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The Deipnosophistae


published in Vol. I
of the Loeb Classical Library edition,

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(Vol. I) Athenaeus

Book III
(Part 2 of 5)

 p367  (85C)Following the dishes just described, there were brought in for us separately plates of oysters in quantity, as well as other testaceous foods. Most of them, practically, I find have been thought worthy of mention by Epicharmus in the Marriage of Hebe:1 "He brings all sorts of shell-fish — limpets, lobsters, crabs, owl-fish, whelks . . . Dbarnacles, purple-shells, oysters tight-closed (to open them is no easy matter, but to eat them is easy enough), mussels, snails, periwinkles, and suckers (which are sweet to eat forthwith, but too acrid when preserved), and the long, round razor-fish; also the blackshell, to gather  p369 which brings fair profit to children; and on the other side are land-snails and sand-snails, Ewhich are held in poor esteem and are cheap, and which all mortals call androphyctides ('man-shy'), but we gods call whites."

But in the Muses,2 instead of the line "the shell, to gather which brings fair profit to children," is written "the shell which we call tellis ('long mussel'); and its meat is very pleasant." In what he says of the tellinê he probably means what the Romans call mitulus ("mussel"). Aristophanes the grammarian, who mentions it in the tract on The Broken Scroll,3 says that limpets are similar to the so‑called tellinae. FAnd Callias of Mitylene, on the word limpet in Alcaeus, says that there is an ode in the collection of Alcaeus's works which begins,4 "Child of the rocks and of the hoary sea," and at the end of it is written: "Limpet of the sea, swell the hearts of children." But Aristophanes writes "tortoise" in place of "limpet," and declares that Dicaearchus was mistaken in accepting "limpets" here; he adds that when children put them to their mouths, they blow into them like pipes and play tunes with them, precisely as our idle gamins play upon what we call tellinae ("sea-snails"). 86 So also Sopater, the writer of farces, says in the play entitled Eubulus the God-man:5 "But stay! for suddenly a melodious sound from a sea-snail has come to my  p371 ears." And again Epicharmus, in Pyrrha and Prometheus,6 says: "See now the sea-snail and the nereid, and how big the limpet is!" In Sophron7 conchs are called melaenides ("black-shells"): "For melaenides, you may be sure, will come to me from the little harbour." But in the mime entitled Fisher and Farmer8 he calls them cherambae. BArchilochus9 also mentions the cherambe, Ibycus,10 the nereid. The nereid (anaritês) is also called anartas. The oyster, being a mollusk, clings to rocks like the limpet. And Herondas, in Women at work together,11 has "clinging like an anaritês ('nereid') to the reefs." So Aeschylus, in the Persians,12 has the phrase "islands where the nereids feed." Homer mentions tethea.13

Diocles of Carystus, in his Hygiene, says that the best shell-fish, for digestion and for the kidneys, are mussels, oysters, scallops, and cockles. CAnd Archippus in The Fishes14a has "with limpet, sea-urchins, eschars, garfish, and scallops." Of shell-fish the kinds more conducive to strength, Diocles says, are snails, purple-shells, and periwinkles. Concerning the last Archippus has the following:14b "Periwinkle, nursling of the sea, son of purple-shell."  p373 Speusippus, in the second book of Similars, says that periwinkles, purple-shell, twisted snails, and conchs resemble each other. The twisted snails are mentioned also by Sophocles in the Camicians15 thus: D"Of this twisted snail from the sea — if, my child, we could find someone [to string it]."

Again, Speusippus enumerates in order the conchs, scallops, mussels, pinnas, and razor-fish, by themselves, and in another class, the oysters and limpets. And Araros, in The Hunchback,16 says: "These, then, were the tasty dainties — snails and razor-fish, and the wriggling shrimps leaped forth like dolphins." ESophron in the Mimes:17 "A. What in the world, my dear, are those long cylinders? — B. They are razor-fish, to be sure, a sweet-meated shell-fish, which many widowed women eagerly desire." The pinna is mentioned by Cratinus in the Archilochi (Satirists):18 "This, to be sure, is like a pinna or an oyster." Philyllius (or it may be Eunicus or Aristophanes), in the Island-Towns,19 says: "A tiny polyp and a squid, a crayfish, lobster, oyster, cockles, limpets, razor-fish, mussels, pinnas, scallops from Mitylene; bring small fry — red mullet, sargue, grey mullet, sea-perch, crow-fish."20 FAgias and Dercylus, in the  p375 History of Argolis,21 call the twisted snails astrabeli, and mention them for their usefulness in blowing as horns.

The word conch may be found either as a feminine or a masculine. Aristophanes in the Babylonians:22 "Every one of them began to open his mouth wide, 87 like conchs (conchae) baking on the coals." And Telecleides, in the Hesiods,23 has "a conch (concha) to crack." So, too, Sophron in Mimes of Women:24 "Why! all the conchs, as at a single command, open wide for us, and the flesh of each one pokes out." But Aeschylus has it masculine in the Sea Glaucus:25 "conchs (conchi), mussels, and oysters." Aristonymus in Theseus,26 in the same gender: "There was a conch (conchus) like soused pipe-mussels." BIn the same way Phrynichus also uses the word in the Satyrs.27

Hicesius, the disciple of Erasistratus, says that some cockles are called rough, others are called regal. The rough are also of poor flavour and afford little nourishment, but are easily passed; purple-fishers use them also for bait; of the smooth varieties, on the other hand, their excellence increases with their size. Hegesander, in the Commentaries,28 says that the rough-shelled conchs are called "sacks" by the Macedonians, but "rams" by the Athenians.

CHicesius further says that limpets are most easily digested of all the varieties of sea-food mentioned above; oysters are less nourishing than they, but are filling and rather easy to digest. "Scallops are more  p377 nourishing, but have not so good a flavour and are harder to digest. As for mussels, those from Ephesus and similar kinds are better in flavour than scallops, but are inferior to cockles; they tend to cause urination rather than loosening of the bowels. Some of them, also, are like squills, with poor flavour, and uninviting to the taste. DThe smaller kinds among them, and those that are rough outside, are more diuretic and better flavoured than the squill-like, but are less nourishing, partly because of their small size, and partly because of their nature. The 'necks' of the periwinkle are wholesome, but contain less nutriment than mussels, cockles, and scallops; for persons with weak stomachs, who do not easily work off their food into the abdominal tract, they are useful, not being liable to fermentation. This is because foods admittedly easy to digest are, by a reverse process, alien to a constitution of this sort, Esince their tenderness and solubility make their fermentation easy. Hence the 'livers' of these testacea, while not good for stomachs in good condition, are beneficial for weakness in the bowels. More nourishing and more enjoyable than these are the 'livers' of purple-shells, but they are more quill-like in effect; in fact the whole of the bivalve has this character. A peculiarity also attendant upon them, and upon the razor-fish as well, is that they thicken the broth in which they are cooked. But even when the 'necks' of purple-shells are cooked by themselves, they are good for stomach affections." FPoseidippus mentions them in the Locrian Women29 thus: " 'Tis  p379 time to conclude; eels, crayfish, conchs, sea-urchins freshly caught, livers, pinnas, necks, mussels."

The larger barnacles are easy to digest and have a good flavour. But ear-mussels, found on the island called Pharos, opposite Alexandria, are more nourishing than all the aforesaid kinds, though they are not so digestible. 88 Antigonus of Carystus, in his treatise on Diction,30 says that this shell-fish is called "Aphrodite's ear" by the Aeolians. The "borers"31 are more nourishing, but have a rank smell. The tethea32 are similar to those just mentioned, and more nourishing. There occur also the so‑called wild mollusks; these are filling, but have a rank smell and are poor in flavour.

BAristotle, in the Zoology,33 says "the testacea comprise the pinna, oyster, mussel, scallop, razor-fish, conch, limpet, ascidium, and barnacle. Those that have locomotion are the periwinkle, purple-shell, sweet purple-shell, sea-urchin, and twisted snail. Further, the scallop has a rough shell, striated, while the ascidium is not striated, but smooth-shelled; the pinna has a small mouth, while the oyster is wide-mouthed, a rough-shelled bivalve; but the limpet is a univalve and smooth-shelled; the shell of the mussel is composed of two parts exactly alike, while that of the razor-fish and the barnacle is single and smooth; that of the conch partakes of the nature of both." CThe inside of the pinna, as Epaenetus says in the Art of Cookery, is called the "liver."

In the fifth book of his History of Animals,34 Aristotle  p381 says: "Purple-shells spawn in springtime, periwinkles as winter draws to a close. In general (he says) the testacea appear to have what are called eggs in the spring and even in the autumn, excepting the edible urchins. The last propagate most at these seasons, but also continually at all times,35 and rather more at the full moon and on sunny days, excepting those in the Pyrrhaean Euripus; Dthe others, however, are better in winter; they are small and full of eggs. It appears also that all sea-snails spawn alike at the same season." Proceeding, the philosopher says again:36 "So the purple-shells swarm in spring in the same place and produce what is termed the honeycomb. This is a kind of wax, though not so smooth, as if a large mass from the husks of white pulse were solidified. None of them has any vent, nor do purple-shells propagate from this, Ebut they and all other testacea spring from slime and decomposition. This is a sort of excretion which occurs in them and in the periwinkles; for the latter also produce the waxy substance. They begin the process by excreting a sticky pulp, of which the husk-like parts are composed. After this is completely discharged, they let out a watery substance into the earth; here then, in the earth, are formed little purple-shells, which the adults are found to contain when caught. FAnd if they are caught before hatching occurs, they sometimes bring forth the young in the fishermen's baskets, collecting in the same spot, and a kind of cluster is formed. There are several  p383 varieties of purple-shell; some are large, like those of Sigeium and Lectum, while others are small, as in the Euripus and on the coast of Caria. Further, those which are found in bays are large and rough, 89 and have in most cases a dark dye; but some also have a little red. Some of the large specimens weigh as much as a pound. Those which are found on the shore and off headlands are small in size, but contain the red dye. Again, on shore facing the north they are generally dark-dyed, whereas on south shores they are red."

Apollodorus of Athens, in his Commentary on Sophron, after prefixing the lemma "greedier than purple-shells,"37 explains that it is a proverb, and says that according to some authorities it is derived from the dye; Bfor whatever it touches it draws to itself, and produces the glint of its own colour in whatever is placed beside it. But others refer it to the animal itself. "And they are caught," says Aristotle,38 "in the spring, but never in the season of the Dog-star; for they do not feed at that time, but hide themselves and live in holes. The dye is contained between the liver and the neck." "And39 the purple-shell as well as the periwinkle has from germination the same kind of operculum which other spiral mollusks have. They feed by thrusting out the 'tongue,' as it is called, beneath the operculum. CThe purple-shell has a 'tongue' more than an inch long, by which it feeds and bores through other shell-fish as well as its own shell. Both purple-shell and periwinkle have long lives, extending to about six years. Their growth may be discerned by the coil  p385 in the shell. Conchs, cockles, razor-fish, and scallops are produced in sandy places."

"Pinnas grow in an upright position from the sea bottom, and contain the 'pinna's guard,' Dwhich may be a small prawn or a small crab. If these are taken away, they quickly die." Pamphilus of Alexandria, in his work on Names, says this parasite is born with them. And Chrysippus of Soli, in the fifth book on Pleasure and the Good, says: "The pinna and its guard co-operate with each other, and they cannot live separately. Now the pinna is a shell-fish, but the its parasite is a small crab. The pinna opens its shell and quietly waits for small fish to approach, Ewhile the parasite stands by and bites it as a signal when anything comes near; the pinna feels the bite and closes, and in this way they eat up together whatever is caught inside." Some authorities also say that they are procreated together, and as it were from the same seed. Aristotle, again, says:40 "All testacea grow in slimy matter, oysters in mud, but conchs and the others described in sand, while ascidia, barnacles, and those that cling to surfaces, like limpets and nereid snails, grow in the hollows of the rocks."

F"Creatures which have no shells, like the actinia and the sponges, grow in the same way as testacea, in hollows of the rocks. There are two classes of actinia; one class, formed in cavities, never separate from the rocks; the other, living in smooth and level places, let go their hold and move about."41 Eupolis, in the Autolycus,42 calls the actinia nettles, 90 and so does Aristophanes in the Phoenician Women:43  p387 "Grasp the fact, that first of all spike-lavender came into being, and after that the rock-nettles." He mentions them also in the Wasps.44 Pherecrates in the Deserters:45 "To wear a crown of nettles for an equal length of time."

The physician Diphilus of Siphnos says: "The nettle eases the bowels, is a diuretic, and generally wholesome; but it causes the itch in those who gather them unless they first smear themselves with oil." As a matter of fact, it does injury to those who gather them, and by them is to‑day called nettle by a slight alteration of words.46 B(Possibly the plant nettle gets its name from it.) By a euphemism, i.e. substitution, it is so called; for it is not gentle and quiet to the touch, but rough and disagreeable. The marine nettle, to be sure, is mentioned by Philippides47 in Amphiaraus thus: "Oysters, nettles, and limpets he served to me." But there is a play on the word in the Lysistrata48 of Aristophanes: "Nay, thou bravest daughter of ascidian grandmothers and motherkins who were nettles." For tethea (ascidia) are shell-fish, but there is also a comic mixing with tethê, "grandmother," and with "mother."

Concerning other shell-fish Diphilus has this to say: C"The rough-shelled cockles of the smaller sorts, having flesh of tenuous consistency, are called oysters, and are wholesome and digestible; but the smooth kinds, by some called regal, also giant,49 while nourishing, are hard to digest; they are well-flavoured and  p389 wholesome, more especially the larger ones. Tellinae50 are found at Canobus in large numbers and are abundant about the time when the Nile is rising. Of these the regal are more tender and light, and promote digestion; moreover they are nourishing. The river varieties are sweeter. DMussels are moderately nourishing; they promote digestion and are diuretic. The best are the Ephesian, especially when taken in the autumn. The myiscae51 are smaller than mussels proper, but are sweet and well-flavoured and are nourishing besides. Razor-fish, so named by some, but by others pipes, reeds, or finger-nails, contain much liquid of poor flavour and sticky. The males among them are striated and not of one colour; they are good for patients who suffer from stone or a stricture of any kind. EBut the females are of one colour and are sweeter. They are eaten boiled or fried, but those that are baked on coals until the shells open are better."

"Solenists" ("razor-fish catchers") was the name given to the men who gather these shell-fish, as Phaenias of Eresus records in the book entitled Tyrants killed in Revenge. He writes as follows: "Philoxenus, surnamed the Solenist, rose from the position of demagogue to that of tyrant. At first he got his living as a fisherman Fand was a catcher of razor-fish; but having got together some capital he won a competence by trade on a larger scale."

"Of the scallops52 the white varieties are tenderer; for they are free from odour and good for the bowels. Of the dark or reddish varieties the larger and fleshy specimens have a fine flavour. In general, they are  p391 all wholesome, easily digested, and good for the bowels, when eaten with cummin and pepper." Archippus mentions them in The Fishes:53 "With limpets, sea-urchins, eschars, garfish, and scallops."

91 "And the barnacles,54 which take their name from their likeness to the acorns on oaks, differ according to locality. For the Egyptian are sweet, tender, well-flavoured, nourishing, have abundant liquor, and are diuretic and good for the bowels; but others are too salty. Ear-mussels are hard to digest, although more nourishing when fried. 'Borers'55 have a good flavour but a bad smell and liquor. Urchins are tender, juicy, of high odour, filling, and easily digested; again, when eaten in sweet pickle, with parsley and mint, they are wholesome, sweet, and well-flavoured. BThose which have a red or quince colour and are fatter are pleasanter to eat, as well as those which, when the meat is scraped, exude a milky liquor. Those which occur in Cephallenia and Icaria and the Adriatic . . . are in some cases rather bitter; those, again, which are found on the Sicilian cliff are laxative."

Aristotle says56 that there are several kinds of urchins; one is the edible kind, in which are found the so‑called eggs, and there are two others, heart-urchins and brysi,57 as they are called. Sophron mentions58 heart-urchins, and so does Aristophanes in The Merchantmen,59 thus: C"Biting, pulling to  p393 pieces, and licking my urchin down below." Epicharmus, also, in The Marriage of Hebe60 says of the urchins: "Crabs have come, and sea-urchins, too, which know not how to swim over the briny sea, but alone of all creatures navigate61 on foot." Demetrius of Scepsis, in the twenty-sixth book of The Trojan Battle-Order,62 says that a Spartan was once invited to a feast where sea-urchins were served on his table; he grasped one, but not knowing how to deal with the viand, Dand not even observing how his convives disposed of it, he put it into his mouth, shell and all, and tried to crack the urchin with his teeth. Since he had a hard time with the bite and did not comprehend what its rough resistance meant he cried, "You rascally morsel, I won't be soft and let you go now, nor will I ever again take another." Now the urchins, I mean both terrestrial and marine, guard themselves against the fishers by projecting their spines like a fence of palings. This is attested by Ion of Chios, who says, in The Phoenician (or Caeneus):63 "But among land animals I like the ways of the lion Erather than the miserable arts of the urchin (hedgehog), which, when it perceives the hostile approach of others stronger than itself, winds its spiny body in a ball and lies still, invincible against bite and touch."

"Of the limpet," says Diphilus, "some are small and some also resemble oysters. They are tough,  p395 with little juice, not very pungent, of good flavour and easily digested; when boiled, too, they are tolerably well-flavoured. Pinnas are diuretic and filling, but hard to digest and assimilate. The periwinkles resemble them; for their necks are wholesome, but not readily digested. FHence for patients with weak stomachs they are proper food; but they are hard to pass, and moderately filling. The 'livers' ('poppies,' so‑called) are tender at the base and digestible. Hence they are fit for those who suffer from abdominal weakness. The purple-shells stand midway between the pinna and the periwinkle; for their necks have much liquor and a good flavour, while the remaining part of them is salty and sweet, readily assimilated, and good for modifying the humours. Oysters are reproduced in rivers, lagoons, and the sea. 92 But sea oysters are the best, when a lagoon or a river is near. For then they have a good liquor, and are larger and sweeter. Those which are found on beaches or rocks and are untouched by slime or fresh water are small, tough, and biting to the tongue. The spring shell-fish, and those which come at the beginning of summer, are superior, being plump and having a sea flavour mixed with sweetness; they are wholesome and digestible. Cooked with mallow or sorrel or fish, or even alone, they are nourishing and good for the bowels."

BMnesitheus of Athens, in his work on Victuals, says: "Oysters, cockles, mussels, and the like, contain a meat not easily digested on account of the salty liquor which they contain. Hence when eaten raw they draw down the bowels by their saltiness, whereas  p397 when cooked they lose all or most of their salt in the liquor in which they are cooked. Hence, also, the liquids in which any shell-fish are cooked stir and move the bowels, but the meat of cooked shell-fish causes rumblings when it has lost its moisture. CBut baked shell-fish, provided the baking be done with skill, have the least harmful effect on account of the action of the heat. Consequently they are not as indigestible as the raw, having all the liquids which disturb the bowels thoroughly dried up. And so the nourishment afforded by all shell-fish is liquid and hard to digest, and at the same time is not conducive to urination. But the nettle, the urchin's eggs, and similar food afford a nourishment which, though the liquid is slight, tends to relax the bowels and stimulate the kidneys."

Nicander of Colophon in the Georgics64 makes this catalogue of the testacea: D"And all the shell-fish which feed at the bottom of the ocean — sea snails, conchs, giant clams, and mussels, slimy offspring of Halosdyne65 — and the hiding-place of the pinna itself." And Archestratus also has a list in his Gastronomy:66 "Aenus produces large mussels, Abydus oysters, Parium crabs, and Mitylene scallops. Ambracia, too, supplies very many, and along with them monstrous . . . and in Messene's narrow frith thou shalt get giant whelks, in Ephesus also the smooth67  p399 cockles, not to be despised. ECalchedon gives oysters,68 but as for periwinkles ('heralds') may Zeus confound them, whether they come from the sea or the assembly, excepting one man only. That man is my comrade, his home is in Lesbos of the luscious grapes, and his name is Agathon." Philyllius — or whoever is the author of The Island-Towns69 — has "cockles, limpets, razor-fish, mussels, pinnas, Methymne scallops."

The early writers used only the form ostreia for oysters. Cratinus in The Archilochi (Satirists),70 F"like pinnas and ostreia." So Epicharmus in The Marriage of Hebe71 has "ostreia clinging together." But Plato in the Phaedrus72 has ostreon73 like orneon ("bird"): "held imprisoned like an oyster"; and again in the Timaeus:74 "the entire family of ostrea"; on the other hand, in the tenth book of the Republic75 he has: "ostreia and sea-weed cling to him."

The giant whelks received their name from the word pelorion, "monstrous." For the creature is larger than the ordinary cockle, in fact, it is of extraordinary size. 93 Aristotle says they occur in the sand, and Ion of Chios mentions them in his Sojournings.76 Perhaps these conchs derive their name (chema) from cechena, meaning "to yawn."

Concerning the mollusks which are found in India, since the vogue of pearls makes it appropriate to include them in our mention, Theophrastus writes as follows in his work on Stones:77 "Among stones which are much admired is the so‑called margaritês,  p401 or pearl, of translucent quality; with it are made the costliest necklaces. It occurs in a shell-fish similar to the pinna, but smaller, and its size is that of a large fish eye." Androsthenes, also, in the Voyage round India,78 writes as follows: Bº"The varieties of spiral shell-fish, sea-mussels, and other cockles are numerous, and they differ greatly from those we know at home. Purple-shells, and a vast number of other shell-fish as well, occur there. One in particular, which the natives call berberi, or mother-of‑pearl, is that from which the pearl comes. This is of high value in Asia Minor, and in Persia and Upper Asia is sold for its weight in gold. This mollusk looks like the scallop; Cits shell, however, is not grooved, but is smooth and thick; unlike the scallop, moreover, it has but one auricula, not two. The jewel occurs in the flesh of the mollusk, like the tubercle in swine,a and is sometimes so very golden in appearance that when placed side by side with gold it cannot be readily distinguished from it; sometimes, again, it is silvery, and sometimes perfectly white, resembling the eye of a fish." And Chares of Mitylene says, in the seventh part of his Tales of Alexander:79 "A creature similar to the oyster is caught in the Indian Sea, likewise also in the waters adjacent to Armenia, Persia, Susa, and Babylon;80 Dit is of considerable size and oblong, and contains within it a flesh which is plump and white and very fragrant. From it they extract white bones which they call pearls, from which they make necklaces, bracelets, and anklets. The Persians, Medes, and in fact all  p403 Asiatics value them far more than articles made of gold."

Isidorus of Charax, in his Description of Parthia, says that there is an island in the Persian Gulf Ewhere pearls are found in abundance; wherefore the island is surrounded with bamboo rafts from which the natives dive in twenty fathoms of water and bring up bivalves. They say that the mollusk is most apt to teem with pearls when thunderstorms and downpourings of rain are frequent, and the pearls found then are most numerous and of good size. In winter the mollusks have a habit of entering recesses at the bottom of the ocean; Fbut in summer they swim about, with shells open at night but closed by day. Those which cling to rocks or cliffs send forth roots and remain there while they produce the pearls. These are kept alive and nourished through the part which adheres to the flesh, and this part, which grows at the mouth of the shell, has tentacles and introduces the food. It is, in fact, similar to a little crab, and is called pinna-guard ("hermit-crab").81 From this opening the flesh projects to the middle of the shell, like a root, and on this the pearl is propagated, and it grows on the tough part of the shell, receiving food so long as the oyster clings to the rock. 94 As growth proceeds, the flesh rises under it and gradually forces its way between so as to separate the pearl from the shell, until it envelops the pearl entirely and ceases to nourish it, making it smoother and more glistening and pure. Now the purest  p405 pearls, those which are most lustrous and large, are produced in the pinna which remains on the ocean bottom, whereas the pinna which grows at the surface, emerging about the water and receiving the direct rays of the sun, is of inferior colour and of less value. BPearl-fishers run risks when they put their hands straight into an open shell; for in that case it closes up, and often severs the fingers; some even die on the spot. But if they succeeded in getting the hand under the shell sideways, they can easily tear it from the rock.

Smaragdi are mentioned by Menander in The Slave:82 "These should be an emerald and carnelians." The word should be pronounced without an s, because it is derived from marmairo ("sparkle"), with reference to its lustre.

The Loeb Editor's Notes:

1 Kaibel 98. The κράβυζοι, κικίβαλοι, and τηθυνάκια are unidentified mollusks.

2 Kaibel 98.

3 p274 Nauck, commenting on a phrase in Archilochus, P. L. G.4 frag. 89. For σκυτάλη cf. Athen. 451D.

4 P. L. G.4 frag. 51.

5 Kaibel 193.

6 Kaibel 112.

7 Kaibel 170.

8 Kaibel 162.

9 P. L. G.4 frag. 198.

10 P. L. G.4 frag. 22.

11 Frag. 2 Bergk, 11 Nairn.

12 See critical note, and T. G. F.2 90.

13 Commonly translated "oysters," Iliad XVI.747, but seemingly related to the Ascidia.

14a 14b Kock I.683. The ἐσχάραι mentioned remain unidentified. Kock reads ἐσχάροις (Athen. 330A), but they are not mollusks.

15 T. G. F.2 201. See critical note.

16 Kock II.217; cf. 47D.

17 Kaibel 158.

18 Kock I.14.

19 Kock I.785.

20 A black perch of the Nile, named from the raven (κόραξ).

21 F. H. G. IV.386, 292.

22 Kock I.409.

23 Kock I.214.

24 Kaibel 158.

25 T. G. F.2 13.

26 Kock I.668.

27 Kock I.383.

28 F. H. G. IV.420.

29 Kock III.339.

30 p174 Wilamowitz.

31 Making holes in the rocks — lithodomi.

32 See above, 86B, and note.

33 p229 Rose; the proper title is περὶ ζωικῶν, which Rose reads here.

34 Hist. An. V.544 A15.

35 See critical note.

36 Hist. An. V.546 B18.

37 Kaibel 165.

38 Hist. An. V.547 A13.

39 Op. cit. V.547 B3.

40 Hist. An. 547 B18.

41 Hist. An. 548 A22.

42 Kock I.272.

43 Kock I.534; cf. Athen. 62D.

44 884.

45 Kock I.152.

46 The confused etymology is this: akalephe, "nettle," is for akale haphe, "general to the touch," akale being a euphemism for "not gentle"; a case of lucus a non lucendo.

47 Kock III.302.

48 l. 549.

49 Cf. πελωρίδες, 92F.

50 See 85E.

51 "Little mussels."

52 Diphilus is resumed.

53 Kock I.683; cf. 86C.

54 Cf. 87F.

55 Cf. 88A.

56 Hist. An. IV.530 A34.

57 Spatangus is the name given to‑day to the heart-urchin. Aristophanes uses the word sensu obscaeno. The brysi are not otherwise identified.

58 Kaibel 171.

59 Kock I.497.

60 Kaibel 100.

61 ἐμπορεύονται is a fantastic word here, since it is properly used of a passenger on board ship. Not to know how to swim was accounted stupidity.

62 Frag. 15 Gaede.

63 T. G. F.2 739.

64 Frag. 83 Schneider.

65 See critical note, and cf. Od. IV.404, where the seals are said to be the offspring of Halosdyne, "sea-born," an epithet of Amphitrite.

66 Frag. 50 Ribbeck.

67 Cf. 87B.

68 See 86B, note.

69 Kock I.785; cf. 86E, 104F.

70 Kock I.14.

71 Kaibel 98; cf. above, 85D.

72 250C.

73 Without the i.

74 92B.

75 611D.

76 F. H. G. II.47.

77 Chap. 36.

78 Frag. 1 Müller.

79 Frag. 12 Müller.

80 In other words, the Indian Ocean, Black Sea, Persian and Arabian Gulfs.

81 See critical note.

82 Kock III.108, Allinson, Menander 421. σμάραγδος or μάραγδος is a name applied apparently to any green crystal. The Sardian stone is sometimes the carnelian, sometimes the sardine.

Thayer's Note:

a Bezoars, even more commonly found in goats and sheep; in pigs, they can be induced by aspirin, among other things. For these fascinating "stones", see Sir Thomas Browne, Pseudodoxia Epidemica III.23, and Acosta, Primerose, Texeira and de Boodt, all linked in the notes there.

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