Doctor Daniel Coxe, of London, well known as a large landed proprietor in the American colony, was born in 1640 or 1641, and died January 19, 1730, in his ninetieth year.1 He was the son of Daniel Coxe, of Stoke Newington, Gentleman, who was buried in the church in that town September 3, 1686. On May 12, 1671, Dr. Daniel Coxe married Rebecca, daughter of John Coldham, Esq., of Tooting Graveney, Alderman of London. The eldest son of this marriage was Colonel Daniel Coxe, of New Jersey, hereinafter mentioned. For many years Dr. Coxe resided in Aldersgate Street in London. In 1728 he resided in Hoxton. He never visited America. This fact is expressly stated by Oldmixon.2
Dr. Coxe became a doctor of medicine at Cambridge. His name appears on the books of the University as "M.D., per literas regias, 1669." He was one of the earliest scientific men to experiment upon animals with the nicotine of tobacco. On May 3, 1665, he read a paper upon that subject before the faculty of Gresham College.3 He was elected and admitted a member of the Royal Society in March, 1664‑5. Papers were published by him in the Philosophical Transactions of 1674, viz., A Discourse on Alcalizates and Fixed Salts, A Way of extracting Volatile Salt and Spirit out of Vegetables, and The Improvement of Cornwall by Sea Sand. He possessed a chemical laboratory, and describes one of his experiments in which some very picturesque effects were produced by crystallization. Dr. Coxe was one the physicians of King p318Charles the Second, and also physician to Queen Anne. He was admitted an Honorary Fellow of the Royal College of Physicians of London, September 30, 1680. In 1677, A Short Account of the Kingdoms around the Euxine and Caspian Seas was printed in London, written by an anonymous writer.4 Bliss, the editor of Anthony à Wood, states that the preface to this work was written by Dr. Daniel Coxe, who, he says, was a "physician of eminence, a man of learning, and an author." In the Sloane Collection of Manuscripts in the British Museum there is a note written by Dr. Coxe to Sir Hans Sloane in which he asks the loan of "the four volumes of the seventh and eighth Decades of Herrera, and the Description and Conquest of the Nuevo Regno de Granada."
Between 1692 and 1698 Dr. Daniel Coxe purchased the patent of the province of Carolana, originally granted by Charles the First to his Attorney-General, Sir Robert Heath. Heath's grant covered the territory now comprised in North and South Carolina, Georgia, Florida, and Louisiana, including that part of America which lies between the thirty-first and thirty-sixth degrees of latitude, and the rivers San Mattheo and Passo Magno, and stretching from the Atlantic Ocean to the Pacific, with the exception of Saint Augustine and New Mexico.5 Sir Robert Heath conveyed the premises, in the 18th year of Charles the First, to Lord Maltravers, afterwards Earl of Arundel and Surrey, who, "at great expense, planted several parts of the country." About the year 1698 Dr. Coxe made energetic attempts, by exploration and otherwise, to revive the dormant title to this territory, as far as certain portions of it, and especially the Mississippi Valley, were concerned. In 1698 Colonel Welch travelled from Charleston in South Carolina to a point on the Mississippi p319near and below Old Kappa, where De Soto discovered that river in 1541.6
From the journals of different explorations by land and water a small volume was compiled by Colonel Daniel Coxe,7 son of Dr. Daniel Coxe, which was published in London in 1722, and is called a Description of the English Province of Carolana, by the Spaniards called Florida, and by the French La Louisiane, as also of the great and famous river Meschacebe or Mississippi. A second edition of this work was published in 1727, and a third in 1741. In his preface the author observes that his treatise is mainly composed from the journals of explorers employed by his father, the then proprietor of Carolana, and from the accounts of other travellers and Indian traders. For this purpose that proprietor had undergone great trouble and expense. For several years, at his own cost, he had maintained a correspondence with the governors and chief Indian traders of the English colonies, and had employed many persons in connection with explorations in the country. In the year 1698 two ships were fitted out by him, well armed and provisioned, not merely for the voyage, but also for building a fortification and settling a colony.8 These two vessels contained thirty French and English gentlemen volunteers, besides sailors and other men of lower rank. One of these two vessels discovered the mouth of the river Mississippi, and ascended it •more than one hundred miles, and would have perfected a settlement therein, if the captain of the other ship had done his duty. The author remarks: "Here I cannot forbear taking notice that this was the first ship that ever entered that river from the sea, or that perfectly discovered or described its several mouths, in opposition to the boasts and falsities of the French, who, in their printed books and accounts, assume to themselves the honour of both."
p320 He further adds that, the exploration of the Mississippi and its seven mouths, and of a large portion of the coast of Carolana on the Gulf of Mexico having been effected, Dr. Coxe as proprietor presented a memorial to King William the Third, who approved warmly the design of settling the province. That king at one time expressed his intention of sending at his own cost some six or eight hundred French refugees and Vaudois to unite with English emigrants in making a settlement there. Other persons of means or influence, including Lord Lonsdale, then Lord Privy Seal, offered to aid the undertaking. The deaths of King William and Lord Lonsdale, however, prevented the realization of the project. In the following reign Dr. Coxe proposed reviving the enterprise, but was compelled to desist therefrom by the wars then existing. On December 21, 1699, the Lords of Trade reported that the Attorney-General had given an opinion in favour of the validity of Dr. Coxe's title to the patent of the province of Carolana.9
May 2, 1698, Sir William Waller, Knight, Oliver Marquis de la Muce, and the Sieur Charles de Sailly purchased of Dr. Daniel Coxe, in London, •five hundred thousand acres of the above-described grant situate "on the west side of the river Spiritu Sancto, which empties itself into the Bay of Apalache at the North East, and the Gulph of Mexico, which shall be purchased by the Proprietary of the Indian natives, to have and to hold the said tract of land to them, Sir William Waller, etc. etc., and if they shall take up five hundred thousand acres more, they shall have power so to do, provided it be taken up within the space of seven years ensuing from the date hereof, paying quit rents for the same. Sir William Waller, etc., etc., shall enjoy the said lands seven years, paying only a ripe ear of Indian corn in the season, and, from the expiration of the said seven years, five shillings sterling money of England, or the value thereof in other coin, as a quit rent for every five hundred acres of land so taken up and purchased by the Proprietary aforesaid. It is further agreed that it shall be a condition that, within two years p321from this date, at least two hundred families of Protestant colonists shall be planted in the colony or else this contract becomes void."10
King William the Third advanced three thousand pounds to defray the charges of sending over to Virginia at least five hundred French Protestants, and, it would appear, delegated to Dr. Daniel Coxe the supervision of such emigration.11
The first ship, with two hundred French under the charge of the Marquis de la Muce and the Sieur Charles de Seilly, sailed from London in April, 1700. On the arrival in Virginia, they were sent to a place called Manikintownº on the James River, where it was understood that everything was to be put in readiness by them for the reception of the refugees arriving by the succeeding ships. A second ship followed with one hundred and sixty-nine refugees, under the charge of Monsieur de Joux, who had been specially ordained as a minister of the gospel by the bishop of London before leaving that city. This vessel was the Peter and Paul, galley of London, Daniel Perreau, commander, which arrived at Jamestown November 20, 1700. A third ship, the Nassau, under the charge of Monsieur Latine, minister, carried one hundred and ninety‑one souls, French, Swiss, Genevois, p322German, and Flemish. The Nassau was chartered by five merchants of London, viz., M. Jageau, J. Bellet, M. Penaudin, Peter Bouvet, and John Hamilton. When Monsieur de Joux and his party arrived at Manakintown,º they "found half of the first party lay sick at the Falls, languishing under misery and want, notwithstanding the considerable supplies that the Sieurs de Sailly and de la Muce had received." So dissatisfied were de Joux and his party with their reception, that he embodied their numerous complaints and grievances in a long petition to Governor Francis Nicholson, which was signed by thirty-five of the emigrants. They felt much aggrieved "by the hardheartedness of Sieur de Sailly," and speak of him as one "whose conduct was odious and insupportable," and say that he had "no bread nor sustenance for them, and would give them no allotment of land unless they would swear an oath of fidelity to such particular persons as he had made Justices of the Peace." Anticipating the presentation of this petition, De la Muce wrote to the governor February 15, 1700‑1, as follows: "Here enclosed is a copy of the list of refugees given to the miller, as it has been sent unto me by Messrs. de Joux and Phillipe under their hands, but there is no corn, and Monsieur de Sailly, lying here sick since he came from Westopher, and having already provided all what he could, can't supply them any longer, so I don't know what to do, unless some care be taken to send some corn up. I heard also that your Excellency hath our indentures of the lands we have purchased in Florida, so I desire your Excellency to send it up to me, keeping a copy, if you please, because it cost us a good deal of money, which we expect to recover, or part of it. I wish also that the factious and scandalous petition presented by Monsieur de Joux be delivered to me, if you please, or burnt, to pacify all what is past, avoid complaints and disputes, and to procure peace and love. I desire Colonel Byrd to let me know if I can have accommodation to go to east in one of the ships lying at Westopher. After his answer I shall endeavour to go to Williamsburg to take my leave." Governor Nicholson sent a message to the House of Burgesses p323of Virginia concerning the deplorable state of the refugees at Manikintown, and started a subscription in their behalf. A considerable sum was collected and applied to their relief.
Some time before 1700 Dr. Coxe conceived the magnificent project of forming a commonwealth within the territory originally granted to Sir Robert Heath. It was proposed to make a stock company, and the business of drawing up the outlines of a charter and by‑laws was confided to one James Spooner. This he accordingly did, in a document described by him as the "Draught of a Scheme I drew for Dr. Daniel Coxe many years since for the settlement which we called 'the New Empire.' " It contains eleven pages folio, and is without date. It provides for a governor, deputy-governor, and twelve assistant officers. Among the things in the charter, which Mr. Spooner thinks ought to be especially mentioned, is that "one motive of their Majesties' grant was for the promulgation of the gospel amongst the Indians and infidels." There were to be fourteen original proprietors of shares and one thousand associates. The capital stock was to amount to eighty thousand shares at five pounds a share. Of this amount there were "twenty thousand shares to remain with fourteen original proprietors; ten thousand shares to be given to the associates for their encouragement; five thousand to be maiden shares, reserved in the power of the company to be paid out them, from time to time, such shares as shall be thought fit, to such persons of quality, as may be benefactors or serviceable to the company, and for other purposes as the company shall think fit; five thousand to be for rewards for the undertakers for getting subscriptions, as hereafter mentioned, and for other contingent services, etc. etc.; twenty thousand shares to be sold at five pounds a share to raise a stock of one hundred thousand pounds for the carrying on vigorously the affairs of the company; twenty thousand shares to be sold to raise the like sum of one hundred thousand pounds, which is to be for the advantage of the fourteen original proprietors." Spooner likewise proposed that "out of the original properties and the associates are to be chosen several committees, viz.: p3241. For religion; 2. For law; 3. For trade; 4. For accounts; 5. For poor; 6. For criminals; 7. For charitable uses; 8. For the natives," and he fully considers what shall be the duties of each of these committees. Spooner's letter to Dr. Coxe says: "In answer to your desire, I present you with my thoughts as to the constitution of the New Empire. I am much in the dark, having not done the draught for the intended charter, and having none of the papers relating to this country by me. And, therefore, cannot but guess at many things, and have had but very little time for a matter of this importance, but if all I have proposed be not approved, yet some parts of it may be at least thus far usefull as your remembrancer to put you in mind of what is necessary to make your draught the more complete and perfect."12
Dr. Coxe seems to have been an ardent churchman. He was proposed for membership of the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel in Foreign Parts at a meeting held in London June 3, 1699. A letter of his, dated August 5, 1692, addressed to the Rev. Thomas Bridges in Bermuda, encouraging him to establish himself in West Jersey, is printed in the Archives of New Jersey.13
The name of Daniel Coxe is found among those of the promoters of a company who petitioned for a charter "for naval stores to be made and produced in New England." The incorporators had petitioned first King James the Second and afterwards King William, and renewed their application in 1702. In August of that year it was referred to the Lords of Trade and Plantations. A charter was granted in the first year of Queen Anne.14
Before Dr. Coxe's purchase of the patent of Carolana, he was well known in connection with the colony of West Jersey and East Jersey. In 1684 he acquired an interest in West Jersey, and in 1686 one in East Jersey. After the death of Governor Billinge in January, 1687, he purchased of his family their landed property in West Jersey, together p325with the right of government not province under the grant of the Duke of York to Billinge. Dr. Coxe, in consequence, became governor of West Jersey. Shortly after, on September 5, 1687, he addressed a letter to the colony detailing the circumstances connected with the transaction, and explaining his views as to the future. At that time, according to Smith, he owned twenty‑two of the one hundred proprietary shares of West Jersey.15 On September 5, 1688, Governor Barclay, of East Jersey, and Governor Coxe, of West Jersey, made in London an agreement concerning the settlement of the dividing line between the two colonies. In 1688 important purchases of lands were made from the Indians of West Jersey. Dr. Coxe's connection therewith will appear from a document which is for the first time printed at the end of this paper. Gabriel Thomas remarks that Governor Coxe greatly encouraged and promoted the town of Burlington, where a "great ship" was built for him, and where his agents and deputy-governors resided.
Dr. Coxe resolved in 1690, Oldmixon informs us,16 to proceed to West Jersey, and made every preparation to embark at Plymouth. At the last moment, however, he yielded to the opposition of his relatives and friends, and was dissuaded from his purpose. Oldmixon thinks that he would have recurred to his project of going to West Jersey, had he not "sold the best part of his propriety to Sir Thomas Lane and others." The sale thus referred to by Oldmixon was made in March, 1692, and included the right of government in the province of West Jersey. The purchasers were a company, consisting chiefly of London merchants, which became known as the West Jersey Society.17
A descriptive inventory of Dr. Coxe's landed property, drawn up probably in the year 1688, is preserved in the Bodleian Library at Oxford. It has never been printed, and is p326now appended to this paper. It is supposed to have passed, after Dr. Coxe's death, into the hands of the brothers Rawlinson, the indefatigable collectors of manuscripts, and to have been by them bequeathed to the Bodleian Library.
Daniel Coxe,18 previously mentioned as the eldest son of Dr. Daniel Coxe, was born shortly before August 31, 1673, on which date his baptism is registered in the Church of St. Botolph, Aldersgate, in London. When twenty-eight years of age he came to America, where he became well known as Colonel Daniel Coxe, of New Jersey. He took a prominent part in the public affairs of that colony, and was at different times Member of the Royal Council, Speaker of the Assembly, and Judge of the Supreme Court. He was also Provincial Grand Master of the Free Masons of the Middle Colonies. The date of this appointment was 1730, a fact which, Hough remarks, shows him to have been the earliest Masonic grand master in North America. In 1707 Colonel Coxe married Sarah, daughter of John Eckley, of Philadelphia. Their posterity are now residents of several States of the Union. Colonel Coxe died at Trenton in New Jersey April 25, 1739, and was buried in St. Mary's Church in Burlington. He made several prolonged visits to England after first coming to America, and while sojourning in London in 1722 published the Description of Carolana previously mentioned. In this work the author proposes what is probably the earliest printed plan of political union for the American colonies. The Coxe title to Carolana continued to exist until 1769. In that year Colonel Coxe's children and grandchildren surrendered the charter of Carolana to the British Government, and received in compensation a grant of •one hundred thousand acres of land in the colony of New York. The township of Carolana and other patents of land were located in New York under this grant.19
The Quantity of my land in East and West Jersey amounts unto •about Eight hundred thousand acres according unto the calculation hath bin made partly by persons upon the place whoever have travers'd it all, and partly by diverse here skilled in the Mathematick and Surveying.
I have Leased about Tenn thousand acres for one hundred pounds per Annum and they are to purchase the ffee simple within three yeares paying Tenn pounds for every hundred acres. The land lately Leased is raised to Twelve pounds per hundred acres, and I never soled any under Tenn pounds per hundred. Greate Numbers come yearely from Bermudas, New England, New Yorke, Long Island, pensilvania and other parts of America to purchase lands and many hundred ffamilyes from the before menconed places are there already seated.
Besides the money may bee raised by sale of lands the purchases will bee Intituled to the following Benefits.
1. The Hereditary or perpetuall Governmt of West Jersey which Containes almost foure Millions of acres and planted by a Numerous Industrious people: I have refused a Thousand Guineas for this only.
2. I have at the Expence of above Three thousand pounds setled a Towne and Established a ffishing for Whales which are very numerous about Cape may both within the Bay and without all along the sea coast which I am assured if well mannaged will bring in above 4000£ per Annum all charges Defrayed.
3. Upon diverse greate Bancks within the greate Bay which is •60 Miles deep •30 Miles broad at certaine Seasons resort infinite numbers of Excellent cod ffish, Basse, and other sorts and prodigious numbers of Sturgeons with which diverse shipps might bee yearly ffreighted for the Islands of Barbadoes, Jamaica, &c., and for a Trade with the Streights, Spaine and Portugall.
4. Because the only thing which hath hindred our setting up this ffishery was want of salt wee have lately sent over diverse ffrenchmen skillfull in makeing salt by the sun in pitts or pans whoe assure us there are many convenient places upon the Coast over against the places of ffishing where millions of Bushells may bee made at the Expence of 4 pence per Bushell.
5. Wee have Excellent Timber for fforemasts and yards of shipps above a Thousand Tunn in burthen, Timber to build shipps good as any in ye p328world greate plenty and admire situacons of which I have lately made diverse Tryalls. There is excellent Timber for boards, spars, Milposts, clapboards, pikestaves and other Lumber for ye plantacons, Rivers for saw mills, the most proper land in the world for hemp for cordage, Store of ye pitch pine to make pitch and Tarr. I have been profered 200£ per Annum onely for 7 yeares to have ye sole liberty of cutting masts upon my Land and wood for Lumber without any expence on my parte.
6. Excellent land for rape seed, Linseed, and fflax and good Iron workes. In severall parts of ye Country multitude of wild Grapes of which very good wine made of some sorts and ye worst affords Store of good Brandy. It is beleived by justices p'sons ffrench vignerons & others yt some sorts of them improved by cultivating would p'duce as good wine as any in ye world.
7. I have erected a pottery att Burlington for white and Chiney ware a greate quantity to ye value of 1200£ have beene already made and bended in ye country neighbour colony and ye Islands of Barbadoes & Jamaica where they are in great request. I have two houses and Kills with all necessary implemts, diverse workemen, and other servts. Have Expended thereon about 2000£.
8. I have intirely and solitary in my possion a greate Tract of Land abounding wth rich Mines and Mineralls of diverse sorts excellently scituated for workeing vizt water for mills & water carriage, the particulars too many & too considerable to bee yett made publicke.
9. I have made greate discoveryes towards ye greate Lake whence come above 100.000 Bevers every year to ye ffrench Canada and English at New Yorke, Jersey, pensilvania. I have contracted ffreinshipp with diverse petty Kings in ye way to and upon ye sd greate Lake and doubt not to b7 ye greatest parte of ye sd Traffick for ffurs into yt part of ye Country where I am setled and by my patent I am intituled to ye said Trade Exclusive of others.
10. I can Exclude ye Inhabitants of Pensilvania from this ffurr trade by a grant I with diverse others have from Mr Penn of one hundred and fifty thousand acres wch I will procure to be transferred to ye purchasers of my land paying ffive hundred pounds downe & 100£ per annum quitt rent.
11. Laterally ye two provinces of East and west Jersey wth pensilvania which is onely seperated from them by ye river, take of ffifty thousand pounds worth of English Comodities giveing in returne beefe, porke, wheate, fflower, meale, biskett, pease, horses, ffurs, oyle, &c. ye provisions sell very well in Barbadoes, the Leewards Islands & Jamaica where they have in returne pieces of Eight, sugar, Cottons, Indigo, Ginger &c. By a Magazine or Storehouse in Delaware River for European Comodities & for such as you receive in Exchange, a Circular trade may bee driven for greate profit which by modest Computation may amount unto above Tenn thousand pounds per annum nor is there need of Ensurance. Wee have never lost goeing thither or returning for England or in ye Trade from thence to ye plantacons & Returnes one Single shipp out of above 300 have beene imployed p329within twelve yeares there being neither Rock or Shole in any of ye menconed Navigations nor any Danger upon ye coast within the greate Bay or River or within some hundreds of miles of our Coast either towards ye North or South.
I have either att Cape May or bu7 four stout Negroes. Att the same Cape May a vessell of 30 or fforty Tunns begann many Months agoe and I suppose now finished. I built last yeare an Secret good Sailour & yett strong built shipp of an 130 Tunns wch is now engaged in a circular Trade & comes from ye Barbadoes with ye next shipping. I soul'd her to diverse Merchants for ye first cost with Interest. I ordered a shipp of the same magnitude to bee built upon the launching of the former.
I have a plantacon att Cape May made by a very skillfull ffrench Gardiner who is there resident Hellene hath planted some thousand ffruit Trees of diverse and ye best sort could bee procured.
I p'chased from ye Indians diverse yeares agoe a Tract of admirable good Land conteyneing abt 70.000 acres. 15.000 of ye best in West Jersey (ye line dividing the two provinces passing through itt), I have taken upp and part zzz is in the Lease, & 30.000 in East Jersey some of wch is likewise lett. Whosoever takes upp any of ye remainder must pay mee the share of Indian purchase. I have mortgaged the 15.000 acres in West Jersey & my Interest in the Indian purchase (wch amounts to abt 200£) for 700£ Sterling money here in England. besides ye twenty proprieties I can att prsent make good, theire will p'bably come to my share 7 or 8 proprieties or 100 parts being partly proprieties not sold or mortgaged for small sumes or in Trust all wch belonging to Billing I have p'chased from his heires and have pd all Excepting an Annuity of 30£ per Annum for a life. I have besides the for menconed a right unto three of the Tenn Burlington proprieties or Yorkshire Tenth unless they redeeme itt by ye paymt of 300£ Sterling mony with divers yeares Interest. I am likewise entituled unto Tenn Lotts in the Towneshipp of Gloucester and as many in ye Townshipp of Dorsett or Egg harbour. I doe conjecture I have 100£ per annum or more in Lease att Cape may and in Budd's Indian purchase where they have genrally as I am Informed planted and built, they have in their Leases a Liberty to buy ye ffee within the space of three yeares.
Divers p'sons are indebted unto mee and I to others yett I doe beleive upon the Ballance there is not ffifty pounds difference. I will quitt them to the purchasers or take upon my selfe wch unto them shall seeme most expedient. I had almost forgott to mencon a proposall hath been lately made mee of selling unto the undertakers for the building of St. Paul's, Ceeder Trees for the roof and inword work where wood is Imployed. By unanimous relacon of divers who have Examined these Trees there cannot bee found better in America, I might add, the world for both purposes.
ffive of the tenn proprieties in Salem Tenth or County are Mortgaged unto mee for about 100£ principall Interest and charges but about a moyety of the said proprieties were sould before mortgage. The remainder is Tenn times the value that is due to mee.
In West Jersey Twenty Proprieties each supposed to contain thirty thousand acres. Twenty thousand being for each propriety already surveyed and ye rest is to bee added when upon a Gen'al survey wee can certainely Learne what number of acres the whole p'vince containes, wch will bee soone efected by comparing particular surveys wth that little remaines unsurveyed for p'forming wch I have given particular Instructions.
Ten of these proprieties are extended a Long ye sea wthout ye Bay towards Egg harbour and •forty or fifty miles wthin ye Bay towards Cohanzey amounting unto Two hundred Thousand acres Plantable Land besides greate allowances for Wasts, Barrans, Roads &c. This secures to mee the Whale ffishing wthin & wthout ye Bay. In order to ye Establishmt whereof I have Expended betweene two thousand & Three thousand pounds Sterling mony and whereunto I am solely entitled and debt not to make thereof five hundred pounds per annum cleare of all Charges.
Besides there is Contained as followeth wthin this tract of land greate numbers of p'digious greate Trees for Masts & yards boards and Lumber for ye Isle Lands wch will bring in if Leased wthout any Lands 200£ per annum some have offered to take Leases for 7 yeares soe that these proprietys having cost me as followeth
|Bought of||Edward Billing||2 Pros||800|
|Billing & Saldler||2 Pros||800|
|Benj. Bartlett||5 Pros||2000|
|Humphrey Madge||1 Pro||400|
|Intrest of 4000£ for foure yeares||960|
|Survey and Indian Purchase||600|
|The Whale ffishing||2000|
|Besides Int of ye 2660£ for Two yeares|
I have Tenn Proprieties more in ye upper part of ye Country whereof I have taken up above One hundred thousand acres and itt is Gen'ally afirmed unto mee that there is not one hundred acres in all that Tract wch is not most Excellent Land. I have Lett a considerable quantity for 10 shillings every hundred acres wth Interest for ye mony untill paid wch is Tenn pound, some att ye Expiracon of Two others Three yeares and my last Letters acquaint mee they have raised itt to Twelve pound every hundred acres and hope to advance itt. this Tract of Land lyes for ye space of •thirty miles upon ye River of Delaware besides 4 Rivers running through itt att •five or six miles distance & Empty themselves into ye great River. This vallued att twelve pence per acre amounts to five thousand pounds, itt being surveyed and ye Indian purchas payed wthout reckoning above one hundred thousand acres of Land wch upon ye division of ye Country is to bee added thereunto.
p331 Adjoining unto this tract is another wch wee callt Minnisinke Province. This was given mee by an agreemt betweene both provinces, itt kons betweene 3 and 400,000 acres but a greate part of itt mountainous yet admirable Land between and round the said Mountainous tract soe that although halfe bee not good Plantable Land yett ye number and goodness of ye mines and mettalls of Lead & Copper &c and diverse usefull mineralls doe abundantly Compensate that defect. This Tract then dispised but now Enjoyed Cost mee 1500£ in ye country with Interest and charges payed heare for the proprieters accounts to above 2000£. But itt is by mee valued att 5000£, itt lyes •forty Miles wthout Iunterupcon upon ye greate River Delaware admirably scituated for Trade wth the Indians for furs the upper part being wthin six dayes easy Journey of ye greate Lake from whence most of ye furres are carryed to Canada and brought to New York, Jersey, Pensilvania and Maryland. I have beene att greate Expence to make friendshipp wth the Indians, discover ye passages to the Lakes and open'd a way for a vast trade thereunto. I have in East Jersey wch is supposed to contain 1.500.000 acres, two proprieties and a halfe being above a tenth part of ye whole and have taken upp (vizt) Surveyed and payed ye Indian purchase 50.000 acres of Excellent Land admirably scituated vizt.
|att Barnagate Meadow||1000|
|upon Milstone River||7500|
|upon Crosswicks Creeke||1500|
|upon Doctors River||5000|
|upon Wicketouck pt||5000|
|Thos Budds Indian purchas||30.000|
These cost mee first purchase above a Thousand pound but I have since expended in Indian purchase, survey &c above 300£ besides ye Interest of my Mony.
Besides Tenn Lotts att Amboy vallued att 12£ per Lott. Wee have as I remember 600£ per annum in quitt Rents for Land sold distinct from the fore menconed 50.000 acres of which upon dividend a tenth part Comes to mee. Besides my tenth of all other Lands hereafter to bee sold or leased wee sell land ordinaryly scituated for Tenn pound per hundred acres, while scituated from 20£ to 30£.
Some of these proprieties were formerly sold att 900£ per proprietie and one of our p'sent proprietors who hath taken up Land in most places togeather wth me to ye quantity of 16.000 acres, assured me he hath refused 800£ Sterling for his proprietie soe that I cannot vallue mine att lesse than 2000£. I have •about six thousand acres of admirable Land most meadow in Long Island wch altho itt cost me but 200£ Sterling here in England, the two prsons being then greatly streight'ned for money is vallued on ye place att 600£ and I am assured I may have soe mc for itt. ih in ye Townshipp of Herlam near New Yorke a curious little farme but being one of the freemen, have the right of ye Comon wth Tenn tymes ye vallue of ye Land already laid out. I vallue both att . . . . 700£.
p332 12: Mar. 16. Car. 2d. — By letters patents ye King grants to James, Duke of Yorke his heires and Assignes diverse lands and Territoryes in America, not by any of ye Names given in by Dr Coxe at ye yearely Rent of fforty beaver skins &c and alsoe power to Governe by such Laws in Capitalls and Civills as hee and they shall establish so yt such Laws and proceedings bee not contrary to ye Lawes of England but as neere as may bee agreeable to ye Lawes, statutes and Governmts of England saveing to ye Crowne all appeals and alsoe power to make and name and to alter Governor's officers and Ministers &c and to make ordinary fformes of Governmt &c and to prmitt any prsons to possesse Lands &c and power by force of armes as well by sea as land to repulse, resist and Expell all such persons as without the speciall Licence of ye Duke his heires or Assignes shall attempt to Inhabit within ye sd Territoryes.
6 Aug't 32 Carl 2d. By Indenture reciteing yt by his Letters patents above menconed ye King had granted to ye Duke and his heires and assignes (among others) ye Lands and Territories then to bee called New Cesaria or New Jersey and writeing severall other Deeds whereby a moiety of ye prmises divided and called west New Jersey came to William Pen, Gawen Lawry, Nichs Lucas, John Edridgeº and Edm. Earner, in Trust as to 90 hundredth pts ye whole in a 100 pts to be divided for Edw. Billing in ffee and as to ye other 10 hundred parts in trust for John Eldridgeº and Edm. Warner in ffee. The Duke grants to Pen, Lawry, Lucas, Edridge & Warner, West new Jersey in ffee upon ye Trusts aforesd and grants to Ewd Billing & his heires ye same powers, authorities, Jurisdiccons, Governmts &c which had beene granted to ye Duke.
14 mar. 35. Carl. 2. By Indenture reciteing ye Kings grant ut supra &c The Duke of Yorke Grants and confirmes to Billing and three and twenty others and their heires and assignes East New Jersey and all ye powers Jurisdiccons, right of Government &c.
19 ffeb. 3. Ja. 2. By Indenture reciting the prmises and that Billing was dead and had left with daughters his only children and heirs vizt Gratia Bartlet ye wife of Benj Bartlet and Loveday Billing and yt ye powers relating to west new Jersey were vested in Benjn Bartlet, Gratia his wife and Loveday Billing some or one of them & reciting yt Dr Danl Coxe had purchased sev'rall proprietyes or shares of west new Jersey ye sd Benj B and Gratia his wife and Loveday Billing for a Competent sume grant and assigne all ye powers, Jurisiccons &c before menconed to be granted to Billing unto Dr Coxe, his heires and assignes.
King Charles ye second makes a Grant of ye New Netherlands given in a Treaty by the Dutch in Exchange for Serenam with an Ample patent for Soyle and Governmt.
The Duke of York Grants ye Moiety of this province then called New Yorke unto ye Lord Barkley and Sr George Carteret who named it New Cesaria or New Jersey and since it is Comonly called New Jersey.
p333 They divided the province into two parts ye one called East Jersey which came by agreemt tosr George Cartaret ye other West Jersey belonging to ye Ld Barkley. Sr George Carteret Conveyes his moiety of East Jersey to twelve proprietors.
The Lord Barkley his moiety of West Jersey to Edward Byllynge and because there was some disp whether ye Duke of Yorke had conveyed wth ye soyle all his rights & powers of Governmt, Edwd Byllynge and the proprietors of East Jersey obtained a new Grant from ye Duke of York, therein declaring he did invest them wth all his rights & power of Governmt. Adding att ye Request of the proprietors of East Jersey 12 properties to ye former 12 soe yt they were in all 24 proprietors and have soe continued ever since most resident in greate Brittaine choosing every 3 yeare a Governor out of their number and manage all their affaires, give ordrs for sale of Lands Instructions for Governmt here in England to a Deputy Governr whome they likewise intrust with convenient powers for Governmt in ye province and have continued this course divers yeares wth out Interupcon.
Edward Byllyng dies, his heirs Convey his land unsold with all his powers of Governmt to Daniell Coxe who hath exercised four yeares.
The Authority granted by ye sd patent is now in the actuall possession thereof wthout ye least disp or Interuption from the Crowne or private person.
Quere 1. Whether Daniell Coxe Cannot Convey with his land his Rights of Governmt to a certaine number of Twenty four more or lesse.
Quere 2D. Whether it will bee more advantagious for purchasers to take ye Grant of ye said Dr Coxe which is ye most Ample of any yett granted or to obtaine a new Grant from ye King in way of a Corporacon who will never bee able to obtaine diverse priviledges in the Auntient patent, ministers of State haveing declared against such greate powers.
Quere 3D. Whether if ye Ministers should Dispute our rights of Governmt and endeavour to seize it for ye King they cann have any Legall pretence or Authority soe to doe ye parliament vizt ye house of Comons haveing declared all such Licenses Illegall & void by vertue of which Declaracon wee entred againe upon our Governmt being by ye late King disseized a few months before his abdicacon and ye said house of Comons by Bill had Confirmed ye Charters of New England and Jersey but being suddenly Dissolved it did not passe ye house of Lords.
1. I conceive Dr. Coxe may grant his land wth his rights of Governmt to wt number of prsons hee pleaseth, there being noe restriccon in ye figuring Grant either Exprest or implied.
2. I see noe cause for yr obtaining a new grant from ye Crowne & thinke it more advantage to a purchasr to take ye Doctors Grant alone than otherwise.
3. This being in effect ye King's owne purchase of a Tract of Land out of ye Dominions of Greate Britain & Ireland He might alter or impose wt lawes hee thought meet therefore if ye Kings Grantee his heires or assignes p334pursue ye powers granted as neere as Convenience will permitt and introduce or establish no other Religion than Christian I thinke ye Crowne cannot seize it.
The above menconed Daniell Coxe being resolved to sell his interest in Land and Governmt of the Collonies of East and West Jersey the land Amounting by a moderate Calculacon unto one million of acres whereof above 400.000 are surveyed and the Indian purchase paid, the remainder surveyed but not all ye Indian purchase pd which the said Daniell Coxe will att his owne Expence effect.
Besides the purchase of ye land many thousand pounds have beene Expended upon the establishing a whale ffishing which will bring for ye future very greate profitt to ye undrtakers with a small expence. Itt is believed a thousand pounds per annm cleere of all charges. the said Daniell Coxe hath likewise at Burlington two houses & Kill with all necessary materialls & implemts with diverse servants who have made a greate progresse in a pottery of white and China ware above 1200£ worth being already made & vended in the Country neighbour plantacons & the Islands of Barbadoes, Jamaica, &c & well managed will probably bee very advantagious to ye undertakers. D. Coxe having Expended thereon to bring it to perfeccon all most 2000£.
Further diverse Tracts of Land belonging unto D. Coxe are Excellently accomodated with Timber for building ships, Timber for ye plantacons, masts & yards for greater ships of which greate benefitt may bee made being neer great navigable rivers & furnished with divers small ones fitt for saw mills whereof one or two are already erected.
Besides the said D. Coxe hath ye greatest assurance imaginable that ye upper parte of ye Country wherein 2 parts of 3 of his land is scituated abounds with very rich mines of lead, Copper & other mettals & mineralls needlesse to be here menconed and that neer navigable Rivers.
Besides 2 ffarmes one at ye towne of Harlem in New Yorke Island, the other neere Huntingdon in long Island, containing both betweene six and seaven thousand acres of choice land admirably scituated for Trade and Navigacon both having a good and numerous neighbourhood being both in the Government of new Yorke neere East Jersey. The premises will bee sold together with the Hereditary Governmt of west Jersey for which I have refused a Thousand Guineas, and above a tenth parte of ye Governmt in East Jersey wch were valued by Indifferent p'sons att 12.000£ Sterling though they cost ye said D Coxe almost double will bee sold for 20.000£ Sterling in manner following.
1. The whole is to be divided into 400 shares each share to be valued at fiftieth pounds and every share intitles ye purchaser to one vote and soe proporconably in ye managemt of ye Trade unto and Governmt of ye lands before recited excepting wt is hereafter Excepted.
p335 2. Whosoever subscribes for 20 Shares shall bee stiled a grand proprietor of course imediately & thence forwards wthout new eleccon or Confirmacon one of ye Comittee of ye proprietors for Governmt of ye Country, improveing ye land and workeing ye mines for ye good of ye Communication as likewise of ye Committee of trade from England and in ye provinces wth Indians, English & others & to continue in such stacon so long as hee is intitled unto 10 shares when his interests fall short of that number to bee in equall Condicon with others in like circumstances.
3. Whosoever subscribes for 10 shares is always of course to be wth further eleccon or Confirmacon one of ye Committee for Trade so long as hee keepes 5 shares then to be on equall termes with others.
4. A Governour & Deputy Governour are to be Annually chosen or confirmed by the purchasers or proprietors having votes according to ye number of shares.
5. Att the same time ye purchasers or proprietors are ye first meeting to elect and every other meeting after adding soe many Assistants to ye Commtee of grand proprietors soe many as will make their number 20 and soe many to ye originall proprietors for trade wch are such as have 10 shares soe many Assistants as will make them 30.
6th If any prson hereafter by purchase attaine to 20 Shares hee shall be of course a grand proprietor. If 10 of course one of ye Committee for trade to take his place ye next Annuall meeting and not sooner wthout consent of ye majority of ye said Committee or of a Generall Court.
7. Out of ye Grand Commtee of proprietors 5 shall bee deputed to Concert affaires wth ye proprietors of East Jersey whensoever there is occasion abot ye Governmt of ye said province according unto their present Laudable Custome & Constitution whereby every one possessing halfe a propriety is admitted to all publick consultacons with a right of voting. 8. As every share hath a vote soe shal every proprietor receive their Dividends out of ye profitt & pay towards all charges agreed upon by ye respective Committees according unto their particular proporcons. The prsent proprietor of these lands demands this priviledge yt he may have the liberty any time wthin 12 months if hee thinkes fitt to put in any sume of money not Exceeding 2000£ and thereupon be Entitled unto 40 Shares paying his proporcon towards all publicke charges from ye sale of ye prmises by him unto ye Society of purchasers or proprietors.
Being desired by diverse who designe to purchase yt I would propose a scheme, I present ym wth what preceeds not as if they were to be concluded by it but to approve or reject or substitute thereunto or subtract therefrom as they shall see Convenient.
For a copy of the following document, the writer is indebted to the courtesy of Judge John Clement, of Haddonfield, N. J., who states that "the original manuscript being torn, and the writing often defaced, the words inclosed in brackets are conjecturally supplied."
The 8th day of ye twelveth month 16
The deputy Govenor and Commissioners being then met at ye house of [Henry] Grubb in Burlington, proposed to Govenor Coxe's agent to joyn ye Properties [and] Commissioners in making as large a purchase from ye Indian natives [as can be] had on ye behalf of ye Govenor and proprietors of this Province. The [same] to be done with all convenient speed: to his intent ye same purchase be made to ye best advantage to ye Govenor and proprietors. And that ye land (being soe purchased and cleared of ye Indians) may then accommodate those who are shortly expected from England.
Alsoe it being proposed by ye Govenors agent that a general warrant be granted to ye Deputy Govenor and Comrs for ye surveying of ye [said] lands belonging to ye first settlements for twelve proprieties.
of this province for ye Govenor. To which ye Deputy Govenor [and] they are very ready and desirous to accommodate ye Govenor therein: And alsoe may preserve themselves as clear of violating those laws [which] they are obliged by ye laws of ye Province to observe. And [alsoe they much] desire they may first see the deeds or authentique coppys [to follow] what had been ye methods of their predecessors in such [cases] whereupon warrant was issued forth calling ye [Proprietors together] that their minds may be further known therein.
The 13th of ye 12th month 1687. Upon several proposals of ye Govenors agent on behalf of ye [Govenor Daniel Coxe Esquire].
To ye Deputy Govenor and Councill and ye Commrs with petition to [forward] to ye Surveyor General for taking up ye Govenors shares of land of ye first divident or settlemts for twelve proprieties through ye Country. His making a particular purchase from ye Indians. The proprietors were thereupon called together to give their answer [and did] conclude and agree as follows. That foreasmuch as ye proposalls of ye Govenors agent ye day and year above said came before ye proprietors which being by them well con[sidered] and found to be contrary to ye former rules and methods for taking [up] land. Ye twenty being desirous to accommodate ye Govenor [as well as] those many families from David hath given inform[ation and] are upon their remove into this Province. And alsoe upon ye [expectations] and hopes of ye great advantage that will accrue to ye Province in poepleing ye same.
The proprietors agree that ye Go[venor] may take up ye shares of land belonging to him for ye [first] divident of twelve proprieties, ye same to be taken up [as follows] one half thereof between Cohanzey and Beare-gate no[not exceeding] two places or tracts, and the other half to be taken up [above] the falls on any lands not before taken up ands[urveyed not] exceeding two places or tracts  at soe  the  satisfied that ye  not  his purchase of ye same land particularly by himself.
p337 Also ye proprietors agree and appoint ye Court to assign a Warrant to ye General surveyor to survey and lay out ye lands as above said for ye use of ye Govenor when ye same shall be purchased of ye Indians. Ye agreement aforesaid subscribed by ye proprietors underwritten.
Andrew Robeson, Thomas Gardiner, John Dayes. William Royden. John Hugg. Bernard Devonish. John Pancoast. Elias ffar. Thomas Barton. Freedom Lippincott. Isaac Marriott. William Cooper. John Shinn. James Atkinson. Thomas Sharp. Thomas Farnsworth Percival Toole. William Beard. William Nates. John Kay. Thomas Thackara. John Reading. William Albertson. Thomas Mathews. Joshua Humphries. Nathaniel Cripps. Anthony Elton.
Copy of ye Warrant to ye Surveyor General.
In persuance of ye Agreement of ye Proprietors mett at Burlington in ye Province aforesaid ye 13th day of ye 12th month called ffebruary instant. you are hereby required to lay out and survey to and for Daniel Coxe Esquire Govenor of ye said Province his severall shares and parcels of land to him belonging as his first divident for 12 proprieties in ye Province aforesaid: the one moietie or halfe part thereof to be taken up between Cohanzey and Beare-gate in ye said Province not exceeding two tracts or places, and ye other moietie or half part thereof above ye falls in ye said Province on any land not before taken up and surveyed. not exceeding two tracts or places. The same land to be soe taken up and surveyed as aforesaid being: first to be purchased and cleared from ye Indian natives. and make return thereof and of the bearings and boundings thereof at ye next quarterly court of sessions to be held at Burlington for ye jurisdiction thereof: to ye intent ye same may be then published and recorded by order of Court.
And for soe doing this shall be yor sufficient Warrant
Given unde or hands at Burlington ye 13th day of ye 12th month called ffebruary Anno 1687.
1 See Musgrave's Manuscript Obituary in the British Museum.
2 See post.
3 See the second volume of John Ward's Manuscripts in the Additional Manuscripts of the British Museum, No. 6194.
4 In 1677 J. Phillips published his translation of the Six Voyages of John Baptist Tavernier, Baron of Aubonne, through Turkey into Persia and India. The Short Account above mentioned and another work were added by Phillips to the volume containing his translation.
5 Coxe claimed only the unsettled parts south and west of North and South Carolina on the Gulf of Mexico, and in Mississippi Valley; see Description of Carolana, page 1.
6 See the Present State of North America, part first, London, 1754, page 30.
7 Concerning him, see post.
8 See Bancroft's History of the United States, III.202; P. Margry's Origines Françaises, 1881, II.304, 305.
9 Description of Carolana, preface, pp109‑122.
10 See manuscripts in the Bodleian Library at Oxford.
11 See papers in the Bodleian Library relating to the French emigration to Virginia in 1700. "From an account of money laid out of the contribution. To Doctor Coxe, in part of the passage of our people, £71, of which Mr. Schult has paid £22.10, and Mr. Rambonnet £18.10, and so remains paid £30." An account of "what contribution the French refugees have received": of "Mr. Schult and Maille £65, viz., £22.10 to Dr. Coxe and £42.10 in tools and other goods taken with them to Florida and Carolina;" of "Mr. Rambonnet £25, viz., £18.10 to Dr. Coxe in Canary wine, and the rest in other goods taken away to Carolina." See minutes of the Council held at Hon. Mr. Auditor Byrd's (James City), November 14, 1700: "Monsieur de Sailly is requested to lay before the Council copies of all the transactions betwixt him and Dr Coxe relating to the aforesaid French refugees." Thirty-five of the French refugees signed a petition to Governor Francis Nicholson (see post.) in which they say: "His Majesty, for the encouragement of the design to settle a colony of French refugees in Virginia, hath given £3000 sterling to defray the charges of 500 in crossing the seas and to relieve their necessities."
12 See manuscripts in the Bodleian Library.
13 II.95, 96.
14 See the papes of Henry Newman, agent for the colony of New Hampshire, in the Bodleian Library at Oxford.
15 Smith's History of New Jersey, 190, 191, 192, 196; Mulford's History of New Jersey, 248‑252, 264‑267; Gabriel Thomas's History of West Jersey, 16, 18.
16 Oldmixon, first and second editions, under New Jersey.
17 The deeds relating to the transaction are in part printed in the second volume of the New Jersey Archives.
18 See biographical notices in Field's Provincial Courts of New Jersey, 132‑137, and Hough's Masonry in New Jersey, pages vi‑xii. See also Smith, 427; Mulford, 318; N. J. Archives, III.25, 44; Watson's Annals, I.50; Penn and Logan Correspondence, I.174, 230; II.197.
19 See Duer's Life of Stirling, 88‑93; Jones's Annals of Oneida County, N. Y., 59; New York Book of Patents, XV.197‑204.
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