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This webpage reproduces a section of
The Deipnosophistae


published in Vol. IV
of the Loeb Classical Library edition,

The text is in the public domain.

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(Vol. IV) Athenaeus

Book IX
(Part 5 of 5)

 p329  (403D)Upon these words, we were handed the "rose-dish," as it is called, the praises of which our wise cook declaimed before he showed us what he was bringing. And he laughed in mockery at the celebrated cooks of the past, mentioning whom he said: "What did the cook in the comic poet Anaxippus ever invent to equal this? That cook boasted thus in Behind the Veil:1 'A. Sophon of Acarnania and Damoxenus of Rhodes were fellow-pupils in this art; their teacher was Labdacus of Sicily. These men, to be sure, wiped out the old trite seasonings from the cookery-books, and utterly abolished from our midst the mortar; I mean, for example, caraway-seed, vinegar, silphium, cheese, coriander, seasonings which Cronus2 used; all of these they have removed, thinking that he who used such devices was a mere huckster. But they themselves, for, desired only oil and a new stewpan, and a fire that was quick and not blown too often; with that they prepare every dinner. They were the first to take away tears and loud sneezing and sniffling from the table, and they cleaned completely the  p331 ducts of the eaters. Now the Rhodian died from drinking a briny pickle; Bfor that drink was against nature. B. Why, of course! A. But Sophon now sways the whole of Ionia, and he was my teacher, governor. I myself am making researches, eager to leave behind me new treatises of my own on the art. B. Bah! You'll butcher me, not the animal we intend to sacrifice. A. At early morn you will see me, books in hand, studying the details of my art, Cin nowise different from Diodorus of Aspendus.3 I'll give you a taste, if you like, of my inventions; I don't place the same viands before all persons all the time; they are designed at the start to meet their modes of life; some foods are for lovers, some for philosophers, some for tax-collectors. A lad has a girl he is courting, he is eating up his father's estate. Before him I place cuttle-fishes, squids, and various rock-fishes served with dainty sauces; for a person like that is not particular what he eats, but has his thoughts continually on love-making. Before the philosopher I place a ham, or pigs' feet; the creature is excessively greedy. Before a tax-collector, a grey-fish, an eel, a gilt-head. When one is near the grave,4 I prepare for him some lentil-soup, and make the crowning meal5 of his life glorious. The palates of old men are different, and they are much duller  p333 than those of the young. ETo the old I serve mustard and make sauces as pungent as their own natures, that I may excite and expand6 the gas within them. After seeing a man's face I shall know what every one among you desires to eat.' Again, gentlemen of Dinnerville, what says the cook in The Law-giver7 of Dionysius? For it is worth while to mention him also: 'A. You have done me a great favour, Simias, the gods are my witness, in giving me this warning; for the cook must know a very long time before he undertakes to prepare his dinner the persons for whom he is to prepare the dinner. If he simply looks at this one question alone, how he is to prepare a dish according to style, and does not foresee and take thought of this, namely, in what manner he is to serve it, or at what moment or in what way he is to dress it, then he is no longer a cook, but only a hash-slinger. No, and the same thing, the difference is great. For not every one is called a general who gets office, but only he who is able to move at ease amid trouble, and see clearly what is to be done, is a general, while the other is merely a leader; just so it is in our power to dress dishes, to carve, to cook sauces, to blow the fire; anybody can do that; a hash-slinger is only the man of that sort, but the cook is something else. To understand  p335 the proper place, season, host, and again the guest, when and what fish he should buy, is not for any ordinary person; you can always get the same dish, nearly, everywhere; but you can't always feel the same charm in these dishes nor have the flavour equal. Archestratus is an authority who has won repute in this way among certain persons, as though what he said were good advice. But he is ignorant of most things, and doesn't tell us anything. Don't listen to everything, and don't try to learn everything.8 So far as books are concerned, what there pertains to our art is more useless than it was when the books had not yet been written.9 No, you can't explain the art of cookery; for someone lately said . . . For the art has taken on no limits and no authority, and she is her own master. But though you may pursue the art well, yet lose the crucial moment in it, the art is lost besides. SMIAIS. Man, you're great! A. Yes, but as for that fellow who, you said just now, has come with the knowledge of many sumptuous banquets, I'll make him forget them all, Simias, if I can only show him an omelette, and set before him a dinner redolent of the Attic breeze. He will come to me as from dirty bilge-water, still full of the food they serve in a freight-ship, with all its agony, but I will put him to sleep with my entrée.' "

 p337  In answer to this Aemilianus said: "as Hegesippus says in Brothers:10 'My good sir, much has been said by many men on the subject of cookery.' 'A. Do you either prove that you can do something novel (as compared with your predecessors), or else stop butchering me; and show us what you are bringing in and tell us what it is.' " The cook replied: " 'B. You despise me perhaps because I am a cook; for what I have accomplished in this art of mine,' — to quote Demetrius; he says, in the play entitled The Areopagite:11 'B. But what I have accomplished in this art of mine, no play-actor has ever accomplished at all. This art of mine is an empire of smoke. I was sour-sauce-maker at the court of Seleucus, and in the household of Agathocles of Sicily I was the first to introduce the royal lentil-soup. But I haven't mentioned the thing most important; a certain Lachares12 was trying to entertain his friends in time of famine, and I saved the day by introducing some capers.' " " 'A. Yes, Lachares stripped Athena bare, though she never bothered him at all; but I will strip you bare this minute, because you bother me,' unless you show what you are bringing in," said Aemilianus. So at last the cook said: "I give the name of 'rose-dish' to this casserole; it is prepared in such a fashion that when you get it you may have not merely a sauce  p339 fit to wreathe the head,13 but even inside of you, you may feast your little body with a complete dinner. I crushed the most fragrant roses in a mortar, then laid on carefully boiled brains of fowls and pigs, from which the stringy fibres had been removed, also the yolks of eggs; then olive-oil, garum-sauce, pepper, and wine. All this I stirred thoroughly and placed in a new casserole, giving it a fire that was gentle and steady." With these words he opened the casserole and produced for the company such a delicious odour that one of the company truly said: "If it were but shaken, in the bronze-floored mansion of Zeus, tis fragrance went forth even to earth and to heaven."14 So great was the fragrance diffused from the roses.

After this there were brought in "roast fowls, lentil-sup and peas, pots and all";15 also such foods as Phaenias of Eresus writes of in his work On Plants. He says: "Every cultivated leguminous plant that is grown from seed is sown in order to be boiled, as the bean and the pea; for a boiled dish like porridge is the result; then there are, again, the yolk-coloured vetches, like the chickling; and the sort boiled to make lentil-sup, as the tare and lentil; again there is that which is used as fodder for four-footed animals, like bitter-vetch for plough-cattle, and tares for sheep." The leguminous vegetable called the pea is mentioned by Eupolis in The Golden Age.16 DThe geographer Heliodorus in the first book of his work On the Acropolis17 says: "When the boiling of wheat grains was invented, the ancients called the dish  p341 pyanos,18 but the moderns call it holopyros (whole wheat)." While much conversation of this sort was in progress, Democritus said: Yes, but at least permit us to get our share of the lentil-soup, or of the pot itself, if you don't want to be pelted with stones, like hegemon of Thasos." And Ulpian said: "What means this stony pelting? I know, indeed, of a festival held in my own Eleusis which is called Pelting (Balletys). But I'll not say a word about it unless I get a reward from every one of you." "Why," said Democritus, "not being myself a 'money-grabbing speaker-by‑the-hour,' like Timon's Prodicus,19 I will tell what I know about Hegemon freely. Chamaeleon of Pontus in the sixth book of his work On the Old Comedy says:20 'Hegemon of Thasos, the first to write parodies, had the nickname of "Lentil-soup," and in one of his parodies he wrote:21 'Whilst I was musing on this, Pallas Athene stood beside me,22 holding a golden wand, and she drave me and spoke a word:23 'What dire ailment hast thou,24 loathsome Lentil-soup? Go ye into the contest.' And then I took heart."25 Now he once entered the theatre to produce a comedy, with his cloak full of stones, which he threw into the orchestra and caused the spectators to wonder what it was all about. After a pause he  p343 said: nnn"Here are stones for you; let anyone who wants to, throw them; lentil-soup is a good thing winter or summer."26 The man was famous chiefly for his parodies, and made himself the talk of the town by his mischievous and theatrical recitation of epic lines; for this he became famous in Athens. With his Battle of the Giants he beguiled the Athenians to such an extraordinary degree that they laughed most heartily on that evil day when reports came to them in the theatre of the disasters in Sicily. No one left the theatre, therefore, although practically all of them had lost relatives. They therefore wept in secret, and did not leave, in order that the spectators from other cities might not see that they were disturbed by the calamity; and they remained to listen to the end, although Hegemon himself, when he heard the news, had decided to stop the recitation. At the time when the Athenians, at the height of their sea power, were transferring the hearing of lawsuits affecting the islands to the city, someone indicted Hegemon also, and took his suit to Athens. He, on his arrival there, gathered together the artists of Dionysus27 and went in their company to demand the aid of Alcibiades. He urged them to have no fear, and telling them all to follow him he went to the temple of the Mother of the Gods, where the indictments of suits were kept; there he wet his finger with his tongue and rubbed out the case against Hegemon. The clerk and the magistrate, though they were indignant, held their peace on account of Alcibiades'  p345 influence, especially as the plaintiff in the case had discreetly defaulted.' Here you have, Ulpian, our account of the pelting-festival. When you like, you shall tell us of the one at Eleusis." DAnd Ulpian said: "Good Democritus, you have mentioned a pot, and thereby reminded me that I have often wanted to learn what the so‑called pot of Telemachus is, and who is this Telemachus." Democritus said: "Timocles, the poet of comedy (he was also a writer of tragedy) in the play Forgetfulness, says:28 'After him, Telemachus met another man whom he greeted very heartily and then said: "Lend me the pots in which you boil your beans." Yes, that's what he said; and again, seeing Pheidippus, the fat son of Chaerephilus, passing in the distance, he whistled to him, and told the other to send large hampers.'29 That Telemachus was of the deme Acharnae is shown by the same poet thus, in Dionysus:30 'A. The Acharnian Telemachus keeps up his public speaking still. He's also like our newly-purchased Syrian slaves. B. How's that? What does he do? I am anxious to learn. A. He carries in his arms a pot beans for the harvest-festival.'31 And in Icarian Satyrs Timocles says:32 'Hence we had  p347 nothing in the house. Then I spent a miserable night trying to sleep first on a hard bed, and Thudippus completely suffocated us with his smells, and hunger gripped us as well. Then I rushed to the ardent33 Dion, but even he had nothing. I went then to the good Telemachus of Acharnae, and, finding a heap of beans, I grabbed some and ate them up. But when the donkey saw us, like Cephisodorus on the platform, he let forth wind.' In the light of this, it is plain that Telemachus constantly fed on pots of beans, and celebrated Bean-Festival34 as a windy holiday. A porridge of beans is mentioned by the comic poet Heniochus in Trochilus; he says:35 'A. I was reflecting, so help me, how much better figs are than cress.36 But you say that you have talked with Pauson about the — the — thingumbob? B. Yes, and he was asking me about a very difficult matter, which led into many pathways of anxious thought.37 A. Tell it; for doubtless it is a good joke. B. The question was, why does bean-porridge blow out the belly, but not the fire?  p349 A. Funny, how one can always recognize what Pauson is up to! How he is always interested in beans, this ridiculous quibbler!' "

This kind of talk often went on while water was being brought for the hands. And again asked whether the form chernibon is found for wash-basin, as we are accustomed to use it. Someone made answer by reciting the passage in the Iliad:38 "Thus spake the old man, and bade the stewardess who attended him to pour clean water over the hands; and she stood by in attendance, holding a basin (chernoibon) and a pitcher in her hands." But Attic writers chernibion, as Lysias, when in the Speech against Alcibiades39 he says: "(to use) the golden basins (chernibia) and censers." Eupolis has the word cheironiptron (handwasher) in The Demes:40 'If one happens to run41 first, he gets a hand-basin (cheironiptron) to keep; but when a man is a good and useful citizen, even though he outdoes all in goodness, there is not a hand-basin for him." Epicharmus, in The Pilgrims, uses the word cheironibon in these lines:42 "A harp, tripods, chariots, bronze tables, hand-basins (cheironiba), libation-cups, cauldrons of bronze." But the more common use is to employ regularly the phrase "water over the hand," as Eupolis does in The Golden Age, Ameipsias in The  p351 Sling, and Alcaeus in Sacred Marriage.43 This is the most common. But Philyllius, in Augê, has "over the hands," thus:44 "At last the ladies have finished their dinner; it's now high time to take away the tables, then sweep up the floor,45 and after that give 'water over the hands' to all, and some perfume." Menander in The Water Jar:46 "They have had their 'water over the hands,' my dear, and are waiting for (the libation)." Aristophanes the grammarian, in his commentaries on the Portraits of Callimachus,47 ridicules those who do not know the difference between the terms "over the hand" and "hand-wash." For, he says, among the ancients the term "over the hand" is used for the water poured before luncheon or dinner, whereas that poured after these meals is a "hand-wash."48 But it would appear that the grammarian has observed this only in Attic writers, since Homer, at least, says in one place:49 "Water for washing; and she drew up a polished table." But in another place50 "And while heralds poured water on their hands, maidservants heaped bread beside them in baskets." Again, Sophron in Mimes of Women:51 "Wretched Booby-girl, bring water for the hand and give the dinner we have  p353 waited for." But in the tragedians and the comedians the word for basin is read in the accusative with an acute accent on the penult; thus in Euripides, Hector:52 "That Alcmena's son might dip it53 into the lustral water (cherníba)"; also in Eupolis, The Goats:54 "Here you shall stop the lustral water." This is water into which they dipped a brand taken from the altar on which they performed the sacrifice; with this they sprinkled the bystanders and purified them. But the right pronunciation requires the acute on the syllable before the penult.55 For such verbal compounds, ending in ps and derived from the perfect tense, retain the penultimate syllable of the perfect; and if this penultimate sylv is spoken with two m's, the last syllable has no accent; thus perfect léleimmai (am deserted), aigílips (goat-deserted, steep), tétrimmai (worn), oikótrips (house-worn, slave), kéklemmai (stolen), boíkleps (cattle thief), epithet of Hermes in Sophocles,56 béblemmai (seen) and katôbleps (down-looker)57 found in Peculiar Creatures, by Archelaus of Chersonesus. And in the oblique cases such words keep the tone on the same syllable.58 Aristophanes, in Heroes, has the form chernibion.59

They also used for the hands, when washing them thoroughly, a soapy substance to remove the dirt, as Antiphanes shows in The Bag:60 D"A. While I am listening to you, bid someone bring what I need  p355 for a hand-wash. B. Here, somebody! Bring water and soap." Further, they used to smear their hands with perfumes, spurning the crumbs of bread61 which Spartans called "dog-bits," as Polemon avers in his Epistle concerning Obscure Words.62 On the practice of smearing the hands with perfumes Epigenes (or Antiphanes) says in The Abolition of Money:63 "When that time comes, you shall have your daily exercise64 and Ewash your hands in correct style, with fragrant earth."65 Again, Philoxenus, in the poem entitled The Banquet,66 says: "And thereupon slaves poured lustral water over the hands, with soap-powders mixed with orris-scent, pouring in as much water, gently warmed, as one desired; towels, too, they offered, clean and woven of fine linen, and ambrosia-smelling unguents and chaplets a‑bloom with violets." And Dromon in The Harp-girl:67 "Just as soon as we had finished the luncheon the slave removed the tables; one poured on our hands water for washing; we washed, and once more taking up the chaplets, those meant for the evening meal, we crowned ourselves."

 p357  They used to call the dirty water (aponimma) from the hands and feet aponiptron. Aristophanes:68 "Like people pouring out slops (aponiptron) at evening-time." Probably they also called the basin by this name, as in the case of the word chieroniptron.69 But there is a special use of the word aponimma in Athens, where it is applied to the ritual in honour of the dead, or to the purification of the unclean, as Anticleides says in the work entitled The Expositor. nnnFor after some preliminary remarks on offerings of that dead, he writes:70 "Dig a trench on the west side of the grave.71 Then standing beside the trench face the west, and pour over it water, reciting these words: 'Water for cleansing to you for whom it is meet and lawful.' After that pour scented oil." This is also cited by Dorotheus, who alleges that the following is also found written in the ancestral ritual of the Eupatridae, concerning the purification of suppliants: "Thereupon, after you and all the other participants in the sacrifice have received water, wash the hands and purge yourself and wash away the blood-guilt of him who is to be purified; after that shake the water of purification and pour it into the same place."72

The word cheiromaktron (hand-wiper) is used of the coarse towel with which they wiped the hands dry; this is what Philoxenus of Cythera, in the passage cited above,73 called ektrimma. Aristophanes, in Masters of the Frying-pan:74 "here, slave, water over the hand, and quickly! Bring along the towel."  p359 And it should be noted that Attic writers used the phrase "over the hand" even of the ablution after dinner, and they did not, as the grammarian Aristophanes says,75 use it of the ablution before eating, reserving the term "hand-wash" for that which occurred after the dinner. Sophocles in Oenomaus:76 "With head shorn in Scythian fashion to make a towel."77 Herodotus, also, has the word "towel" in the second book.78 Xenophon, in the first book of the Education (of Cyrus), writes:79 "But when you touch any foods of this kind, you immediately clean your hand on the towels, evidently because you dislike very much to have it soiled by them." Polemon, again, in the sixth book of his Address to Antigonus and Adaeus, speaks80 of the difference in the phrases "over the hand" and "hand-wash." Demonicus in Achelous speaks of the pre-prandial "over the hand" in these lines:81 'Everyone was in eager haste, knowing that he was entertaining a man with sharp appetite who was also a Boeotian.82 He, at any rate, omitted the ceremony of 'over the hand,' saying that that was his to take after dinner." A linen towel (omolinon) is mentioned by Cratinus in Archilochi:83 "Her hair swathed heavily in coarse towels, full of all unworthiness." And Sappho, when in the fifth book of her Lyric Poems she addresses  p361 Aphrodite,84 "These towels of radiant purple Mnasis hath sent to thee from Phocaea, gifts worthy to veil thy cheeks," means that the towels are an ornamental head-covering, as Hecataeus, or whoever wrote the account of travels entitled Asia, makes clear:85 "The women have towels86 on their heads." And Herodotus says in the second book:87 "After these events they said this king descended alive into the place which the Greeks recognize as Hades, and there he played at dice with Demeter; sometimes he beat her, sometimes again he was beaten by her; and he came back up again with a golden towel88 as a present from her." Then there is the boy who offered water for the hands to Heracles and splashed him from the basin; Heracles killed him with a blow from his knuckles; Hellanicus in his Histories says89 that his name was Archias; on his account Heracles withdrew from Calydon. But in the second book of his Tale of Phoroneus Hellanicus calls90 him Cherias. Herodorus, in the seventeenth book of his History of Heracles, calls91 him Eunomus. Heracles also killed accidentally Cyathus the son of Pyles and brother of Antimachus, when he was acting as wine-pourer for him, as Nicander records in the second book of his Scenes from Mt. Oeta;92 in his honour, Nicander says, a sacred enclosure was consecrated by Heracles  p363 in Proschium, which to this day is called the "Wine-pourer's."

As for us, we will bring our account to a close here, and will resume what is to follow with the story of Heracles' gluttony.

The Editor's Notes:

1 Kock III.296.

2 For the contemptuous allusion to antediluvian customs cf. Aristoph. Nub. 398.

3 See Athen. 163D‑E.

4 Lit. "when one has the coffin near."

5 The περίδειπνον was properly a funeral feast held in honour of a deceased person — a kind of wake.

6 i.e. dispel.

7 Kock II.423.

8 Sc. that is written.

9 i.e. the written directions are worse than useless. Cf. Sotades, Athen. 293E.

10 Kock III.312, Athen. 290B. Capps restores the verses, assigning to Demetrius: Α. σύ γ’ οὖν | ἢ δρῶν τι φαίνου καινὸν ἢ μὴ κόπτε με· | καὶ δεῖξον ὃ φέρεις καὶ τί ἐστι νῦν λέγε. | Β. ἦ καταφρονεῖς σὺ ὅτι μάεγειρός εἰμ’ ἴσως· | κτλ.

11 Kock III.357.

12 Commander of the mercenary troops of Athens, he quarrelled with another general, Charias (ὁ ἐπὶ τῶν ὅπλων) for the mastery over Athens. A blockade resulted in a severe famine, and Lachares stole the gold from the shields on the Acropolis and from the chryselephantine statue of Athena in the Parthenon. Pap. Oxy. XVII.2082; Ferguson, Class. Philol. XXIV.1.

13 An extravagant metaphor, cf. p523 note b.

14 Il. XIV.173, referring to oil used by Hera in anointing her body.

15 A remnant of two iambic verses; Kock III.487.

16 Kock I.339.

17 F. H. G.4.425.

18 Which usually means boiled beans; cf. πυάνιον, Athen. 648B.

19 Frag. 11 Wachsmuth 18 Diels; Prodicus had written a discourse called Horae, "Hours" or "Seasons," which he delivered for a large fee; horologos also implies "season-speaker," or opportunist, and in general seeker of gain like oporologos, "fruit-picker."

20 Frag. 18 Koepke.

21 P44 Brandt, Athen. 698C.

22 Cf. Od. III.222, IV.793, Il. XVI.715.

23 Il. VIII.277.

24 Il. XXII.431.

25 Il. I.92.

26 P40 Brandt. A proverb of anything or anyone that is consistently good; Hegemon defies the audience and predicts his own success in advance.

27 The actors' guild.

28 Kock II.461. The statement that Timocles wrote tragedies as well as comedies runs counter to Plato's well-known dictum that no tragic poet wrote comedies (Rep. 395A: theoretically they might, Symp. 223D, Ion 534C). Timocles' comedy, Ἰκάριοι Σάτυροι, Satyrs of Icaria, was mistaken for a satyric drama, and this led to the wrong inference that he wrote tragedies. See R. J. T. Wagner, Symbolarum ad comic. graec. historiam criticam capita IV, p64.

29 The meaning is uncertain, but the hampers of beans, large enough to contain a man (2 Corinth. xi.33), were doubtless required to satisfy the huge appetite of Pheidippus (Athen. 120B, cf. 339E).

30 Kock II.454.

31 On θάργηλος ἄρτος, bread made of the first-fruits of the wheat harvest, see Athen. 114A.

32 Kock II.459.

33 The last part of διάπυρον may have been pronounced in such a way, disregarding quantity, as to suggest πῡρός, "wheat," quasi"well-supplied with wheat."

34 See Athen. 277A note e.

35 Kock II.432. Trochilus, "Runner," "Sandpiper," is the name of the hoopoe's servant in Aristoph. Aves.

36 Cf. Horace Epist. I.7.23 "quid distent aera lupinis." Σῦκα (figs) is here used in the obscene sense, Pauson being a licentious Pythagorean, as the reference to beans shows.

37 Cf. Soph. Ant. 225, Oed. Tyr. 67, Aristoph. Nub. 144 ff., Philostr. Vit. Soph. 483.

38 XXIV.302.

39 Pseudo-Andocides (not Lysias) III.29.

40 Kock I.289.

41 See critical note 2.

42 Kaibel 105, Athen. 362B and note k.

43 Kock I.328, 676, 759.

44 Ibid. 782.

45 To remove the refuse which had been tossed to the dogs; below, 409D, notes ae. Cf. the model banquet as described by Xenophanes, Athen. 462C.

46 Kock III.135, Allinson 440.

47 The full title of this encyclopaedic work was "Portraits of men distinguished in every branch of knowledge, and their writings"; Aristoph. Byz. p251 Nauck.

48 The first (κατὰ χειρός) was, according to Aristophanes, a simple act of ceremonial; the second (ἀπονίψασθαι, "wash off") was required because of the lack of serviettes in earlier times; but this distinction is denied below, 410B.

49 Od. I.138; the argument is that Homer makes no such distinction, since he speaks of washing the hands before dinner.

50 Ibid. 146.

51 Kaibel 156, cf. 1tn380e.

52 Vs. 929.

53 The brand described below.

54 Kock I.262.

55 chérniba, nom. chérnips.

56 T. G. F.2 343; probably from the satyric drama Ἰχνευταί though not found in the papyrus.

57 Name of an animal like the buffalo; cf. κατώβλεπον Athen. 221B.

58 Hence, he thinks, we should accent chérnips (perfect nénimmai, "washed") chérniba.

59 Kock I.472.

60 Kock II.67.

61 Ordinarily used for wiping the hands after a meal (there being no forks for taking up the food) and then tossed to the dogs; above, 408E note b.

62 Frag. 77 Preller.

63 Kock II.26.

64 See critical note.

65 Like scented soap, cf. "Cimolian earth" in Aristoph. Ran. 712.

66 P. L. G.5 III.601, cf. Athen. 146F note a (vol. II p171).

67 Kock II.419.

68 Acharn. 616.

69 Which meant both the basin and the water in it.

70 fgh1.363, Cleitodemus; see critical note 2.

71 Cf. Od. X.517 ff.

72 Probably the trench is meant, but the text is uncertain; cf. Il. I.314 οἱ δ’ ἀπελυμαίνοντο, καὶ εἰς ἄλα λύματ’ ἔβαλλον.

73 409E.

74 Kock I.521.

75 Above, 408F.

76 T. G. F.2 234.

77 The Scythians were believed to use their enemies' scalps as towels; see crit. note.

78 Chap. 122.

79 Cyropaed. I.3.5; Cyrus is discussing the subject of food with Astyages.

80 Frag. 62 Preller.

81 Kock III.375.

82 Probably referring to the glutton Heracles.

83 Kock I.14; text and meaning are uncertain. The poet may allude to comedy as he had found it, rough and sordid.

84 P. L. G.4 frag. 44, Diehl frag. 99.

85 F. H. G.1.25.

86 Or turbans.

87 Chap. 122; of Rhampsinitus.

88 A turban or kerchief, woven in gold.

89 F. H. G.1.45

90 Ibid.

91 F. H. G.2.36.

92 Frag. 17 Schneider.

Page updated: 16 May 12