The war waged along the coast of Maine, although contemporary with the outbreak in the southern colonies, was not directly a part of that conflict, but by its coincidence and the engagement in it of those who participated as contestants in the struggle in the lower colonies, it has come to be known as a part of that historic event, and its story may briefly be related in connection with it.
Within a few weeks after the uprising of the Indians in the Plymouth colony, news of events had been carried to the country lying to the northeast, now known as Maine, but at that time held under a patent issued to Sir Ferdinando Gorges, and ruled by a commission appointed by the king. This sparsely settled fringe of coast differed materially from the well-governed United Colonies. In extent it reached from Exeter and Dover (now in New Hampshire) to Pemaquid, a little plantation upon John's Bay just east of the Damariscotta River. The settlements or plantations within its confines were York, Wells, Cape Porpoise, Saco, Black Point (now Scarborough), Falmouth (now Portland), Arrowsick, Damariscotta, and a few scattered hamlets, all reached by the tides and practically connected for purposes of travel by the water, though Indian trails led along the coast. The Indians inhabiting this territory were the Penobscot, Kennebec, Pequacket and Ammoscoggin, commonly included under the general title of Abenakis or Tarratines, well equipped and hardy hunters. In New Hampshire were the Pennacook Indians, professed friends of the English.
[and if you need it,
here's help in using the map,
During the continuance of the war in the United Colonies the local eastern Indians maintained a hostile attitude p294 and committed many depredations from the Piscataqua to the Kennebec, and by the summer of 1676 had been reinforced by numbers of refugee Nipmucks who, having lost their all and despairing of mercy, cast in their lot with their northern neighbors, and inciting them to further carnage and pillage, prolonged hostilities in the north long after they had ceased elsewhere.
The English settlers of the northern border included many of the rough and lawless element always to be found in a frontier community governed by little other than the laws of expediency; bent on immediate gain and heedless of the future. The same arbitrary and insolent interference with Indian rights and customs prevailed here as in the north.º The guns which had become a necessity were continuously being demanded on the slightest pretext and suspicion, while in matters of trade the Indians, without doubt, were constantly cheated and imposed upon. Even Major Walderne, magistrate and austere Puritan, tradition declares, used to place his hand in the scale against the beaver skins, telling the Indians it weighed a pound, and often failed to cross off their accounts when paid him.
Acts of violence against the natives, particularly kidnapping and selling them into slavery at the West Indies were not uncommon, and these outrages were tenaciously stored in Indian memories against the day of reckoning. No wonder that when that day arrived with its afforded opportunity, the score was settled to the fullest extent of Indian ingenuity. The story as it has come down to us is one of isolated border fights, a warfare of the woods and thickets, in which the Indians, sometimes punished and scattered, were more often successful.
The first depredation upon the northeastern frontier began early in September, 1675, by a raid of the Indians on the house of Thomas Purchase1 in Pegypscot (Brunswick), p295 when some of his cattle were quoted but no violence offered to the inmates of the house. September 12th, the isolated house of Thomas Wakeley,2 a resident of Falmouth on the Prescumpscut River about three-fourths of a mile below the falls, was attacked, and Wakeley, his son and his daughter-in‑law, with three of their children were killed, their charred bodies being found in the ruins by a relieving party the following day. One daughter, about eleven years old, was carried into captivity, but after long wandering among the tribes, even as far south as the Narragansetts, was finally restored to the English by Squando. Three days before this attack a party of Englishmen going up the north shore of Casco Bay in a sloop and two boats to gather Indian corn came upon three Indians who were beating on the door of a house, and fired upon them killing one and wounding another. The third escaped, and, while the whites were scattered heedlessly about the field at their labors, rallied his friends, and attacking the settlers, drove them to their sloop and secured two boats loaded with the corn they had gathered. These Indians were followers of Madockawando, sachem of the Penobscots, and the attack upon them was declared by the Penobscot Indians to have been without provocation. This same month an attack was made upon Oyster River (now Durham, N. H.), where two houses belonging to settlers by the name of Chesley were burned. Two men passing along the river in a canoe were killed and two others carried into captivity.
These raids were quickly followed by attacks upon Exeter and Salmon Falls, and a little later houses were destroyed at Oyster River and two men killed. Small parties of Indians now prowled the woods in every direction, burning barns and houses, killing men and cattle and goading the English to desperation.
p296 On the 18th of September, Captain Bonython,3 who lived on the east bank of the Saco River, warned by a friendly Indian of the approach of Squando's people, fled with his family, his house bursting into flames behind him. Warned by the flames, Major Phillips,4 who lived on the opposite bank, immediately warned his neighbors, who fled to his garrison house to the number of fifty, and prepared for defense.
Setting fire to the neighboring houses, the Indians closed around the garrison calling out, "You cowardly English dogs, come out and put out the fire," but although Phillips himself was wounded, the garrison held them at bay and finally repulsed their attack with considerable loss,5 but as the people would not remain, the garrison house was soon abandoned and a short time thereafter was burned. About the same time all the dwellings at Winter Harbor, abandoned by their owners, were plundered by the Indians and then given over to the flames, and five settlers going up the Saco River were attacked and killed.
Hearing of the defenseless condition of the settlers of Saco, Captain Wincoll of Newichawonock, with a company of sixteen men, proceeded by water around the coast to their assistance. On landing at Winter Harbor they were instantly fired upon from ambush and several of the party killed. These Indians gave the alarm to a p297 larger number in the rear, and Wincoll's party6 was at once surrounded by one hundred and fifty well-armed warriors. Taking refuge behind a pile of shinglebolts, the English fought with such desperation that the Indians were forced to retire with considerable loss,7 but eleven inhabitants of Saco who attempted to aid Wincoll were utterly destroyed.8 About this time an attack was also made upon Black Point, in which seven houses were burned and a number of the inhabitants killed.
The general leader of the Indians was Squando,9 a sagamore of Saco, whose old friendship for the whites had been changed to hatred by several acts of insolence and injustice, but particularly by an outrage perpetrated by sailors from a vessel harbored in the Saco River. Perceiving the wife of Squando, with her infant child, crossing the river in a canoe, it seemed to these men a fitting opportunity to test the general belief that the young of the savages, like those of wild animals, would instinctively swim if thrown into the water. Upsetting the canoe the occupants were cast into the flood, but the mother, diving to the bottom, recovered the child, which, however, was shortly seized with an ailment and died. Squando never forgave the act.
p298 About the 1st of October, a large body of Indians attacked the house of Richard Tozer10 at Salmon Falls, about a third of a mile north of the Plaisted garrison. Fifteen persons were in the house, most of whom succeeded in escaping to the garrison through the heroic efforts a young girl of eighteen who held the door while the rest fled by the rear. She was finally struck down by the savages, who succeeded in entering, and left for dead, but recovered, and lived many years. A small child was, however, killed, and a girl of seven, who had been unable to keep up with the fugitives, was led away into captivity but shortly afterward restored.
The next day after burning Captain Wincoll's house and barn well stocked with corn, they drew away. On the 16th day of October, however, they returned in force and again fell on the house of Richard Tozer, killing Tozer and taking his son captive.
Lieutenant Roger Plaisted,11 who commanded the small force at the garrison, hearing the sound of the firing, sent out seven men to reconnoiter and aid the inmates of the Tozer house. They had proceeded but a short way from the garrison, however, when they fell into an ambush which the Indians had prepared in the expectation of such an attempt, and were badly cut up. The following day Plaisted with twenty men set out with an ox team to bring in the bodies, exercising no precaution against p299 surprise. Tozer's body was recovered and the party was returning to the swamp near the garrison where the other bodies lay, when the Indians, hidden among the rocks and trees, fired upon them from an ambuscade.
Lieutenant Plaisted's Battlefield
The view is taken from the site of his garrison house and is near the spot where he fell. His grave and that of his son are marked by the three stones in the middle distance
Plaisted, disdaining to fly, threw away his life in a vain endeavor to fight, almost singly, against overwhelming odds. Two of his sons and a number of his men were killed at the same time, and the survivors were able to cut their way out with only the greatest difficulty. After a continuous harassing of the settlements, the Indians withdrew, near the close of November, to their winter quarters at Ossipee and Pequacket.12
It is said that up to this time one hundred and fifty persons, Indians and whites, had been killed or captured between the Kennebec and Piscatauqua. A projected plan to attack the enemy in their winter and the lack of sufficient snowshoes, but the neglect of the Indians to suitably provide for their winter wants so scourged them with famine and disease that they were driven to seek for a reconciliation. Accordingly they came to Major Richard Walderne13 at Dover, early in January, 1676, p300 and entered into an armistice, bringing in some English captives.
July 3, 1676, a treaty of peace14 was signed at Cochechoº (Dover) between a committee of the whites and several sagamores, the most important of whom was Squando, sagamore of the Sacos. Among those who came in were Simon and Andrew, the Christian Indians who, in the previous May, had attacked the house of Thomas Kimbal, of Bradford, killing him and carrying his wife and five children into captivity. They had, however, previously taken several other women whom they had treated not unkindly, and hearing of the negotiations, came in with the captives. Instead of improving the opportunity and securing their friendship, the English seized and threw them with others into the prison at York,15 from which they speedily managed to escape.
The Indians living at the east of the Kennebec River, whose chief, Madockawando,16 had been friendly to the settlers until the wanton destruction of his corn fields and p301 the attack upon the Indians found at Casco Bay in the month of September previous, had, after that event, retired to a fort they had at Totannock, at the confluence of the Kennebec with the Sebasticook, in the present town of Winslow, where the English also had a trading house.
Captain Sylvanus Davis,17 the agent for Messrs. Clark and Lake, traders at Arrowsick, thought it prudent to bring down from Totonnock the powder and shot with other goods stored there, at the same time sending a message to the Indians inviting them in the interest of peace, to return to their former habitations near the coast.
The messenger intrusted with Captain Davis' message delivered it in an insolent and threatening manner, telling them if they did not come in and give up their arms the English would come and kill them all. Instead of complying they began to negotiate with the tribes farther east in order to resist any interference.
In the spring of 1676, John Earthy18 of Pemaquid, had attempted to bring about peace, but the unrestrainable animosity of the settlers made success difficult.
Another conference had been held in the early spring (1676), but the Indians felt they had been hardly dealt with. "We were driven from our corn last year, by the people about Kennebec," they said, "and many of us died. We had no powder and shot to kill venison and fowl to prevent it. If you English were our friends as you pretend you are, you would not suffer us to starve p302 as we did." However, a temporary peace was patched up and a promise obtained from these Indians that their influence should be exerted with the Androscoggins to bring about peace.
Unfortunately, during the winter, the cupidity of one Laughton, the master of a vessel harboring in those parts, who held a general warrant from Major Walderne to seize any Indians to the eastward, had induced him to carry away, for the purpose of selling into slavery, some of the natives he had invited on board his ship, and this act coming to the knowledge of the Penobscots, when they visited those parts, inflamed them to wrath. John Earthy and Captain Davis, seeking to pacify them, again visited Madockawando, and, among others, Assiminasqua19 and Mugg, sachem of the Androscoggins, whose friendship had given place to hatred, in August, 1676, and endeavored to undo the mischief. Angry and distrustful they made bitter complaints of the wrongs they had suffered.
"It is not our custom when messengers come to treat of peace to seize upon their persons, as sometimes the Mohawks do; yea, as the English have done, seizing upon fourteen Indians, our men, who went to treat with you — setting a guard over them, and taking away their guns, and demanding us to come down unto you, or else you would kill us. This was the cause of our leaving both our fort and our corn, to our great loss."
An accusation that, Hubbard says, considerably embarrassed the English, who could only reply that they would do their best to find and return those Indians who had been kidnapped, and that the Indians should not blame the Government for the acts of irresponsible individuals.
"What shall we do," they asked, "in the winter, when our corn is gone unless we have guns and powder? Answer yes or no; shall we have them?" The commissioners p303 could give no direct answer. They would confer with the Governor and Council, and the chiefs grew angry, and as the negotiations continued there came the news that Quando had broken the treaty of July, 1676, and had fallen on Cleve's Neck, Falmouth, now the city of Portland. This action commenced on the 11th of August at the house of Anthony Brackett,20 the day preceding that of Philip's death at Mount Hope, and was continued the following day, to the utter desolation of the place. Brackett, with his wife and five children, was carried into captivity, and Mrs. Brackett's brother was killed. Several other settlers near by were killed and their houses burned.
Immediately following the destruction of Falmouth, the war advancing eastward into the Kennebec country, the house of William Hammond,21 a trader not much liked by the Indians, was attacked, August 13th, and Hammond and fourteen of its inmates slain, the only person p304 escaping being a young woman. Distrusting the Indians, who had come as if to make a visit, she hid in the corn; hearing the shrieks and blows and divining their cause, she fled across country some ten miles, to Sheepscot, and gave the alarm.
The Indians then marched up the river and captured Francis Card22 and his family, and passing down the Kennebec, crossed over to Arrowsick Island.
The cruelties attendant upon this attack are attributed to Simon, who had been lodged in the prison at York and had escaped. This attack resulted in the death and capture of over thirty of the English. The remainder of the inhabitants fled from the mainland to James Andrews, now Cushing Island in the Bay. Among them George Felt,23 whose residence was at Mussel Cove two miles eastward from the neck.
Arrowsick Island24 is a large tract of land some four p305 miles in length, lying in the Kennebec River, between the main channel and the Back River, so called, its northern extremity being directly opposite the city of Bath. Upon it was the fortified trading house of Clark and Lake, two merchants of Boston. The Indians concealed themselves under the walls of the fort and behind a great rock near by. Early in the morning of August 14th, when, for some reason, the sentinel left his post, the gate of the fort being open, they rushed in and seized or killed the garrison. Captain Sylvanus Davis, who was in the fort, and Captain Lake,25 with two others, secured a canoe at the water's edge in which they embarked, hoping to reach a neighbouring island and escape, but they were quickly followed by four Indians in a canoe, who fired upon them just as they touched the rocky shore of Mill Island. Davis, badly wounded, manage to conceal himself in the crevices of the rocks and was overlooked by the pursuers. Lake was killed by a musket-shot while the two others eluded their pursuers and escaped unhurt. Before their departure the Indians destroyed everything of value in the neighborhood, including a mill and a number of buildings outside the fortification. A large amount of plunder was secured and the news of their success quickly spread abroad.
Site of Clark and Lake's Garrison and Trading Post
Arrowsick Island, Maine. The old cellars are marked by a growth of bushes along the water's edge
The number of persons killed or taken into captivity here and at Hammond's was fifty-three. About a dozen persons got away from Arrowsick in safety.
From Arrowsick the Indians proceeded to Sheepscot p306 and Pemaquid, while a part of the force went over to Jewell's Island, which was the refuge of a large number of the inhabitants from the mainland and considered a place of safety owing to its distance from the shore. The sudden invasion of this supposed stronghold by the enemy, caused great consternation among the refugees, who, however, though inadequately armed and not provided with a suitable shelter, managed to beat them off.
Shortly after this on September 3d, a party of men having gone upon Munjoy's Island,26 to obtain sheep which were required by their distressed families for food (though forbidden to adventure themselves, by their commander), were set upon by a party of Indians in ambush, driven into the ruins of an old stone house27 and there destroyed to a man, among them George Felt, "much lamented," says Hubbard, "who had been more active than any man in those parts against the Indians, but at the last he lost his own life among them, in this too desperate an adventure."
In this month of September, the Pennacook and Wamesit Indians came in to Major Walderne at Dover, to the number of four hundred, and with them many of the southern refugees, and that "contrivement" or sham fight strategem followed which has been related in the previous chapter.28
The authorities regarded the entertainment of the southern Indians by the Pennacooks and other tribes as a violation of the terms of the treaty, but the Indians themselves p307 were influenced by no other motive than hospitality, and believed the treaty embraced all who should accept its terms.
September 8th the authorities at Boston sent into the eastern country one hundred and thirty soldiers and forty Natick Indians, under Captains Sill, Hathorne29 and Hunting,30 which force was to be augmented by such troops as could be raised in the province. They marched by land from Dover to Black Point, thence went by vessel as far east as Casco without discovering the enemy, although the work of destruction was going on all about them,31 and they were compelled to retrace their steps without accomplishing anything. A week later, October 12th, the Indians, one hundred strong, under the leadership of Mugg,32 attacked Jocelyn's33 garrison p308 at Black Point, but while Jocelyn, who was well acquainted with the savage leader, went forward to parley with them, the entire garrison, with such of the inhabitants as were within the fort, decamped by water, leaving Captain Jocelyn and his family at the mercy of the Indians. They were, however, kindly treated and soon liberated.
The winter of 1676‑77 set in very early, and the authorities, supposing that the Indians were collecting at their fort at Ossipee, thought it best to attempt their capture. Accordingly Captains Hathorne and Sill were directed to march to that point. They set out from Newichawonock on the 1st of November; the snow was deep and the streams, not yet frozen, were crossed with difficulty. No Indians were found at Ossipee nor in the adjoining region, and the expedition returned having accomplished nothing but the destruction of the fort.
Immediately after the capture of Black Point, the English at Piscataqua had sent a small expedition under a young Mr. Fryer to Richmond Island to bring away whatever goods had escaped destruction. As they were loading their vessel, some being on shore and some aboard, they were surprised by the Indians and, unable to sail on account of the wind, and the cable being cut so that the vessel drifted ashore they were compelled after a short resistance, in which Fryer was wounded, to surrender. They were, however, kindly treated and allowed to send two of their number to Piscataqua to arrange for the ransom of the rest.
Unfortunately the party who bore the ransom, arriving a few days before the date set, fell in with another party of Indians who seized the goods and, through a mistake, p309 killed one of the English, but on learning what the goods were for dismissed the two surviving English in safety.
On the 1st of November, Mugg came to Piscataqua, bringing in Fryer, who shortly afterwards died of his wounds. Mugg declared that the Indians were desirous of peace, and that the attack on the party bearing a ransom was a mistake committed by a party of Indians not acquainted with their mission.
Major-General Dennison, who was at Piscatauqua, alleging that he had not the power to make a treaty, immediately seized Mugg who was supposed to represent both the Androscoggin and the Penobscot Indians, and sent him to Boston, where, on the 6th of November, a treaty was signed between the Governor and Council on the one hand and Mugg, presumably acting for Madockawando and probably for the Androscoggins, on the other.34
On the 21st, two vessels sailed for the Penobscot for the purpose of conveying back the captives released by the terms of the treaty, together with such arms and goods as were to be given in ransom. Madockawando was found ready to confirm the action of his subordinate, but he had with him only two prisoners.
Mugg, held as a hostage for the fulfillment of the terms agreed upon, learning that no captives, beyond the two held by his chief, were near by, offered to attempt a journey into the wilderness for the purpose of securing a number of captives that would probably be found there. The commander of the expedition agreed to wait for his return at the end of four days, that being the limit of the time required for the undertaking, and if at its expiration he had not appeared it should be assumed that he had either been killed by the natives or detained by them. The vessels awaited his appearance for a week beyond the allotted time, and then, fearing that wintry p310 conditions would prevent their return to Boston, sailed without him, stopping at Pemaquid where they found Thomas Cobbett,35 the son of the Rev. Thomas Cobbett of Ipswich, who had long been mourned by his friends, and with this small number of captives returned to Boston. Mugg was not again seen by the English for some time, but it is reported that he greatly boasted of the trick by which he had outwitted the English and repaid them in their own coin.
Early in February, 1677, a force raised by the Council at Boston, consisting of two hundred men of whom sixty were Natick Indians, under the command of Major Walderne,36 was sent by water to the eastward in the expectation that a systematic and organized attempt looking to the reduction of the enemy would meet with successful accomplishment. The expedition reached Arrowsick after a stop or two, at one of which, near Falmouth, they had a skirmish with the sagamore, Squando, about the 21st. The country was clothed in its winter aspect and the ice in the bays and streams frustrated the major's plans. He decided, however, to leave a party at the lower end of Arrowsick to establish a garrison while he pushed on to Pemaquid,37 having learned from some Indians at p311 Arrowsick that the captives would be brought in later but were now near Pemaquid. Sailing on to that place, Walderne met Mattahando, one of Madockawando's lieutenants, with about twenty-five of his followers, who declared himself desirous of peace. Suspicious of his intentions, it was decided at a council to attempt to get possession of the captives and then to attack the Indians by surprise. The major finally went ashore with part of the ransom and while looking around found a lance-head under a board. Seizing it, he brandished it before their faces and accused them of treachery, and, his hand to the men on the vessel to come to his assistance, he fell upon the Indians killing seven, among them the old chief, and seizing four others.
In April the noted Simon wrought mischief in Wells and York and in May a party of Indians laid siege to the garrison at Black Point, then commanded by Lieutenant Bartholomew Tippen,38 which was obstinately defended for three days and resulted in the death of Mugg by Lieutenant Tippen, who, noting an Indian who was particularly p312 bold in the attack, fired upon and killed him under the belief that he was Simon. On the death of Mugg the Indians hastily withdrew, a part of them going in the direction of York and killing several settlers in that quarter.
June 22d, a force of two hundred friendly Indians and forty soldiers, was sent under command of Captain Benjamin Swett39 of Hampton, and Lieutenant James Richardson,40 on an expedition to the Piscataqua. Anchoring off Black Point information was received of a force of the enemy in that vicinity and Captain Swett went on shore with a detachment of his men, and being joined by some of the inhabitants, marched some two miles from the fort in pursuit of an apparently fleeing band, which suddenly turned and gave furious battle, closing in and firing upon the English from an encompassing swamp as they climbed a hill, driving in turn the young and inexperienced soldiers of Swett's command before them. Twenty friendly Indians and forty of the English were left upon the ground, including Lieutenant Richardson and Captain Swett, who fell covered with wounds. This was the most sanguinary battle of the eastern coast.
The Battlefield, Black Point
Captain Benjamin Swett was killed here
During this season the Indians attacked many vessels p313 lying apparently secure in the harbors, and more than twenty of them were taken. "Thus" says Hubbard, "was the summer spent in calamities and miserable occurrentsº among the eastern parts."
An attempt, made somewhat earlier than the time of the events now reached, to enlist the Mohawk tribes against the eastern Indians, by the advice of Governor Andros of New York, did not succeed, through the reluctance of the Mohawks to proceed to such a distance from their homes. It is probable that had it been possible to have accomplished this plan, the insane dread held by the New England Indians against this warlike tribe would have speedily put an end to the war.
The disturbances in the east having dragged along until August, 1677, a sudden termination of hostilities was reached by an enterprise entirely unforeseen. Fearful that the Sagadahock province, which was a possession of the Duke of York, might, in its deserted condition, be seized upon by the French, Sir Edmond Andros, Governor of New York, sent an armed expedition to Pemaquid with orders to take possession of the country, build a fort, engage in trade with the natives and encourage intercourse between them and the English. By an agreement with the sagamores the release of fifteen captives was secured, as well as the release of all the vessels which had been detained by them. It is reasonable to conclude that the Indians were tired of the long-drawn‑out hostilities and were glad to embrace an opportunity to retire without too great embarrassment.
No attempt to relate in daylight all the incidents of the war along the Maine coast has here been made; some known to the writer have been omitted and undoubtedly many occurrences of these times are now absolutely unknown to any person. There were in this region but few of the conditions existing in the United Colonies. No well-fortified and defended towns to be set upon in warlike fashion by a furious enemy. No well-equipped force to p314 surprise the Indian fastness in a moment of unwatchfulness. Here was border warfare only. The sharp and unexpected attack upon the undefended cabin of the settler; the still more unexpected surprise upon the little garrison, and always, common to all sections in which the English fought, the deadly ambush, offering a lesson which was apparently never learned.
The peace and tranquillity which prevailed throughout the following autumn and winter and the enjoyment of consequent harmony and safety throughout the eastern portion of the province, induced the other tribes to seek a like condition for themselves, and in the spring of 1678, the Government of Massachusetts appointed a commission, consisting of Major Nicholas Shapleigh41 of Kittery, Captain Francis Champernoon42 and Captain Nathaniel Fryer43 of Portsmouth, to settle a peace between Squando and all the sagamores of the eastern country. The commissioners met the Indians at Casco44 and entered into Articles of Peace, April 12, by which all captives were to be returned without ransom, all inhabitants in returning to their homes were to enjoy their possession unmolested, but as an acknowledgment of the Indian rights in the lands, they were to pay to them, year by year, as a quit-rent, p315 a peck of corn for every English family, and for Major Phillips of Saco, who was a great proprietor, one bushel.
The losses throughout the country east of the Piscataqua had been very great. About two hundred and sixty were known to have been killed or carried into captivity, and there were probably many others of whom no record was kept. Some of the settlements had been utterly destroyed and in others many dwellings burned, domestic animals killed and a great amount of property plundered and destroyed. The cost to the colony government amounted to over eight thousand pounds.
1 Thomas Purchase, says Savage, "was an adventurer of good discretion and Perseverance, and was principal of the Pegypscot settlement on both sides of the Androscoggin near its mouth." After the plundering of his house he removed to Lynn where he died in April, 1678.
2 Thomas Wakeley was of Hingham when the house lots were drawn by the settlers, September 18, 1635, and he was made freeman March 3, 1636. He removed to Falmouth in 1661.
3 Captain John Bonython was the son of Richard, who was a very early settler of Saco. His house, which was destroyed by the Indians, was located on the east side of the Saco River not far from the present tracks of Boston & Maine railroad. He died before 1684.
4 Major William Phillips was of Charlestown where he was admitted to the church September 23, 1639, and made freeman May 13, 1640. He removed to Boston, then to Saco, where he had mills, a mansion house, and a thriving settlement about him. He was a magistrate and an officer in the militia. After the destruction of his property he returned to Boston.
5 Letter of Major Richard Walderne. Massachusetts Archives, Vol. LXVII, pages 26, 27.
6 Captain John Wincoll, or Wincoln, was first of Watertown, where he was freeman in 1646, but he soon removed to Kittery, for which town he was representative to the General Court at Boston in 1653, 1654, 1655. In 1665 he was at Newichawanock (South Berwick), and was made a justice by the royal commissioners. He was representative again in 1665, 1667, 1667º and the holder of other honorable offices. He was injured by a fall from his horse and died October 22, 1694. — Savage.
7 Saco Valley Settlements and Families, page 21.
8 Hubbard Vol. II, p126.
9 Squando, a Tarrantineº sachem of the Socokis, was commonly called the Sagamore of Saco. Mather calls him "a strange, enthusiastical sagamore," who saw visions, while the historian Williamson says, "his conduct exhibited at different times such traits of cruelty and compassion as rendered his character difficult to be portrayed." Hubbard speaks of him as "that enthusiastical or rather diabolical miscreant, who hath yet put on a Garbe of Religion, and orders his people to do the like; performing religious worship amongst the Indians in his way, yet is supposed to have very familiar converse with the Devil, that appears to him as an Angel of Light, in some shape or other very frequently."
10 Richard Tozer was first of Boston but removed to Kittery. He had a grant of land at Newichawonock of •sixty acres, above the Salmon Falls. Here he built a garrison house. The site of this is now occupied by the dwellings of Mr. Charles Collins. Hubbard says this was a third of a mile north of the Plaisted garrison.
11 Roger Plaisted of Kittery was intrusted with civil commissions as early as 1661. He was representative to the General Court in 1663‑64, and again in 1673. He was made lieutenant in 1668 and was a brave and trustworthy officer. — Savage.
His garrison house was built on land purchased in 1669 from Captain John Wincoll and in a deed is called the "Birchen Point Lot." It was located in that part of Kittery known as Newichawonock, on the east side of the Salmon Falls River and just north of Salmon Falls Brook. His neighbors, Tozer and Wincoll lived farther up the hill to the north. See Old Kittery and her Families.
12 Ossipee is located in Carroll County on the eastern border of New Hampshire, and still bears the same name. Pequacket is now Fryeburg, Maine, on the western border of Cumberland County and nearly on the line separating that state from New Hampshire, and about twenty-three miles in a northeasterly direction from Ossipee.
13 Major Richard Walderne was born in Alcester, County of Warwick, England, September 2, 1615. He came to this country first in 1635, remaining two years, then returned to England. He settled permanently at Cochecho, now Dover, N. H., in 1640. He was a man of great influence, many times representative to the General Court, and often speaker. He was a captain in 1672 and in 1674 was made sergeant-major of the military forces of the province. In 1680 he became major-general. He was one of the councilors under the new form of government of New Hampshire in 1680, and the following year, after the death of President John Cutts, was at the head of the Province until the arrival of the Royal Governor. He was largely engaged in trade with the Indians and was a Puritan of the most austere type, which did not prevent him, if widespread tradition is to be believed, from cheating them in trade at every opportunity. He was an indifferent commander and negotiator. His trading and garrison house stood on the north side of the Cochecho River on the west side of what is now known as Central Avenue in Dover, a little south of Second Street, and a suitable inscription noting its site is attached to the business block occupying its place. He was killed by the Indians in a most barbarous manner, June 27, 1689.
14 Massachusetts Archives, Vol. XXX, page 206.
15 The prison at York was built in 1653, an addition being made some time after. The whole of the original structure still exists in an excellent state of preservation.
The Old Jail at York, Built 1653
16 Madockawando was chief of the Penobscot tribe. He was a great "Pow Wow," and Hubbard says of him, in connection with Squando, sagamore of the Saco tribe, "They are said to be by them that know them, a strange kind of moralized savages. Grave and serious in their speech and carriage and not without some show of a kind of Religion, which no doubt but they have learned from the Prince of Darkness (by the hope of some Paptistsº in those parts), that can transform himself into an Angel of Light; under that shape the better to carry on the designes of his Kingdom." The historians of the war have all observed that the prisoners under Madockawando were remarkably well treated. After the close of Philip's war no more is heard of him until 1691 when he again appears as a warrior in King William's war then being waged. He died in 1698. A daughter of his married the Baron de St. Casteenº whose residence was on the Penobscot River where the present town of Castine is located. See Book of the Indians.
17 Captain Sylvanus Davis was of Sheepscot in 1659 and was wounded at Arrowsick at the time Captain Lake was killed. He removed to Falmouth in 1680 and had command of the fort there in the next Indian war. He was captured and carried to Canada, May 20, 1690, and after his return in 1691 entered the Council by the Charter of William and Mary. He wrote an account of the conduct of the war which is in III Mass. Hist. Soc. Coll., Vol. I, page 101. He lived in Hull during the latter part of his life and died in 1704. — Savage.
18 John Earthy of Pemaquid kept a public house, but little can be found regarding him. He appears as a witness to the treaty with the Indians, November 13, 1676. — Savage. Williamson states that it was Abraham Shurte of Pemaquid who was the negotiator.
19 Madockawando was his adopted son.
20 Anthony Brackett is found in Falmouth in 1662. Upon the renewal of hostilities in the summer of 1676 he was living at his home on the west side of the Back Bay at Falmouth (now Portland), and was, with his family, captured on the 11th of August. His brother-in‑law, Nathaniel Mitton, who resisted capture, was slain. While being conveyed to the eastward, his captors being eager to share in the plunder of Arrowsick of which they had word, Brackett and his family with a colored servant, managed to evade their captors; repairing an old birch canoe which they found upon the shore with a needle and thread, they escaped across Casco Bay to Black Point where they found a vessel bound for the Piscataqua. Brackett served during the war, and afterwards as lieutenant and captain, and was finally killed at his home during King William's war, September 21, 1689. The cellar hole of his house still remains and is located on Deering Avenue, a few rods beyond the railroad crossing just north of Deering's Oaks, one of the pleasure parks of Portland.
21 The sight of Hammond's fort and trading house, long in dispute, has been definitely settled by the researches of Rev. Henry O. Thayer. See Collections of Maine Historical Society, Second Series, Vol. I, page 261. He says, "It can be rebuilt in fancy upon that northeastern curve of Long Reach where are now grouped the village dwellings of Day's Ferry." Day's Ferry is recorded on the map as West Woolwich and is •three miles north of the ferry connecting Woolwich with Bath. "Hammond's Head," the site of the trading house, lies directly opposite Telegraph Point in North Bath.
22 See Francis Card's statement relative to the capture of Hammond's and Arrowsick, and the subsequent movements of the Indians. Hubbard, 1865 Edition, Vol. II, page 202. There is also a copy in Vol. LXIX of the Massachusetts Archives.
23 George Felt was from Charlestown and in 1660 was a dweller at Casco Bay having in 1670 a residence at Mussel Cove. He was the owner of Lower Clapboard Island, the Brothers and Little Chebeague Islands in the Bay. Hubbard in his Indian Wars, says, "He had been more active than any man in those parts against the Indians." He was killed by them in the summer of 1676 on Peak's Island. — Felt Genealogy. History of Peak's Island.
24 The long-lost site of the busy and populous trading house of Clark and Lake has been discovered by the Rev. Henry O. Thayer, and treated of in a paper read by him before the Maine Historical Society, and published in the first volume of the second series of their collections. This site may be reached by a drive of but little more than two miles from Woolwich, opposite Bath, and lies but a short distance to the north of Mill Island, on the west shore of the Back River. Traces of its buildings are still distinct. Thayer thus describes its discovery: "If Hubbard was correct the fortified post should have been within a mile of Mill Island. Search discloses it five-eighths of a mile from the present mill dam, a field by a cove, bearing notable traces of ancient occupation. Here relics have been gathered, implements found, bones exhumed, flagstones of old pathways uncovered. Here are cellars close by the water, a famed well of unknown antiquity. This place, made mysterious by curious relics and proof of early settlement, and long an enigma to the writer because not adjustable to the acquired history of the island, is at the so‑called Spring Cove, on the northeastern border. When found and its certified story told, it harmonized all parts of evidence, and completed the proof. Step by step, the lines of history followed, led hither to the mansion house of Clark and Lake."
25 Captain Thomas Lake came from London to New Haven, where he married, before 1650, the daughter of Deputy Governor Goodyear. He removed to Boston and was an eminent merchant there. In 1654 he purchased half of Arrowsick Island in the Kennebec River, and for many years had a trading house there with large transactions with the Indians. His body found by the expedition under Major Walderne in February following in a perfect state of conservation, was removed to Boston and buried in the Copp's Hill Burying Ground.
26 Munjoy's Island is now known as Peak's Island. It contains •seven hundred and twenty acres and lies about •three miles off Portland in Casco Bay. A narrow channel separates it from Cushing's Island.
27 The stone house upon Munjoy's Island (now Peak's) was located at its southwest point, about four rods northeast of the Brackett family cemetery fence as it now exists. It was but a few rods from the shore of the channel separating Munjoy's from James Andrews' Island, upon the northern end of which the refugees from Falmouth first congregated. It was built by George Munjoy and was occupied for several years by John Palmer and his family until they were driven off by the Indians in 1675. — History of Peak's Island.
29 Captain William Hathorne was born in Salem, April 1, 1645. In the Narragansett campaign he was lieutenant under Captain Joseph Gardiner and when that officer fell at the Swamp fight, succeeded to the command. He died before 1679. — Savage.
30 Captain Samuel Hunting, born July 22, 1640, was first of Chelmsford and later of Charlestown. He served during the war "with great reputation as captain of the praying Indians who took up arms in our cause against their countrymen." He and his men were of much service at the Sudbury fight and their conduct there did much to overcome the popular prejudice against the friendly Indians as soldiers. He was killed by the accidental discharge of his gun, August 19, 1701. — Savage. Bodge, page 289.
31 During the period covered by this expedition the Indians several times assaulted Wells and Cape Neddeck, killing a number of settlers and burning their dwellings. These places were directly on the line of march of the expedition.
32 Mugg, Mogg, Mogg Heigon, deeded in 1664 a tract of land lying between the Kennebunk and Saco Rivers to Major William Phillips. In the deed of conveyance he describes himself as "Mogg Heigon of Saco River in New England, sunn and heyer of Walter Heigon sagamore of sayd river." He was the subject of Whittier's poem, "Mogg Megone." There appears to be some dispute as to his position. Drake (Book of the Indians) says he was chief of the Androscoggins. Hubbard says, "He was the principal minister of Madockawando." Willis calls him "Prime Minister of the Penobscot sachem." He was alternately friend or foe of the English settlers along the coast, and was killed at Black Point (Scarborough), May 13, 1677, during an attack upon the garrison there. See paper of Horatio Hight, read before the Maine Historical Society, May 31, 1889, and published in the fifth volume of the second series of their collections, page 345. Another Mogg Heigon was killed with the Jesuit father, Rasle, by the English at Norigwok, August, 1724.
33 Captain Henry Jocelyn, son of Sir Thomas of County Kent, came to Scarborough, probably in 1634, and entered into the service of Sir Ferdinando Gorges. He was one of the most active and influential men in the Province of Maine. After the loss of his garrison (which he was temporarily commanding in the absence of Captain Joshua Scottow), and his short captivity, he removed to Pemaquid where he was a justice and much engaged in public affairs, and where he died in the latter part of 1682 or early in the following year. See New England Register, Vol. II, page 204; Vol. XI, page 31.
34 Hubbard, Vol. II, page 189. Also Drake's Book of the Indians, Book I.
35 For an account of Thomas Cobbett's release from captivity see "A Narrative of New England's Deliverances," by his father, Rev. Thomas Cobbett of Ipswich, to be found in the New England Register, Vol. VII, page 215. Also Hubbard, Vol. II, pages 193‑198.
36 Hubbard & Williamson's History of Maine.
37 Pemaquid is historically one of most interesting localities of the Maine coast. It is the most easterly point touched by Philip's war. Its soil was the first on the mainland of New England to be pressed by English feet. In 1605 Captain George Weymouth, in his ship Archangel, landed here and took back with him to England five of the native Indians, one of whom, Squanto, was to play an important part in the history of the Pilgrims at Plymouth. Here in 1607 the settlement of the colony under the auspices of Sir John Popham was accomplished, only a few months later than the beginning of the settlement at Jamestown, Virginia. Here Captain John Smith in 1609 attempted the founding a colony to succeed the Popham settlement, but none of the settlements remained permanent by reason of the many troubles between the English, Indians and French, the latter claiming it as a part of their territory of Acadia. A fort, called Shurt's Fort, was built here perhaps as early as 1624, succeeded by a new structure on the same site in 1677 called Fort Charles. The first must have been the scene of the fracas between Major Walderne and the Indians during Philip's war. This was followed by a third fort erected by Sir William Phips, and still later a fortification of stone erected on the same site in 1729, called Fort Frederick, was destroyed by the inhabitants during the Revolutionary war to prevent its falling into the hands of the British.
But the most interesting subject connected with the history of Pemaquid is the ancient city, whose very existence has been forgotten, and upon the site of which the small settlement of to‑day stands. The evidence of ancient buildings in some four hundred cellar holes, still to some extent visible; remains of shipyards, docks, an old burying ground, and streets regularly paved with cobblestones and found •about two feet below the present surface of the ground, are cause for speculation. This interesting spot lies upon a projecting point of land between John's Bay on the west and the ocean on the east, in the town of Bristol. — Ten Years at Pemaquid, by J. Henry Cartland.
38 Lieutenant Bartholomew Tippen (commonly found recorded as sergeant) was of Exeter in 1675 and was commissioned in October, 1676, to command the forces in re-establishing the settlement of Scarborough. In 1680 he was representative.
39 Captain Benjamin Swett, born in England about 1626, came to Newbury with his father where they were living as early as 1642. He married there the daughter of Peter Weare. He was early chosen to fill places of trust in town and county and was appointed ensign of the Newbury Military Company as early as 1651. He removed to Hampton and was influential in civil and military affairs in Old Norfolk County. In 1675 he held the rank of lieutenant. In June, 1677, he was commissioned captain and ordered "to Goe forth on the Service of the Country agt the Eastern Indian Ennemy." — New England Register, Vol. VI, page 64. Massachusetts Archives, Vol. LXIX, page 132.
40 Lieutenant James Richardson was first of Woburn but in 1659 removed to Chelmsford. He was with Captain Wheeler in the defense of Brookfield. He removed to Charlestown, May 1, 1676, and served with Captain Hunting in his mixed English and Indian Company in the summer and fall of that year at Pawtucket Falls (Lowell), where they built a fortification and maintained a garrison, of which Lieutenant Richardson was left in charge, as well as of the Christian Indians at Chelmsford. He was well acquainted with Indian ways and had great influence with the natives. — Bodge, page 346.
41 Major Nicholas Shapleigh, son of Alexander who built the first house at Kittery Point, was born about 1610, and after coming to this country lived first at Portsmouth, but became one of the most prominent citizens of Old Kittery. He served as selectman, deputy to the General Court, Provincial Councilor, County Treasurer, and was one of the commissioners to hold the first term of court in York County in June, 1653. He was appointed major in the militia in 1656, and was also a justice. He was extensively engaged in lumbering and milling. He was killed by an accident during the launching of a vessel, April 29, 1682. — Old Kittery and her Families, page 112.
42 Captain Francis Champernoon was a nephew of Sir Ferdinando Gorges. He was of Kittery, 1639, Portsmouth, 1646, and York, 1665. He was captain in 1640 and afterwards major. He was one of the councilors of the Province of New Hampshire in 1684. His will was probated December 28, 1687. — Savage.
43 Captain Nathaniel Fryer, mariner, was of Boston but removed to Portsmouth. He was representative in 1666, captain, and councilor in 1683. His death occurred August 13, 1705. — Savage.
44 See Williamson's History of Maine, Vol. I, page 552.
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