, if, indeed, there is any such thing. Approximately half of the space of the narrative is devoted to the period of the Civil War and Reconstruction. With the addition of one chapter on military affairs in the state, it summarizes the narrative and conclusions contained in my Reconstruction in North Carolina, published in 1914, and covering the period in much greater detail. Sufficient time has already passed to permit interpretation of that period with some pretension to finality, and I have not modified the conclusions reached in the former work.

In respect to the period since 1876, while I have sought always to present with the narrative of fact sufficient interpretation to make an accurate picture of the time, and while I came to the task with little political prejudice and leave it with less, I am aware that there has not been a sufficient lapse of years, for any part of it, to make it a proper subject for definitive historical narrative, much less for any authoritative interpretation. Undoubtedly, some of my conclusions will be altered with the passage of time, and certainly it will be possible later to secure the use of a vast amount of material, now inaccessible, which will make the narrative much more complete and the interpretation more accurate. When I have attempted any interpretation it has been with a full consciousness of the difficulty and danger of the proceeding, and I have carefully refrained where there appeared to be any doubt whatever of its correctness.

For the later period the chief sources of material have been the newspapers, public documents, political handbooks, the census reports, and contemporary pamphlets and speeches. There is an almost complete lack of secondary material and as yet but few letters are available.

To the great number who have given kind and generous assistance in the difficult task I return my grateful thanks. In particular, I wish to express my indebtedness to Col. F. A. Olds, of the North Carolina Hall of History, through whose kindness the greater number of the illustrations were secured.

J. G. de Roulhac Hamilton.

Chapel Hill, N. C.
January 28, 1918.

p. vii Contents

1

Secession and War

1

2

Military and Naval Operations in North Carolina

7

3

Political Sentiment in War

39

4

Economic Conditions in War

46

5

Presidential Restoration

56

6

Congressional Reconstruction

85

7

® The Republican Regime

114

8

The Downfall

146

p. viii 9

Social and Economic Conditions During Reconstruction

161

10

The End of Reconstruction

170

11

® Rebuilding the Commonwealth

192

12

® The Rise of Populism

221

13

® Fusion and Its Results

244

14

® White Supremacy

279

15

® The Recent Years

316

16

Educational Development

347

17

Agriculture and Industry

376

18

® Railroad Development Since 1860

394

19

Social Tendencies

404

Bibliography

421

Illustrations

[The table of illustrations is mine, the printed edition having none.]

Charles Brantley Aycock

frontispiece

Weldon N. Edwards

p4

The Blockade-Runner "Ad‑Vance"

p10

Capture of the "Lillian"

p10

Governor Z. B. Vance and North Carolina Lieutenant-Generals and Major-Generals, C. S. A.

p13

Construction of the Albemarle

p25

The Albemarle Afloat and Ready for Action

p25

Naval Engagement between Confederate Ram Albemarle and Union Vessel Wyalusing

p27

Sassacus and Albemarle

p27

Lieut. William Barker Cushing

p28

Torpedoing of the Albemarle

p28

Fort Fisher, the Gibraltar of the United States

p31

Fort Fisher, December 25, 1864

p31

Fort Fisher, January 13, 1865

p31

The Bennett House

p35

Gen. W. T. Sherman

p35

Gen. Joseph E. Johnston

p35

The Confederate Prison at Salisbury

p37

Governor John Willis Ellis

p41

North Carolina Civil War Money

p53

Home Made Articles

p54

Gen. John M. Schofield

p57

President Andrew Johnson

p59

Governor William W. Holden

p62

William E. Pell

p67

Governor Jonathan Worth

p69

Bartholomew F. Moore

p69

Alfred Dockery

p80

O. H. Dockery

p80

General Daniel E. Sickles

p91

Union League Commission to Wyatt Outlaw, Signed by William W. Holden

p100

Josiah Turner, Jr.

p131

The Supreme Court in Reconstruction

p134

A Ku Klux Klan Costume

p138

A Ku Klux Klan Banner Used in North Carolina

p138

Caswell Holt of Alamance County

p141

Matthew W. Ransom

p174

Augustus S. Merrimon

p181

The Senate of 1874

p183

W. R. Cox's Famous Telegram to Robeson County in 1875

p186

Governor Thomas J. Jarvis

p200

Col. L. L. Polk

p227

Senator Zebulon B. Vance

p232

A Wilmington Campaign Warning, 1898

p292

A Typical Country School Prior to the Educational Revival

p360

The Type of School Which Has Largely Replaced It

p360

Typical Rural High School of Today

p360

Recent Educational Leaders

p366

Washington Duke's First Tobacco Factory

p382

One of the Present Duke Tobacco Factories at Durham

p382

R. J. Reynolds Tobacco Company, Winston-Salem

p388

Erwin Cotton Mills, Durham

p388

Industrial Leaders

p390

A. B. Andrews

p398

R. R. Bridgers, President of the Wilmington and Weldon Railroad

p398

Per Cent of Negroes in Total Population of North Carolina by Counties, 1910 (map)

p405

A Modern State Building at Raleigh

p418
[decorative delimiter]

Technical Details

Edition Used

The edition used in this transcription is the first and I believe only edition. Published in 1919, it has been in the public domain for many years: details here on the copyright law involved.

Proofreading

As almost always, I retyped the text by hand rather than scanning it — not only to minimize errors prior to proofreading, but as an opportunity for me to become intimately familiar with the work, an exercise which I heartily recommend: Qui scribit, bis legit. (Well-meaning attempts to get me to scan text, if successful, would merely turn me into some kind of machine: gambit declined.)

This transcription has been minutely proofread. In the table of contents above, the sections are shown on blue backgrounds, indicating that I believe the text of them to be completely errorfree. As elsewhere on this site, the header bar at the top of each chapter's webpage will remind you with the same color scheme.

The edition I followed was very well proofread; the inevitable few errors I found, I corrected, when important, with a bullet like this;º and when trivial, with a dotted underscore like this: as elsewhere on my site, glide your cursor over the bullet or the underscored words to read the variant. Similarly, bullets before measurements provide conversions to metric, e.g., 10 miles.

A small number of odd spellings, curious turns of phrase, etc. have been marked <!‑‑sic‑‑> in the sourcecode, just to confirm that they were checked.

Any other mistakes, please drop me a line, of course: especially if you have a copy of the printed book in front of you.

Pagination and Local Links

For citation and indexing purposes, the pagination is shown in the right margin of the text at the page turns (like at the end of this line);p57 these are also local anchors. Sticklers for total accuracy will of course find the anchor at its exact place in the sourcecode.

In addition, I've inserted a number of other local anchors: whatever links might be required to accommodate the author's own cross-references, as well as a few others for my own purposes. If in turn you have a website and would like to target a link to some specific passage of the text, please let me know: I'll be glad to insert a local anchor there as well.



[image ALT: A small rectangular brick building, with a ground floor and a shingle roof pitched at nearly 45 degrees. We see the front — a small door, bits of decorative brickwork — and the left side, with four tall rectangular windows, closely spaced. Close to the building and parallel to its long side, a wooden picket fence about 1 m high, and on this side of it, on the left edge of the photograph, a young deciduous tree. It is an early-20c photograph of St. Thomas' Church at Bath, NC. The image serves as the icon of my subsite transcribing the Connor-Boyd-Hamilton 'History of North Carolina'.]

The icon I use to indicate this subsite is my colorization of the photograph Vol. I, p119, of St. Thomas' Church at Bath, NC, captioned by the author as being the oldest church in the State. The red and dark blue are those of the flag of North Carolina.


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