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Chapter 2

This webpage reproduces a chapter of
Old Fort Crawford
and the Frontier

by
Bruce E. Mahan

The State Historical Society of Iowa
Iowa City, Iowa, 1926

The text is in the public domain.

This page has been carefully proofread
and I believe it to be free of errors.
If you find a mistake though,
please let me know!


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Chapter 4
This site is not affiliated with the US Military Academy.

p20 III
Up the Mississippi

Before the promise made in the Treaty of 1804 to build a trading house for the Sauk and Foxes was fulfilled an exploratory expedition up the Mississippi River was entrusted to the able command of Lieutenant Zebulon M. Pike, whose official report revealed conditions along the eastern border of the territory recently acquired by the United States.56

A year earlier the expedition under Captain Meriwether Lewis and Lieutenant William Clark had set out up the Missouri to explore the western-most regions of the new Louisiana purchase.57 The Lewis and Clark party reached what is now the southwestern border of Iowa on July 18, 1804. From July 22nd to the 26th, the party encamped near the present boundary between Mills and Pottawattamie counties and, while the men dried provisions, mended oars, and hunted or fished, the leaders prepared dispatches and maps of the country. Pushing on up the Missouri River in their three boats the explorers camped several times on the Iowa shore. On August 20th the expedition landed a short distance below the present site of Sioux City and there, weakened by an attack of a virulent summer malady, Sergeant Charles Floyd died — the first and only casualty of the entire journey. He was buried on the top of a bluff with the honors due to a soldier, and the place of his burial was marked by a cedar post on which his name and the date of his death were inscribed.58 Today a tall monument p21near Sioux City, erected by Iowans to the memory of Sergeant Floyd, is a perpetual reminder of the famous expedition which, going out in 1804 and returning in 1806, skirted the western border of what is now Iowa and made known through an official report the natural features of the region traversed.59

The first winter, from late in October, 1804, to early in April, 1805, was spent at a post constructed in the village of the Mandan Indians, near the present city of Mandan in North Dakota. At this place the explorers had an excellent opportunity to investigate the fur trade — one of the objects of the journey. On November 27th, seven British traders arrived from the post of the North West Company on the Assiniboine River to barter with the Indians. On the next day Lewis and Clark warned the Mandan chiefs not to receive medals or flags from the British if they wished to be friends with the "Great American Father". This warning was communicated on the day following to the traders who made hollow promises to refrain from such acts.60 The reports of this expedition show clearly how firm a grip the English traders had on the Indians of the Upper Northwest.61

While the Lewis and Clark expedition was sent out by President Jefferson himself, instead of ordering personally the exploration of the Mississippi the President remitted that duty to General James Wilkinson, commanding at St. Louis.62 In a communication dated July 30, 1805, Lieutenant Pike received orders from Wilkinson to undertake the exploration of the Mississippi River to its sources, noting the rivers, prairies, islands, mines, quarries, and timber, as well as Indian villages and settlements. Furthermore he was instructed to select suitable locations for military posts, and to conciliate the p22Indians.63 Pike at this time was only twenty‑six years of age, but his subsequent career justified his selection for this important undertaking.64

Late in the afternoon of August 9, 1805, Pike substantial from St. Louis, "with one sergeant, two corporals, and seventeen privates, in a keel-boat, seventy feet long, provisioned for four months".65

With considerable difficulty due to rainy weather, sand bars, and numerous islands in the channel the exploring party forced the keel-boat up the Mississippi. On the morning of August 20th the explorer arrived at the mouth of the Des Moines River near the present site of Keokuk, Iowa. Although no one on board had navigated the dangerous rapids which began at this point and extended up stream some eleven miles, Pike began to ascend them immediately.66 As the keel-boat was large and moderately loaded, the party found the task difficult. At this point they were met by William Ewing, who had been sent as an agent by the government to teach the Sauk agriculture. Ewing had with him a French interpreter, four chiefs, and fifteen braves of the Sauk, all in canoes. The visitors set to work to help Pike over the rapids — they took out thirteen of the heaviest barrels, and put two of their men in the barge to pilot it over the shoals. Near dusk the party arrived at Ewing's encampment on the Illinois shore at the present site of Nauvoo.

Across the river, at the present site of Montrose, Iowa, was a village of the Sauk Indians. On the next day Pike called the chiefs and head men of the village to his camp for a parley and made them a speech. He told them that their "Great Father", the President of the United States, wishing to become better acquainted with the red men in the newly acquired Territory of Louisiana had sent p23"a number of his young warriors, in different directions, to take them by the hand". He told them that he was authorized to choose locations for trading establishments and asked if that place would be central. At the conclusion of his speech he presented the chiefs with tobacco, knives, and whisky, and awaited their reply. The Indians thanked him for the presents and said that they were glad to see him among them. As they were only one band of the Sauk they could not make any answer about the site for a trading house.67

After writing a letter about this interview to General Wilkinson, Pike reëmbarked and proceeded up stream some six miles before nightfall. That night the party encamped on a sand bar. Although this was near the site where Fort Madison was erected three years later, contrary to an oft repeated assertion, Pike made no special mention of this place and did not recommend it as a suitable location for a fort.68

After another day of battling with head winds, dodging sand bars, and twisting among islands Pike reached the present site of Burlington, Iowa, on the morning of August 23rd. The young lieutenant regarded this place as a "very handsome situation for a garrison." Here he said "the channel of the river passes under a hill, which is about 60 feet perpendicular, and level on the top. Four hundred yards in the rear, there is a small prairie of 8 or 10 acres, which would be a convenient spot for gardens; and on the east side of the river, there is a beautiful prospect over a large prairie, as far as the eye can extend, now and then interrupted by groves of trees. Directly under the rock is a limestone spring, which, after an hour's work, would afford water amply sufficient for the consumption of a regiment. The landing p24is bold and safe, and at the lower part of the hill, a road may be made for a team in half an hour. Black and white oak timber in abundance. The mountain continues about two miles, and has five springs bursting from it in that distance."69

Many signs of Indians were noted in this vicinity. Indeed, Pike met four Indians and two squaws thereabouts, and gave them a quart of diluted whisky, a few biscuits, and some salt. He requested some venison of them, but they pretended not to understand. As soon as Pike and his men had reëmbarked, the Indians held up two hams, hallooed, and laughed in derision.

That night the party encamped at the head of a handsome prairie on the Illinois side of the river. Fur traders in three bateaux from Mackinac stopped at the camp and informed Pike that one of the largest of the Sauk villages was located some two and a half miles back on the prairie. He learned, too, that he was at the half‑way point between St. Louis and Prairie du Chien.70

On Saturday morning, August 24, 1805, Pike and one of his men went ashore on the Iowa side of the river to hunt. Two of his favorite dogs gave out on the prairie because of the heat, high grass, and want of water, but thinking that they would come on, the men went ahead until they again struck the river. When the dogs did not appear two of the men volunteered to go in search of them. That night the party encamped on the west shore, but neither men nor dogs reappeared. At three differ times a blunderbuss was fired to let the lost men know where the boat lay, but no response came from the missing soldiers. Unwilling to delay the expedition by waiting for them Pike set sail, but all day learning at intervals of an hour a blunderbuss was fired as a signal for the men.71

p25 The party passed the mouth of the Iowa River which Pike mentions in his journal. The present site of Muscatine, Iowa, he describes as a place "where the river Hills join the Mississippi." At this place he was again disappointed in not finding the two men he had lost.

On the next day a cold north wind was blowing and the mercury had dropped to ten degrees. So strong was the wind that men were obliged to tow the boat all day. The next morning, some four miles about the mouth of Rock River, Pike arrived at the camp of James Aird, a Scotch trader of Mackinac, with whom he took breakfast, and from whom he obtained considerable information.72

Although Pike makes no mention of the episode in his journal it seems probable that he visited Black Hawk at Saukenuk. Black Hawk described the meeting so clearly in his Autobiography that it is hardly to be doubted. The Sauk leader said, "the young chief came on shore with his interpreter. He made us a speech and gave us some presents, in return for which we gave him meat and such other provisions as we could spare."

Then Black Hawk added: "We were all pleased with the speech of the young chief. He gave us good advice and said our American father would treat us well. He presented us an American flag which we hoisted. He then requested us to lower the British colors, which were waving in the air, and to give him our British medals, promising to send us others on his return to St. Louis. This we declined to do as we wished to have two fathers."

"When the young chief started we sent runners to the village of the Foxes, some miles distant, to direct them to treat him well as he passed, which they did."73

After leaving the camp of James Aird, Pike began the p26ascent of the Upper Rapids. Hoisting a sail the crew took the keel-boat through the treacherous channel without a pilot, and arrived at a Fox village on the Iowa side of the river. Pike expected to find the missing men here but again he was disappointed. Learning that they had not passed he waited until mid‑afternoon but still they did not appear. The Fox chief informed Pike by signs that the men could reach Prairie du Chien in four days and that he would furnish them moccasins, and put them on the route. Thereupon Pike set sail again.74

At noon on Sunday, September 1st, the party arrived at the lead mines where Pike was "saluted with a field piece, and received with every mark of attention by Monsieur Dubuque, the proprietor."75 Since the mines were distant some six miles and no horses were available to make the trip Pike found it impracticable to make an actual inspection of the mines. His questions to Dubuque about the property were met with a series of evasive and indefinite answers, and Pike declared to Wilkinson that "the answers seem to carry with them the semblance of equivocation."76

Pike had given up all hope of his two men and was about to embark when a pirogue arrived with the missing soldiers, Maurice Blondeau, the well known trader and interpreter, and two Indians on board. The men had gone for six days without any food except mussels before they encountered James Aird, who supplied their needs. At the Fox village they had met Blondeau. The chief furnished them with corn and moccasins, and from this place they set out by water to catch up with the keel-boat.77

Pike employed Blondeau to accompany him to Prairie du Chien as an interpreter. From Blondeau he learned p27that the Indians of this region were much in dread of the Americans and believed them to be "very quarrelsome, and much for war, and also very brave." Pike concluded that English traders had taken great pains, doubtless with no good intention, to impress on the minds of the Indians that the Americans were a "vindictive, ferocious, and warlike people."78

On the 4th of September the party arrived at the village of Prairie du Chien where they were kindly received by three American traders as well as by the French inhabitants of the place. Here the explorer found a settlement of over three hundred people, a number which was nearly doubled, he learned, in the spring and autumn by the arrival of Mackinac traders and their boatmen. Pike spent several days at this village, engaged in locating a suitable place for a military post, in holding councils with neighboring Indians, and in preparing for the remainder of the journey, while his men engaged in jumping and hopping contests with the villagers.

The most suitable place in this region for a post, Pike thought, was a high bluff on the west side of the river commanding both the Wisconsin River and the Mississippi. An abundance of timber and a spring in the rear added to the desirability of the place. To this day the bold bluff which Pike selected is known as Pike's Hill or Pike's Peak.79

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Courtesy of the Fryklund Studio

View from Pike's Peak in Iowa

At Prairie du Chien Pike abandoned the keel-boat and engaged two bateaux. With the addition of two interpreters the party left Prairie du Chien on September 8th "with some expectation and hope of seeing the head of the Mississippi and the town of St. Louis" before the end of winter.80 Little did any of the party realize the hard task ahead of them.

p28 Some distance above Prairie du Chien on the Iowa side of the river the party reached the encampment of Wabasha, the chief of the four lower bands of the Sioux. The Indians had been enjoying a drinking party the night before, and in firing a salute in honor of the arrival of the Americans "some of them, even tried their dexterity, to see how near the boat they could strike." When Pike landed with his pistols in his belt and sword in hand he was met by Wabasha and invited to his lodge. In a lengthy speech the chief expressed his pleasure at having the White Father's soldiers in his village and his desire to remain at peace with both the white man and the red man. Pike replied by stating the objects of his expedition and accepting the peace pipe which Wabasha proffered.

Before taking leave of the Sioux Pike was permitted to watch a medicine dance. "The performance", he writes, "was attended with many curious manoeuvres. Men and women danced indiscriminately. They were all dressed in the gayest manner; each had in their hand, a small skin of some description, and would frequently run up, point their skin, and give a puff with their breath; when the person blown at, whether man or woman, would fall and appear to be almost lifeless, or in great agony; but would recover slowly, rise, and join in the dance."81

Returning to his boat Pike presented Wabasha with tobacco, knives, vermillion, and eight gallons of whisky — three-fourths water. On the morning of September 11th the Americans departed and a few miles up stream passed what is now the northern boundary of Iowa. Seven months were to elapse before their return.82

When Pike reached the mouth of the Minnesota (St. Peter's) River he was convinced of the natural advantages of locating a fort at this point. From a site on the p29bluff between the Minnesota and the Mississippi rivers guns could sweep the course of both streams. Troops stationed here could regulate the fur business, for boats entering or leaving the Indian country must use one or the other of the two rivers.83

On September 23rd, at noon Pike held a council with the Sioux. The lieutenant opened the council with a speech in which he stated the objects of his journey, pointed out the evils of rum, and exhorted the Sioux to make peace with the Chippewa. For sixty gallons of liquor "to clear their throats", and presents valued at two hundred dollars the chiefs assented to the cession of over 100,000 acres of land. The treaty provided that the Sioux should cede to the United States tracts for the purpose of establishing military posts at the mouth of the St. Peter's and at the mouth of the St. Croix. When the Senate ratified the treaty, the blank left by Pike for a money consideration for the Indians was filled in for $2000.84

By the time the party had reached the Falls of St. Anthony Pike realized that he had made a mistake in starting so late in the season. Above the falls he found navigation difficult, and much of the time his soldiers were in the water dragging the boats over shoals. Four miles below the present town of Little Falls, Minnesota, Pike constructed sturdy blockhouses surrounded by pickets where he left those of the party who through illness were unable to continue the journey.85 An abundance of game in the neighborhood assured plenty of food for those left behind.

Here the bateaux were abandoned for dugouts which the soldiers had made. One of these sank with powder on board and an experiment in trying to dry the powder p30in iron pots came near blowing up two or three of the men.86 Amid discouraging hardships due to the bitter cold and difficulties in travelling Pike pushed on by pirogue and sleds to the Leech Lake post of the North West Company. In Leech Lake, Pike thought he had found "the main source of the Mississippi", but with becoming reticence about his exploit he devotes less than three lines to it in his journal.

Meantime he had learned through conversations with Indians and traders of the extent of the commerce of the North West Company. He heard of trading posts on the south side of Lake Superior and at the headwaters of the St. Croix River, and he had seen for himself the stockades at Lower Red Cedar Lake, Sandy Lake, and Leech Lake. He estimated that the furs shipped to Canada from this region defrauded the United States of duties amounting to $26,000 annually.87

Pike objected to the evident signs of British sovereignty: the British flag above the post at Leech Lake was shot down, and many Indians were induced to give up their British medals and flags. In a letter to Hugh M'Gillis, the director of the Fond du Lac department of the North West Company and his host, Pike complained about the display of the British flag, talking politics to the Indians, and the evasion of American law by the English traders. M'Gillis in a diplomatic letter promised to conform to the principles enunciated by Pike, but his promises apparently were no more serious than those made by other traders to Lewis and Clark on the Missouri.88

From Leech Lake Pike went thirty miles northwest to Upper Red Cedar Lake which he thought was "the upper source of the Mississippi". Returning to Leech Lake he held a farewell conference with the Chippewa thereabouts p31admonishing them to keep peace with the Sioux, to give up their English flags and medals, to pay their debts to the traders, and to give up the use of liquor.89 The medals and flags were turned in, and the Chippewa solemnly smoked the pipe which Wabasha had presented to Pike on the journey up stream.

Amidst the friendly shouts of the Indians the party embarked on the return journey on February 18, 1806. Six days later after an arduous march over wooded and marshy ground the Mississippi was reached. When Pike arrived at the post where the sick had been left, he found that the sergeant left in charge had been squandering flour, pork, and liquor upon the men of his command and visiting Indians. Moreover, he had disposed of a keg of whisky which Pike had cached especially for his own use.90 Quite properly he was put in confinement and reduced to the ranks.

A month was passed at this post while the party waited for the river to open, then on April 7, 1806, the journey down stream began. The present northern boundary of Iowa was passed on April 16th, and by noon of the next day the explorers landed again at Wabasha's village. The Sioux chief, however, was absent on a hunt, and after waiting for him in vain for a day Pike, leaving some powder and tobacco as presents, pushed on for Prairie du Chien.91

Traders and Indians alike welcomed the returning explorer and his party at Prairie du Chien. Here Pike received news both civil and military from the States and abroad, and secured needed supplies for the trip to St. Louis.

On the afternoon of April 20th the Americans were interested spectators of a game of "the cross" on the p32prairie between the Sioux on one side and a combined team of Foxes and Winnebago on the other. Pike describes the game as follows:

"The ball is made of some hard substance and covered with leather, the cross sticks are round and net work, with handles of three feet long. The parties being ready, and bets agreed upon, (sometimes to the amount of some thousand dollars) the goals are set up on the prairie at the distance of half a mile. The ball is thrown up in the middle, and each party strives to drive it to the opposite goal; and when either party gains the first rubber, which is driving it quick round the post, the ball is again taken to the center, the ground changed, and the contest renewed; and this is continued until one side gains four times, which decides the bet. It is an interesting sight to see two or three naked savages contending on the plain who shall bear off the palm of victory; as he who drives the ball round the goal is much shouted at by his companions. It sometimes happens that one catches the ball in his racket, and depending on his speed endeavors to carry it to the goal, and when he finds himself too closely pursued, he hurls it with great force and dexterity to an amazing distance, where there are always flankers of both parties ready to receive it; it seldom touches the ground, but is sometimes kept in the air for hours before either party can gain the victory. In the game which I witnessed, the Sioux were victorious, more I believe, from their superiority in throwing the ball, than by their swiftness, for I thought the Puants and Reynards the swiftest runners."92

Leaving Prairie du Chien on April 22nd the party made rapid progress down stream. Indian villages were noted in passing, and opposite Rock Island Pike encountered p33a barge of United States soldiers under the command of Captain James B. Many who had been sent from St. Louis to search for some Osage prisoners among the Sauk and Foxes. Captain Many reported that they had been insulted by insolent, drunken Indians at a village down stream. He regretted that his orders prevented his punishing the Indians as he felt they deserved.93

On April 24th Pike sailed from eight or ten leagues above the Iowa River to the lower Sauk village at the head of the Des Moines Rapids. By travelling at night as well as by day the party arrived at St. Louis on April 30, 1806, after an absence of eight months and twenty‑two days.94

Pike had accomplished more than his orders specified. He had acquired over 100,000 acres of land for the government, as he put it "for a song". He had brought back new and accurate information about the climate, soil, drainage, and timber of the region of the Upper Mississippi. He had selected sites for military posts, and had warned the British traders to desist from their corrupting practices. Tables and charts prepared by him gave definite knowledge of the Indians — their tribes, numbers, and characteristics. He had made an honest attempt to create a friendly attitude on the part of the tribesmen of the Upper Valley toward their new "White Father" at Washington.95


The Author's Notes:

56 Pike's journal of this expedition was first published in Washington in 1807 with the title, An Account of a Voyage up the Mississippi River from St. Louis to its Source. It was republished in Philadelphia in 1810 under the title, An Account of Expeditions to the Sources of the Mississippi, and through the Western Parts of Louisiana, to the Sources of Arkansaw, Kans, La Platte, and Pierre Juan Rivers, during the Years 1805, 1806, and 1807. In 1895 a reprint of the 1810 edition with elaborate notes was published in New York under the editorship of Elliott Coues. — Folwell's A History of Minnesota, Vol. I, pp91, 92, footnote.

An excellent narrative of this journey by Ethyl Edna Martin under the title The Expedition of Zebulon Montgomery Pike to the Sources of the Mississippi appears in The Iowa Journal of History and Politics, Vol. IX, pp335‑338. Citations in this chapter are made to the 1810 edition of Pike's journal which will be referred to as An Account of Expeditions to the Sources of the Mississippi, and through the Western Parts of Louisiana (original edition, 1810).

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57 Thwaites's Original Journals of the Lewis and Clark Expedition, 1804‑1806, Vol. I, p25.

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58 Thwaites's Original Journals of the Lewis and Clark Expedition, 1804‑1806, Vol. I, pp83‑115, relate the experiences of the expedition as it passed along the western border of what is now Iowa.

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59 An historical address entitled The Expansion of the Republic West of the Mississippi was delivered by John A. Kasson at the dedication of the Floyd monument at Sioux City on May 30, 1901. This address, prefaced by a full page picture of the monument, appears in the Annals of Iowa (Third Series), Vol. V, pp177‑198.

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60 Thwaites's Original Journals of the Lewis and Clark Expedition, 1804‑1806, Vol. I, pp227, 228.

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61 Thwaites's Original Journals of the Lewis and Clark Expedition, 1804‑1806, Vol. VII, pp369‑388. See also American State Papers, Indian Affairs, Vol. I, pp711, 712, 714.

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62 American State Papers, Miscellaneous, Vol. I, p944; Salter's The Eastern Border of Iowa in 1805‑6 in the Iowa Historical Record, Vol. X, p107; Folwell's A History of Minnesota, Vol. I, p90.

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63 The letter containing these orders from Wilkinson appears in full in Pike's An Account of Expeditions to the Sources of the Mississippi, and through the Western Parts of Louisiana (original edition, 1810), Appendix to Pt. III, pp65, 66.

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64 A brief authoritative sketch of the life of Pike is found in Coues's The Expedition of Zebulon Montgomery Pike, Vol. I, pp. xi‑cxiii. See also Whiting's Life of Zebulon Montgomery Pike in Sparks's Library of American Biography, Vol. XV, pp217‑234.

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65 Pike's An Account of Expeditions to the Sources of the Mississippi, and through the Western Parts of Louisiana (original edition, 1810), Pt. I, p1. In the Appendix to Pt. III, pp67, 68, Pike gives a list of the persons on the expedition.

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66 Pike's An Account of Expeditions to the Sources of the Mississippi, and through the Western Parts of Louisiana (original edition, 1810), Pt. I, p4. An excellent account of the Des Moines Rapids is found in Wilson's Over the Rapids in The Palimpsest, Vol. IV, pp361‑378.

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67 Pike's An Account of Expeditions to the Sources of the Mississippi, and through the Western Parts of Louisiana (original edition, 1810), Pt. I, pp5, 6.

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68 Pike's An Account of Expeditions to the Sources of the Mississippi, and through the Western Parts of Louisiana (original edition, 1810), Pt. I, p7.

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69 Pike's An Account of Expeditions to the Sources of the Mississippi, and through the Western Parts of Louisiana (original edition, 1810), Pt. I, pp6, 7.

Crapo Park, Burlington, is now located on this site. A bronze tablet on a boulder erected by the Stars and Stripes Chapter of the Daughters of the American Revolution marks the spot.

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70 Pike's An Account of Expeditions to the Sources of the Mississippi, and through the Western Parts of Louisiana (original edition, 1810), Pt. I, p7.

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71 Pike's An Account of Expeditions to the Sources of the Mississippi, and through the Western Parts of Louisiana (original edition, 1810), Pt. I, pp7, 8.

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72 Pike's An Account of Expeditions to the Sources of the Mississippi, and through the Western Parts of Louisiana (original edition, 1810), Pt. I, pp8, 9.

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73 Black Hawk's Autobiography (1882 edition), pp21, 22. Black Hawk adds, "We were fortunate in not giving up our medals, for we learned afterwards, from our traders, that the chiefs high up the Mississippi, who gave theirs, never received any in exchange for them."

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74 Pike's An Account of Expeditions to the Sources of the Mississippi, and through the Western Parts of Louisiana (original edition, 1810), Pt. I, pp9, 10.

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75 Pike's An Account of Expeditions to the Sources of the Mississippi, and through the Western Parts of Louisiana (original edition, 1810), Pt. I, p10.

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76 Pike's An Account of Expeditions to the Sources of the Mississippi, and through the Western Parts of Louisiana (original edition, 1810), Pt. I, p10, Appendix to Pt. I, p4. The questions Pike asked Dubuque and the latter's answers are found on p5 of this reference.

The site of Pike's landing at Dubuque has been marked with a bronze tablet by the Dubuque Chapter of the Daughters of the American Revolution.

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77 Pike's An Account of Expeditions to the Sources of the Mississippi, and through the Western Parts of Louisiana (original edition, 1810), Pt. I, p11.

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78 Pike's An Account of Expeditions to the Sources of the Mississippi, and through the Western Parts of Louisiana (original edition, 1810), Pt. I, pp11, 12.

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79 Pike's An Account of Expeditions to the Sources of the Mississippi, and through the Western Parts of Louisiana (original edition, 1810), Pt. I, pp12, 13, Appendix to Pt. I, p3; Coues's The Expeditions of Zebulon Montgomery Pike, Vol. I, p304.

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80 Pike's An Account of Expeditions to the Sources of the Mississippi, and through the Western Parts of Louisiana (original edition, 1810), Pt. I, p13, Appendix to Pt. I, p3.

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81 Pike's An Account of Expeditions to the Sources of the Mississippi, and through the Western Parts of Louisiana (original edition, 1810), Pt. I, p1p14‑17.

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82 Pike's An Account of Expeditions to the Sources of the Mississippi, and through the Western Parts of Louisiana (original edition, 1810), Pt. I, pp17, 18; Coues's The Expedition of Zebulon Montgomery Pike, Vol. I, pp48, 206.

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83 Hansen's Old Fort Snelling, p7; The Minnesota River was called by the French voyageurs the "St. Pierre". Americans anglicized this name to the "St. Peter's". By a joint resolution in Congress on June 19, 1852, the name Minnesota was ordered to be used in all public documents in which the river was mentioned. — Hansen's Old Fort Snelling, p206.

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84 Hansen's Old Fort Snelling, pp7, 8. For the treaty see American State Papers, Indian Affairs, Vol. I, p754. An interesting secondary account of this transaction appears in Folwell's A History of Minnesota, Vol. I, pp92‑94. A copy of the speech delivered by Pike, a copy of the treaty, and a copy of the letter on the subject from Pike to Wilkinson appear as Documents 3 and 4 in the Appendix to Pt. I of Pike's An Account of Expeditions to the Sources of the Mississippi, and through the Western Parts of Louisiana (original edition, 1810), Pt. I, pp6‑13. For a criticism of the treaty see Coues's The Expedition of Zebulon Montgomery Pike, Vol. I, pp232‑239.

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85 Pike's An Account of Expeditions to the Sources of the Mississippi, and through the Western Parts of Louisiana (original edition, 1810), Pt. I, pp34, 35. For the exact location of this temporary post see Folwell's A History of Minnesota, Vol. I, p95, footnote.

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86 Pike's An Account of Expeditions to the Sources of the Mississippi, and through the Western Parts of Louisiana (original edition, 1810), Pt. I, pp36, 37.

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87 Pike's An Account of Expeditions to the Sources of the Mississippi, and through the Western Parts of Louisiana (original edition, 1810), Pt. I, p66; Coues's The Expedition of Zebulon Montgomery Pike, Vol. I, p280.

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88 Pike's letter to M'Gillis and the latter's reply are found in Pike's An Account of Expeditions to the Sources of the Mississippi, and through the Western Parts of Louisiana (original edition, 1810), Appendix to Pt. I, pp14‑16 and pp17‑19.

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89 Pike's An Account of Expeditions to the Sources of the Mississippi, and through the Western Parts of Louisiana (original edition, 1810), Pt. I, pp68, 69, Appendix to Pt. I, pp19‑23. The promise made by Pike to send them United States medals owing to a variety of circumstances was never fulfilled.

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90 Pike's An Account of Expeditions to the Sources of the Mississippi, and through the Western Parts of Louisiana (original edition, 1810), Pt. I, pp71‑76; Whiting's Life of Zebulon Montgomery Pike in Jared Sparks's Library of American Biography, Vol. XX, pp256, 257.

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91 Pike's An Account of Expeditions to the Sources of the Mississippi, and through the Western Parts of Louisiana (original edition, 1810), Pt. I, pp77‑98.

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92 Pike's An Account of Expeditions to the Sources of the Mississippi, and through the Western Parts of Louisiana (original edition, 1810), Pt. I, pp99, 100.

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93 Pike's An Account of Expeditions to the Sources of the Mississippi, and through the Western Parts of Louisiana (original edition, 1810), Pt. I, pp102, 103. For an account of the military advancement of James B. Many see Heitman's Historical Register and Dictionary of the United States Army, Vol. I, p688.

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94 Pike's An Account of Expeditions to the Sources of the Mississippi, and through the Western Parts of Louisiana (original edition, 1810), Pt. I, p105.

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95 Pike's An Account of Expeditions to the Sources of the Mississippi, and through the Western Parts of Louisiana (original edition, 1810), Appendix to Pt. I, p16; Martin's The Expedition of Zebulon Montgomery Pike to the Sources of the Mississippi in The Iowa Journal of History and Politics, Vol. IX, pp357, 358.


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