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[image ALT: a blank space] This webpage reproduces a chapter of
Archaeological Handbook
of the County of Gloucester

by George Witts

published by G. Norman, Clarence Street
Cheltenham, n. d. (1883)

The text is in the public domain.

This text has been carefully proofread
and I believe it to be free of errors.
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Chapter
p1

Archaeological Handbook of Gloucestershire

ANCIENT CAMPS

No. 1. — Abbey Camp. [ST 6500 8870]

This is in the parish of Alveston, near the 11th milestone on the road from Bristol to Gloucester. It was oval in shape, and the defence consisted of a single bank of great strength, but this has been much mutilated by the plough. In August, 1881, I found the bank was in some places 75 feet wide. The camp measured about 340 yards from NW to SE, and 240 yards from NE to SW. There is an entrance on the south side, and an additional bank branched off from the main work at the south-east end. There is a local tradition that "in the time of the wars" blood ran down Abbey Lane like water, and many people are still afraid to go down the lane at night! The views from this position are very extensive, including the river Severn for many miles, Stinchcomb Hill, Haresfield Beacon, Bredon Hill, the Malvern Hills, May Hill, Dean Forest, Lydney, Chepstow, &c. The ancient Ridge way runs through the centre of the camp.

See Atkyn's "History of Gloucestershire," p112.

Also "Archaeologia," vol. XIX, p164.

Also Rudder's "History of Gloucestershire," p226.

No. 2. — Ablington Camp.

This is situated close to the village of Ablington, in the parish of Bibury, six miles north-east of Cirencester. It stands on a projecting promontory, round which flows the river Coln. The defence is formed by a single mound of considerable strength running across the headland in an irregular form, though somewhat resembling a semicircle. The mound measures 630 yards from the point where it leaves the steep escarpment on the north, until it returns to it at the other end of the camp, the enclosed area being nearly 9 acres.

p2 The bank seems to have been constructed of stones, and from its appearance in 1881, after the field had been ploughed, I imagine that it was originally surrounded by a wall. On the eastern side of the camp, in a thick plantation, the bank is still 9 feet in height on the outside, and evidently undisturbed; at other points it is not more than 4 feet high, having been damaged by the plough. There is no sign of a ditch. The remains of an entrance are still visible on the south side, in the direction of Arlingham village. The camp stands on high ground, and I found a great number of worked flint flakes, cores, and scrapers within the entrenchments. It has not been described in any previous work.

No. 3. — Abone.

The site of this Roman station, mentioned in the "Itinerary" of Antonine, has been the subject of much controversy. The most probable solution of the difficulty is contained in a paper by Bishop Clifford, read before the County Archaeological Society in 1878. He says, "The station Abone, like the modern Avonmouth, probably derived its name from the river Avon;" then, after pointing out that the ancient mouth of the Avon was near Penpole Point — i.e., that the Severn has receded nearly two miles at this place — he adds, "Abone probably stood by Weston Park (four miles north-west of Bristol), the distance of which from Caerwent agrees well with the 'Itinerary,' and the landing place was either below Blaize Castle or King's Weston. Sea Mills, where Roman remains have been discovered, was in all likelihood a port connected with Abone."

See "Trans. Bristol and Glou. Archae. Soc.," 1878‑79, p83.

No. 4. — Amberley Camp.

This is on the high ground in the parish of Minchinhampton, adjoining the common, on the edge of the hill p3immediately above the village of Amberley, and one mile north of Nailsworth. It is formed by a slight mound and ditch, which had probably a stockade on the top, running on a curved line from the village of Littleworth to the escarpment above Spriggswell, enclosing an area of about 50 acres. A very strong line of earthworks is constructed across this area, dividing it into two parts, and a slight mound connects the camp with the much larger one of Minchinhampton. Mr. Playne says there are upwards 700 ancient pit dwellings in close proximity, some inside and some outside the camp, but most numerous near the escarpment.

See Rudder's "History of Gloucestershire," p468.

Proceedings Cott. Nat. Field Club," vol. V, p285.

Also Fosbrooke's "History of Gloucestershire," vol. I, p376.

Also Bigland's "History of Gloucestershire," vol. II, p6.

No. 5. — Bagendon Earthworks, No. 1

In the parish of Bagendon, three miles north of Cirencester, extensive earthworks are still to be seen. They were visited by the members of the Cotteswold Naturalists' Field Club in May, 1881, and from the enormous extent of the works they appear to have been rather the boundary line of some pre-historic tribe than for purposes of defence. There is a double line of earthworks, with a space of about 100 yards between them. They commence in a plantation on the hill above the Bear Inn at Perrott's Brook, and extend in a northerly direction across the marshy ground near the Churn. The inner line then ascends the hill by the side of Cutham Lane. The outer line has been nearly destroyed, but can be traced in the fields. The works are seen again close to the grounds of North Cerney house, at which point they turn towards the west by Scrubditch Farm, extending for more than one and a half miles.

See Rudder's "History of Gloucestershire," p258.

Also "Proceedings Cott. Nat. Field Club," vol. VI, p212.

p4 No. 6. — Bagendon Earthworks, No. 2

There is another line of entrenchments half a mile east of the river Churn, directly facing the foregoing. They consist of earthworks, with the ditch on the western side of the mound, whereas the ditches of the Bagendon Work, No. 1, are on the eastern side. It thus appears probable that these two series of earthworks were constructed by opposing forces.

See "Proceedings Cott. Nat. Field Club," vol. VI, p212.

No. 7. — Batsford Camp.

This camp lies within half a mile of the town of Moreton-in‑the‑Marsh, though it is in the parish of Batsford, close to the Roman station of Dorn and the ancient Fosse Way. It is nearly rectangular in shape, and measures 70 yards by 60 yards. The earthworks consist of a single mound and ditch, measuring in some places 5 feet from the bottom of the ditch to the top of the mound. The road from Moreton to Batsford cuts through the centre of the entrenchments. A large number of Roman coins and other antiquities have been found in the neighbourhood.

See Rudder's "History of Gloucestershire," p265.

No. 8. — Beachley Bulwarks.

These were situated on rising ground at Beachley Green, one and a half miles south-east of Chepstow, near the banks of the river Severn. Rudder mentions earthworks existing there in his day, but no traces are now to be seen of them, though two fields lying on the slope, between the high ground and the river Wye, are still known as the "Upper and Lower Bulwarks."

See Rudder's "History of Gloucestershire," p762.

Also "Proceedings Cott. Nat. Field Club," vol. VI, p239.

No. 9. — Beckbury Camp.

This stands on a projecting point of the Cotswold Hills, above Hayles Wood, in the hamlet of Farmcote, two and a half miles north-east of Winchcomb. It is defended by p5a considerable entrenchment, somewhat irregular in form, resting on the steep escarpment of the hill at each end. The bank is nearly 300 yards in length, and the area defended about 4 acres. It commands a most extensive prospect over the surrounding country, and from it can be seen no less than twelve other fortified positions. There is a spring of water outside the entrenchments, at the north-west angle, and apparently there was a covered approach leading down to it.

See "Proceedings Cott. Nat. Field Club," vol. VI, p207.

No. 10. — Bigswear Entrenchments.

This is marked on the Ordnance Map as an "Ancient Entrenchment." It lies in the parish of St. Briavel's, one mile west of the village, and close to the river Wye. Mr. Playne says, "The position is well suited for defence, the headland having a steep bank round it; but there are no traces of entrenchments left." From a recent examination of the ground, I think it very probable that the entrenchment referred to on the Ordnance Map is part of Offa's Dyke, which runs through St. Margaret's Grove just to the east of Bigswear Bridge.

See "Proceedings Cott. Nat. Field Club," vol. VI, p236.

No. 11. — Birdlip Camp.

This occupies a projecting ridge of the Cotswolds on Birdlip Hill, in the parish of Cowley, half a mile north of the village of Birdlip, four and a half miles south of Cheltenham. The present area is one acre, defended by a mound and ditch running on a curved line, with each end resting on the escarpment. Originally this camp must have been larger, the quarrying operations having interfered with the extent of the defended area, and the mounds being nearly obliterated by the action of the plough. A great number of flint arrow-heads have been found in the immediate neighbourhood.

See "Proceedings Cott. Nat. Field Club," vol. VI, p210.

Also "Transactions Bristol and Glou. Archae. Soc.," 1879‑80, p206.

p6 No. 12. — Bitton Camp [ST 6820 6980]

This is in the parish of Bitton, close to the village, and five miles north-west of Bath. It lies just to the north of the celebrated Roman road that ran from Aquae Sulis to Venta Silurum, and is mentioned in the "Itinerary" of Antonine, where it is called Trajectus. There has been considerable discussion on this point, but the most probable solution is that given by Bishop Clifford. (See Trajectus.)

The camp was square in form, and measured about 100 yards in each direction; the earthworks, however, that formed the defences of the camp have long since been disturbed and mutilated. A large number of other Roman remains have been found in the parish of Bitton at various times, including four Roman villas.

See "Proceedings Cott. Nat. Field Club," vol. VI, p231.

Also "The History of the Parish of Bitton," by the Rev. H. T. Ellacombe, F.S.A.

Also "Transactions Bristol and Glou. Archae. Soc.," 1879‑80, p88.

No. 13. — Blackenbury Camp.

This stands on Westridge Hill, in the parish of Wotton-under‑Edge, and two miles south of Dursley. It consists of two banks and a ditch, running across a promontory of the Cotswold Hills, having an entrance at each end. The area enclosed is eight acres, and the measurement along the mound is about 800 yards. Rudder says this which called "Becket's Bury." Scattered all over the plateau of Westridge, adjacent to the camp, were found innumerable pit dwellings. Some of them were very large, being from 20 to 30 feet in diameter, and seven feet deep. Upwards of 600 small pits have been counted in the immediate vicinity; better, although they were found close up to the entrenchments of the camp, not one has been observed within the fortified area.

See Rudder's "History of Gloucestershire," p847.

Also "Archaeologia," vol. XIX, p166.

Also "Proceedings Cott. Nat. Field Club," vol. VI, p217.

p7 No. 14. — Blaize Castle

This stands on a high conical hill in the parish of Henbury, four miles north-west of Bristol, a little to the north of the Roman station Abone. The south side of the hill is very steep, and on the other sides the camp was defended by two banks and ditches, now invisible. An old paved road, called the "Fosse way," is observable running up the north-east side of the hill, at the top of which is an entrance into the camp. There is another entrance in the direction of King's Weston Hill. The position is naturally a very strong one, from the steepness of the hillsides bothº on the east, west, and south. In 1766, some brass coins of Vespasian, Antoninus, Constantine, Constantius, Tetricus, and others of the later Empire were found here, with a few silver ones, chiefly of Gordianus.

See Atkyn's "History of Gloucestershire," p248 (with plate).

Also Rudder's "History of Gloucestershire," p491.

Also "Archaeologia," vol. XIX, p162.

Also "Proceedings Cott. Nat. Field Club," vol. VI, p231.

No. 15. — Blisbury Camp.

The top of Blisbury Hill, in the parish of Berkeley, three miles south-west of the town, is supposed to have been fortified, though the remains of the earthworks are now very slight. Mr. Playne says, "An area of rather more than an acre in extent, and oval in form, has been defended by having the already steep sides of the hill scarped so as to form a steeper bank, six or eight feet high. To this enclosed area there is an entrance protected by mounds." There are extensive views from this position.

See "Proceedings Cott. Nat. Field Club," vol. VI, p228.

No. 16. — Bloody Acre Camp. [ST 6895 9155]

This is a remarkably fine camp, and one of the most perfect in the county. It is situated on an eminence known as the "Camp Hill," in Tortworth Park, in the parish of Cromhall, p8three-quarters of a mile north of the village. The narrow top of the hill is nearly level, the eastern side being very steep, almost precipitous. On the north side there are two banks and ditches, running across the hill top. On the south-west side there are three banks and ditches, and here they have a very fine appearance, with the mounds increasing in height and strength one behind the other. The outer line measures ten feet from the bottom of the ditch to the top of the mound, the second line fifteen feet, and the third line twenty feet.

See "Archaeologia," vol. XIX, p164.

Also Rudder's "History of Gloucestershire," p397.

Also "Proceedings Cott. Nat. Field Club," vol. IV, p22.

Also "Proceedings Cott. Nat. Field Club," vol. VI, p229.

No. 17. — Bredon Camp, No. 1

On the highest part of Bredon Hill, in the parish of Kemerton, and three miles north-east of the village of Bredon, is a fine camp, formed on the precipitous brow of the hill by two lines of entrenchments, which run on a curve, with each end resting on the edge of the escarpment. The outer line is about 100 yards from the inner. Both have deep ditches and high mounds, the top of the mounds in some parts being still 20 feet from the bottom of the ditch. Large numbers of Roman coins have been found here, and I have also found many flint chips, cores, and worked flakes in the immediate vicinity. Inside the camp, on the brow of the escarpment, is a hollow place, in which lies a mass of stone known as the "Bambury Stone." A landslip on the north side of this camp took place about sixty years back, which disclosed a quantity of charred cornº that had been stored in a cavity, probably for the use of the occupiers of the camp.

See Rudder's "History of Gloucestershire," p506.

Also "Archaeologia," vol. XIX, p172.

Also "Proceedings Cott. Nat. Field Club," vol. VI, p224.

p9 No. 18. — Bredon Camp, No. 2

This camp is also on Bredon Hill, three-quarters of a mile north of the village of Conderton, and one and a half from Beckford. It is in the county of Worcester, through only a few hundred yards from the boundary of our county. It is irregular in shape, though somewhat approaching an oval in form. Its position is remarkable, as it is placed on a sloping promontory on the south side of the hill, some 200 or 300 feet below the summit. Small valleys run on each side of the camp, and the space between them has been fortified by a single ditch and mound on three sides, and, as an additional defence, the steep slope has been artificially scarped. On the south side the camp has a double line of earthworks, the distance between them being 40 yards. There is an entrance on the north side, leading towards the top of Bredon Hill. The land on each side of the adjoining valleys is on the same level as the camp, and there are some fine springs of water just outside the fortifications. The camp commands a grand view of the range of the Cotswold Hills, and of the Severn Valley towards Cheltenham and Gloucester.

See Nash's "History of Worcestershire."

No. 19. — Bury Camp.

This camp is in Wiltshire, being one mile outside the boundary of our county. It lies two miles east of Marshfield, and two miles north of Colerne, on the point of a hill, with the sides flanked by valleys, and it is defended by earthworks running across the hill top from valley to valley. The area defended is about 25 acres.

See "Proceedings Cott. Nat. Field Club," vol. VI, p222.

No. 20. — Buryhill Camp. [ST 818 740]

This is to be found on Bury Hill, in the parish of Mangotsfield, one mile from Winterbourne, and two miles north-west of Mangotsfield. It has two banks, and a ditch p10between them. It is irregular in form, about 200 yards long and 100 yards wide. There is an entrance on the south side. Rudder mentions another camp, in the parish of Winterbourne, not far from this.

See Rudder's "History of Gloucestershire," p536.

Also "Archaeologia," vol. XIX, p161.

Also "Proceedings Cott. Nat. Field Club," vol. VI, p231.

Website(s):

The Modern Antiquarian

No. 21. — Caerwood Camp.

This is in the parish of Tidenham, on a peninsula formed by the river Wye, on which the Chapelry of Llancaut is situate, two miles north of Chepstow. This has been claimed as part of Offa's Dyke; but, from a careful examination of the ground in July, 1881, I found that the earthworks were very different in character to that celebrated boundary, and I agreed with Mr. G. F. Playne, that this was a distinct fortified position, though some of the entrenchments may have been utilised by Offa. The peninsula is cut off from the mainland by earthworks, consisting chiefly of two banks and two ditches, each end of this line resting on the precipitous rocks which tower over the river Wye. At a distance of about 400 yards from the above is another defence, consisting of a mound six feet high and twenty feet wide at its base, also running across the hill top, with each end resting on the escarpment, the area thus defended being nearly twelve acres.

See "Proceedings Cott. Nat. Field Club," vol. VI, p237.

No. 22. — Cam Long Down Camp.

The hill called Cam Long Down stands in the parish of Cam, one mile north-east of Dursley, in advance of the Cotswold range, but only three-quarters of a mile to the west of Uley Bury. On the summit of this hill are signs of earthworks, though now very slight. There are also the remains of many ancient pit dwellings, and large quantities of worked flints have been found.

See "Proceedings Cott. Nat. Field Club," vol. VI, p227.

p11 No. 23. — Charlton Abbots Camp.

This is one of the few circular camps to be found in Gloucestershire. It lies three-quarters of a mile to the east of the village of Charlton Abbots, in the parish of Hawling, but close to the boundary. It is three miles south-east of Winchcomb. This camp is defended by a single mound and ditch, now much levelled by the action of the plough, though the line of the earthworks can still be clearly traced. The position is by no means a strong one, being nearly on a level with the surrounding ground. There seems to have been an entrance on the east side.

See "Proceedings Cott. Nat. Field Club," vol. VI, p209.

Also "Transactions Bristol and Glou. Archae. Soc.," 1879‑80, p206.

No. 24. — Chastleton Camp.

This fine camp is in Oxfordshire, though only a few yards from the boundary of our county. It lies in the part of Chastleton, four miles north-east of Stow-on‑the‑Wold. It is very nearly circular, and the area defended is close upon twelve acres. The mound is in some places still twelve feet high; there are no signs of a ditch, and probably there never was one. Entrances are still to be traced both on the east and west sides. Though this camp lies on high ground, it is not raised above the land in the immediate neighbourhood. A few miles to the north-east of this camp are the celebrated Rollwright stone circles, well worth a visit.

See "Proceedings Cott. Nat. Field Club," vol. VI, p223.

No. 25. — Churchdown Camp.

It has often been suggested that there was an ancient camp on Churchdown Hill, three miles east of Gloucester, and, from its commanding position and great natural strength, there seems little doubt but that it was occupied at an early date, though I am unable to find any satisfactory traces of defensive earthworks. Viewed from the village of p12Hucclecote, it has every appearance of a great fortress; but this is accounted for by the natural configuration of the soil. Mr. Baker, in describing it in the "Archaeologia," writes, "Its shape is very irregular, conforming entirely to that of the ground, and is rendered very imperfect by stone digging."

See "Archaeologia," vol. XIX, p169.

Also "Proceedings Cott. Nat. Field Club," vol. VI, p226.

Also "Transactions Bristol and Glou. Archae. Soc.," 1879‑80, p206.

No. 26. — Cleeve Hill Camp, No. 1

This is a very interesting camp, in the parish of Cleeve, on the brow of the lofty Cotswold Hills, above the village of Prestbury, and three miles north-east of Cheltenham. A small area of four acres is protected by a very strong line of earthworks, consisting of two banks and two ditches, 350 yards in length, forming an irregular crescent, with each end resting on the precipitous escarpment of Cleeve Hill. There is a well-preserved entrance on the north side, where the earthworks are stronger than elsewhere. There are remains of four circular buildings attached to this camp, built with very thin stones without mortar — the diameter of the first building, which is just outside the camp on the south-east side, is 50 feet, the walls being three feet thick; the second building is within the camp, and is 53 feet in diameter; the third is outside the camp, on the north-west side, and, like the first, is 50 feet in diameter; the fourth building is further to the north, and is only ten feet in diameter. The foundations of a wall, several hundred yards in length, can be traced, enclosing all these buildings, and it extends to the edge of the precipice at each end. The situation of this fortress is remarkable, inasmuch as the ground rises far above the level of the camp towards the east; but there seem to have been watch-towers on the summit of the hill, traces of which can still be seen. A road leads out of the enclosure on the south side to the village of p13Prestbury, and in descending the hill this is sunk from ten to fifteen feet below the level of the adjoining lands.

See Rudder's "History of Gloucestershire," p369.

Also "Archaeologia," vol. XIX, p171.

Also "Proceedings Cott. Nat. Field Club," vol. VI, p209.

Also "Transactions Bristol and Glou. Archae. Soc.," 1879‑80, p204.

Also Norman's "History of Cheltenham," p18.

No. 27. — Cleeve Hill Entrenchments.

These are in the parish of Cleeve, a little to the north of the camp just described. There is a line of earthworks, consisting of a single mound and ditch, running from the western escarpment of the hill for nearly a mile in a north-easterly direction, cutting off the northern portion of Cleeve Hill from the southern, at a point whereº one of the deep gullies runs down to Postlip. To the north of this line are two small circular earthworks of peculiar form, and it is difficult to say for what purpose they were intended. These works have not been previously described.

No. 28. — Clifton Camp.

This crowned the highest point of the precipitous St. Vincent's Rocks, in the parish of Clifton, near Bristol. The defensive works were originally very regular and strong, there being three high mounds and three ditches, running on a curved line from the edges of the precipitous escarpment.

Within this strong fortification are some small mounds, suggesting a Roman occupation of an earlier work. William of Worcester, A.D. 1450, attributes this camp to one Ghyst, a giant. In his time large and small stones were placed round its circuit. Leman supposed that the Wans Dyke, which can be traced from the woodlands of Berkshire, terminated at this point. Its area is about two acres. Part of the works have been destroyed by making the approach to the Suspension Bridge, and the northern side has suffered in laying out p14public walks. This was known to the Britons as Caer Oder. Facing this camp, on the other side of the river Avon, are two strong camps in the Stokeleigh Woods.

See "History and Antiquities of the City of Bristol," by W. Barrett.

Also "Archaeologia," vol. XIX, p162.

Also "Archaeologia," vol. XLIV, p428.

Also Rudder's "History of Gloucestershire," p376.

Also "History of Bristol," by Seyer.

Also "Proceedings Cott. Nat. Field Club," vol. VI, p232.

No. 29. — Cold Aston Camp.

This was situated in the parish of Cold Aston, one mile to the north-east of the village, and one and a half miles from Bourton-on‑the‑Water. Rudder says, "In the camp-field, on the right hand of the road leading to Bourton-on‑the‑Water, are entrenchments now pretty much levelled, and a tumulus or barrow at a small distance from them which hath not been opened. I am informed that Roman coins have been found there, which indicate the works to be of that people, and probably served as an advanced post to their stronger fortification at Bourton." The tumulus is still in existence, but I can find no signs of the entrenchments. A great number of flint arrow-heads have been found there, and there is every possibility that this position was occupied by the early inhabitants of our county. The camp mentioned at Bourton (see Salmonsbury) was certainly pre-Roman.

See Rudder's "History of Gloucestershire," p238.

Also "Transactions Bristol and Glou. Archae. Soc.," 1879‑80, p207.

No. 30. — Combesbury Camp.

This is situated in the parish of Tidenham, a little to the south-west of the church, and one and a half miles from Chepstow. It is a small circular camp, enclosing an area of nearly one acre. The defence is slight, consisting of a single bank with a ditch outside. The bank seems to be chiefly composed of stones, and is strongest on the south side. This p15camp lies a little to the west of the Roman road leading from Glevum to Venta Silurum, and commands fine views over the river Severn, &c.

See "Proceedings Cott. Nat. Field Club," vol. VI, p236.

No. 31. — Condicote Camp.

This was a circular camp, situated in the parish of Condicote, close to the village, and three miles to the north-west of Stow-on‑the‑Wold. It was defended by a single mound and ditch, which is now nearly obliterated by the process of cultivation. Seventy years ago, however, the banks were so steep that it was difficult to climb to the top of them. The area enclosed is nearly four acres, the diameter of the circle being 160 yards. There is a good supply of water close at hand, and another camp of a striking character within half a mile (see Eubury Camp). On a recent visit to Condicote, I found a great number of worked flint flakes and chips, some of them inside the camp.

See "Proceedings Cott. Nat. Field Club," vol. VI, p208.

No. 32. — Cooper's Hill Camp.

The point of Cooper's Hill (two miles west of Birdlip and four and a half miles south-east of Gloucester) was evidently fortified, but, owing to landslips and quarries, most of the earthworks have disappeared.

In addition, however, to the point of the hill showing traces of fortifications, there appears to have been a very large camp extending due south, in the direction of Cranham, and having an area of nearly 200 acres. The earthworks protecting this area can still be traced in Cranham Woods. They consist of two mounds with a ditch between them, and in some places the principal mound is still 15 feet above the bottom of the ditch. Commencing on the edge of the escarpment, near Prinknash Park, these works run in an easterly direction for more than half a mile; they then cross the road leading from p16Birdlip to Painswick, and turn to the north by Buckholt Cottage; and at this point they are particularly strong, the entrance to the enclosure being well preserved. They then continue in a northerly direction until they reach the escarpment above the Roman villa at Witcomb. For nearly half a mile after leaving Prinknash there is a second line, consisting of a single mound and ditch, running parallel to the main work and 40 yards from it. Due south of this large enclosure, which from its size and appearance must have been an extensive British settlement rather than a camp, was a small fortified position protecting its weakest point. This place d'armes is irregular in shape, having an area of about three-quarters of an acre.

The main earthworks described above were discovered by the writer in 1881, but the following authorities mention the entrenchments on the point of the hill.

See "Archaeologia," vol. XIX, p170.

Also "Proceedings Cott. Nat. Field Club," vol. VI, p211.

Also "Transactions Bristol and Glou. Archae. Soc.," 1879‑80, p206.

No. 33. — Corinium.

The British town Caer Cori (now Cirencester) was doubtless a fortified position, but the succeeding Roman town, Corinium, obliterated all traces of its earlier occupation. The earthworks defending the Roman town can still be traced, and measure no less than two and a quarter miles in circumference, showing what an important and large Roman station it must have been. The Fosse Way, Ermine Street, and Ikenild Street all pass through Corinium, and another Roman road, called the White Way, runs due north.

In a work of this sort it would be out of place to enter upon a detailed description of this celebrated station, teeming with its tesselated pavements, Roman villas, and other objects of interest. They have all been so fully described elsewhere p17that it seems only necessary to refer the reader to the following authorities:—

See Buckman's "Corinium."

Also Atkyn's "History of Gloucestershire."

Also Rudder's "History of Gloucestershire," p343.

Also "Archaeological Journal," vol. VI, p321.

Also "Archaeologia," vol. XVIII, p112.

Also "Guide to the Museum at Cirencester," by A. H. Church.

No. 34. — Crickley Hill Camp.

This lies one mile north of the village of Birdlip, in the parish of Cubberley, and four miles south of Cheltenham. It is protected by a mound and ditch running across the projecting height in a slightly curved line, with a second mound and ditch running parallel to the main one, and 100 yards from it. The remaining three sides of the camp are protected by the precipitous nature of the hill. The area defended is about nine acres, and the earthworks still remaining show what an important position it must have been. On the high ground to the east of the camp the defences are much stronger than they are on the lower ground as they approach the escarpment. Unlike most other camps in the county, this has a perfect entrance, defended by an advanced bank and ditch; and in the immediate neighbourhood are six round barrows and one fine long barrow.

See "Archaeologia," vol. XIX, p170.

Also "Proceedings Cott. Nat. Field Club," vol. VI, p210.

Also "Transactions Bristol and Glou. Archae. Soc.," 1879‑80, p206.

No. 35. — Damery Camp.

At the south-east corner of Michaelwood Chase, in the parish of Berkeley, there are slight traces of an ancient camp. It was visited by the members of the Cotteswold Field Club in July, 1871. It is situated on the extremity of a hill, near to Damery Bridge, and three miles south-east of Berkeley. Mr. Playne, in describing it, says, "It has an irregular oval shape, about 160 yards long and 40 yards across."

See "Proceedings Cott. Nat. Field Club," vol. VI, p228.

p18 No. 36. — Dowdeswell Camp, No. 1

This lies in the parish of Dowdeswell, between Rossley Farm and Upper Dowdeswell House, about four miles south-east of Cheltenham. It is quadrilateral in form, and measures 420 yards on one side and 320 yards on the other, while the average width is 220 yards, its area being nearly seventeen acres. The entrenchments on the north and west sides consist of a high mound and ditch; on the south there is a mound only, and on the east the steepness of the escarpment forms a natural defence. The enclosure is divided into two nearly equal portions by a single mound. There is an entrance into the northern portion at the west-west angle, and into the other portion there is an entrance at each of the southern angles. In this latter portion there is an ancient tank, and a good spring of water rises just outside the camp on the eastern side.

See "Transactions Bristol and Glou. Archae. Soc.," 1879‑80, p203.

No. 37. — Dowdeswell Camp, No. 2

Half a mile to the east of the earthworks just described are some more extensive entrenchments. They are also in the parish of Dowdeswell, in a field close to upper Dowdeswell House. The banks on the east and west sides are still very strong, while the north and south sides have nearly disappeared, though a wall is evidently built along the line of the southern bank. Probably both these camps were in some way connected with the extensive Roman station at Wycomb, a little more than a mile distant.

See "Transactions Bristol and Glou. Archae. Soc.," 1879‑80, p203.

No. 38. — Doynton Camps.

These occupied the high rocks on either side of the little river Boyd. One was in the parish of Doynton, the other in the parish of Abston, three miles north-east of Bitton. The stream here runs through a deep ravine, and on each side p19there were fortifications and entrenchments. The remains of earthworks are still to be seen on the west side, but those on the east have entirely disappeared.

See Rudder's "History of Gloucestershire," p406.

Also "Proceedings Cott. Nat. Field Club," vol. VI, p231.

Also Bigland's "History of Gloucestershire," vol. I, p469.

No. 39. — Drakestone.

This ancient signalling station or "outlook" is to be found on the southern point of Stinchcombe Hill, one and a quarter miles west of Dursley, in the parish of Stinchcombe. The point known as Drakestone is defended by a series of banks and ditches, certainly not less than four in number, and yet the area defended is only one-sixteenth part of an acre in extent, far too small for a camp. There is probably no spot in Gloucestershire where grander views can be obtained; it is admirably adapted for a post of observation, at least ten other camps being visible. The remains of 32 pit dwellings have been discovered a little to the north of Drakestone, and it has been suggested that it might have formed a refuge to the pre-historic people who dwelt in these "pits"!

See "Archaeologia," vol. XIX, p166.

Also "Proceedings Cott. Nat. Field Club," vol. VI, p216.

No. 40. — Dyrham Camp. [ST 7415 7672]

This occupies a projecting point of Hinton Hill, in the parish of Dyrham, three miles south of Chipping Sodbury, and seven miles north of Bath. It was defended by a single mound and ditch running on a curved line, with each end resting on the escarpment, thus protecting an area of about 18 acres. On the west side, the slope of the hill has been artificially "scarped," and on the east side a portion of the entrenchment is still very strong. A modern road runs through the camp. Writing in the year 1821, Mr. Baker says, "The ditch is deep and perfect, and the bank high and steep." Camden and Sir p20Robert Atkyns state that this camp was used when Ceawlin, King of the West Saxons, obtained his decisive victory over the Britons at the battle of Deorham, in the year 571 or 577.

See Rudder's "History of Gloucestershire," p427.

Also "Archaeologia," vol. XIX, p165.

Also "Proceedings Cott. Nat. Field Club," vol. VI, p219.

No. 41. — English Bicknor.

There are some interesting earthworks in the parish of English Bicknor, three miles north of Coleford. They have been carefully described by Sir John Maclean, F.S.A., who considers them to date from the 8th or 9th century. They seem to form one of the Castella or Burhs mentioned by Mr. G. T. Clark, in his paper on "Earthworks," in the Archaeological Journal, vol. 38, 1881. The works consist of a "conical flat-topped mound or motte, which was originally surrounded by a ditch, but this is now filled up except on the western side, where it is of considerable depth. The motte stands on a horse-shoe shaped platform, also surrounded by a ditch, which is connected with the ditch of the mound." On this platform, and close to the motte, stands the ancient well, supplied by a never-failing spring of water. Beyond this is a second and larger platform (on which stands the parish church), and this is defended by another deep ditch, the whole work forming an irregular circle about 150 yards in diameter. (See description of the earthworks in the parish of Upper Slaughter.) Such was the original character of the work, but at a subsequent period it formed the site of a Norman castle, and further additions were made to the fortifications.

See "Transactions Bristol and Glou. Archae. Soc.," 1879‑80, vol. IV., p303.

No. 42. — Elberton Camp. [ST 6080 8840]

This occupies a projecting point of a hill in the parish of Elberton, a little to the east of the village, and nine miles north of Bristol. In shape it is an obtuse-angled parallelogram, p21about 100 yards wide, and the defence consists of two banks with a ditch between them. The view it commands of the neighbouring river Severn is very extensive.

See Atkyn's, "History of Gloucestershire," p223.

Also Rudder's "History of Gloucestershire," p437.

Also "Archaeologia," vol. XIX, p163.

Also "Proceedings Cott. Nat. Field Club," vol. VI, p230.

Website(s):

The Modern Antiquarian

No. 43. — Eubury Camp.

This remarkable camp lies in the parish of Condicote, a quarter of a mile east of the village, and two and a half miles north-west of Stow-on‑the‑Wold. It occupies a projecting spur of the hill, a little to the north-east of the round camp at Condicote, is surrounded on three sides by shallow valleys. The camp is defended on the south by two steep banks scarped in the side of the hill, and extending for more than 300 yards. On the north side it is defended by a single bank, and it has in addition a remarkable mound running parallel to the main work and 50 yards from it, situated in the lowest part of the narrow valley! This mound is 180 yards in length, 10 feet high, and ends abruptly at each end. The area defended is about eight acres.

See "Proceedings Cott. Nat. Field Club," vol. VI, p207.

No. 44. — Frampton Mansell Camp.

This camp, which was destroyed nearly forty years ago, stood on high ground above the village of Frampton Mansell, in the parish of Sapperton, six miles west of Cirencester. The defensive works consisted of two lines running on a curve, enclosing a small area between them and the escarpment. In the year 1759 a large quantity of Roman coins were found close to the camp, at a place called Lark's Bush. Rudder gives a list of these coins.

See Rudder's "History of Gloucestershire," p642.

Also "Proceedings Cott. Nat. Field Club," vol. VI, p214.

p22 No. 45. — Freezing Hill or Furzen Hill [ST 7200 7140‑7230 7110]

There are some earthworks on the southern point of this hill two and a half miles north-east of Bitton. They consist of a bank with a ditch on either side, running nearly parallel to the brow of the hill, and only a short distance from the escarpment. It is difficult to say for what purpose they were intended, but it has been suggested that they formed part of a civil boundary in connection with similar works on Tog Hill.

See "Proceedings Cott. Nat. Field Club," vol. VI, p220.

No. 46. — Glevum.

The site of the present city of Gloucester was no doubt a fortified position under the Britons, being their Caer Glou. No signs, however, exist of the British earthworks, but the Roman wall of Glevum has been carefully traced and described by Mr. John Bellows. Beginning opposite Eastgate House, the wall, which is nine feet thick, runs in a SSW direction along Queen Street and Constitution Walk. It next passes into the grounds of Brunswick House, keeping parallel with Brunswick Road as far as the end of Parliament Street. The wall now turns at right angles, and runs in a WNW direction along the back of Parliament Street to the South Gate; it then strikes into Commercial Road, and runs straight to the corner of the County Prison. Here again it turns to the NNE, passing the Prison, along the Barbican, close to the Shire Hall, parallel to Berkeley Street, and here it reaches the West Gate. It then runs under the houses of Lower College Court straight for the Cathedral porch. At the Cathedral the Roman wall has been entirely removed to get a good foundation. The north-west angle stood about the centre of the present cloisters, and thence the wall ran straight to the North Gate, opposite Aldate Street, then along the left side of Aldate Street till it reaches King Street, and here is the north-east angle. It then runs straight up this street to Eastgate House, our starting point. A great number of p23Roman antiquities have been discovered within this area at various times.

At Kingsholm, a suburb on the north-west side of the city, were some artificial mounds and the traces of a ditch. Some have thought this to be the original site of ancient Gloucester, and some have considered it to be the cemetery of the Roman Glevum.

See Rudder's "History of Gloucestershire," p82.

Also "Archaeologia," vol. X, p132.

Also "Crania Brittanica," vol. II.

Also "Gentleman's Magazine," vol. XL (new series), p40.

Also "Gentleman's Magazine," vol. XLIII (new series), p248.

Also "The Celt, the Roman, and the Saxon," (Wright), p161.
"Proceedings Cott. Nat. Field Club," vol. VI, p154.

Also "Transactions Bristol and Glou. Archae. Soc.," 1879‑80, p153.

No. 47. — Haresfield Camp.

This well-known work crowns the summit of Haresfield Beacon, six miles south of Gloucester. The original British camp, conforming to the irregular shape of the ground, and defended on two sides by the steep escarpment of the hill, extended for nearly 1,000 yards from the "Beacon" at the west end to the "Bulwarks" on Brodbro' Green. These consisted of a bank eighteen feet in height from the bottom of the ditch, the total area enclosed being forty-four acres. The Britons required a considerable space, as their wives, children, and cattle were with them; but the Romans, being a compact body of fighting men, required less room, and cut off about a third of the original area by throwing up a strong bank 30 feet high, 400 yards from the west end, and constructing four gates as usual. There are distinctive marks between the British and Roman work — breastworks are formed at the edge of the escarpments, even where they are the steepest, in the Roman camp, while there is not a trace of anything of the kind in the British. Outside the north gate of the Roman camp is a never-failing well or spring; likewise below the British p24end of the camp is a similar spring, with a well-marked path leading down to it, but situated at a lower level, and not so carefully protected by embankments as the Roman one. At the west end, the remains of the original Roman road are visible leading into the camp, cutting through two additional entrenchments running across the neck of the hill. In August, 1837, a crock containing nearly 3,000 Roman coins was found inside the south gate. A Roman horse-shoe was also found (described by Fleming). The view from this position is very extensive, including the hills of Malvern, Bredon, Cleeve, Leckhampton, Crickley, Birdlip, Robin's Wood, Churchdown, Selsley, Stinchcombe, &c.; the towns of Gloucester and Tewkesbury; May Hill, the Forest of Dean, the whole range of the Severn, and the Bristol Channel.

See Bigland's "History of Gloucestershire," vol. II, p29.

Also "Archaeologia," vol. XIX, p169.

Also "Proceedings Cott. Nat. Field Club," vol. VI, p211.

Also Fosbrooke's "History of Gloucestershire," vol. I, p303.

No. 48. — Haresfield Moat.

On the north side of Haresfield Church, adjoining the churchyard, is a very striking entrenchment, the work probably of the Saxon or the Dane. It consists of a mound somewhat in the shape of a horse-shoe, standing nearly ten feet above the level of the adjoining land, and measuring 78 yards from north to south and 68 yards from east to west. This mound is surrounded by a deep moat or ditch 18 feet wide and still nine feet deep. In the centre of the mound is a level platform about 35 yards square, standing 2 feet 6 inches high, and between this central platform and the main moat (running parallel to the latter) is a slight ditch and bank, which was probably surmounted by a stockade, the whole work forming a strong vale fort very similar to that at Leckhampton, near Cheltenham. Mr. G. T. Clark,º in his valuable paper on Earthworks in the "Archaeological Journal," vol. XXXVIII, speaking of moated mounds, says:— "These p25works, thrown up in England in the 9th and 10th centuries, are seldom if ever rectangular. First was cast up a truncated cone of earth, standing at its natural slope from 12 to even 50 or 60 feet in height. This 'mound,' 'motte,' or 'burh,' the 'mota' of our records, was formed from the contents of a broad and deep circumscribing ditch." (See description of Leckhampton Moat.)

No. 49. — Hazlewood Copse Camp.

There are traces of a considerable defensive work in a copse one mile south-east of Nailsworth, in the parish of Avening. The area enclosed is about ten acres. This is defended by slight mounds and ditches, constructed on curved lines. In one part there are three parallel lines, two of which have the ditches outside their mounds, while the third has the ditch inside. Part of the outer line has an elevation of four feet from the bottom of the ditch to the top of the bank, and may have been a later work, added to strengthen the camp, and so constructed that it formed an independent area. Mr. Playne says, "Close to the north side of the camp is a spot, less than an acre in extent, from which I have gathered 2,000 worked flints," and he suggests that this was a dwelling place of the flint folk, having the adjoining camp for a refuge.

See "Proceedings Cott. Nat. Field Club," vol. V, p285.

Also "Proceedings Cott. Nat. Field Club," vol. VI, p218.

No. 50. — Hebdown Camp.

Two miles north of Marshfield there is marked on the Ordnance Survey "Hebdown Camp." It is situated on the borders of Wiltshire and Gloucestershire; but though the site is well suited for a defensive position, no signs of entrenchments are now to be seen. The projecting point of the hill, on which the camp probably stood, is bounded on three sides by valleys. There is another entrenchment near this. (See Littleton Camp.)

p26 No. 51. — Hempstead Camp

This lies in the parish of Hempstead, on the brow of the hill, a little to the north of the church, one mile south-west of Gloucester. The defensive works are so indistinct, and in some parts so much obscured by farm buildings, &c., that it is difficult to say anything definite as to the nature of the work; but the late Rev. Samuel Lysons was of opinion that it corresponded with the most perfect form of Roman camp. He says:— "Its form was oblong, 260 yards long by 113 wide, divided into two parts, the upper and lower; the vallum, fossa, and agger must have been of considerable height and depth. There were four gates; one of these led down to the Severn, and the road is still traceable." There seem to have been two ramparts on the north side of the camp, and a raised causeway led from the north-west corner to Gloucester. In 1859, two Roman interments were found to the east of the camp, with some coins, lachrymatories, pottery, and horse bones; and the "Holy Well," or "Our Ladies' Well," is just outside the entrenchments on the west side.

See "The Romans in Gloucestershire," by Lysons, p49.

Also "Proceedings Cott. Nat. Field Club," vol. VI, p227.

No. 52. — Hewletts Camp

This is a small work on the top of Hewletts Hill, two miles east of Cheltenham. It is irregular in shape, and is partly defended by having the sides of the hill scarped so as to form a steep slope. On the west side is a ditch and mound defending the weakest point, adjoining the ancient road from Cheltenham to Whittington and Shipton Olive. The greatest length of the protected area is 100 yards, and the greatest breadth 60 yards. It has been suggested that this small work was an outpost connected with the important camps on Nottingham and Cleeve Hills.

See "Transactions Bristol and Glou. Archae. Soc.," 1879‑80, p204.

p27 No. 53. — Hinchwick Camp

This was in a field called the Camp Ground, in the parish of Condicote, one and a half miles north of the village, and three and a half miles south-west of Moreton-in‑the‑Marsh. It was circular in form, and the area defended by earthworks was about one acre. Some eighty years back these were levelled to the ground, but whenever the field is ploughed the form of the camp can still be traced by the peculiar black nature of the soil. Lying between this camp and the one in Condicote village is a plot of ground known by the name of the "Scarlet Bank," and there is a local tradition that this was so called from a great battle once fought there.

No. 54. — Horton Camp. [ST 7640 8450]

On the point of the Cotswold Hills in the parish of Horton, three miles north-east of Chipping Sodbury, there are considerable entrenchments locally known as "The Castles." The defensive work consists of a bank, in some places sixteen feet high on the outside, running on a curved line, with each end resting on the escarpment. Outside this bank, Mr. Baker states, there was a ditch; but this has nearly disappeared. The camp is irregular in shape, its area being about nine acres. The views from this point are very extensive, and include the fortified positions of Clifton, King's Weston, Blaize Castle, Drakestone, &c.

See Atkyn's "History of Gloucestershire," p254.

Also "Archaeologia," vol. XIX, p165.

Also Rudder's "History of Gloucestershire," p503.

Also "Proceedings Cott. Nat. Field Club," vol. VI, p219.

No. 55. — Icomb Camp.

This occupied the termination of a range of the Cotswold Hills in the parish of Icomb, two miles south of Stow-on‑the‑Wold. At the present time the earthworks are so slight that some doubt has been expressed as to the existence of any p28fortified position here; but Messrs. Brayley and Britton, in describing it in the year 1803, say:— "It is situated on a high, barren hill, and commands an extensive view over the Wolds; its form is circular, but the bank has been partly destroyed by the effects of cultivation. The area is about five feet higher than the adjacent lands."

See "Beauties of England and Wales," vol. V, p646.

Also Nash's "History of Worcestershire," vol. II, p2.

No. 56. — Idbury Camp.

This camp, though in Oxfordshire, is close to the borders of Gloucestershire. It lies in the parish of Idbury, four miles east of Bourton-on‑the‑Water, adjoining the road that leads from Stow to Burford, on a high plain commanding an extensive view of the Evenlode Valley. It is a square camp, containing about eight acres. Forty years back the embankments were eight feet high, though they are now very much reduced by the plough. Some Roman coins of Valens and the Constantines have been found, and also some iron weapons.

No. 57. — Kimsbury Camp.

This occupies a very high part of the Cotswold Hills, in the parish of Painswick, one and a half miles north of the church, and four and a half miles south-east of Gloucestershire. It is also known as "Castle Godwin" and "Painswick Beacon." The form of the camp is irregular, and the area defended is eight acres. It is strongly fortified on the south-west side, where there are three high mounds and deep ditches; while on the remaining sides the defence consists of a single mound and ditch, except at the entrance towards the east, where the fortifications are most elaborate. An ancient road is visible running up the steep slope on the western side. Inside the camp the ground is very uneven, and many suggestions have been made to account for this; but I think p29the true explanation is to be found in the fact, that quarrymen of all ages have discovered that good stone could be obtained there. A large circular tank for storing water seems to be undisturbed. Several Roman coins, a sword, some spear heads, Roman pottery, &c., have been found at different times. It is a very interesting and important work, but much damage has been, and is still being, done to the earthworks by quarrying operations. King Charles's army occupied this post after the siege of Gloucester in 1643.

See "Archaeologia," vol. XIX, p169.

Also Rudder's "History of Gloucestershire," p592.

Also "Proceedings Cott. Nat. Field Club," vol. VI, p211.

Also Rudge's "History of Gloucestershire."

Also "Transactions Bristol and Glou. Archae. Soc.," 1879‑80, p205.

Also "Transactions Bristol and Glou. Archae. Soc.," 1880‑81, p54.

Also "Short Notes on Painswick," by Davis.

No. 58. — King's Weston Camp.

This is on the eastern end of King's Weston Hill, in the parish of Henbury, three and a half miles north-west of Bristol, and close to Blaize Castle before-mentioned. Mr. Baker says "it was defended by two banks and ditches, on the outside of which was another bank of different date." Mr. Playne says — "it was defended by a single mound and ditch, this earthwork running across the hill for 55 yards, and then along the south-east for 75 yards; the remaining sides are undefended, but are quite steep." The area enclosed was about five acres, and being so close to the Roman station "Abone," it was doubtless an important position; but very few traces of earthworks can now be seen. Rudder mentions another camp on Coombe Hill adjoining this.

See "Archaeologia," vol. XIX, p162.

Also Rudder's "History of Gloucestershire," p491.

Also "Proceedings Cott. Nat. Field Club," vol. VI, p232.

p30 No. 59. — Knole Park Camp

This stands on a steep hill in the parish of Almondsbury, six miles north of Bristol. Though conforming to the shape of the ground, the camp was nearly oval. The defences consisted of a mound and two ditches, but these have been mostly destroyed by buildings, a large house having sprung up within the area of the ancient camp. There seems to have been an entrance at the north-east end, but nothing very definite can now be said on the subject. The views from this position are very fine, and embrace both shores of the Severn and the district of the Silures.

See "Archaeologia," vol. XIX, p163.

Also Rudder's "History of Gloucestershire," p222.

No. 60. — Ladborough Camp.

This lies one mile to the south-east of Aldsworth, and three miles north-east of Bibury. It is nearly oval in shape, and stands on rising ground a little to the north of the river Leach. The area defended is about ten acres, and the earthworks consist in some parts of a single mound, and in others of a scarped bank without ditches. During the last 50 years the entrenchments have been very much reduced by cultivation, and another camp mentioned by Rudder, situated close to this, seems to have disappeared altogether. Both of these were within a short distance of the ancient Ikenild Street.

See Rudder's "History of Gloucestershire," p480.

Also "Proceedings Cott. Nat. Field Club," vol. VI, p213.

No. 61. — Lansdown Camp, No. 1

Although the following three camps are not in Gloucestershire, they are on the Cotswold Hills, and so near the county boundary that it is necessary to mention them here. The first of these occupies a projecting point of Lansdown, above the village of North Stoke, three miles north-west of Bath. p31The area defended is about 12 acres, and the earthworks consist of a single mound and ditch running on a curved line, with each end resting on the escarpment. There is an entrance to the camp near the middle of the line, and on the south side of the entrance a second bank has been thrown up on the east side of the ditch.

See "Proceedings Cott. Nat. Field Club," vol. VI, p221.

No. 62. — Lansdown Camp, No. 2

About 300 yards from the last, a square camp is marked on the Ordnance map. It is in reality 150 yards long and 60 yards wide, and is defended by a very slight mound and ditch. The area thus enclosed is about one acre, and has an entrance on the south side.

See "Proceedings Cott. Nat. Field Club," vol. VI, p221.

No. 63. — Lansdown Camp, No. 3

The Ordnance Map marks an "ancient camp" a quarter of a mile south-west of the Granville Monument, and Mr. Playne considers that it was a fortified position, though it is very unlike any other of our Cotswold camps. "Some seven or eight acres of the hill top are carved with mounds ten to fifteen feet high, with narrow hollows between them." There is no mound or ditch surrounding this network, and I think it would be difficult to find any proof that it was an ancient fort. It is, however, well worth an examination.

See "Proceedings Cott. Nat. Field Club," vol. VI, p221.

No. 64. — Leckhampton Camp.

On Leckhampton Hill, two miles out of Cheltenham, there is an interesting work of some magnitude. The point of the hill overlooking the valley of the Severn has been cut off by an entrenchment, consisting, for the greater part of the distance, of a single mound nine feet high, with each end resting on the escarpment. About 50 yards from the northern p32precipice there are two entrances through the entrenchments, one leading into the main portion of the camp, and another, at a much lower level, leading into a deep depression running nearly parallel with the edge of the rocks. Along the line of the entrenchments from these entrances to the escarpment there is a considerable ditch, outside the bank. On the old Ordnance Survey a bank is shown parallel to the northern escarpment of the hill. This has possibly been destroyed by quarrying operations. Professor Buckman, in his "Corinium," speaks of a true Roman well existing in the centre of the camp, sunk through the various strata of the oolitic rock down to the clay beneath. I can find no trace of this, but there are one or two likely-looking hollows in which a little excavation might be interesting. On the outside of the camp, towards the east, is a remarkable round barrow, 4 feet high and 35 feet in diameter; this is protected by a mound 70 feet square and 2 feet 6 inches high. At a distance of over 300 yards from the main position is another line of earthworks, consisting of a single bank, in some places five feet high, running on a curved line, and thus enclosing a very large area, probably for flocks and herds. Several relics of antiquity have been found on Leckhampton Hill, including a bronze helmet, spear-heads, coins, pottery, flint arrow-heads, &c.; and some human skeletons have been discovered at various times.

See "Archaeologia," vol. XIX, p171.

Also "Archaeological Journal," vol. XII, p9.

Also Bigland's "History of Gloucestershire," vol. II, p148.

Also Buckman's "Corinium," p5.

Also "Proceedings Cott. Nat. Field Club," vol. VI, p209.

Also "Journal of Archaeological Association," vol. I, p43.

Also "Transactions Bristol and Glou. Archae. Soc.," 1879‑80, p206.

No. 65. — Leckhampton Moat.

On the north-west side of Leckhampton Church there is a remarkable moated enclosure, which was visited by the members of the Bristol and Gloucestershire Archaeological p33Society in July, 1879. In shape it is irregular, having five sides of different dimensions. The greatest length from north to south is 80 yards, and greatest breadth from east to west 50 yards. The moat averages 20 feet in width, and is half full of water. On the outside of the moat is a bank, in some places four feet high. This appears to have been continued all round the enclosure. The central mound is nine feet above the water in the moat, and, though on a level with the adjoining land on the west, is ten feet above the original level on the east. In describing this in 1879, I stated that no foundations of any kind had been discovered within the enclosure, and such was the case up to that date; but early in 1881 a considerable number of stones were found by the edge of the moat on the east side, as if forming the foundation of a bridge. They were from four to five feet below the surface, and there are some corresponding foundations visible on the other side of the moat, with remains of a paved road six feet wide, leading from the direction of the church. On the west side of the enclosure a number of worked stones set in mortar were found at the same time, as if forming steps down to the water in the moat. From these discoveries it appears probable that the position was occupied in comparatively recent times, though doubtless it was one of the moated mounds of the 9th or 10th centuries mentioned by Mr. G. T. Clark. There are further earthworks on the north side, which probably formed an outer court connected with the moated enclosure. (See Haresfield Moat.)

No. 66. — Little Dean Camp.

In the parish of Little Dean, to the east of the village, and one and a half miles north-west of Newnham, is a camp nearly circular in shape, remarkable for its small size and strong fortifications. A ditch, six feet deep, surrounds a bank twelve feet high, and the area enclosed has a diameter of only seventeen yards in one direction and of 22 yards in the other. There is an entrance on the south-east side. This was probably p34an outpost of the adjacent camp on Welshbury Hill, and must have been a difficult position to assault, though it would only accommodate a very few men.

See "Proceedings Cott. Nat. Field Club," vol. VI, p234.

No. 67. — Littleton Camp.

In the parish of Littleton, two miles north of Marshfield, there are traces of earthworks occupying the projecting point of a hill. This spot is marked on the Ordnance Map as an ancient camp. It is near the boundary of Wiltshire and Gloucestershire, and is defended on three sides by valleys. It is only a quarter of a mile from Hebdown Camp, previously mentioned.

No. 68. — Lydney Camp, No. 1

On the summit of Camp Hill in Lydney Park, one mile south-west of the town, there are the remains of a fine Roman villa and temple, protected by earthworks running across the promontory and along its eastern side. On the west side there are no earthworks, the escarpment of the hill being very steep. On the north side, where the ridge of the hill is prolonged, there is a deep ditch outside the mound, and at a little distance from this is a second mound. The area thus defended measures about 280 yards by 120 yards, the buildings occupying the south-eastern portion. The situation is admirably selected for defence, the steep slopes of the hill forming a difficult approach on three sides, and water being easily obtained from a fine stream running on the north side. An approach road is still to be traced running up to the camp, and corresponding with the upper end of this is a gateway in the outer wall of the Roman villa. This road has been considerably lowered in comparatively recent times, but part of the original trackway can be seen just before entering the camp. This was doubtless a very important position during the Roman occupation of this country. (See p35Lydney Villa.) The series of coins found extend from Augustus, who died A.D. 14, to Arcadius, who died A.D. 408.

See "Roman Antiquities at Lydney Park" (Bathurst).

Also "Archaeologia," vol. XIX, p207.

Also Rudder's "History of Gloucestershire," p525.

Also Fosbrooke's's "History of Gloucestershire," vol. II, p197.

Also "Beauties of England and Wales," vol. V, p721.

No. 69. — Lydney Camp, No. 2

This lies close to the last, but is separated from it by a deep valley. It is situated on the termination of a spur of the hill, irregular in shape, and very small in size, the area not being more than half an acre. The defence consists of a single bank and ditch, and there is an inner fort, with additional intrenchments,º on the side easiest of access. It appears to be British in type, though it was certainly occupied by the Romans, like so many other of the British camps in Gloucestershire. Some pottery and Roman coins have been found here, also stones, and a capital of a small pillar, belonging probably to a watch tower, for which the position was well adapted, having extensive views of the River Severn and the range of camps on the Cotswold Hills.

See "Roman Antiquities at Lydney Park" (Bathurst).

Also "Proceedings Cott. Nat. Field Club," vol. VI, p235.

Also "Archaeologia," vol. V, p207.

No. 70. — Meon Hill Camp.

Meon Hill lies at the north of our county, partly in the parish of Lower Quinton, and partly in parish of Mickleton, six miles south of Stratford-on‑Avon. It stands by itself in the vale, and is a conspicuous object for many miles round. The summit of this hill has been fortified. The earthworks forming the defence are irregular in shape, conforming to the contour of the hill. Mr. Playne well describes their nature in the following words:— "There is a p36very slight mound on the edge of the escarpment; below the edge of the hill the slope has been artificially scarped, giving a very steep bank 18 feet high from the bottom of the ditch; then follows a steep-sided mound eight feet high, and then a third mound five feet high." No less than 394 sword-like blades of iron were discovered in this camp in 1824. They were carefully arranged socket and point, as though they had been packed together in a chest; their average length was 33 inches.a One hundred and twenty of the same kind were found in Salmonsbury Camp, near Bourton-on‑the‑Water, a few years ago.

See Rudder's "History of Gloucestershire," p614.

Also "Proceedings Cott. Nat. Field Club," vol. VI, p235.

No. 71. — Minchinhampton Camp.

This is on Minchinhampton Common, two and a half miles out of Stroud. It is by far the largest intrenched work in Gloucestershire, its area being nearly 600 acres. The defence consists of a single mound and ditch, running on an irregular curve, the ends of which are more than a mile asunder. It runs nearly due north from a point above the village of Box, and when it reaches the old road to Cirencester it turns to the east, enclosing within its area the present village of Minchinhampton. After passing the village it turns to the south, near "Woeful Danes Bottom," and here it seems to be defended by three parallel lines of earthworks. On the north side the remains of an entrance are still to be seen, there being a passage through the mound and across the ditch. The large area of this work seems to show that it was a settlement of some prehistoric tribe rather than a camp for military purposes.

See Rudder's "History of Gloucestershire," p468.

Also "Proceedings Cott. Nat. Field Club," vol. V, p285.

Also "Proceedings Cott. Nat. Field Club," vol. VI, p214.

p37 No. 72. — Norbury Camp, No. 1

In the parish of Farmington there is a large camp known as Norbury. It lies close to the village, one mile from Northleach, and half a mile to the east of the Fosse Way. It occupies the ridge of a hill, the north and east sides being defended by a single mound. On the south the slope of the hill has been artificially scarped, and on the west a mound and ditch cross the ridge on a curved line. The area thus enclosed is about 80 acres. The intrenchments, though still to be traced, have been much reduced by cultivation in some parts. Towards the west end of the enclosure there is a long barrow, and on the outside stands a round barrow. To the east are the remains of a Roman villa. (See Farmington Villa.)º An ancient road, probably the Green Way, seems to run through the camp from east to west; and another old road, called Letch Lane, leads from the east end to Salmonsbury Camp, near Bourton-on‑the‑Water.

See Atkyn's "History of Gloucestershire," p227.

Also Rudder's "History of Gloucestershire," p579.

Also "Proceedings Cott. Nat. Field Club," vol. VI, p210.

Also "Transactions Bristol and Glou. Archae. Soc.," 1879‑80, p206.

No. 73. — Norbury Camp, No. 2

Another camp, locally known as Norbury, lies in the parish of Colesbourn, one mile and a quarter to the north-west of the village. The earthworks defending this position have been very much damaged, but the general form of the camp can still be traced. It is irregular in shape, having an area of about six acres, and is defended by a single mound and ditch. The views from the hill are extensive, and the camp is well selected for defence, and to guard against any attacking party approaching from the south, or south-east, up the narrow valleys which are here to be found threading their way between the Cotswold Hills.

See Rudder's "History of Gloucestershire," p383.

Also "Proceedings Cott. Nat. Field Club," vol. VI, p210.

Also "Transactions Bristol and Glou. Archae. Soc.," 1879‑80, p206.

p38 No. 74. — North Cerney Camp

In the parish of North Cerney, three and a half miles north of Cirencester, there are some earthworks described by Bigland as "imperfect vestiges of a Roman specula or outpost." From a recent examination of the ground, I find that though there are traces of a small camp, the banks have been so much levelled by cultivation that nothing decisive can be said as to the character of the work. Some few Roman antiquities have been found in this locality, and the ancient White Way, running due north from the Roman town Corinium, is close at hand.

See Bigland's "History of Gloucestershire," vol. 1, p285.

Also "Beauties of England and Wales," vol. V, p667.

No. 75. — Nottingham Hill Camp.

This occupies a projecting promontory of the Cotswold Hills, in the parish of Cleeve, four miles north-east of Cheltenham. It is one of the largest camps in the county, covering an area of 120 acres, formed by a line of earthworks, consisting of two banks and two ditches, running across the neck of the hill. In 1863, during some excavations, the original mound of the Britons and the superstructure of the Romans were laid bare to view. A number of bones, British and Roman coins, lance heads, &c., have been found here at different times. Rudder mentions several of round barrows, both inside and outside the camp; but they have all disappeared.

See "Archaeologia," vol. XIX, p171.

Also Rudder's "History of Gloucestershire," p369.

Also Norman's "History of Cheltenham," p12.

Also "Proceedings Cott. Nat. Field Club," vol. VI, p209.

Also "Transactions Bristol and Glou. Archae. Soc.," 1879‑80, p206.

No. 76. — Offa's Dyke.

This celebrated civil boundary was erected in the year 779 A.D., by king Offa, as a boundary between the Welsh and p39the Saxons; and in the Laws of Ina, another Saxon king, we read that any Welshman caught with weapons on him on the English side of the Dyke was to lose his right hand. The Dyke, which consists of a mound from 8 to 15 feet high and 40 feet wide, with a ditch on each side, runs from the Severn Sea to the mouth of the Dee. It has been carefully traced by Sir John Maclean through this county. Beginning in Sedbury Park, on the bank of the Severn, it can be traced running across the Beachley promontory to the banks of the Wye; then, following the edge of the cliffs which tower above that river, it runs by Denhel Hill Wood, above the "Devil's Pulpit," overlooking Tintern Abbey, by Caswell Wood, across St. Briavel's Common, through St. Margaret's Grove, Redhill Grove, &c.; it can then be traced from Bicknor to Lydbrook, where it extends round the outer bend of the river and leaves the county. It then continues through parts of Herefordshire, Radnorshire, Flintshire, and Denbighshire. In length it is about one hundred miles, and was no doubt a civic boundary; but there are points in it of such strength that it seems probable they were intended for military positions.

See "Proceedings Cott. Nat. Field Club," vol. VI, p257.

Also "Transactions Bristol and Glou. Archae. Soc.," 1880‑81.

Nos. 77 and 78. — Oldbury Camps. [ST 6120 9270, ST 6099 9282]

In the parish of Oldbury-on‑Severn, two miles north-west of Thornbury, are two ancient camps near the River Severn — one on the south side of Oldbury Pill, the other on the north side, guarding the harbour. The one on the south side is small, on a conical hill, at the top of which stands the church. Round the churchyard traces of the banks can still be traced.º The one on the north side is on a slight elevation, and is formed by a mound and ditch. This is locally known as "The Toots." It is a large camp, the area enclosed being about 10 acres. At the south angle the ditch is broad, and nearly twelve feet deep. Many Roman coins have been found here.

p40
See Atkyn's "History of Gloucestershire."

Also Rudder's "History of Gloucestershire."

Also "Proceedings Cott. Nat. Field Club," vol. VI, p229.

Also "Archaeologia," vol. XIX, p163.

No. 79. — Oldbury Court Camp.

On the hill above Oldbury Court, in the parish of Stapleton, four miles north-east of Bristol, Rudder says there was a small camp which gave the name to the house. I have not been able to visit this locality, but the owner of the property informs me that he is unable now to trace any defensive works.

See Rudder's "History of Gloucestershire," p693.

No. 80. — Oxenton Hill Camp.

On Oxenton Hill, six miles north of Cheltenham, in the parish of Oxenton, there are remains of an ancient camp. It is irregular in form, the line of defence following the contour of the hill. On the north and east sides the steepness of the escarpment, with some artificial assistance, forms a sufficient defence. On the south and west sides, in addition to the scarping of the steep slope, a strong bank has been constructed about twenty feet from the foot of the "scarp," thus forming a considerable work. Inside the camp the ground is very irregular, and there is certainly one round barrow still in existence; probably there are more, but without excavation it is impossible to say. The views from the top of Oxenton Hill are very extensive, and in every way the position seems well adapted for a British stronghold.

No. 81. — Pinsbury Camp.

In the hamlet of Pinbury, four and a half miles north-west of Cirencester, are the remains of an ancient work. A projecting part of the hill in Pinbury Park had a single mound running across it, and the extreme point of the camp was also defended, the enclosed area being about one acre. p41A house was built here during the last century, the area of the camp formed into a bowling green, and the principal mound into a terrace walk.

See Rudder's "History of Gloucestershire," p424.

Also "Proceedings Cott. Nat. Field Club," vol. VI, p212.

No. 82. — Prestbury Earthworks.

There are some curious earthworks in the parish of Prestbury, a quarter of a mile west of the church, and two miles from Cheltenham. They are divided into two parts, each of them rectangular in shape. The strongest portion, and that best preserved, measures 155 yards by 130 yards, the defence consisting of a bank and deep ditch. Unlike the camps on the Cotswold Hills, the ditch is inside the bank. In the centre of the enclosure are some traces of stone foundations. For what purpose these intrenchments were intended, or to what age they belong, we are unable to say, though various suggestions have been made.

See "Transactions Bristol and Glou. Archae. Soc.," 1879‑80, p204.

Also "Notes on Cheltenham, Ancient and Mediaeval," by W. H. Gomonde, 1849.

No. 83. — Puckham Camp.

There is an intrenchment in Puckham Scrubs, in the parish of Sevenhampton, four miles east of Cheltenham, the nature of which is so peculiar that no one has been able to give a satisfactory explanation as to its origin. A deep ditch runs on a curved line for nearly 200 yards, and on the outside of the ditch is a bank five feet high, the ditch in some places being twelve feet deep. This intrenchment terminates abruptly at each end, apparently from the fact that it was unfinished. The position is admirably suited for a hill fort, and the defence, so far as it goes, has been constructed with great care. In the "Anthropological Review," vol. III, p70, mention is made of a large round barrow on this hill, but I have been unable to find any trace of it. Adjoining this intrenchment are several p42hundred pit-like depressions, which are worthy of close examination.

No. 84. — Ranbury Camp.

This is situated four miles east of Cirencester, in the parish of Ampney or Eastington. It is irregular in shape, the area defended being about twenty acres. In some places the banks twelve feet high above the bottom of the ditch, in other places the traces of the intrenchment are very slight, though the original shape of the camp can be seen. It stands on high ground about two miles south of the Ikenild Street, and the same distance north-west of the Ermine Street.

See "Proceedings Cott. Nat. Field Club," vol. VI, p216/

No. 85. — Randwick Camp.

This is on the top of Randwick Hill, two miles north-west of Stroud. The earthworks consist of a single mound and ditch running across the neck of the hill, with each end resting on the escarpment. The length of this line is about 220 yards, and in some places the bank is still five feet above the bottom of the ditch. Within the defended area there are three barrows, one long and two round. There may have been an outpost on Doverow Hill, three-quarters of a mile south-west of this position, where the natural slope of the hill has been scarped in two parallel lines. The views from Randwick Hill are very grand, embracing the whole vale of the Severn and the entrance to the Stroud valley.

No. 86. — Rodborough Camp.

On Rodborough Hill, one mile south of Stroud, there are remains of a strong earthwork, now nearly destroyed. A single mound and ditch, running for a short distance, alone remain to mark the site of what was probably a strong entrenchment. Mr. Playne says there are upwards of 400 ancient pit-dwellings on this hill.

See "Proceedings Cott. Nat. Field Club," vol. VI, p286.

Also Rudder's "History of Gloucestershire," p629.

p43 No. 87. — Saintbury Camp

This lies in the parish of Saintbury, just above the church, two miles north-west of Broadway. Locally it is known as Castle Bank. It is defended on the north side by two ditches and a bank, and there are also earthworks defending a portion of the west side. There are no intrenchments on the south. This is explained by the fact that it was probably an outlying work connected with the much larger camp of Willersey, situated on the hill top, only half a mile distant. There is a round barrow within the defended area. It is interesting to notice that in the Doomsday Book Saintbury is called Suineberie, which is said to mean Swains camp.

See Rudder's "History of Gloucestershire," p635.

Also "Proceedings Cott. Nat. Field Club," vol. VI, p207.

No. 88. — Salmonsbury.

This remarkable camp is to be found in the parish of Bourton-on‑the‑Water, a quarter of a mile north-east of the village. It is nearly rectangular in shape, the defended area being about 60 acres. The earthworks consisted of a single mound of great strength, with a deep and wide ditch on the outside. In some parts these works have been much levelled, but a portion of the north-east side is well preserved, and all the intrenchments can be traced. The situation of this camp, occupying as it does low-lying land in the valley, has puzzled many an antiquary. Rudder says the camp was Roman, and no doubt many valuable Roman antiquities have been found here; but judging from its position, its size, and the character of the masonry forming a wall now covered by the mound, it appears to be the work of pre-Roman times. The wall just mentioned was opened for the inspection of the members of the Cotteswold Field Club in June, 1881. It was about five feet in height, built with thin stones without mortar, and in appearance very much resembled the walling found in barrows. The southern defence extends for more than 200 yards in an p44easterly direction beyond the rectangular area, and then turns at right angles towards the north, but after turning it can only be traced for a very short distance. There is some very good walling visible in this projection of the defences.

The ancient Fosse Way runs within half a mile of Salmonsbury, and Rudder mentions a paved aqueduct running round a portion of the camp. In a charter dated 779 the following passage occurs:— "Est k portio ruriculi illius attinens urbi illi qui nominabatur Sulmonnes burg."

To give a list of the various objects of interest found in this camp would occupy too much space, but mention must be made of a Roman signet ring of gold weighing nearly an ounce, a great number of Roman coins, and 120 remarkable sword-like blades of iron. These were about 34 inches long, with the metal at one end bent into imperfectly formed sockets. When found they were a carefully arranged socket and point, as though they had been packed together in a chest. Similar weapons have been found at Hod Hill, near Blandford, in Dorset, and no less than 394 within the camp at Meon Hill, in this county. Antiquaries differ very much in opinion as to the date of these, but Mr. Roach Smith, in his "Collectanea Antiqua," vol. V, p1, suggests that they were "imperfect swords, fabricated from native iron, and prepared for the final strokes of the war smith;" and Mr. T. Wright is of opinion that they belong to a late period of the Roman occupation.

See Atkyn's "History of Gloucestershire," p153.

See Rudder's "History of Gloucestershire," p303.

Also "Proceedings Cott. Nat. Field Club," vol. VI, p209.

Also "Antiquarian Discourses," I, pref. xix.

No. 89. — Salperton Camp.

This lies high up on the Cotswold Hills, outside Salperton Park, three-quarters of a mile south-west of the village, and four miles north-west of Northleach. The camp was rectangular in form, measuring 80 yards by 60 yards, the defended area being close upon one acre. The intrenchments consisted of a p45single mound and ditch, now nearly obliterated, with the exception of the four angles and the whole of the north side. The old Salt Way runs close by this camp, and there are several barrows in the immediate vicinity, both round and long.

See "Transactions Bristol and Glou. Archae. Soc.," 1879‑80, p204.

No. 90. — Selsley Hill Camp.

On Selsley Hill, in the parish of King Stanley, two and a half miles south-west of Stroud, there are slight traces of a British camp. An area of about 30 acres is defended by a mound and ditch running on an irregular line. Mr. Playne says there is another very slight earthwork near the neck of the hill, where on one side lies Pen Wood, and on the other Bos-Pen, names which tell of a British occupation. Upwards of 130 pit dwellings have been noticed within the encampment, but not one has been found on the hill outside the lines of defence.

See "Proceedings Cott. Nat. Field Club," vol. V, p286.
See "Proceedings Cott. Nat. Field Club," vol. VI, p213.

No. 91. — Sherston Camp.

This is in the parish of Great Sherston, in Wiltshire, four miles south of Tetbury, and only a short distance from the boundary of our county. Most of the village of Sherston is built within a strong fortified earthwork on a point of land between two streams, the most perfect part of which is to the west of the church. Mr. J. Jones, in an interesting contribution to the Proceedings of the Cotteswold Field Club referred to below, suggests that this was the ancient city of "White Walls." At a short distance north-east of Sherston is another intrenched camp, said to have been constructed by the Saxons, but probably older. The Fosse Way runs within one and a half miles of Great Sherston.

See "Proceedings Cott. Nat. Field Club," vol. VI, p191.

Also "Murray's Handbook to Wiltshire," p20.

p46 No. 92. — Sodbury Camp. [ST 7600 8270]

This well known Roman camp is situated in the parish of Chipping Sodbury, two miles east of the town, and eleven miles due north of Bath. The defended area, which contains upwards of twelve acres, is rectangular in shape, with the west side resting on the escarpment of the hill, the other three sides being defended by a double line of intrenchments, each consisting of a single bank and ditch. There are entrances both on the west and west sides, the camp in all respects being very perfect in form. Mr. King says:— "This seems to have been incomparably well adapted to have contained three cohorts, with double the number of allied foot and half as many more allied horse, encamped after the Polybianº method." King Edward IV is supposed to have camped here before his celebrated march along the brow of the Cotteswold Hills, from Sodbury to Cheltenham and Tewkesbury, before the "Battle of Tewkesbury."

See "Archaeologia," vol. XIX, p165.

Also Atkyn's "History of Gloucestershire," p354.

Also King's "Munimenta Antiqua," vol. II p148.

Also Rudder's "History of Gloucestershire," p676.

Also Lysons'º "Woodchester."

Also Fosbrooke's "History of Gloucestershire," vol. II, p29.

Also "Proceedings Cott. Nat. Field Club," vol. III, p54.

Also "Proceedings Cott. Nat. Field Club," vol. VI, p219.

No. 93. — Sowdley Camp.

This is at Sowdley Green, in the Forest of Dean, two miles west of Newnham. The enclosed area is very small, not more than one-eighth of an acre in extent. It is situated at the end of a ridge called "Scilly Point." The defences on the north and west are very strong, consisting of a mound of great strength, with a ditch outside; on the south side the escarpment of the hill forms a natural defence, and on the east there is only a slight mound.

See "Proceedings Cott. Nat. Field Club," vol. VI, p235.

p47 Nos. 94 and 95. — Stokeleigh Camps

These camps are in the Stokeleigh Woods, on the Somersetshire side of the Avon, exactly opposite the Clifton Camp. The larger of the two, sometimes known as Rownham Hill Camp, must have been a fine work, with an area of seven acres. On the east it is bounded by the precipice of the river Avon; the remaining sides are defended by three ramparts and two ditches running on a curved line, with each end resting on the escarpment. The second and smaller camp also crowns the precipice of the Avon, a valley separating it from the larger one. The ramparts of this are composed of dry walling, without any lime.

See "History and Antiquities of the City of Bristol," by W. Barrett.

Also "Archaeologia," vol. XLIV, p430.

No. 96. — Stow Green Camp.

Three miles south of Coleford, in the parish of St. Briavels, there is a very small camp, circular in form, known as "Castle Tump." It stands on Bearse Common, and is defended by a strong and high mound. The ditch outside the bank is slight. The defended area is only 35 yards in diameter.

See "Proceedings Cott. Nat. Field Club," vol. VI, p235.

No. 97. — Symonds' Yat Intrenchment.

This lies in the parish of English Bicknor, three miles north of Coleford. It occupies a fine promontory of the river Wye. The defence consists of five banks and five ditches running on a curved line across the peninsula, with each end resting on the precipice. The inner bank is 14 feet above the bottom of the corresponding ditch. The banks are about 60 feet apart. Mr. Playne states the defended area to be 650 acres. This work has been often described as of Roman origin, but Sir John Maclean, who has given an excellent description of it in the Proceedings of our County Archaeological Society, considers it p48to belong to the Saxon period, and there seems every reason to believe that he is correct, as no coins or other Roman antiquities have ever been found within the lines of the intrenchment.

See "Proceedings Cott. Nat. Field Club," vol. VI, p233.

Also "Transactions Bristol and Glou. Archae. Soc.," 1879‑80, p301.

No. 98. — Tetbury Camp.

Though the earthworks of the ancient camp at Tetbury have disappeared, it may be useful to record the fact that intrenchments were in existence on the south-east side of the town in the last century. The site of this camp is now a grass field; the form of the terraced walks and slopes remain, but the banks and ditches have gone. Rudder, writing in the year 1779, says:— "The camp was levelled a few years ago by the owner of the land, when several arrow heads, javelins, ancient horse shoes, Roman and Early English coins, &c., were found." Fosbrooke says that this was a British camp, and that it was called Caer-bladon.

See Rudder's "History of Gloucestershire," p727.

Also Fosbrooke's "History of Gloucestershire," vol. I, p401.

Also "Proceedings Cott. Nat. Field Club," vol. VI, p219.

No. 99. — Toddington Camp.

In Toddington Deer Park, two miles north of Winchcombe, there are traces of an intrenched position. The slope of the highest point of the hill has been artificially scarped so as to form a very steep bank about ten feet in height. This bank can be traced round the west, north, and east sides of the hill, enclosing an area of nearly ten acres. No defence is visible on the south side. There is an entrance on the west of the camp, and an old road leads from it into the valley. The views from this point, now turned into a rabbit warren, are very extensive.

p49 No. 100. — Tog Hill Camp.

On the top of Tog Hill, which lies three miles to the west of Marshfield, and four miles from Bath, there are traces of ancient intrenchments, but so slight that very little can be said about them. Mr. Playne, in describing them, says:— "A mound has been thrown up nearly parallel to the brow of the hill. It has a deep ditch on the side towards the escarpment, and a shallow ditch on the other side." There is another slight ditch more to the east.

See "Proceedings Cott. Nat. Field Club," vol. VI, p220.

No. 101. — Towbury Camp.

This is in the parish of Twining, about three miles north of Tewkesbury. It is nearly rectangular in shape, the defended area containing more than 20 acres. The defences, which run nearly round the level top of a low hill, consist of a slight bank and deep ditch; but at the south-east angle there is a double mound. It has been supposed by Leland to be a palace of King Offa, but there seems very little evidence of this. It may very likely be of Roman origin, but I think it is one of those works more safely described simply as an "ancient camp."

See Rudder's "History of Gloucestershire," p780.

Also "Proceedings Cott. Nat. Field Club," vol. VI, p219.

No. 102. — Trajectus.

This Roman station, mentioned in the "Itinerary" of Antonine, has, like Abone, been the subject of much controversy, but I shall again take Bishop Clifford's solution of the difficulty as the most probable one. He places the site of Trajectus at Bitton, five miles north-west of Bath, and points out that a road running from the Stone Circles of Stanton Drew to those in Tracey Park would cross the Avon at Bitton, and probably a settlement would grow up near the passage, which would be translated by the Romans "Trajectus." A p50Roman camp, square in form, several Roman villas, and other remains, show that Bitton was a place of great importance during the Roman occupation.

See "Transactions Bristol and Glou. Archae. Soc.," 1878‑79, p88.

No. 103. — Trewsbury Camp.

This is in the parish of Coates, three miles south-west of Cirencester. A large house has been erected within the intrenchments, and in laying out the gardens and grounds much damage has been done to the old earthworks. They stand on a slightly elevated mound, near the celebrated spring of water known as the Thames Head. There were two banks and ditches on the south and east sides, the west side being naturally defended by the steep escarpment. The area enclosed is about seventeen acres. It was probably a Roman camp, situated close to that part of the Fosse Way called the Acman Street; but why one so large was required within such a short distance of Corinium it is difficult to say.

See Rudder's "History of Gloucestershire," p392.

Also "Proceedings Cott. Nat. Field Club," vol. III, p124.

Also "Proceedings Cott. Nat. Field Club," vol. VI, p215.

No. 104. — Uley Bury.

This well-known camp crowns the top of a lofty hill in the parish of Uley, six miles south-west of Stroud. The peninsula on which it is placed is connected with the adjoining elevation, known as Crawley Hill, by a very narrow neck of land. The fortifications consist of a narrow terrace about seven feet wide, placed at a variable distance, but generally 60 feet down the steep slope of the hill, and of a low rampart made of loose stones covered with turf, on the verge of the descent. This has a broad level space, 45 feet wide, behind it. The shape of the hill-top is nearly quadrangular. There are two entrances, one at the south-east angle and one at the northern angle. The northern or principal entrance is defended by a lofty mound raised upon the ramparts, and three ditches, with p51their corresponding banks, running across the narrow ridge, which is only 50 yards wide, the sides of which descend very precipitously. The dimensions of the camp are nearly as follows:— SE side, 700 paces; NE side, 320 paces; NW side, 800 paces; SW side, 300 paces. A large number of flint arrow heads and Roman coins have been found within the intrenchment. It is rightly looked upon as one of the most remarkable camps in the county.

See "Archaeological Journal," vol. XI, p328.

Also "Archaeologia," vol. XIX, p167.

Also Atkyn's "History of Gloucestershire," p416.

Also Rudder's "History of Gloucestershire," p782.

Also "Proceedings Cott. Nat. Field Club," vol. VI, p213.

No. 105. — Upper Slaughter "Burh"

In the parish of Upper Slaughter, three miles south-west of Stow-on‑the‑Wold, there is a remarkable intrenched work, which has long been a puzzle to local antiquaries. On high ground in the centre of the village stands a mound 80 feet in diameter, with a table-top nearly flat. This is surrounded by a steep slope, about fifteen feet in depth; then comes an irregular court about 80 feet wide, then another steep slope, at the bottom of which runs a tributary of the river Windrush, along the northern side of the work, while on the eastern side is a moat nearly six feet deep, now used as a road. Outside this court, and further to the east, is an outer court, defended on the north and east sides by the stream, and on the west side by a single mound still about four feet in height, running from the edge of the stream to the moat. On the table-top of the mound there were three slight depressions, and in making an excavation in one of these in 1877 I found that the mound for a depth of seven feet was artificial; I then came to the original level of the ground, and in continuing the excavation found a circular well, carefully walled with stones. In clearing out this well, which was filled with loose stones, we found a great quantity of charcoal, burnt stones, coarse pottery, p52bone pins, and various bones of animals. Such is a brief description of the work, similar in some respects to the one at English Bicknor, and forming probably one of the post-Roman Castella or Burhs described by Mr. G. T. Clark,º in his paper on "Earthworks," in the Archaeological Journal, vol. XXXVIII, 1881.

No. 106. — Welshbury Camp.

This crowns the summit of Welshbury hill, in the parish of Flaxley, three miles north of Newnham. The area defended measures about 500 feet by 300 feet, and is defended on one side by three ramparts. This was probably a very important camp of the Silures, being the nearest camp to the Roman boundary. The prospect from the summit of the hill is very extensive, and commands a view of a great number of the Cotswold camps on the opposite side of the valley.

See "A Week's Holiday in the Forest of Dean," p72.

Also "Proceedings Cott. Nat. Field Club," vol. VII, p10.

No. 107. — Willersey Camp.

This is to be found on the summit of the hills in the parish of Willersey, one and a half miles north-east of Broadway. It is a large camp, containing about 60 acres, and there is no doubt the smaller camp of Saintbury, a little to the north, was an outpost of this. The defence consists of two mounds, with a ditch between them, on the west side; on the south and east sides, of a single mound and ditch, in some places very strong; on the north side the escarpment of the hill forms a natural defence. There is an entrance towards the north, and an ancient trackway is seen leading down the hill to the village of Willersey. The remains of a long barrow still exist within the camp, though much levelled by cultivation.

See Rudder's "History of Gloucestershire," pp635 and 823.

Also "Proceedings Cott. Nat. Field Club," vol. VI, p207.

p53 No. 108. — Windrush Camp.

This lies one mile south-west of the village of Windrush, and four miles east of Northleach. It is circular in form, and is defended by a single mound about five feet high, with a ditch on the outside about two feet deep, the area thus defended being three acres. An entrance can be traced on the south side. It occupies the highest part of the table land in the vicinity, and has extensive views, including the Whitehorse hills.

See Rudder's "History of Gloucestershire," p830.

Also "Proceedings Cott. Nat. Field Club," vol. VI, p210.

No. 109. — Wolston Camp.

I have seen a description of a camp on Wolston Hill, about five miles north of Cheltenham, but having carefully examined the ground I am unable to find any satisfactory traces of such a camp. Should there have been any fortified position here it would probably be only an outpost of the more important work on the summit of Oxenton Hill.

See "Transactions Bristol and Glou. Archae. Soc.," 1879‑80, p207.

No. 110. — Woodbury Camp.

This is in the parish of Castle Combe, in Wiltshire, about eight miles north-east of Bath, and near the Fosse Way. It is so near the boundary of our county, and in such an interesting parish, that it seems almost necessary to call attention to it in this work. The camp occupies the summit of a steep hill, its area being nearly eight acres. The defence consisted of a single mound and deep ditch. There are other trenches cutting across the area thus enclosed, dividing it into four unequal compartments, one within another. A Norman castle was built within this camp. A fine long barrow known as Lugbury, an interesting Roman villa, and other objects of interest to the antiquary, have been discovered near Castle Combe.

See "History of Castle Combe," by G. Poulet Scrope.

No. 111. — Yewbury Camp.

The earthworks described by Mr. Playne under the head of "Yewbury Camp" occupy the high ground on Woodcroft Common, in the parish of Tidenham, one and a half miles north-east of Chepstow. The traces of earthworks are so very slight that it was with some difficulty I found them, and I think it extremely doubtful if it ever was occupied as an intrenched position.

See "Proceedings Cott. Nat. Field Club," vol. VI, p236.

No. 112. — Huddinknoll Hill Intrenchments.

There are some remains of ancient earthworks on Huddinknoll Hill, in the parish of Painswick, on the brow of the Cotswolds, between Kimsbury and Haresfield camps. In the immediate vicinity are a number of pit-like depressions, which may have been ancient habitations, and one of the oldest inhabitants can remember when the intrenchment formed a distinct camp, though now it is difficult to trace the form of it. An ancient trackway, called the "Old Hill Road," runs down the hill towards the village of Brookthorpe, and this was undoubtedly defended by a series of earthworks on the hill top. The field to the south of this road is called "Buckholt," and in this further intrenchments can be traced. In "Bibliotheca Gloucestrensis" an account is given of a sharp encounter at this spot during the Civil Wars and the siege of Gloucester; but there seems strong evidence that the works are of far more ancient construction.

No. 113. — Tytherington Camp.º

This lies in the parish of Tytherington, two and a half miles south-east of Thornbury. It is very irregular in shape, for the greater part conforming to the natural outline of the hill. In those places where the escarpment does not form a sufficient defence it has a single mound and ditch. Rudder says, "This is generally supposed, from the construction and other circumstances, to be the work of the Romans, who had certainly a lodgment here, as may be concluded from a tesselated pavement dug up at Stidcot, in this parish." It seems, however, probable that it was of British origin.

See "Proceedings Cott. Nat. Field Club," vol. VI, p230.

Also Rudder's "History of Gloucestershire," p766.

End Of Camps


Thayer's Note:

a A woodcut of one of them is reproduced in the article Hasta of Smith's Dictionary of Greek and Roman Antiquities.


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