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This webpage reproduces a section of
The Deipnosophistae


published in Vol. IV
of the Loeb Classical Library edition,

The text is in the public domain.

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(Vol. IV) Athenaeus

Book IX
(Part 2 of 5)

 p413  EUpon this Ulpian said: "Since we have dined (dedeipnamen)1 — Alexis has used this form in The Hairdresser:2 'Since we have long since dined'; Eubulus, too, in Procris:3 'But we have not yet dined,' and again: 'Who should have dined (dedeipnanai)4 long since'; also Antiphanes in Leonides:5 'Nay, but he will be here before we have dined'; and Aristophanes in The Rehearsal:6 'It's time I  p415 were trudging along to get my master; for I think they have finished their dinner (dedeipnanai) by this time'; also in The Daughters of Danaus:7 'You come into my house already drunk before you have dined'; finally, Plato in The Sophists8 and Epicrates of Ambracia, who is a poet of Medical Comedy, in The Amazons:9 "It appears to me the gentlemen have dined in very good time.' Aristophanes, in Masters of the Frying-pan, also has the form êristamen:10 'Indeed we have had just a nip to drink, gentlemen, and have lunched (êristamen) well.' And Hermippus in Soldiers:11 'To have lunched on this'; Theopompus in Callaeschrus:12 'We have finished our luncheon (êristamen); we must really now engage in talk.' The verb kataristân13 is used by Antiphona in The Statesman thus:14 'When one, then, has squandered his own property or that of his friends.' The form paradedeipnêmenos15 is used by Amphis thus in The Wandering Juggler: 'Cheated of my dinner, boys, a long time.' — To resume: 'Let us, then,' as Plato says in Philebus,16 'mix a bowl, while we pray to the gods, whether it be Dionysus or Hephaestus, or whatever god it is that has obtained the honour of the mixing.17 Comparing ourselves  p417 to certain wine-pourers, we have two fountains beside us, one of which, the fountain of pleasure, one might liken to honey; the other, the sobering and wineless fountain of wisdom, to a well of homely and healthful water; these we must mix in the best possible way.' It is time, then, that we were drinking, and so let one of the slaves fetch some cups from the sideboard; for I see a large number of beautifully decorated drinking-cups." CWhen, then, a large cup had been given him Ulpian said: "Fill your ladle, slave, with stronger wine and pour it into my cup; not as the comic poet Antiphanes has it, who says in The Twins:18 'He took and brought the big cup to me, and I made him pour in unmixed wine: "Pour, slave, ten thousand ladles-full in honour of gods and goddesses; then, to top them all, pour in a double portion to the august goddess and our sweetest king." ' For me, then, boy, 'mix it stronger';19 for I do not yet speak of the number of ladles.20 But I will show that the word cyathus (ladle) is in good use, also the term 'stronger,'21 and then I will speak of wine-pourers. And first I shall treat for good and all the term zoroteron. Antiphanes in Melanion:22 'I sentence him to drink a cup to the goddess of health after the hand-washing, using a stronger wine-pourer.' And in Lampon:23 'What's your name — Iapyx! mix it stronger.' Ephippus in The  p419 Recruits:24 'He mixed and gave each girl a stronger cup in Homeric style.' Some authorities say that the phrase in Homer,25 'Mix it stronger,' does not indicate unmixed wine, but warm wine, deriving zoroteron from zotikon (lively) and zesis (boiling); for when friends appear it is and unusual to have a fresh bowl mixed over again. Others say it means 'well-mixed,' using a comparative instead of a positive form, like dexiteron (right-hand side) for dexion.26 But some again, since years are called oroi, and the prefix za signifies largeness or number, maintain that zoros means 'many years old.' Diphilus says in Paederasts:27 F'A. You there, pour us out a drink. B. Heavens, boy, give it to us stronger For everything that is watery is an evil to the soul.'28 Theophrastus, in his treatise On Drunkenness, says29 that anything that is mixed is called zoroteron, citing these words of Empedocles:30 424'Forthwith things mortal came into being, and which before they understood to be immortal, and things mixed that before were unmixed, exchanging their paths.' The word cyathus, moreover, is used by Plato in Phaon of the cup used for ladling, thus:31 'Having taken the ladle (cyathus) to their lips in this fashion.' And in Envoys:32 'How many ladles the two were stealing every time.'  p421 Archippus in The Fishes:33 'I bought a ladle from Daesias.' Some such thing also is what we have in The Peace of Aristophanes:34 'All of them without exception having been dealt a black eye, to which cupping-glasses had been applied.' for the parts below the eyes are blackened when violently struck by cups. The cup (ladle) is mentioned also by Xenophon in the first book of his Education,35 by Cratinus; again by Aristophanes in many places, and by Eubulus in Orthannes.36 pherecrates, in Frills, mentioned a 'golden cup.'37 Timon, in the second book of his Satires, calls these cups arysaeane, thus:38 'Cups insatiate in wine,' calling them so from the verb arysasthai (draw). But they are also called arysteres and arystichoi. Simonides:39 'No one gave so much as a ladle-full (aryster) of Lees.' Aristophanes in The Wasps:40 'For I had these ladles (arystichoi) all the while.' Phrynichus in The Weeders:41 'A drinking-cup used as a ladle (arystichos).' From the same verb comes also arytaena (ladle). They also called such a vessel ephebus,42 as does Zenophanes in Akin. Polybius, in the ninth book of the Histories,43 records a river named Cyathus in the neighbourhood of Arsinoë, a city of Aetolia. As for the word akratesteron, Hypereides uses that in the speech Against  p423 Demosthenes, writing as follows:44 'If anybody drank stronger wine, it caused you pain.' Similar to this45 is the word aniêresteron (more painful)46 and the phrase in The Daughters of the Sun, by Aeschylus:47 'A more abundant (aphthonesteron) libation.' Epicharmus in Pyrrha has also euônesteron (cheaper).48 In the speech Against Demades Hypereides even has 'the city more at ease (raiesteran).'49 The form kerannyo (mix) is used by Plato in Philebus:50 "let us then, Pratarchus, mix a bowl while we pray to the gods.' So Alcaeus in Sacred Marriage:51 'They mix and make away with.' Hypereides in the speech On Delos:52 'All Greeks in common mix the bowl which is called "the healing." ' Further, the boys of the best families acted as wine-pourers among the ancients, like the son of Menelaus:53 'And the son of glorious Menelaus poured the wine.' Even the poet Euripides, when a schoolboy, was a wine-pourer. Theophrastus, at any rate, says in his treatise On Drunkenness:54 'I, at least, have heard that the poet Euripides acted as wine-pourer at Athens for the so‑called Dancers.' These persons used to dance round the temple of the Delian Apollo; they belonged to the foremost Athenians, and wore cloaks made in the fashion of the people of Thera.55 This is the Apollo in whose honour they celebrate the Thargelia, and there is preserved a painting representing these ceremonies in the temple of the Laurel-Bearer56 at Phlya.57 The same facts are recorded  p425 by Hieronymus of Rhodes, who was a disciple of Aristotle, writing also in his treatise On Drunkenness. And so the fair Sappho in many places praises her brother Larichus as a wine-pourer in the town-hall of the Mitylenaeans. Among the Romans, too, the noblest-born lads perform this service in the festivals celebrated at public cost, in all things imitating the Aeolians, as, for example, even down to the tones of their voices. So great was the luxury of older times in regard to their sumptuous entertainments that they had wine-inspectors as well as wine-pourers. At any rate the wine-inspectors are officials at Athens, mentioned by Eupolis in these lines from The Island-towns:58 'Men whom you wouldn't have chosen even to be your wine-inspectors in the old days, we now have as leaders of the army. O my city, my city How lucky thou art, rather than wise!' These wine-inspectors superintended the arrangements at dinners to see that the members of the company drank equal quantities. The office was in low repute, as the orator Philinus shows in The Settlement of the Croconid Case:59 he says they were three in number, and they supplied lamps and wicks to the diners. Some people even called them 'eyes.' Among the Ephesians the wine-pouring bachelors at the festival of Poseidon were called bulls, according to Amerias. Hellespontians call the wine-pourer epenchytes (forth-pourer) and the distribution of meat kreodasia (meat-division), as Demetrius of Scepsis says in the twenty-sixth book of his Trojan Battle-order.60 Some record Harmonia as pouring wine for the gods, according to  p427 the account given by the epic poet Capito, a native of Alexandria, in the second book of his Love Stories. Alcaeus introduces61 Hermes also as their wine-pourer, as does Sappho when she says:62 'There stood a mixing-bowl filled with ambrosia, while Hermes grasped the pitcher to serve the gods.' But in olden times they called those who were appointed for this service heralds. Homer:63 'And heralds were bearing through the city the binding oath-offerings to the gods, two lambs, and wine, the fruit of the glebe that makes the heart merry, in a goat-skin vessel; and the herald Idaeus bore the shining mixing-bowl and the golden cups.' And again:64 'and lordly heralds gathered the binding oath-offerings of the gods, and in the bowl they mixed the wine, and poured water over the princes' hands.' Cleidemus says65 the cooks were called heralds. but poets have imagined hebe as the wine-pourer to the gods, perhaps because symposia were called hebeteria.66 cleino, the female wine-pourer of king ptolemy surnamed philadelphus, is mentioned by poto the son of Agesarchus in the third book of his inquiries relating to Philopator.67 Polybius, in the 14b of his Histories, says68 that statues of her stood in many parts of the city of Alexandria,  p429 wearing only a tunic and holding a drinking-horn in her hand."

Upon these words Ulpian as he drained his cup, said: " 'This full cup, after naming you all at once, I shall pledge as a faithful token of love to my kinsmen.' " In answer to him, while he was still drinking, one of the company capped him with the remaining iambic lines: " 'When I've finished drinking, I will tell you the rest; for I am choking. B. Then swallow it in sips.' " And when Ulpian had finished drinking he said: "These lines are from Clearchus, in The Harp-singer.69 As for me, quoting The Toilers of Amphis, I make this exhortation:70 'Let the slave ply the guests in many rounds with the cups.' And again: 'Fill up for me, and I will give you to drink; let almond sport by the side of almond.' This last is said by Xenarchus in The Twins."71 Some, then, demanded that more wine be added to the mixture, others said half and half; and another remarked that Archippus had said, in the second edition of his Amphitryo:72 'Which of you two, you poor fool, has mixed it half and half?" And Cratinus in The Wine-flask:73 "The drink that carries half and half! As for me, I pine away." So it was agreed by all that they should discuss the mixtures of wine among  p431 the ancients. And one remarked that Menander had said, in The Hero:74 "A pitcher of mixed wine; take and drink it down." Then Democritus said: "Hesiod,75 my comrades, advises us 'to purpose forth thrice of the water, and to put in the fourth part of wine.' On his account Anaxilas also said in Nereus:76 'And yet surely it is far pleasanter. For I should never be drinking three parts of water, and only one of wine.' But Alexis in The Nurse urges a still more temperate mixture:77 'A. Look, here is wine. Shall I pour a "Triton"?78 B. No, it's much better as one and four. A. Too watery, that! However, drink it up and tell me the news; let's have some conversation while we drink.' And Diocles in The Bees:79 'A. How is the wine to be mixed that I am to drink? B. Four and two.' This last mixture, certainly, being contrary to custom, presently brought to mind the oft-repeated proverb, 'Drink either five or three or at least not four.' For they say one should drink two parts wine to five of water, or one part wine to three of water. In regard to this mixture, the poet Ion, in his work On Chios,80 says: 'The seer Palamedes  p433 prophesied that the Greeks would have a speedy voyage if they drank three cups to one.' But others, who adopted a stronger mixture81 in their potions, drank two parts of wine to five of water. Nicochares, for example, alluding in Amymone to the name Oenomaus,82 said:83 'Here, Oenomaus, your health in a five and two! May you and I be drinkers together.' He has similar lines also in The Lemnian Women.84 So Ameipsias in Playing at Cottabus:85 'I am Dionysus for you all, mixed five and two.' Eupolis in Goats:86 'Hail, Dionysus! Do you come with the taste of five and two?' Hermippus in The Gods:87 'Again, whenever we drink or are thirsty we pray, to meet the emergency, "Now my drinking-horn, turn into wine!" Then I carry it to the wine-merchant's, joking the while, and soon it has turned into five and two.' But in Anacreon we have one cup of wine to two of water:88 'Up then, my boy, and hand us a cup, that I may pledge a deep draught, pouring in ten cups of water and five of wine; for I want to celebrate Bacchus again with all decorum.' And going on, he calls the drinking unmixed wine  p435 a Scythian potion: 'Up then once most; let us no longer, amid clatter and shouting, practise a Scythian potion at our wine, but drink it calmly amid noble hymns of praise.' And so the Lacedaemonians assert, according to Herodotus in the sixth book,89 that their king Cleomenes, after associating with Scythians, became a drinker of unmixed wine and as a result of this dissipation he went mad. The Laconians themselves, therefore, whenever they want to drink a stronger90 mixture, call it 'drinking Scythian fashion.' Chamaeleon of Heracleia, for example, in his book On Drunkenness, writes of them thus:91 'For the Laconians say that Cleomenes the Spartiate went mad from learning to drink unmixed wine after associating with Scythians. Hence, whenever they wish to drink a stronger mixture, they say, "make it Scythian!" ' Achaeus in Aethon, a satyric drama,92 represents the satyrs as indignant at drinking watery wine, and saying: 'A. It can't be, can it, that the water93 was mixed in it too copiously? B. Why, it isn't lawful for our race even so much as to lick it. A. No! Right it were to celebrate with a Scythian drink.'94

"Now the practice of giving toasts among the participants in the entertainment, as Theophrastus says in his treatise On Drunkenness,95 was not known of old; on the contrary, in the beginning the libation was reserved for the gods, while the cottabus was the instrument whereby lovers were honoured. In  p437 fact they were assiduously devoted to the cottabus, which was a Sicilian game, as Anacreon of Teos has represented it:96 'With bended arm making the Sicilian cottabus ring.'97 Hence the songs of the ancient poets which we call 'scolia'98 are full of it; I refer to the kind which Pindar composed:99 '. . . the charms of love inspired by Aphrodite, that I may carouse in company with Cheimarus, and shoot the cottabus in honour of Agathon.' To deceased friends they assigned the pieces of food which fell from the table; hence Euripides says of Stheneboea, when she intermingles that Bellerophon is dead:100 Nothing that falls from her hand escapes her notice; no, she straightway cries, "To the Corinthian stranger." '

"Men of old did not get drunk; even Pittacus advised Periander of Corinth not to get drunk and not to revel, 'in order,' so he said, 'that you may not be recognized as the sort of man you happen to be, instead of the sort you pretend to be.' For 'bronze is the mirror of the outward form, wine the mirror of the mind.'101 Hence those who speak in proverbs well say that wine has no rudder. Xenophon, at least, the son of Gryllus, was once at the  p439 court of Dionysius of Sicily, and when the wine-pourer insisted that he should drink, he addressed the tyrant by name and said: 'Why, Dionysius, does not your cook, who is a good and versatile one, likewise compel us, when we are at dinner, to eat if we do not wish to, instead of setting the table for us in decent silence?' So also Sophocles in a satyric drama says102 that, after all, 'to drink against one's will is an evil as great as being a‑thirst.' Hence the common saying:103 'Wine bids an old man to dance en against his will.' So the poet Sthenelus says not ineptly: 'Wine moves even the wise to acts of folly.' And Phocylides said:104 'It behooves one at a symposium, as the cups go round and round, to sit and chat pleasantly while he drinks his wine.' This custom of sitting remains to this day among some Greeks.105 But when they began to luxuriate and have designate manners, they slid from chairs to couches, and taking as their ally relaxation and ease, from this time on they indulged in the carouse in zzz and disorderly fashion, being seduced into pleasure, I fancy, by their rich surroundings. Hence Hesiod says in Eoeae:106 'How hath Dionysus given unto men both joy and pain, when one drinketh abundantly; and wine hath  p441 come raging upon him and binds feet and hands together, tongue and reason in bonds unforeseen; then soft sleep embraces him.' Theognis, also, says:107 'I shall come even as the wine that is pleasant est to drink I am neither sober nor am I too much in my cups. But he, whosoever he be, who exceedeth measure in drinking, hath no longer power over his own tongue or his reason; he babbles recklessly of things which in sober men's eyes are scandalous; he scruples not to do anything when in his cups, though before he was discreet and gentle. Do thou not, then, knowing this, drink wine to excess, but ere though begin to be drunk, rise up and depart; let not thy belly do violence to thee as to some base day-labouring thrall.' The wise Anacharsis, too, explaining to the Scythian chieftain the virtue of the vine, and showing the cuttings from it, told him that they would already have reached even the Scythians did not the Greeks prune them every year.108

"Wrongful, then, is the method of those who represent Dionysus in sculpture and in painting, and also those who carry him in the cart through the middle of the market-place, in a state of drunkenness. For they thus prove to the spectators that wine is too potent even for the god. And yet surely, I fancy, no good man would tolerate that notion. But if they represent him in such a state because he revealed wine to us, then it is plain they will represent Demeter in the act of reaping or eating.  p443 I venture to assert that even Aeschylus erred in this; for he, and not, as some declare, Euripides, was the first to introduce the spectacle of drunken men into tragedy. In The Cabiri, namely, he represents Jason and his companions as drunk.109 What the tragedian was in the habit of doing himself, that he has fastened upon the heroes; he was drunk when he wrote his tragedies. [Aeschylus] was drunk when he wrote his tragedies. Hence Sophocles said to him in criticism, 'Aeschylus, though you write as you should, nevertheless you write so without knowing it'; so records Chamaeleon in his work On Aeschylus.110 They who say (this about Aeschylus) are unaware that Epicharmus was the first to bring a drunken man on the stage and after him, Crates in Neighbours.111 Alcaeus the lyric poet and Aristophanes the comic poet also were drunk when they composed their works, and many other persons have contended in battle more gloriously when in a state of inebriety. Among the Western Locrians, if anyone drank unmixed wine without a physician's prescription to effect a cure, the penalty was death under the code instituted by Zaleucus. Among the people of Massilia there was another law compelling women to drink only water. In Miletus, also, Theophrastus says112 that this is customary even to‑day. Among the Rhodians neither a slave nor a free-born woman could drink wine, neither could the young men of the free class up to thirty years of age.113 But Anacreon, who made all his poetry depend upon the subject of intoxication, is a singular case. For he is maligned for having given himself over in his poems to laxity and luxury, though the  p445 many do not know that he was sober while engaged in composing, and that, being an upright man, he merely pretends to be drunk, though there is no necessity for his being so.

"Those who are ignorant of the influence of wine allege that Dionysus is the cause of fits of madness among mankind; they blasphemy beyond all measure. Hence Melanippides said:114 'All abhorred water, though before they had known no wine. Soon then, right soon, some of them utterly perished, while others poured forth frenzied voices.' Aristotle says in the work On Drunkenness:115 'If wien be boiled down moderately, the drinking of it is less apt to cause intoxication; for the potency of it when boiled down becomes weaker. Older men, he continues, become intoxicated soonest because of the slightness and weakness of the natural heat contained within them. But very young persons also become intoxicated rather quickly because of the large amount of heat within them; for they are easily overpowered by the heat which is added from the wine. Among dumb animals, also, hogs become drunk when fed with masses of pressed grapes,116 also ravens and dogs117 if they have eaten the wine-plant, so‑called; the monkey and the elephant, too, if they drink wine. Hence hunters effect the capture of monkeys and ravens by getting them drunk, the first with wine, the second with the wine-plant.'

" 'What pleasure,' says Crobylus118 in The Woman who left her Husband, 'has continual drunkenness?  p447 It robs a man of his reason when he is still alive, and reason is the greatest boon our human nature has acquired.' And Alexis, in the revised edition of The Phrygian, says:119 'If the headache only came to us before we drink to intoxication, no one would ever indulge himself in wine immoderately. But as it is, foreseeing not that punishment for drunkenness will come, we readily give ourselves over to drinking unmixed cups.' Aristotle says120 that the so‑called Samagorean wine, when a bowl is prepared with only three half-pints of it mixed (with the water), can make more than forty men drunk."

The Editor's Notes:

1 Instead of the form dedeipnêkamen.

2 Kock II.334.

3 Ibid. 195.

4 Instead of dedeipnêkenai.

5 Kock II.70.

6 Kock I.511.

7 Kock I.455.

8 Ibid. 638.

9 Kock II.282.

10 Not êristêkamen"we have breakfasted." Kock I.520.

11 Ibid. 242 example of perfect infinitive êristanai instead of êristêkenai.

12 Kock I.738.

13 Infinitive; lit.: "squander in breakfasts."

14 Diels 603.

15 Perfect participle, formed regularly. Kock II.245.

16 61B, c.

17 Each bowl mixed at the symposium was named in honour of a god.

18 Kock II.44; the august goddess and king may be Olympias and Alexander.

19 Il. IX.203.

20 The word so translated, κύαθος, means also a half-pint, as a unit of measure.

21 akratesteron, lit.: "more unmixed"; zoroteron means the same.

22 Kock II.72; the elegiac couplet in a comedy is noteworthy.

23 Ibid. 68.

24 Kock II.255.

25 Il. IX.203.

26 zoroteron being a comparative, not a positive, form: so modern English "near" is really a comparative.

27 Kock II.559.

28 So said Heracleitus (Clem. Alex. Strom. VI.2): ψυχῇσι θάνατος ὕδωρ γενέσθαι, "water is death to souls."

29 116 Wimmer.

30 Frag. 35 Diels.

31 Kock I.650.

32 Ibid. 633, of the rascals Epicrates Phormisius, Athen. 229F (vol. III p34).

33 Kock I.683.

34 l. 541, referring to the island towns (πόλεις is the subject) which had been at war. But cyathus here means a surgeon's cupping-glass, used to reduce swellings: the commentator must have read κυάθοις (dative) προσκείμεναι, "devoted as they had been to their cups."

35 Cyropaed. I.3.9.

36 Kock II.192.

37 Kock I.174.

38 Frag. 46 Wachsmuth, 4 Diels, cf. Athen. 445E.

39 P. L. G.4 frag 25.

40 l. 855.

41 Kock I.381.

42 Athen. 469A.

43 Chap. 45.

44 P21 Blass.

45 viz., in the formation of the comparative.

46 Od. II.190, instead of aniaroteron.

47 T. G. F.2 24, instead of aphthonôteron.

48 Kaibel 113.

49 89 Blass, instead of raôna or raô.

50 61C, instead of kerannymi; but no form could be used in the subjunctive.

51 Kock I.759, instead of kerannyasi.

52 72 Blass.

53 Od. XV.141, Athen 18B.

54 Frag. 119 Wimmer.

55 Pollux VII.48 says they were used in the satyric drama.

56 Apollo.

57 Birthplace of Euripides.

58 Kock I.314.

59 II.319 Turnebus.

60 Frag. 16 Gaede.

61 P. L. G.4 frag. 8.

62 Ibid. frag. 51, Diehl frag. 135, Athen. 39A, 192C.

63 Il. III.245, Athen. 40A.

64 Il. III.268.

65 F. H. G.1.359.

66 Young people's gatherings.

67 F. H. G.3.67.

68 XIV.11, Athen. 576F.

69 Kock II.408.

70 Ibid. 241.

71 Ibid. 468.

72 Kock I.679.

73 Ibid. 69; "the drink that carries half and half" is strong, having equal parts of wine and water.

74 Kock III.60, Allinson 298.

75 Opp. 596.

76 Kock II.271.

77 Ibid. 380.

78 In Aristoph. Eq. 1188 Demos says: "How pleasant the drink is, carrying three parts so nicely"; to which continue Sausage-seller: "Yes, for the Triton-born (Athena) tritonized it," punning on τρίτος, "third," and Τρίτων. See critical note.

79 Kock I.768.

80 F. H. G.2.50.

81 Cf. Athen. 45D (vol. I p196).

82 As if from οἶνος, "wine."

83 Kock I.770.

84 Ibid. 773.

85 Ibid. 671; for the title see Athen. 665E.

86 Kock I.260.

87 Ibid. 230. See critical notes.

88 P. L. G.4 frag. 63, Diehl frag. 43, Athen. 475C.

89 Chap. 84.

90 Lit. "more unmixed."

91 Frag. 31 Koepke; Athen. 436E.

92 T. G. F.2 748; for the title see 270C note b (vol. III p214).

93 Lit. "the Acheloüs river." See vol. II p97 note a.

94 Text and meaning cannot be precisely determined.

95 Frag. 118 Wimmer.

96 P. L. G.4 frag. 53.

97 In this game, drops of wine (λάταγες) were flung at a small figure balanced upon a lampstand, or into a basin; the arm of the thrower was bent in an affected manner (Hesych. s.v. ἀγκύλη); the sound of the splash was interpreted as a love omen.

98 Glees sung by guests at dinner-parties.

99 P. L. G.5 441; the quotation is incomplete.

100 T. G. F.2 569.

101 Aeschylus, T. G. F.2 114.

102 T. G. F.2 291.

103 See Athen. 134C (Eriphus), and cf. Aristoph. Ran. 345 γόνυ . . . πάλλεται . . . ἱερᾶς ὑπὸ τιμᾶς, "the knees of the old men are all a‑quiver from this holy service" (of Dionysus).

104 P. L. G.4 frag. 11.

105 Athen 11F (vol. I p50).

106 Frag. 157 Rzach.

107 l. 477; the text of Athenaeus varies in details from the Theognidean MSS.

108 On Scythia as a wineless country see below, 441D.

109 T. G. F.2 31.

110 Frag. 22 Koepke, Athen. 22B.

111 Kock I.130.

112 Frag. 117 Wimmer.

113 Aelian, V. H. II.38, gives the age as thirty-five.

114 P. L. G.4 frag. 4.

115 P118 Rose.

116 The skins left over after the pressing of the wine.

117 Lit. "the race of ravens and of dogs."

118 Kock III.380, Athen. 443F.

119 Kock II.390.

120 P119 Rose.

Thayer's Note:

a The life and works of Antiphon are very thoroughly treated in Dobson's Greek Orators, chapter II.

Page updated: 1 Jul 13