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p216 Tres Aedes Fortunae

Article on pp216‑217 of

Samuel Ball Platner (as completed and revised by Thomas Ashby):
A Topographical Dictionary of Ancient Rome,
London: Oxford University Press, 1929.

Fortunae (tres), aedes: three temples of Fortuna on the Quirinal, just inside the porta Collina, which gave their name to the district (Vitr. III.2.2: huius autem (sc. aedis in antis) exemplar erit ad tres Fortunas ex tribus quae est proxime portam Collinam; Crinagoras Anth. app. iv.40 = 48 ed. Rubensohn: γείτονες οὐ τρισσαὶ μοῦνον Τύχαι /επρεπον εἶναι, Κρίσπε).1 The principal one of these three seems to have been that of the Praenestine goddess who was known officially at Rome as Fortuna publica populi Romani Quiritium primigenia (Fast. Caer. ad VIII Kal. Iun., CIL I2, p213, 319: Fortunae p(ublicae) p(opuli) R(omani) Q(uiritium) in colle Quirin(ali); Fast. Esquil. ad eand. diem, CIL I2 p211: Fortunae public(ae) p(opuli) R(omani) in coll(e); Fast. Venus. ib.: Fortun(ae) Prim(igeniae) in coll(e); Fast. Ant. ap. NS 1921, 96, For. PRQ; Ov. Fast. V.729: populi Fortuna potentis publica; Lydus de mens. IV.7). This temple was vowed in 204 B.C. by the consul P. Sempronius Sophus at the beginning of the battle with Hannibal at Croton (Liv. XXIX.36.8: si eo die hostis fudisset), and dedicated in 194 by Q. Marcius Ralla (Liv. XXXIV.53 — at least this is probably the temple referred to). The day of dedication was 25th May, and it is probably this temple in which prodigies were observed in 169 B.C. (Liv. XLIII.13: in aede Primigeniae Fortunae quae in colle est).

The second of these three temples was dedicated to Fortuna publica citerior — that is, nearer the city than the others — and its festival day was 5th April (Fast. Praen. ad Non. Apr., CIL I2, p235, 315: Fortunae publicae citerio(ri) in colle; Fast. Ant. ap. NS 1921, 91; Ov. Fast. IV.375‑376), but nothing is known of its history. One of these two temples is probably referred to by Cassius Dio under date of 47 B.C. as Τύχη δημοσία and is being close to, if not within, the gardens of Caesar that were near the porta Collina (XLII.26: κεραυνοί τε ἔς τε τὸ Καπιτώλιον καὶ ἐς τὸν τῆς Τύχης τῆς δημοσίας καλουμένης ναὸν ἔς τε τοῦς τοῦ Καίσαρος κήπους κατέσκηυαν . . . καὶ τὸ Τθχαῖον α᾽θτόματον ἀνεῴχθη).

The third of these temples was one that seems to be mentioned only twice (Fast. Arval. ad Id. Nov., CIL I2, p215, 335: Fortun(ae) Prim(igeniae) in c(olle); Fast. Ant. ap. NS 1921, 117: Fortun(ae) Prim(igeniae), of which the festival day was 13th November.

One of these three is mentioned by Vitruvius (see above) as an example of a temple in antis; and the podium and foundations of one of the other two were probably discovered at the corner of the via Flavia and the via Servio Tullio (LF 10; LR 421). Other traces have also been found in the neighbourhood (BC 1872‑3, 201‑211, 233, 243, 248; see AZ 1872, 77‑79; WR 261; HJ 413‑414; RE VII.28‑29; Rosch. I.1516‑1518; Gilb. III.372).

The Authors' Note:

1 The epigram is addressed to the great nephew and namesake of the historian C. Sallustius Crispus, whom he had adopted as his heir, and who died in 20 A.D. (Pros. III.159.61; HJ 430, n104).

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