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Chapter 58
This webpage reproduces a chapter of
The Cities and Cemeteries of Etruria

by George Dennis

published by John Murray, Albemarle Street
London, 1848.

The text is in the public domain.


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p490 Chapter LIX

ROME.


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Tokens of the dead:— the wondrous fame
Of the past world . . . .
Traditions dark and old, whence evil creeds
Start forth.

Shelley.

These are sad and sepulchral pitchers,º silently expressing old mortality, the ruins of forgotten times.

Sir Thomas Browne.

I had intended treating of Rome as an Etruscan city, pointing out facts both in her early history and in her local remains, which authorise us so to regard her. But this would lead me into too discursive a field for the limits of this work, and I am compelled to confine myself to notice the Etruscan relics stored in her museums. These p491are two — the Museo Gregoriano of the Vatican, and the collection of Cavalier Campana; each in its way unrivalled.

Museo Gregoriano.

This magnificent collection is principally the fruit of the excavating partnership established, some twelve or fifteen years since, between the Papal Government and Campanari of Toscanella; and will render the memory of Gregory XVI, who forwarded its formation with more zeal than he ordinary displayed, ever honoured by all interested in antiquarian science. As the excavations were made in the neighbourhood of Vulci, most of the articles are from that necropolis; yet the collection has been considerably enlarged by the addition of others previously in the possession of the Government, and still more by recent acquisitions from the Etruscan cemeteries of Cervetri, Corneto, Bomarzo, Orte, Toscanella, and other sites within the Papal dominions.

As no catalogue of this Museum is published, the visitor is thrown on his own personal stock of knowledge or ignorance, as the case may be, or on the dim and dubious enlightenment of the custode. I have therefore considered that something like a guide to this collection would be acceptable; and I propose to lead my readers through the eleven rooms seriatim, and to point out the most remarkable objects in each. If errors should be found in my statements, they must be received with indulgence, and laid not so much to my charge as to that of the Government, whose jealousy forbids a visitor to make a single note within the walls.1

p492 Vestibule.

Three recumbent figures in terra cotta, a male and two females, the size of life, forming the lids to sarcophagi. They are all highly decorated; he with a chaplet of laurel, a torque, and rings; the women with chaplets, necklaces, earrings, rings, and bracelets.2— From Toscanella, the site most abounding in terra-cotta articles. Two horses' heads of nenfro, found at the entrance of a tomb at Vulci. The horse among the Etruscans was a symbol of the passage of the soul to another world. A large pine-cone — another funereal emblem. A square cinerary urn of terra-cotta, with a rounded, overhanging lid, from which rises, like a handle, a small head, the portrait of the individual whose ashes lie within.— From Veii.3 Many heads in the same material, portraits of the deceased, which were placed in tombs, are now embedded in the walls of this chamber.

Chamber of the Cinerary Urns.

This room contains thirteen urns of alabaster or travertine, principally from Volterra, which were in the Vatican before the formation of this Museum. They bear the usual recumbent effigies on the lids, ludicrously stunted; most are females, and hold fruit, a scroll, tablets, a fan, or a patera, in the hands. The principal urn is at the end of the room, and has a pair of figures on its lid — the wife reclining fondly in her husband's bosom. The relief below shows the myth of Oenomaus overthrown p493in his chariot. On one side stands Hippodamia, his daughter, on the other, Pelops, who had brought about the catastrophe. Two winged Junones mark this as a scene of death. In style of art this urn is much superior to those around it.4

These bear, as usual, Greek myths with a mixture of Etruscan demonology — the Calydonian boar — Dirce about to be slain by Amphion and Zethus — the rape of Helen, with slaves carrying her goods on board the ships of Paris — combats of Centaurs and Lapithae — Actaeon, torn to pieces by his dogs — Paris taking refuge at the altar from his wrathful brothers; the palm-branch in his hand indicating the prize he had just won in the public games — Cadmus or Jason, armed with a plough, contending with the teeth-sprung warriors — Iphigenia on the altar, the priest pouring a libation on her head, musicians around to drown the cries of the victim, a slave bringing in the hind which Diana had sent as a substitute. On the lid of this urn is no recumbent figure, but a banquet in relief. Besides these, there are several scenes emblematical of the last journey of the soul, represented as a figure wrapt in a toga, seated on horseback; a demon is leading the animal, and a slave follows with a burden.5

On the shelves above the urns are more heads in terra-cotta, interesting as specimens of Etruscan portraiture and fashions. One has the lower part of the face full of minute holes, as if for the insertion of a beard.

Chamber of the Sarcophagus.

In the middle of this room is a large sarcophagus of nenfro, found at Tarquinii in 1834. The effigy of the p494Lucumo on the lid, reclining on his back, with a scroll in his hand, recalls the monuments of the middle ages.

This sarcophagus has reliefs on all four sides. One shows an altar in the midst, with the body of a female lying on it, which must be Clytemnestra; for the corpse of Aegisthus lies on the ground hard by, with the avenging pair standing over it; and a female sits mourning below, who may be Electra; while in another part of the scene Orestes is persecuted by Furies, brandishing serpents. On the other side of the monument is the story of the Theban Brothers; here engaged in altercation; there driven by a Fury to their destiny, which is set forth in the centre of the relief where they are dying by each other's hands. Their father Oedipus is here also; led away from the sad scene, he encounters a Fury with a torch. A female seated on a rock is probably Jocasta. At one of the ends of the monument is another representation of a human sacrifice — a female being thrust on an altar, and stabbed by two men — probably Clytemnestra immolated to the manes of Agamemnon.6 At the opposite end Pyrrhus is slaying the infant Astyanax, in the arms of his tutor, who has vainly borne him to an altar for protection.7

A semicolossal head of Medusa, with snakes tied under the chin. A slab with a bilingual inscription — Latin and Umbrian — on both sides.— From Todi. Two choice busts; one of a youth with a garland of flowers; the other of a maiden.

In the corners of this room are some small cinerary urns of pottery, in the form of rude huts of skins, stretched on cross-poles. They still contain burnt ashes; and were p495found, together with a number of small pots, lamps, rude attempts at the human figure, fibulae, knives, and lance-heads, in a large jar of coarse brown earthenware, such as stands in this chamber, and is represented in the annexed woodcut.8 These were found thirty years ago on the Alban Mount; and analogy marks them as of very high antiquity — the sepulchral furniture of the earliest races of Italy, prior, it is probable, to the foundation of Rome.9

p496 Chamber of Terra-Cottas.

In the centre of this room stands a beautiful terra-cotta statue of Mercury, with caduceus and petasus, found at Tivoli, and of Roman art.10 There are also three fragments of female statues in marble, from Vulci, and much admired. Genuinely Etruscan is the small terra-cotta figure of a youth lying on a couch. From the gash in his thigh, and the hound at his bed-side, he is usually called Adonis; but it may be merely the effigy of some young Etruscan, who met his death in the wild-boar chase. This is a sepulchral urn, found at Toscanella, in 1834.11

p497 There are several small urns of the same material, similar to those often described in Etruscan museums, and with the usual subjects. The mutual slaughter of the Theban Brothers. Cadmus or Jason slaying the teeth-sprung warriors with the plough. Scylla, represented according to the Greek, rather than Etruscan, idea — having a double-tail terminating in dogs' heads. Trunks and limbs of the human frame; some for containing the ashes of the dead, others votive offerings, — antefixae and tiles — and heads, portraits of the deceased, showing abundant variety of feature, expression, and fashion of head-dress. Some have quite a modern air.

There are also certain reliefs in terra-cotta, which are not Etruscan, but of much later times — representing the deeds of Hercules, Mithras slaying the bull, Amazons feeding or combating griffons.

First Vase-Room.

This room contains twenty-eight painted vases — mostly small amphorae, in the Second or Archaic style, with black figures on the ground of the clay.12

In the centre of the room, on a pedestal, stands a crater, or mixing-vase, with particoloured figures on a very pale ground, and in the most beautiful style of Greek art; indeed it is one of the finest vases ever rescued from the p498tombs of Etruria. It displays Mercury presenting the infant Bacchus to Silenus, whose half-brutal character is marked by hairy tufts on his body. Two nymphs, the nurses of the lively little god, complete the group. On the reverse of the vase, is a Muse, sitting between two of her sisters, and striking a lyre.13— From Vulci.

On a second pedestal is a beautiful celebe, with yellow figures, in the Third or Perfect style, representing a combat of Greeks and Amazons.

The vases on the shelves around have mostly Bacchic subjects — the deeds of Hercules — the Dioscuri on horseback.

One small vase in the corner by the window is remarkable for a humorous scene, where Jupiter is paying court to Alcmena, who regards him tenderly from a window. The god, disguised, it would seem, in a double sense, bears a brotherly resemblance to "honest Jack Falstaff," or might pass for an antique version of Punch; he brings a ladder to ascend to his fair one; and Mercury, the patron of amorous, as of other thefts, is present to assist his father.— From Magna Graecia.

In the case by the window are sundry articles in coloured and variegated glass, showing to what perfection the ancients brought their works in this material.

Second Vase-Room.

This room contains thirty-nine vases. In the centre are five on pedestals. The most singular is one of the rare form called holmos — a large globe-shaped bowl on a tall stand, like an enormous cup and ball. Its paintings are most archaic in subject and design — chimaeras and wild beasts, principally lions and boars, p499as they are commonly represented on the earliest Greek vases; and as Hesiod describes them on the shield of Hercules14 —

Ἐν δὲ συῶν ἀγέλαι χλούνων ἔσαν, ἠδὲ λεόντων,
Ἐς σφέας δερκομένων, κοτεόντων θ᾽ ἱεμένων τε.

The bowl of the vase has four bands of figures, but the upper one represents a boar-hunt, and the combat of Greeks and Trojans over the body of Patroclus. Earliest style.— From Cervetri.15

Another vase in the centre is a calpis, with Apollo, or, it may be, a poet of less celestial origin, seated in the midst of six Muses. Third or Perfect style.— Vulci.16

The third is a very remarkable vase — a large amphora, one of the most beautiful specimens of the Second, or Archaic style, in which hardness and severity of design are combined with a most careful and conscientious execution of details. It represents, on one side, the curious subject of Achilles ("Achileos") and Ajax ("Aiantos")17 playing at dice, or astragali. Achilles cries "Four!" and Ajax, "Three!" — the said words in choice Attic issuing from their mouths, as would be represented in a caricature by H B. From the dice not being shown, and from the hands being held out with the fingers extended, they might be supposed to be playing at the old game of dimicatio digitorum, known to both Greeks and Romans, and handed down to modern times, as every one who has been in Italy knows to the cost of his peace — the eternal shouting of la morra assailing him in every street. In the richness of the heroes' attire and armour, and the exquisite neatness of the execution, this vase has not its rival in the collection.18 The maker's p500name, "Echsekias," is recorded, as well as that of the person to whom it was presented — "the brave Onetorides." On the other side of the vase is a family scene of "the great Twin-brethren" — "Kastor" with his horse, "Poludeukes" playing with his dog, "Tyndareos" and "Leda" standing by. This beautiful relic of antiquity was found at Vulci, in 1834.19

The fourth vase on a pedestal is an amphora, representing the body of Achilles borne to Peleus and Thetis, followed by his companions in arms, one of whom bears the Trinacrian device on his shield. On the reverse is Bacchus driving a quadriga, attended by Fauns and Maenades. Second style.— Cervetri.20

The fifth vase is a calpis, and has for its subject the Death of Hector. The hero "of the quick-glancing helmet" is sinking in death, and relaxing his hold on his arms. His beardless victor stands over him with drawn sword. Minerva supports her favourite hero; and Apollo — or, as some think, Venus — stands, bow in hand, behind the fallen Trojan, and points an arrow at the Greek, as if to predict the fate in store for him. A beautiful vase in the Third style.— From Vulci.21

The vases on the shelves around the room are mostly amphorae in the Second style; some of them Panathenaic. These may be distinguished by a figure of Minerva on one side, with an inscription stating that they are prizes from the Athenian games.

Among the varieties are the following:—

hydria of extreme beauty, representing Apollo seated p501on the Delphic tripod, which is speeding its winged course over the waves. Dolphins and other fish are gambolling in the water, attracted to the surface by the music of the god's lyre. It is one of the most beautiful, and best preserved vases yet discovered at Vulci. Third style.22

calpis. Theseus, having pierced the wild sow of Crommyon with his spear, and wounded her with a stone, has brought her to bay, and awaits her attack, sword in hand, with his chlamys wrapt round his left arm; nearly as the Spanish matador encounters the bull in the arena. Third style.— Vulci.23

Stamnos. On the body of the vase is a band of figures representing the palaestric games — wrestling, boxing, and chariot-racing. In an upper band is a banquet of four couples of both sexes, very like the feasting-scenes in the tombs of Tarquinii, but in a more archaic style. Second style.— Vulci.

hydria. Nymphs at a Doric fountain; some going, others returning. Their pots, true hydriae in form, just like the vase itself, are laid on their heads in different positions, according as they are full or empty; as may be observed among the peasant-girls of Italy at the present day. In an upper band is a spirited combat, thought to represent Aeneas assisting Hector against Ajax. In a lower band, boys on horseback are hunting stags. Second style.— Vulci.24

Hydria, with a race of women, a very curious scene. Second style.

On the shelf near the window is a remarkable vase. It is that sort of amphora, contracting towards the neck, commonly called a pelice. Two men are sitting under an p502olive-tree, each with an amphora at his feet, and one who is measuring the oil exclaims, "O father Jupiter! would that I were rich!" On the reverse of the vase is the same pair, but at a subsequent period, for the prayer has been heard, and the oil-dealer cries — "Verily, yea, verily, it hath been filled to overflowing." Second style.— Caere.25

By window is also a calpis, in the Third style. A boy has his hoop in one hand, and a cock in the other, which he seems to have stolen from a hen-roost. An old man, supposed to be his tutor, or paedotribe, is calling him to account for his misdeeds. It is not known where this beautiful vase was found, as it had been in the Vatican Library, long prior to the formation of this Museum.26

By window are two most archaic vases. One is a hydria of singular form. The subject is the Boar of Calydon at bay, attacked by dogs, and by hunters armed with spears, all of whom have their names attached. The other is an olpe, and represents Ajax fighting with Hector, who is assisted by Aeneas. The very peculiar design, and the palaeography, mark these vases to be of that rare Doric class, like those of Corinth, which are seldom found on any other Etruscan site than Cervetri.27

In the cases by window are sundry articles in glass and pottery; among the latter notice a small canoe, and a rhyton in the form of a man's leg.

Quadrant, or Third Vase-Room.

This is a long hall or gallery, with the vases arranged on shelves along the inner wall. I shall specify the most p503remarkable, as near as I can recollect in the order in which they stand.

hydria, representing the combat of Hercules with Cycnus; Minerva assists her hero, and Mars his son. Below is a band of lions and boars. Second style.— Vulci.

Hydria. Combat of the gods with the giants, who are represented as warriors in armour, not of larger size than their opponents. Jove and Hercules are in a quadriga. Second style.— Vulci.

Hydria. Two men on horseback, who might represent the Dioscuri were it not for the inscriptions above them. On the shoulder of the vase are contests of racers and pugilists. Second style.— Cervetri.

Stamnos. Combat of Greeks and Amazons. Third style, from Vulci.

Amphora. Aurora mourning over her son Memnon, who lies dead in a myrtle-grove. His armour is lying on the ground, or is suspended from the trees. A dove in the branches above is supposed to represent his soul, or it may be one of the hero's companions, changed, as the legend states, into birds. Observe the expression of the weeping mother. On the reverse of this scene is Briseis led away from Achilles. Second style.— Vulci.28

Hydria. Theseus slaying the Minotaur; youths and maidens, with branches in their hands, stand by. In an upper band is Bacchus holding an overflowing keras or wine-horn, in the midst of Fauns and Maenades dancing to the music of the double-pipes and castanets. Second style.— Vulci.

Amphora. Achilles and Memnon, contending over the body of Antilochus. On the reverse, Hercules and Minerva in a quadriga accompanied by other divinities. Second style.— Vulci.

p504 Calpis. "Thamyras" with his lyre, contending with the Muses. A very beautiful vase in the late style.— Vulci.29

Calpis. "Poseidon" seizing "Aethra," as she is plucking flowers. Third style.— Vulci.30

Hydria. On the shoulder of the vase, Theseus is slaying the Minotaur, with youths and maidens around; on the body, Minerva is mounting her quadriga, attended by Hercules and Mercury. Second style.— Vulci.

Hydria. A fountain with a Doric portico, having snakes and birds painted on the architrave. The water gushes from the mouths of lions and asses, and flows in waving curves into the pitchers! On the shoulder of the vase, Hercules is overcoming the Nemean lion; Minerva and Iolaus stand by with a chariot. Second style.— Vulci.31

Hydria. A man is painting a stele or funeral monument; another passes him in a chariot. Third style.— Vatican Library.32

Amphora. Hercules shaking hands with Minerva, salutes her with ΧΑΙΡΕ. Iolaus stands by. On the reverse a citharista is playing between two athletes, very like the figures in the painted tombs of Corneto. Third style.— Vulci.33

Two Panathenaic amphorae, with the figure of Minerva armed, poising her lance between two Doric columns surmounted by cocks; and with the usual legend, ΤΟΗΑΘΕΗΕΘΕΗΑΘΛΟΗ, "of the prizes from Athens." On the reverse are the public games — races, leaping, or hurling the quoit. Second style, very archaic.— Vulci.34

Amphora. A youth with the discus. On the reverse is a paedotribe. A very beautiful vase in the Third style.— Vulci.35

p505 Amphora. Apollo with the lyre, crowned with laurel, and rapt in song. A beautiful vase, in the Third style, from Vulci.36

Amphora. Hercules and Apollo contending for the tripod. Minerva endeavours to part them. On the reverse are dances to the music of the lyre and double-pipes. Third style.— Cervetri.37

Amphora. "Ekabe" (Hecuba) presents a goblet to her son, "the brave Hector" — ΚΑΛΟΣ ΕΚΤΩΡ — and regards him with such intense interest, that she spills the wine as she pours it out to him. The hoary-headed "Priamos" also stands by, leaning on his staff, looking mournfully at his son, as if presaging his fate. The reverse is very inferior to this beautiful scene. Third style.— Vulci.38

Amphora. Apollo, with his lyre in hand, endeavouring to avoid the blow which Cassandra aims at him with an axe. A beautiful vase in the third style.— Vulci.39

Amphora. A warrior departing to battle; and receiving a patera from a female. Third style.— Vulci.

Amphora. Neptune, with his trident, and bearing a rock on which are painted sundry reptiles and fishes, is overthrowing a warrior, supposed to be Polybotes. Third style.— Vulci.40

Amphora. On one side Achilles, with cuirass, but no helmet, stands, spear in hand; on the other, a maiden is filling a patera with wine, either to make a libation, or to offer it to the hero. A very beautiful vase in the best style, from Vulci.41

The large amphora in the recess is from Magna Graecia, and both in form and style of art is very different from those of Etruria.

p506 Stamnos. The gods in council. Jupiter and Juno seated on thrones, sceptres in hand; Minerva, Mercury, and Neptune, with their respective attributes; and another pair, either Vulcan and Venus, or Pluto and Proserpine. Third style.— Vulci.42

Stamnos. "Zeus" seizing "Aegina," in the midst of her sisters; who, on the other side of the vase, are seen informing their father "Asopos," of his daughter's abduction. Third style.— Vulci.43

Stamnos. Hippolyta on horseback and in close mail, contending with Theseus, aided by Pirithous. Third style.— Vulci.44

Amphora, Hercules, bearing the boar of Erymanthus on his shoulder, is bringing him to Eurystheus, who, terrified at the huge monster, tries to hide himself in a well. Second style.— Vulci.45 Humour seems hardly consistent with so much severity of style.

At the end of this gallery is a pelice, with a warrior receiving a goblet from a winged Victory. But the most remarkable thing about the vase is that it was broken of old, and riveted together with brass wire, just as it is now seen, before it was placed in the tomb. Third style.— Vulci.46

On the side of the gallery towards the windows are several vases.

Stamnos. A Trojan youth on horseback, probably Troilus, has been surprised at a fountain by Achilles, and gallops off, followed by his swift-footed foe. A maiden alarmed is dropping her pitcher. Third style.— Vulci.47

Stamnos. The winged "Heos" driving her four-horse chariot. Third style.— Vulci.48

p507 Celebe. Combat of Greeks and Amazons. Third style.— Vatican Library.

Celebe. A Faun treading grapes in a wine-press. Bacchus with a thyrsus, another Faun, and two Maenades are looking on. Third style — Vulci. This vase was broken in the foot, and restored by the ancients.49

Stamnos. Hercules pursuing a woman. Third style. This vase has also been restored, and in a singular manner; for a piece of the female figure having been broken away has been supplied with a fragment of a banqueting-scene, in a totally different style; showing that the restoration was made for the sake of utility rather than beauty.

Besides the vases already described there are many others in these three rooms, whose position I cannot remember, seeing that no note is allowed to be taken by visitors. Among them are many Bacchic subjects. The bearded god, standing with wine-horn, cyathus, or cantharus, and a vine-branch in his hand, is surrounded by Fauns and Maenades. These are generally amphorae, with black figures, in the Second style, and from Vulci.

The labours and deeds of Hercules are often represented, particularly his struggle with the Nemean lion. He is also seen bearing the Erymanthian boar — p508overcoming the Centaurs — slaying Cacus — vanquishing the Amazons — wrestling with Nereus — striking down the triple-bodied Geryon — fetching Cerberus from hell — contending with Apollo for the tripod — in company with the great gods of Olympus combating the giants — driving his chariot with his patron, the grey-eyed goddess — playing the lyre, between Bacchus and Minerva — rescuing Dejanira from the centaur Nessus.

The deeds of Theseus are also favourite subjects on these vases — he is contending with the Amazons, the Minotaur, the Centaurs — slaying the wild sow of Crommyon, or securing the bull of Marathon.

Palaestric exercises and games are also often represented — wrestling — boxing — racing. Hunting the hare on horseback, and in armour, is very peculiar. Youths with strigils at the bath. Warriors arming, or engaged in combat. Scenes from the Trojan War, especially the deeds of Achilles and Hector.

Among those which demand particular notice is an amphora, in the Second style, representing Jupiter about to give birth to Minerva; Neptune, Mercury, Mars, and Juno standing around him; Cervetri. A celebe, in very archaic style, representing a nuptial procession; the wedded pair drawn in a quadriga; also from Cervetri. An amphora, in the Second style, from the same site, with the combat of Hector, assisted by Aeneas, against Ajax; on the neck is a goddess between two lions. A pelice, with Diana offering a phiala or goblet to Apollo, is remarkable as having been found near Norcia in Sabina, on one of the loftiest peaks of the Apennines. And an amphora, with Hercules and Minerva at the gate of Hades, offers in its inscription a specimen of the unknown tongue, occasionally found on these vases.50 p509

Fourth Vase-Room.

This chamber contains cylices, or paterae, which are more rare than the upright vases, and not inferior in beauty; indeed, some of the most exquisite specimens of Etruscan ceramographic art are on vessels of this form. I shall only notice those with the most striking subjects, some of which are painted within, others outside the bowl. Most of them are from Vulci.

Oedipus solving the riddles of the Sphinx. The same in caricature — the Theban prince having a monstrous head, and a little crutch, like a hammer, in his hand; the "man-devouring monster" being reduced to the figure of a dog, monkey, or fox — for it is hard to determine which.51 Jason vomited by the dragon; Minerva catching him as he falls.52 The Rape of Proserpine; the King of Shades bearing her to his realms below: her ornaments are in relief — a rare feature in these vases.53 Pelias being led to the cauldron, where the treacherous Medea stands ready to sacrifice him.54 Theseus binding the bull of Marathon.55 A sick warrior on a couch, his head supported by his wife: the contrasted pain and sympathy are admirably expressed.56 A banquet of bearded men, one playing the lyre; and another of men and youths.57 Groups of athletae preparing for the arena — one of the most beautiful vases in this room, rivalled, however, by the next, which shows naked youths at the bath, with strigils in their hands.58 Several specimens of the curious goblets, painted with large eyes. Between each pair are generally some small p510figures, such as Hercules slaying Cycnus — a mounted warrior galloping — Mercury and Bacchus — warriors — trumpeters — heads of Minerva, Mercury, and Hercules, three together in profile; but the most common subjects are Bacchic.

On the shelves towards the windows are more of these cylices:— Ajax bearing the dead body of Achilles.59 Prometheus bound to a Doric column, with the vulture at his liver, talking to Atlas with the world on his shoulders.60 Warriors shaking hands. Trumpeters with long straight horns. Combats of Greeks and Trojans. The exploit of the infant Mercury as a cattle-lifter.

"The babe was born at the first peep of day;
He began playing on the lyre at noon,
And the same evening did he steal away
Apollo's herd."

The god of light is seeking for his cattle in the cave of Cyllene; Maia stands by her new-born son, who, in his cradle, lies hid in a corner among the herd.61 Hercules, seated in the bowl he had received from Apollo, is crossing the waves; outside the vase is the Death of Hector.62 Midas, with ass's ears, seated on his throne, and his servant standing before him with one of the tell-tale reeds which whispered the secret to the world.63 Triptolemus on his winged car, drawn by serpents.64

Some of the smaller goblets are not painted externally, but have the maker's name inscribed; and on not a few is the salutation ΧΑΙΡΕ ΚΑΙ ΠΙΕΙ — "Hail, and drink!" Another inscription, often seen on these goblets, Ο ΠΑΙΣ ΚΑΛΟΣ, p511shows that the vase was a present of affection to some "beautiful youth." A few, however, bear inscriptions in a language utterly unintelligible, or rather in no language at all; for the epigraphs are composed either of letters put together at random, or of mere shapeless dots, grouped in imitation of words.

The glass cabinet in this room contains a number of curious articles in pottery — rhyta, and other fantastic vases, in the forms of human beings or heads, and of various beasts and birds; as well as some black ware of high antiquity.65 Two beautiful phialae, or drinking-bowls, of black ware, with figures in relief, not painted, are rather Roman than Etruscan.

Here are also a few painted vases of ordinary forms. One, an olpe, bears a scene from the Etruscan cockpit — the literal, not the naval site so designated.66 Another beautiful olpe shows a Persian monarch receiving an amphora from his queen.67 A third vase of the same form displays "Meneleos" rushing, sword in hand, to take vengeance on his faithless spouse. "Elene," with dishevelled hair, flies for refuge to the Palladium; but little would Minerva avail her; and her own peculiar patroness, the laughter-loving "Aphrodite," interposes, stepping between the son of Atreus and his vengeance. He, evidently startled at the apparition, lets his sword drop, and confesses the power of Love, who hovers over him with a chaplet, while soft Persuasion ("Peitho") stands behind him. The moral may be bad, but the design is excellent; in truth, this is one of the most beautiful and best preserved vases in the Museum. Third style.— Vulci.68 On a calpis, in the same style, Hercules is seen reclining p512on a couch of masonry, and wakes to find the fauns have stolen his weapons.— Vatican Library.69

Room of the Bronzes and Jewellery.

This is a most interesting chamber, containing a great variety of articles in metal from the tombs of Etruria.

One of the first objects that strikes you on entering is a couch of bronze, with a raised place for the head, and the bottom formed of a lattice-work of thin bars. Though probably just such a couch as the early inhabitants of Italy were wont to use, it served as a bier, for it was found in the Regulini-Galassi tomb at Cervetri, and doubtless once bore a corpse.70

Around it stand four or five tripods, each supporting a huge cauldron of bronze, with reliefs, and several handles in the shape of dragons' heads, turned inwards to the bowl. These were all found in the same tomb71 — indeed, the most interesting articles in this chamber come from that celebrated sepulchre.

Six large circular shields, three feet in diameter, embossed with reliefs — like the round bucklers of the heroic age, the ἀσπίδες εὐκύκλοι of Homer; four smaller ones, about half the size, decorated with a sort of shell in the midst of three panthers; and twelve disks, too small to have served any purpose but ornament — now hang round the walls of this chamber, and were found in the same tomb, where the smaller ones were suspended from the walls and ceiling.72

Observe on one of the shelves beneath the shields, a p513singular instrument on wheels, having a deep bowl in the centre, just like a modern dripping-pan, but decorated with reliefs of rampant lions. It was an incense-burner, and stood by the side of the bier in the Regulini sepulchre.73 All these articles, be it remembered, are to be regarded rather as Pelasgic than Etruscan.

On the walls hang a number of small disks, some with the head of the horned Bacchus, others with that of a lion, in the centre. They were found in a tomb at Tarquinii, and are supposed to have adorned the coffers of the ceiling.74

Among the shields is one found at Bomarzo, still retaining, it is said, its lining of wood, and braces of leather; but you are not able to inspect it closely.75

On the walls also hang many other articles of armour, defensive and offensive — helmets, cuirasses, greaves, shield-braces, spears, javelins, arrow-heads, battle-axes. Among them may be observed a long curved trumpet, or lituus, the only specimen of that instrument I remember th seen; though it was peculiarly Etruscan.76 Most of this armour is from Vulci.

Among these weapons are half a dozen more peaceful instruments — fans, or the handles of fans, with holes for threads or wire to tie in feathers, or leaves. Here, too, is a hand of bronze, studded with gold nails — either a gauntlet, or a mere votive offering, almost too attenuated for the former; the palm seems to have been of leather.

p514 On the shelf beneath the armoury are numerous candelabra, of elegant form and fanciful conception, where all kinds of animal life are pressed into service of the toreutic artists. Two specimens of this beautiful sepulchral furniture are given in the annexed cuts.77

p515 Near the bier is a votive statue of a boy, with a bulla round his neck. He has lost the left arm, but on the shoulder are the remains of an Etruscan inscription in four lines. This statue was found at Tarquinii, and is supposed to represent Tages, the mysterious boy-god, who sprung from the furrows of that site.78 A similar boy, with a bulla around his neck, a bird in his hand, and an inscription on his right leg, has been recently brought from Perugia.79

At this end of the room stands a bronze statue of a warrior, commonly called Mars, rather less than life, found at Todi in 1834. On the fringe of his cuirass is an inscription in Etruscan characters, but perhaps in the Umbrian language.80


[image ALT: The bronze head of an ancient warrior, with inlaid eyes of ivory or bone. It is the head of the Todi Mars, a famous Etruscan statue in the Vatican Museums.]

Near this stand two tripods; one very striking, terminating below in lions' paws, resting on frogs, and decorated above with groups of fauns, and panthers devouring stags, alternating with human figures, in one case Hercules and Iolaus.81

At this end of the room is a beautiful cista, or casket, of oval form, about eighteen inches long. The handle is composed of two swans, bearing a boy and girl respectively, who clasp the bird's neck. The casket is decorated with reliefs p516— borders of flowers, and elegant Greek patterns, and the combat of Achilles and his followers with Penthesilea and her Amazons. The beauty and spirit of these figures recall the Phigaleian marbles. The scene is repeated three times round the body of the casket. On the lid are four heads amid flowers. Within it were found a mirror, two broken combs of bone, two hair-pins, an ear-pick, and two small glass vessels containing rouge. These caskets are very rare, not more than two or three dozen having been discovered in Italy. They are found principally in stone sarcophagi at Palestrina, the ancient Praeneste, in Latium; but this one from a tomb at Vulci does not yield in beauty to any yet known, and is only rivalled by that in the Jesuits' Museum at Rome.82

There are a few other ciste,º but of inferior beauty. One, also from Vulci, has a handle formed of two sea-horses; and winged Scyllas or mermaids at the setting on of the feet.83 Another has its handle formed of two youths wrestling, and its reliefs are of a palaestric character — men boxing with the cestus, or being anointed for the contest. On the lid are marine monsters. In this were found three unguent-pots, two of alabaster, one of wood, together with a broken strigil.84

On stands about the room are several braziers or censers, about two feet in diameter, resting on lions' legs. On them still lie the curious tongs, shovel, and poker, p517or rather rake, found with them. The tongs are on wheels, and terminate in serpents' heads; the shovel's handle ends in a swan's neck; and the rake in a human hand, as shown in the annexed woodcut. These are from Vulci, but such are found also on many Etruscan sites.85

At one end of the room is a war-chariot — a biga, not of Etruscan antiquity, but Roman, found many years since at Roma Vecchia, in the Campagna, six miles on the Appian Way. The body alone is ancient — the pole and wheels are restored, with the exception of the bronze ornaments.86 By its side is a colossal arm of bronze, also Roman, of the time of Trajan, and of great beauty; and the tail of a huge dolphin — both found in the sea at Civita Vecchia.

On the shelves, and in the glass-cases in the corners of the room are numerous articles in great variety. Creagrae, or grappling-irons, with six or eight prongs, of formidable appearance, and mysterious meaning, but probably culinary or sacrificial instruments, for taking up and turning over flesh. One with no prongs, but similar branches of metal terminating in serpents' heads, shows that they may sometimes have served other purposes.87 Handles of cauldrons, or, it may be, of wooden furniture, of elegant and fanciful forms and rich decorations, often with figures in relief.88 Strigils — hair-pins, ending in the heads of rams or dogs, a p518human hand, a lotus-flower, an acorn — styli, or writing implements — ladles of various forms — culenders or strainers — cups — cauldrons — pails — vases in great variety, some of uncouth, clumsy forms, composed of plates hammered into shape, and nailed together, the earliest mode of Etruscan toreutics; others more elegant, yet still fantastic — human, and other animal forms, being tortured to the service of the artist.89 A specimen of this is shown in the annexed wood-cut of a jug, in the form of a female head, with an acanthus-leaf at the back; and others are in the form of bulls, and pigs, which do duty as hand-irons.

Among the bronze figures, two are particularly worthy of notice. One is a small statue of Minerva, with an owl on the back of her hand, and with vestiges of wings on her shoulders, from Orte.90 The other is an Etruscan aruspex, in a woollen tutulus, or high peaked cap, close tunic without sleeves, and a loose pallium with broad border, fastened on the breast with a fibula. His feet and arms are bare. On his left thigh is an Etruscan inscription. p519This is very curious, as exhibiting the peculiar costume of the Etruscan aruspex. It was found in a tomb by the banks of the Tiber.91

Certain articles on the walls still remain to be described. Plates of bronze with reliefs, the decorations, probably, of long perished furniture. A vase, like the powder-flask embossed, with moveable handle, is remarkable for the site of its discovery — Cosa.92 Paterae with handles, sometimes of human forms, as where a female holds a mirror in one hand, while combing her hair with the other; or where a Juno, half-draped, supports the bowl with her upraised wings.93

Those whose patience is equal to their curiosity, will find abundant interest in the specula, or mirrors, which hang on the walls; but as the figures were at first only lightly graven on them, and as the bronze is often much corroded, it is not always easy to distinguish the subject, or even the outlines, of the decorations. Some, it will be observed, retain traces of gilding. It must be remembered that it was not the concave side, on which the figures are drawn, but the convex that was used as a mirror. Among the most remarkable are:—

One with figures in relief — Aurora winged, carrying the body of her son Memnon. She might well be taken for the Virgin bearing the dead Saviour; she has even a p520halo round her head to increase the resemblance.— From Vulci.94 These relieved mirrors are of great rarity.

"Chalcas," so called in Etruscan characters, is standing at an altar, inspecting the entrails of the victim.— Vulci.95

"Tinia," the Etruscan Jove, grasping two sorts of thunderbolts, is embraced by "Thethis" (Thetis), and "Thesan" (Aurora), both winged, as usual with Etruscan divinities, each beseeching him in favour of her son in the coming combat. "Menrva" (Minerva) stands by, and appears to remind him that Memnon is doomed by fate. In a bad and careless style of art.96

"Pele" (Peleus) and "Atlnta" (Atalanta), in the wrestling-match. He is naked, but she has a cloth round her loins; in better style than the last.— Vulci.97

Hercules, here called "Calanice," from his "glorious victory," holds the apples he has just taken from "Aril" (Atlas), who bears the celestial globe on his shoulders. In still better style.— Vulci.98

"Nethuns" (Neptune), "Usil" (Phoebus), and "Thesan" (Aurora). In a good style of art. This mirror is very bright, and might still almost serve its original purpose.— Vulci or Toscanella.99

"Turms Atias," or the infernal Mercury, supporting a p521soul, called "Hinthial (or Phinthial) Terasias," or Tiresias. A figure sitting by with drawn sword is called "Uthuie."— Vulci.100

"Apul" (Apollo), "Menrva" (Minerva), "Turan" (Venus) and "Laran" in conversation before an Ionic temple. Very bad style.— Orte.101

"Tinia," "Thurms," and "Thalna," or Jupiter, Mercury, and Juno.— Vulci.102

"Hercle" crowned by a winged fate-goddess, called "Mean." "Vilae" (Iolaus) sits by. In better style than some of the foregoing.— Vulci.103

The head of a girl on one of these mirrors is a very unusual subject — Vulci.104

Jove on his throne, with his sceptre in his hand. Mercury, with the infant Bacchus, is dancing before him.— Orte.105

Aurora in her quadriga drawn by winged horses. The grace in the female is contrasted with the spirit of the steeds.— Vulci.106

Apollo in the midst of three Muses, one of whom is "Euturpa,"º and a faun called "Eris." In the careless Etruscan style.— Bomarzo.107

The meeting of Peleus and Thetis. Phoebus behind, rising from the sea. A male genius and some female figures looking on. In a good style of art, and in excellent preservation. This mirror is gilt.— Vulci.108

p522 The cases by the windows contain some curious relics. Coins — weights — small bulls and other figures in bronze, probably votive offerings — locks — handles to furniture — belt-clasps — iron daggers — chain-bits, jointed — articles in bone carved with reliefs. Here are numerous small rude idols or lares of black earthenware, found around the bier in the Regulini-Galassi tomb at Cervetri. Their exceeding rudeness and shapelessness proclaim their high antiquity. In truth they must be considered Pelasgic rather than Etruscan.109 Here is also the curious bottle, with a Pelasgic alphabet and spelling-lesson scratched on it, described in a previous chapter;110 and another conical pot with a hexameter couplet painted on it, in the same mysterious language.111 Both are from the tombs of Cervetri.

But the articles which perhaps will excite most general interest are a pair of clogs — yes, a pair of Etruscan clogs, jointed, which, though not of the form most approved in our days, doubtless stood some Etruscan fair in good stead. They are formed of cases of bronze, filled with wood, which, in spite of its great antiquity, is still preserved within them. Thus they must have combined strength with lightness; and if clogs be a test of civilisation, the Italians of two thousand years since were considerably in advance of "the leading nation of Europe" in the p523nineteenth century, whose peasantry clatters along in wooden sabots. These clogs were found in a tomb at Vulci; and they are not the sole specimens of such articles from Etruscan sepulchres.112

After all, the chief glory of this room, if not of the Museum, is the revolving cabinet in the centre. What food for astonishment and admiration! Here is a jeweller's shop — all glittering with precious metals and stones, with articles in great variety —

"Infinite riches in a little room!"

and, save the silver is dimmed and tarnished, it is just such a stock in trade as an Etruscan Rundell might have displayed three thousand years since! Here the youth, the fop, the warrior, the senator, the priest, the belle, might all suit their taste for decoration — in truth, a modern fair one need not disdain to heighten her charms with these relics of a long past world.113 Can Egypt, Babylon, Greece, Rome, produce jewellery of such exquisite taste and workmanship, or even in so great abundance as Etruria?

Your astonishment is increased when you hear that the greater part of these articles were the produce of a single tomb — that celebrated by the name of Regulini-Galassi, at Cervetri; and should you have visited that gloomy old sepulchre, now containing nothing but slime and serpents, you find still more cause for wonderment at this cabinet.

p524 The most striking object is a large breastplate, embossed with twelve bands of figures — sphinxes, goats, pegasi, panthers, deer, and winged demons. From the very archaic character of the adornments it might have hung on the breast of Aaron himself.114 Next is a remarkable article, composed of two oval plates, united by two broad bands, all richly embossed, and stuck over with minute figures of ducks, and lions. It was for decorating the head; the larger plate was laid on the crown, and the rest hung down behind.115 Then there are very massive gold chains and necklaces — bracelets of broad gold plates, embossed to correspond with the head-dress and breastplate — earrings of great length and singular forms — numerous fibulae or brooches, in filagree work of extraordinary delicacy. All these things, together with many of the rings, and fragments of a gold garment, were found in a chamber of the remarkable Pelasgic tomb at Cervetri — most of them arranged so as to prove that when there deposited, they decorated a human body.116

The great variety of necklaces, brooches, rings for the ears and fingers, bullae, buttons, scarabaei in cornelian, and such-like "bravery," from Vulci and other sites in Etruria,117 would require an abler pen than mine, and more knowledge of such matters, to do it justice. The fair visitor will soon discover more excellencies than I can point out. But I must say a word on the remarkable collection of crowns or chaplets, which will excite universal admiration. They p525are all in imitation of garlands of leaves — oak, laurel, myrtle, or ivy; and so truthfully and delicately are they wrought, that in any other place you might take them for specimens of electrotype gilding on the natural articles. No ornament can have been more becoming than such chaplets as these; though, to tell the truth, it was not so often the brow of beauty as the battered helm of the triumphant warrior that they were meant to encircle. Most of them were found in the tombs of Vulci, but one comes from Ancona.118

In the same case are a number of silver cups, bowls and vases, nearly all from the wonderful tomb of Cervetri. Some are quite plain; others highly decorated with reliefs, in severely archaic style, of military processions on foot and in chariots; wild animals contending, or devouring their prey; a cow and a calf in a lotus-thicket; and a lion-hunt, where the beast standing on the body of one of his foes, is attacked by others on foot and horseback, while a vulture hovers over him in expectation of her prey. All these decorations are so purely Egyptian that they might be supposed importations from the banks of the Nile. Several of the plain cups have the inscription "Larthia," or "Mi Larthia" engraved on them in Etruscan letters.119

Chamber of Paintings.

In the passage leading to this room are several p526sepulchral monuments in stone, bearing Etruscan inscriptions. One is in the shape of a house or temple, with a moulded door, as on the tombs of Castel d'Asso. Another, a cippus, bears the name of "Spurina" in the native character; the name of the haruspex, be it remembered, who warned Caesar of the ides of March. On the wall hang some remarkable reliefs in bronze, found at Bomarzo, representing sacrifices, and the combat of the gods with the giants, in a very rude and primitive style of art.120

The large chamber beyond is hung with paintings, copies on canvass of those on the walls of the tombs of Tarquinii and Vulci, and duplicates of those in the British Museum. For descriptions I must refer the reader to previous chapters; I can only here point out, for his guidance, the order in which the paintings are arranged. Beginning from his right hand, on entering, they take the following order.

Camera del Morto, Tarquinii.121

Grotta delle Bighe, or Grotta Stackelberg, Tarquinii.122

Grotta Querciola, Tarquinii.123

Grotta delle Iscrizioni, Tarquinii.124

Grotta del Triclinio, or Grotta Marzi, Tarquinii.125

Grotta del Barone, or Grotta el Ministro, Tarquinii.126

The painted tomb at Vulci.127

All the paintings from Tarquinii are still to be seen on that site, though not in so perfect a state as they are here represented. But the tomb of Vulci is utterly destroyed.128

p527 Ranged round the room are sundry relics in stone or pottery — weightier matters of Etruscan art. A flat circular cippus, like a millstone, with a sepulchral inscription round its edge.129 An upright sarcophagus, like a round Ionic temple, and with an inscription on the architrave, which recalls the fair Tanaquil — "Eca Suthi Thanchvilus Masnial."130 The base to a statue, bearing a Latin inscription, of the date of 305 or 306 after Christ, found at Vulci, and interesting as determining the name of the city, whose cemetery has yielded such marvellous treasures.131 Two stelae of basalt, with Etruscan inscriptions. Many large tall jars, of red and brown ware, fluted, with reliefs in a very archaic style; from the tombs of Caere and Veii.132 Braziers of the same character, with rows of figures round the rim. The well-known vase of Triptolemus, presented to the Pope by Prince Poniatowski. A cinerary pot whose lid has the figure of a horse for a handle.

Chamber of the Tomb.

On the way out from the Bronze Room, you pass through a small chamber, where stands a tall and very singular vase of bronze, composed of two bell-shaped pots, p528united by two spheres, and covered with reliefs, in no less than eleven bands, of animals — lions, sphinxes, griffons, bulls, and horses — chiefly winged, in a very early and severe style of art. It was found in the Regulini-Galassi tomb, at Cervetri; and probably served as a fumigator.133

Here are also two lions in nenfro from Vulci, one on each side of a doorway. Enter, and you find yourself in a small dark chamber fitted up in imitation of an Etruscan tomb. It represents one of the most ordinary class of sepulchres, having three couches of rock standing out from the wall, on which the bodies of the deceased are supposed to have lain, surrounded by articles of pottery and bronze, which are also suspended from the walls of the chamber. This meagre copy of an Etruscan sepulchre may serve to excite, but ought not to satisfy the traveller's curiosity.


Museo Campana.

Little inferior to the Gregorian Museum in interest is the collection of Etruscan antiquities in the possession of the Cavaliere Campana, at the Monte di Pietà of Rome. In truth in some points the public collection cannot rival the private. To gain admission an introduction to the Cavaliere is requisite, and he will appoint a convenient day to display his treasures.

The first room you enter is a small cabinet, containing a great number and variety of terra-cotta figures — statuette, to borrow a words from the Italian — some of divinities, from the nine great gods of thunder down to the common herd of lares and manes; others, votive offerings, so p529common in Etruscan sepulchres. These, however, like everything in the Cavaliere's collection, are picked — Dii selecti, so to speak, though not all are the great rulers of the Etruscan Olympus. To dwell on them in detail would swell my page. Two are especially pointed out to the English visitor, as suggestive of his own adored Penates — The Duke, and his facetious rival, Punch.

Thence you pass into a double chamber, whose walls are lined with the exquisite relief in terra-cotta, which are now known to the world through the publications of the Cavaliere.134 As they are of Roman, or rather of Greek art, the fruit of excavations on the Appian Way, at Tusculum and other Cistiberine localities, "non ragioniam di loro." Do not, however, fail to notice the sly satire on the sex conveyed in certain scenes often repeated — Helen in a chariot borne off by Paris; and again brought back by Menelaus. In the former case "the faire Tyndarid lasse" acts a passive part, be leaves the reins to her lover; but in the latter she invariably takes them into her own hands, and suffers her liege lord to stand a cipher behind her.

Nè berza riscaldata,
Nè moglie ritornata, —

Neither are worth having, says the proverb. The son of Atreus, however, thought otherwise, or Troy would not have fallen.

In these rooms are some of the best specimens of Etruscan sepulchral statuary I have seen. Ladies, as large as life, reclining on their coffins, decked with a brave array of jewels, with garlands of flowers on their heads, and massive torques about their necks. One holds a wreath; another a bird, in her hand. There are coffins p530for the entire body, but there are also smaller urns for the ashes, with toga-wrapt figures on the lids, and the oft-told tales of the Theban Brothers, and Cadmus combating the teeth-sprung warriors, in the reliefs below.

The most beautiful specimens of Etruscan plastics in these rooms are the terra-cotta statues of women; one, whose dress is pronounced among the most faithful representations of Etruscan female costume extant;135 two others, of priestesses, with hands raised in the attitude of prayer; a female bust; a boy with an apple in his hand; and an infant swaddled, just in the modern Italian fashion, save that its feet are bare.136

In the middle of this room is a most singular fumigator of plain ware, about eighteen inches high, with four spouts or chimneys, set round with two heads of horses and four of Gorgons, which mark its sepulchral character. It has no bottom, and must have been placed over the burning incense, on the censer, or on the ground.137

In the same chamber are several focolari, or braziers, with reliefs of archaic figures; one still containing the charcoal found within it. Sundry large jars, with similar reliefs — the usual ware of Veii and Caere. And a number of earthenware heads from the same sites, painted in the Egyptian style, which formed antefixae to the ridges of tiles, or to the water-spouts on the eaves of houses. One of them shows the head of a negro.

The next room is that of the Vases, which are ranged around it on shelves, while one, a choice Vulcian crater, p531representing Triptolemus on his winged car, and Ceres by his side, stands on a pedestal in the centre. The collection is not large, but choice, as regards style, subject, and state of preservation. Most are of the third or Perfect Style, with red figures on a black ground; but there are a few in the very rare and early Doric style, like those from Corinth, and with inscriptions; from the tombs of Cervetri. One of the most beautiful in this collection represents the seduction of Danaë, and her committal to the waves with her infant Perseus, by order of her father Acrisius.138 One of the most singular is a crater which bears three figures "of infinite humour" — caricatures of Jupiter and Juno scolding Paris.

But the king of storied vases in this collection occupies the centre of a small ante-chamber. It is a large amphora, nearly four feet high, recording the myth of the Golden Fleece on one side, and the Death of Hector on the other. It comes from Ruvo in Apulia, and serves to show how the pottery of Magna Graecia differs in size, shape, and design, from that of Etruria. In the same chamber are rhyta, or drinking-horns of rare forms, with other curiosities in pottery; among which notice small amphorae with inscriptions in Greek characters, but in an unknown tongue; and a pair of jugs, one with the head of a man, the other with that of a female garlanded with flowers, just beneath the spout. They are supposed to have been nuptial presents.

An inner room contains an excellent assortment of Etruscan glass ware of variegated hues; besides sundry large cinerary pots covered with that prismatic coating which glass will acquire from long ages of interment.139 p532The latter are mostly Roman. In the same room are heads in terra-cotta; some, portraits of Etruscan females, show their characteristic features, and various fashions of head-dress; and there are two of Greek art, from Syracuse — one, crowned with a frontlet, an ideal beauty; the other, a Bacchante, breathing the very soul of voluptuousness.

The next two rooms contain the choicest treasures of the collection. In the glass cases are displayed "gems rich and rare," evidences at once of Etruscan skill and luxury — necklaces, chains, bracelets, rings for the fingers and ears, and such "bravery" as most delights the fair, in quantity enough to stock a jeweller's shop, and in workmanship far transcending the produce of British fingers; rivalling, say those knowing such matters, the filagree-work of Venice or Genoa, or even that of China and Trichinopoly. And in truth it is difficult to conceive of anything more delicate or elegant than many of these ornaments. Perhaps the most remarkable are the chaplets of pure gold in the form of leaves — oak, ivy, myrtle, or laurel — of which the Cavaliere possesses a choice assortment, chiefly from Vulci. There are three torques of gold, like those of the ancient Celts — of very rare occurrence. One chain with a number of pendent scarabaei, also from Vulci, transcends in richness everything of this sort I have seen.140 There are many other scarabaei, mostly set in rings, too numerous to specify. Laminae of gold, with reliefs in a good style of art — elegant frontlets, like semi-diadems of the same metal, also embossed with reliefs — and not a few circlets, which served as stands to delicate little vases of p533blue and variegated glass.141 But the most marvellous specimens of Etruscan skill in metallurgy, are perhaps shown in two circular brooches, a little head of the horned Bacchus, and an exquisite fibula, with an Etruscan inscription — all of wrought gold;142 the latter rivalled only by that imperial one in the possession of Thomas Blayds, Esq., of Englefield Green.

Here are some small vases, and other articles in silver; among them a strigil, unique in this metal.

In articles of gold and jewellery the Etruscan Museum of the Pontiff is even surpassed by this of his spirited subject.

Here are a few of the tall jars with reliefs, and several focolari, or braziers, in the black ware of Chiusi and its neighbourhood — the most ancient and genuine pottery of Etruria; together with specimens of the black jars of Veii, with figures scratched, instead of in relief.

The inner room contains the bronzes. In the centre stands an "ash-chest" of that metal, similar to those of stone, but not decorated with reliefs. The recumbent figure on the lid wears a loose torque of bronze. It is the only cinerary urn of metal yet brought to light. Within it was found, among the ashes of the deceased, one of the broad chaplets of gold which is displayed in the adjoining cabinet. This rare monument was recently discovered at Perugia.143

Here is a bier of bronze, composed of lattice-work — p534almost the counterpart of that from the great tomb of Caere, now in the Gregorian Museum. On it recline the helmet, cuirass, greaves, and sword of its quondam occupier. Hard by is a helmet with deep cheek-pieces, adorned with reliefs of wild-boars, once inlaid with silver; and the casque is encircled by three beautiful chaplets of pure gold, two of laurel leaves and one of ivy, fixed on with golden studs. You fancy this to be some elegant caprice of the Cavaliere, and are astonished to learn that the helmet was discovered in this state in a tomb at Vulci.144 Above it hangs one of the largest shields ever found, four feet in diameter, and richly embossed.145 It is one of a number of trophies — breastplates (one with a sword-thrust), helms, greaves, spears, and battle-axes, "all of the olden time," which adorn the room.

There are two beautiful tripods, one with the Labours of Hercules; and several elegant candelabra — one surmounted by an Etruscan warrior, brandishing his spear. The specula are not numerous, but there is one of extraordinary size, lustrous as if of polished steel, and having some figures in relief on the back. A winged Juno forms the handle. There are some bronze figurine, among which a little Typhon of approved ugliness, bearded, horned, and winged, with legs of "snaky twine," ending in serpents' heads; and a pair of demons on human legs, all from Orte — are the most remarkable.

Not the least charm of this collection is the exquisite taste displayed in its arrangement, and the rare courtesy with which the gallant owner does the honours.

p535 Besides these two Museums, there are also in Rome other smaller collections of Etruscan antiquities. The Kircherian Museum is rich in coins, together with bronzes and jewellery, and can boast a superlative cista of bronze, though this was not found in Etruria. Chevalier Kestner, the Hanoverian Minister, possesses many Etruscan treasures. The Signori Feoli have a fine collection of painted vases from their excavations at Vulci. Dr. Emil Braun, of the Architectural Institute, has also some vases of extraordinary beauty and remarkable character; and besides many choice relics of Etruscan art, boasts of the cabinet of Egyptian articles found in the Isis-tomb at Vulci, and formerly in the possession of the Prince of Canino.


The Author's Notes:

1 The appointed guardians of these treasures enter fully into the narrow spirit of their employers, and do not distinguish between a clodhopper and a scientific investigator of antiquities. Matters have somewhat improved, however, since the accession of Pius IX.

2 The position of two of these figures, stretched on their backs, with one hand behind their heads, and one leg bent beneath the other, is peculiar; it is not the attitude of the banquet, but that of slumber, or, it may be, of the satisfied repose after the feast. For illustrations see the work entitled Museo Gregoriano, I. tav. XCII.

3 See Vol. I. p57 For an illustration, see Micali, Mon. Ined. tav. XLVIII.5.

4 Museo Gregoriano, I. tav. XCV. I.

5 For these urns see Mus. Gregor. I. tav. XCIII‑XCV.

6 It can hardly represent the sacrifice of Iphigenia; or that of Polyxena at the tomb of Achilles, as has been imagined.

7 For an illustration see Mus. Gregor. I. tav. XCVI.

8 The above wood-cut shows a section of one of the large jars, containing one of the hut-urns, and a variety of vessels of the same material around it. The urns, however, are not always so found, but separate, with fragments of pipe around them. Some are marked with curious figures in ridge, which used to be supposed Oscan characters, but it is evident that they are merely rude decorations.

9 These remarkable urns were found in 1817, first by Signor Carlo Tomassetti, at Montecucco, near Marino, close to the road to Castel Gandolfo; then more were found by Signor Giuseppe Carnevali; and again, a party of literati discovered some lying beneath a stratum of peperino, about 18 inches thick. If their conclusion be correct that this peperino was ejected by the volcano, whose extinct crater is now occupied by the Alban Lake, after the monuments were deposited in the places where they were found, these must indeed be of (p496)untold antiquity. As far back as history extends, the crater has been extinct and filled with the waters of the lake. During the siege of Veii, about four hundred years before Christ, the lake overflowed, and gave occasion for the cutting of the Emissary. See Vol. I. p31. Many centuries previous, if we may believe tradition, Alba Longa was built on the ridge surrounding the lake (Dion. Hal. I p53), so that the volcano must have been extinct at least twelve hundred years before the Christian era, possibly even many ages earlier. It must be admitted, however, that it is more probable that these sepulchral relics were placed beneath the volcanic stratum for greater security, especially seeing that they were found near the edge. Yet though not antediluvian, as was at first conjectured, there can be no doubt of their very remote antiquity. All analogy proves this. As the Etruscan and Roman sepulchral monuments were often imitations of temples or houses, these, which have a much ruder structure as their type, the shepherd's hut of skins, show a far more primitive origin; and the style of art and the workmanship confirm this view and mark them as among the most ancient relics in Europe, yielding to nothing from the tombs of Etruria. The ashes they contain are probably those of the inhabitants of Alba Longa. The learned, however, are not yet agreed as to their antiquity; for while one party maintains them to be antediluvian, another thinks, from their resemblance to Alpine huts, that they must have been formed by some of the Swiss soldiers in the Pope's service! Such an opinion I once heard broached at a meeting of savans. Bull. Inst. 1846, p95.

A detailed account of these discoveries has been published by Dr. Alessandro Visconti, in his "Lettera al Signor Giuseppe Carnevali d' Albano sopra alcuni vasi sepolcrali rinvenuti nella vicinanza dell' antica Alba Longa, Roma, 1817," — a strange farrago of facts, quotations, fancies, fallacies, and leaps at conclusions. For illustrations, see Visconti's work, and Inghirami, Mon. Etrus. VI. tav. C 4, D 4.

10 There is a similar figure in marble, in the Galleria Lapidaria of the Vatican.

11 Museo Gregoriano, I. tav XCIII.1. Abeken takes it to represent Meleager. Mittelitalien, p367.

12 It may be well here to repeat the names of the principal sorts of ancient vases, classifying them according to the purposes they served:—

Vases for holding wine or oil — amphora, pelice, stamnos.

Vases for water, always with three handles — hydria, calpis.

Vases for mixing wine at the banquet — crater, celebe, oxybaphon.

Vases for pouring — oenochoë, olpe, lecythus, prochus.

Vases for drinking — cantharus, cyathus, cylix, phiala, scyphos, holkion, ceras, rhyton.

There are many more varieties, which need not be stated here. And the alabastra, or unguent-vases, I have not thought it necessary to specify. The forms of all have been shown in the Introduction, to which I must also refer the reader for the difference of styles.

13 Mus. Gregor. II. tav. XXVI.

14 Scut. Herc. 168.

15 Mus. Gregor. II. tav. XC.

16 Mus. Gregor. II. tav. XV.2.

17 Where the names are given in capital letters, it is to be understood that so they are written in Greek characters on the monument.

18 This subject is not uncommon. (p500)Specimens of it, but of very inferior design and execution, are to be seen in the Museo Borbonico at Naples, in the British Museum, and in other large collections of Etruscan vases.

19 Illustrated in the Mon. Ined. Inst. II. tav. XXII. Mus. Gregor. II. tav. LIII. Ann. Inst. 1835, p228 — Panofka.

20 Mus. Gregor. II. tav. L.2.

21 Mus. Gregor. II. tav. XII.2.

22 Micali, Ant. Pop. Ital. III p147, tav. XCIV. Mon. Ined. Inst. I. tav XLVI. Mus. Gregor. II. tav. XV. i.

23 Mus. Gregor. II. tav. XII.1.

24 Mus. Gregor. II. tav. IX.2.

25 Mon. Ined. Inst. II. tav. XLIV; Mus. Gregor. II. tav. LXI.1.

26 Some see in this scene Jupiter and Ganymede, and certainly the old man's wand is more like a sceptre than a schoolmaster's rod. Mus. Gregor. II. tav. XIV.2.

27 Mon. Ined. Inst. II. tav. XXXVIIII; Mus. Gregor. II. tav. XVII.2; Ann. Inst. 1836, pp306‑310, Abeken.

28 Mus. Gregor. II. tav. XLIX.2.

29 Mus. Gregor. II. tav. XIII.2.

30 Mus. Gregor. II. tav. XIV.1.

31 Mus. Gregor. II. tav. X.2.

32 Mus. Gregor. II. tav. XVI.1.

33 Mus. Gregor. II. tav. LIV.2.

34 Mus. Gregor. II. tav. XLII. XLIII.

35 Mus. Gregor. II. tav. LVIII.1.

36 Mus. Gregor. II. tav. LIX.2.

37 Mus. Gregor. II. tav. LIV.1.

38 Mus. Gregor. II. tav. LX.2.

39 Mus. Gregor. II. tav. LX.1. Some interpret this scene as Orpheus and a Bacchante.

40 Mus. Gregor. II. tav. LVI.1.

41 Mus. Gregor. II. tav. LVIII.3.

42 Mus. Gregor. II. tav. XXI.1.

43 Mus. Gregor. II. tav. XX.1.

44 Mus. Gregor. II. tav. XX.2.

45 Mus. Gregor. II. tav. LI.2.

46 Mus. Gregor. II. tav. LXIII.2.

47 Mus. Gregor. II. tav. XXII.1.

48 Mus. Gregor. II. tav. XVIII.2.

49 Mus. Gregor. II. tav. XXIV.1.

50 Mus. Gregor. II. tav. LII.2.

51 These two vases are illustrated in Mus. Gregor. II. tav. LXXX.

52 Mon. Ined. Inst. II. tav. XXXV. Mus. Gregor. II. tav. LXXXVI.1.

53 Mus. Gregor. II. tav. LXXXIII.2. But more common on those of Magna Graecia.

54 Mus. Gregor. II. tav. LXXXII.1.

55 Mus. Gregor. II. tav. LXXXII.2.

56 Mus. Gregor. II. tav. LXXXI.1.

57 Mus. Gregor. II. tav. LXXIX.1; LXXXXI.1.

58 Mus. Gregor. II. tav. LXXXVII.

59 Mus. Gregor. II. tav. LXVII.2.

60 This is a burlesque. Mus. Gregor. II. tav. LXVII.3.

61 Mus. Gregor. II. tav. LXXXIII.1.

62 Mus. Gregor. II. tav. LXXIV.1.

63 It is so called in the exposition to Mus. Gregor. II. tav. LXXII; and so Dr. Braun interprets it (Ann. Inst. 1844, p211 tav. d'Agg. D); but it is more like one of the crooks, represented in the hands of peasants.

64 Mus. Gregor. II. tav. LXXVI.

65 Mus. Gregor. II. tav. XCIII. XCVI‑XCVIII.

66 Mus. Gregor. II. tav. V.1.

67 Mus. Gregor. II. tav. IV.2.

68 Mus. Gregor. II. tav. V.2.

69 Mus. Gregor. II. tav. XIII.1.

70 See Vol. II p48 It is about 6 feet long, 2 ft. 3 in. wide, and about 1 foot high, standing on six legs. It was ornamented with embossed reliefs of men, lions, sphinxes, dogs, and flowers. Mus. Gregor. II. tav. XVI.8, 8; XVII.

71 Mus. Gregor. II. tav. XV.1, XVI.1‑3.

72 Mus. Gregor. II. tav. XVIII‑XX.

73 Mus. Gregor. II. tav. XV.5, 6.

74 See Vol. I p357; and the woodcut at p358.

75 See Vol. I p224.

76 A plate of this trumpet is given above, at page 380. For the armour see Mus. Gregor. II. tav. XXI.

77 See also the woodcut at page 204. These candelabra vary from 10 inches to 5 feet in height, but the average is between 3 and 4 feet. They invariably stand on three legs, either of men, lions, horses, stags, dogs or birds. In one case, as shown in the cut, the tripod is formed by the bodies of three human figures. The shafts generally rise directly from the base, and are often fluted, or twisted, or knotted like the stem of a tree, but a figure sometimes intervenes as in the above cut. It was a favourite conceit to introduce a cat or squirrel chasing a bird up the shaft, and the bowl above has often little birds (p515)around it, as though it were a nest, so that the whole is then intended to represent a tree. Sometimes a boy or monkey is climbing the shaft, or a snake is coiling round it. It often terminates above, not in a bowl but in a number of branches from which lamps were suspended, and in the midst of them is a figure of a deity or winged genius, of a faun, a subulo playing his double-pipes, a dancer with castanets (see the cut at page 204), or, it may be, of a warrior on foot or horseback. One of these candelabra bears an Etruscan inscription. Most of them are from Vulci, but they are found also on every other Etruscan site. Mus. Greg. I. tav. XLVIII‑LV.

78 Lanzi, Sagg. II. tav XI.5; Micali, Ant. Pop. Ital. III p64, tav. XLIV; Mus. Greg. I. tav. XLIIII.4.

79 Mus. Gregor. I. tav. XLIII.5.

80 This statue was found among the ruins of a temple at Todi, the ancient Tuder. The helmet is a restoration. The eyes were supplied with stones, as their sockets are hollow.

Thayer's Note: I have not seen a picture of the Todi Mars with his 19c helmet, but the restorers' addition was doubtless unwarranted, and as you see in the photos above, it has been removed. It has now come to be a solid principle of modern restoration that whatever we add in our times should be added in such a way as to be easily removable by future restorers: for one thing, it very occasionally happens that we eventually find the missing original piece.

81 Mus. Gregor. I. tav. LVI.

82 Mus. Gregor. I. tav. XL‑XLII. Illustrations of this and all the most beautiful of such caskets are given by Professor Gerhard in his Etruskische Spiegel. Whether from the doubt attaching to their purpose, or owing to the idea that they contained the paraphernalia of sacrifices, they have received from the Italians the name of "ciste mistiche." It is, however, clear from the character of their contents, that the only mysteries attending them were those of the female bath and toilet. There is one of these caskets in the British Museum, bearing the subject of the siege of Polyxena.

83 Mus. Gregor. I. tav. XXXVII.4.

84 Mus. Gregor. I. tav. XXXVII.1.

85 Mus. Gregor. I. tav. XIV.

86 Inghirami, Mon. Etrus. VI. tav. U 5.

87 See the illustrations at page 435 of Vol. I, and Mus. Gregor. I. tav. XLVII.

88 The illustrations given in the Mus. Gregor. I. tav. LVIII‑LX, show the great taste and elegant fancy of the Etruscans in this branch of art.

89 Mus. Gregor. I. tav. I‑IX.

90 This is a representation, said to be unique in metal. Gerhard takes it to represent Minerva in her character of Fortuna, or the Etruscan Nortia. Gottheit. d. Etrusk. p61. taf. IV.1; cf. Mus. Gregor. I. tav. XLIII.1.

91 Mus. Gregor. I. tav. XLIII.2. This figure is illustrated by some of the ancient coins of Etruria, which bear on the obverse the head of an aruspex, in a precisely similar cap and on the reverse an axe, a sacrificial knife, and two crescents, said to mark its value as a semis. Marchi and Tessieri, Aes Grave, cl. III. tav. 2. These coins have been referred to Faesulae, the city where there was a college of Etruscan augurs, but Melchiorri (Bull. Inst. 1839, p122) would rather attribute them to Luna, on account of the crescent stamp.

92 Mus. Gregor. I. tav. X.

93 The female combing her hair is copied on the cover of this work; the patera she supports has been exchanged for a speculum, or mirror. Mus. Gregor. I. tav. XII. XIII.

94 This is usually styled Aurora and Cephalus, but Dr. Braun with more probability takes the corpse for that of Memnon. Mon. Ined. Inst. III. tav. XXIII; Mus. Gregor. I. tav. XXXVI.1; Abeken, Mittelitalien, taf. VII.

95 Gerhard, Etrusk. Spieg. taf. CCXXIII; Mus. Gregor. I. tav. XXIX.1.

96 The scene is curious, but the art, as in many of these mirrors, is bad. Mus. Gregor. I. tav. XXXI.1.

97 Her cloth is marked with a wheel, supposed to be the sign of victory in the chariot-race. Mus. Gregor. I. tav. XXXV.1; Gerhard, Etrusk. Spieg. taf. CCXXIV.

98 Etrusk. Spieg. taf. CXXXVII; Mus. Gregor. I. tav. XXXVI.2.

99 It has been doubted if the name of Neptune be "Nethuns" or "Sethlns." Sethlns is the Etruscan name of Vulcan; but the figure on this mirror with a trident must be the god of the sea. Etrusk. Spieg. taf. LXXVI; Mon. Ined. Inst. II. tav. LX; Mus. Gregor. I. tav. XXIV.

100 Gerhard, Etrusk. Spieg. taf. CCXL; Gottheit. d. Etrusk. taf. VI.1 pp35, 36. Mus. Gregor. I. tav. XXXIII.1; Mon. Ined. Inst. II. tav. XXIX. The name of the sitting figure is by some read "Uthuse" (Odysseus).

101 Mus. Gregor. I. tav. XXVIII.1.

102 Etrusk. Spieg. taf. LXXV; Mus. Gregor. I. tav. XXIX.2.

103 Etrusk. Spieg. taf. CXLII; Mus. Gregor. I. tav. XXXII.2.

104 Mus. Gregor. I. tav. XXVI.1.

105 Mus. Gregor. I. tav. XXXIV.2.

106 Mus. Gregor. I. tav. XXXV.2.

107 Mon. Ined. Inst. II. tav. XXVIII; Mus. Gregor. I. tav. XXV.

108 Mus. Gregor. I. tav. XXIII.

109 Mus. Gregor. II. tav. CIII.

110 A facsimile of the inscription is given at p54. For the form of the pot see Mus. Gregor. II. tav. CIII.2.

111 Ut supra, p55. Mus. Gregor. II. tav. XCIX.7.

112 In fig. 1 is shown the upper part of the clog, with the wood in the two cases, and the hinge uniting them. Fig. 2 shows the metal bottom of the same clog, studded with nails. Micali gives illustrations of another pair of such clogs, found at Vulci. Mon. Ined. tav. XVII.9. They are now in the possession of Dr. Braun of Rome.

113 Mrs. Hamilton Gray states that "a few winters ago, the Princess of Canino appeared at some of the ambassador's fêtes in Rome, with a parure of Etruscan jewellery, which was the envy of the society, and excelled the chefs-d'oeuvres of Paris or Vienna," Sepulchres of Etruria, p272.

114 Mus. Gregor. I. tav. LXXXII. LXXXIII.

115 Mus. Gregor. I. tav. LXXXIV. LXXXV.

116 Ut supra, p50. Mus. Gregor. I. tav. LXVII. LXXV‑LXXVII.

117 Mus. Gregor. I. tav. LXVIII‑LXXIV. LXXVIII‑LXXXI. One of these fibulae has an Etruscan inscription. None of them in this Museum, though of admirable beauty, rival that inimitable one in the possession of Thomas Blayds, Esq., of Englefield Green, which was found at Vulci, and has been illustrated by Micali, Mon. Ined. tav. XXI; or that, with an inscription, in the possession of Cavalier Campana of Rome.

118 For illustrations of these beautiful wreaths see Mus. Gregor. I. tav. LXXXVI‑XCI. These are the "Coronae Etruscae" which the Romans borrowed from their neighbours, to decorate heroes in their triumphs. Plin. XXI.4; Plin. XXXIII.4; Appian. Reb. Punic. LXVI; Tertul. de Cor. Mil. XIII. Pliny says that Crassus was the first who imitated leaves in gold and silver, and bestowed such crowns on the victors in his games. But this must mean that Crassus was the first of the Romans, who was guilty of such extravagance; for Pliny speaks of these Etruscan chaplets of gold having been used in triumphs at an earlier period.

119 Mus. Gregor. I. tav. LXII‑LXVI.

120 Mus. Gregor. I. tav. XXXIX.4‑6.

121 Vol. I pp298‑302.

122 Vol. I pp324‑328.

123 Vol. I pp281‑288. Only a part of the scenes in this tomb is shown.

124 Vol. I pp338‑343.

125 Vol. I pp288‑298.

126 Vol. I pp329‑332.

127 Vol. I pp409, 428‑9.

128 These paintings are of the size of the original frescoes, and not incorrect in outline; but much too hard in the (p527)colouring. The inscriptions are often inaccurate, and sometimes omitted; and, on the other hand, certain parts which are now deficient in the originals, are here supplied, either from drawings made when the paintings were less decayed, or from the imagination of the copier. It must be remembered that each sheet of canvass represents separate wall of a tomb.

129 It is like that in Campanari's garden at Toscanella, shown in the woodcut at page 451 of Vol. I. Mus. Gregor. I. tav. CV.2.

130 The inscription here, however, seems from the termination to refer to a male; for the first part of it see Vol. I p242. Mus. Gregor. I tav. CV.3.

131 Mus. Gregor. I tav. CVI.2.

D N FLAVIO VALE
RIO SEVERO NO
BILISSIMO
CAESARI ORD
ET POPVLIS
VVLCENTIVS
D N M Q EI . . .

132 Mus. Gregor. II. tav. C.

133 See page 49. In form it is very like the pot represented at page 58, though without the props. Mus. Gregor. I. tav. XI.

134 Antiche Opere in Plastica, Roma, 1842.

135 Micali, Mon. Ined. p154, tav. XXVI.3.

136 There is a similar figure in the Gregorian Museum. The bodies of infants were not burnt by the ancients, before they had cut their teeth. — Hominem priusquam genito dente cremari mos gentium non est. Plin. VII.15; cf. Juven. Sat. XV.139.

137 A head of terra-cotta with four or five similar chimneys has been found at Ruvo, and probably served the same purpose as this. Ann. Inst. 1839, p223; Mon. Ined. Inst. III. tav. VIII.

138 Bull. Inst. 1845, pp214‑8.

139 Passeri thought this colouring was derived from the milk left in the vessels at the annual inferiae, and that those with a golden hue inside had been filled with balsam, and those still quite pellucid had held nothing but water. Acheront. p38, ap. Gori, Mus. Etrus. But (p532)many of these vessels are cinerary urns and probably contained nothing but the ashes of the dead.

140 A portion of this wonderful chain was purloined by one of the labourers employed in the excavations, and the Cavaliere purchased the article in a mutilated state; but the missing fragment also found its way into his hands, and the chain is now complete.

141 These glass vases are not peculiar to Etruria. They are found also in ancient tombs in the East, in Egypt, in Greece, and her colonies in Sicily and Italy. The estimation in which they were held is shown by these stands of gold; and it is probable they were of foreign manufacture, it may be Phoenician or Egyptian. See Strabo, XVI p758. In Etruria they are found principally at Vulci and Toscanella.

142 For an account of this fibula, and other jewellery of this collection, see Bull. Inst. 1846, pp3, et seq.

143 Micali, Mon. Ined. tav. XXI.1. p126.

144 One of the golden chaplets of myrtle-leaves, in the Gregorian Museum, was also found encircling a helmet in a tomb at Vulci. Bull. Inst. 1836, p169.

145 In the centre is a goddess holding two pegasi, each mounted by a naked boy.

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