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Book III

This webpage reproduces a section of
De Medicina (On Medicine)

by
A. Cornelius Celsus

published in Vol. I
of the Loeb Classical Library edition, 1935

The text is in the public domain.

This text has not yet been proofread.
If you find a mistake though,
please let me know!


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Book V

(Vol. I) Celsus
On Medicine

p355 Book IV

1 1 Thus far I have dealt with those classes of diseases which so affect bodies as a whole, that fixed situations cannot be assigned to them: I will now speak of diseases in particular parts. Diseases of all the internal parts and their treatment, however, will come under view more readily if I first describe briefly their institutions.1

2 [Legamen ad versionem Latinam]The head, then, and the structures within the mouth are not only bounded by the tongue and palate, but also by whatever is visible to our eyes. On the right and left sides around the throat, great blood-vessels named sphagatides,2 also arteries called carotids, run upwards in their course beyond the ears. But actually within the neck are placed glands, which at times become painfully swollen.

3 [Legamen ad versionem Latinam]From that point two passages begin: one named the windpipe, the more superficial, leads to the lung; the deeper, the gullet, to the stomach; the former takes in the breath, the latter food. Though their courses diverge, where they are joined, there is a little tongue in the windpipe, just below the fauces, which is raised3 when we breathe, and, when we p357swallow food and drink, closes the windpipe. Now the actual windpipe is rigid and gristly; in the throat it is prominent, in the remaining parts it is depressed. It consists of certain little rings, arranged after the likeness of those vertebrae which are in the spine, but in such a way that whilst rough on the outer surface, the inside is smooth like the gullet; descending to the praecordia,4 it makes a junction with the lung.

4 [Legamen ad versionem Latinam]The lung5 is spongy, and so can take in the breath, and at the back it is joined to the spine itself, and it is divided like the hoof of an ox into two lobes. To the lung is attached the heart, which, muscular in nature, is placed under the left breast, and has two small stomach-like pockets.6 Now, under the heart and lung is a transverse partition of strong membrane,7 which separates the belly from the praecordia; it is sinewy, and many blood-vessels also take their course through it; it separates from the parts above not only the intestines but also the liver and the spleen. These organs are placed against it but under it, on the right and left sides respectively.

5 [Legamen ad versionem Latinam]The liver, which starts from the actual partition under the praecordia on the right side, is concave within, convex without; its projecting part rest lightly on the stomach, and it is divided into four8 lobes. Outside its lower part the gall-bladder adheres to it: but the spleen to the left is not connected to the same partition, but to the intestine;9 in texture it is soft and loose, moderately long and thick; and it hardly projects at all from beneath the ribs into the belly, but is hidden under them for the most p359part. Now the foregoing are joined together. The kidneys on the other hand are different; they adhere to the loins above the hips, being concave on one surface, on the other convex; they are both vascular, have ventricles,10 and are covered by coats.

6 [Legamen ad versionem Latinam]These then are the situations of the viscera. Now the gullet, which is the commencement of the intestines, is sinewy; beginning at the seventh spinal vertebra, it makes a junction in the region of the praecordia with the stomach. And the stomach, which is the receptacle of the food, consists of two coats; and it is placed between the spleen and the liver, both overlapping it a little. There are also fine membranes by which these three are interconnected, and they are joined to that partition, which I have described above as transverse.

7 [Legamen ad versionem Latinam]Thence the lowest part of the stomach, after being directed a little to the right, is narrowed into the top of the intestine. This juncture the Greeks call pylorus,11 because, like a gateway, it lets thru into the parts below whatever we are to excrete.

From this point begins the fasting intestine, not so much infolded; it has this name because it does not hold what it has received, but forthwith passes it on into the parts below.

8 [Legamen ad versionem Latinam]Beyond is the thinner intestine, infolded into many loops, its several coils being connected with the more internal parts by fine membranes;12 these coils are directed rather to the right side, to end in the region of the right hip; however, they occupy mostly the upper parts.

After that spot this intestine makes a junction crosswise with another, the thicker intestine; which, beginning on the right side, is long and pervious p361towards the left, but not towards the right, which is therefore called the blind intestine.

9 [Legamen ad versionem Latinam]But that one which is pervious being widespread and winding, and less sinewy13 than the upper intestines, has a flexure14 on both sides, right and left, especially on the left side and in the lower parts and touches the liver and stomach, next it is joined to some fine membranes coming from the left kidney, and thence bending backwards and to the right, it is directed straight downwards to the place where it excretes; and so it is there named the straight intestine.

10 [Legamen ad versionem Latinam]The omentum too, which overlies all these, is at its lower part smooth and compact, softer at its upper part; fat also is produced in it, which like the brain and marrow is without feeling.

Again from the kidneys, two veins, white in colour, lead to the bladder; the Greeks call them ureters, because they believe that through them the urine descending drops into the bladder.

11 [Legamen ad versionem Latinam]Now the bladder, sinewy and in two layers at its bag, is at its neck bulky and fleshy; it is connected by blood-vessels with the intestine, and with that bone which underlies the pubes. The bladder itself is loose and rather free, and situated differently in men and women: for in men it is close to the straight intestine, being inclined rather to the left15 side; in women it is situated over the genitals, and whilst free above, is supported actually by the womb.

12 [Legamen ad versionem Latinam]Again, in males, a longer and narrower urinary passage descends from the neck of the bladder into the penis; in women, a shorter and wider one presents itself over the neck of the womb. Now the womb in virgins is indeed quite small; in women, unless they are p363pregnant, it is not really much larger than a handful. Beginning over against the middle of the rectum by a straight narrow neck, which they call canalis, it is then turned a little towards the right hip joint; next, as it rises above the right intestine, its sides are fastened into the woman's ilia. 13 [Legamen ad versionem Latinam]Again, these ilia are situated between the hip joints and the pubes at the bottom of the abdomen. From them and from the pubes the abdominal wall extends upwards to the praecordia; it is covered visibly upon the outside by skin, inside by a smooth membrane which makes a junction with the omentum; and it is named by the Greeks peritoneal membrane.

2 1   [Legamen ad versionem Latinam] Having made a sort of survey as it were of these organs, so far as it is necessary for a practitioner to know them, I shall follow out the remedies for the several parts when diseased, starting with the head; under that term I now mean that part which is covered with hair; for pain in the eyes, ears and teeth and the like will be elsewhere explained (VI.6‑9, VII.7‑12).

2 [Legamen ad versionem Latinam]In the head, then, there is at times an acute and dangerous disease, which the Greeks call cephalaia;16 the signs of which are hot shivering, paralysis of sinews, blurred vision, alienation of the mind, vomiting, so that the voice is suppressed, or bleeding from the nose, so that the body becomes cold, vitality fails. In addition there is intolerable pain, especially in the region of the temples and back of the head. 3 [Legamen ad versionem Latinam]Again, there is sometimes a chronic weakness in the head, which, although neither severe nor dangerous, lasts through life; sometimes there is more severe pain, but of short duration, and not fatal, which is brought about p365by wine or indigestion or cold or heat or the sun. And all these pains occur, sometimes with fever, sometimes without fever; sometimes they affect the whole head, sometimes a part only; at times so as to cause excruciating pain also in the adjacent part of the face.17 4 [Legamen ad versionem Latinam]Besides the foregoing there is a class which may become chronic, in which a humour inflates the scalp, so that it swells up and yields to the pressure of the fingers. The Greeks call it hydrocephalus. Of these forms, that mentioned second, while it is slight, is to be treated by the regimen I have stated when I was describing what healthy men should do in the case of weakness of any part (I.4). For pain in the head accompanied by fever the remedies have been detailed when describing the treatment of fevers in general (III.3‑17). Now to speak of the rest.

5 [Legamen ad versionem Latinam]Of these the case that is acute, also that which surpasses ordinary limits, and that which is of sudden causation and although not deadly, is yet violent, has its primary remedy in blood-letting. But this measure is unnecessary, unless the pain is intolerable, and it is better to abstain from food; also from drink, when possible; if not possible, then to drink water. If, on the day following, pain persists, the bowels should be clystered, sneezing provoked, and nothing but water taken. For often, in this way, all the pain is dispersed within one or two days, especially if it has originated from wine of indigestion. But if there is little benefit from the above, the head should be shaved down to the scalp; then it should be considered what cause excited the pain. If the cause was hot weather, it is well to pour cold water freely over the head, to put on the p367head a concave sponge now and again wrung out of cold water; to anoint the head with rose oil and vinegar, or better to put on unscoured wool saturated with the same, or else other refrigerant plasters. 7 [Legamen ad versionem Latinam]But if cold has done the harm, the head should be bathed with warm sea-water, or at any rate salt and water, or with a laurel-leaf decoction, after which the head should be rubbed smartly, have warm oil poured on it, and then be covered up. Some even bandage up the head, some load it with neck-wraps and mufflers, and so get relief; warm plasters give help in other cases. Hence, even when the cause is unknown, it should be observed whether cooling or heating methods afford the more relief, and to make use of those which experience has approved. 8 [Legamen ad versionem Latinam]But if the cause is not known, the head should be bathed, first in warm water as noted above, or in salt and water, or in the laurel decoction, next in cold vinegar and water. For all long-standing pain in the head, the following are the general measures: to provoke sneezing; to rub the legs smartly; to gargle things which provoke salivation; to apply cups to the temples and occiput; to draw blood from the nostrils; to pluck upon the skin of the temples frequently by the aid of pitch plasters; to apply mustard in order to cause ulcers over the site of the pain, after having put a layer of linen over the skin to prevent violent erosion; to excite ulcerations by cautery, applied over the seat of the pain; to take food in great moderation, with water; after the pain has been relieved, to go to the bath, and there to have much water poured over the head, first hot, then cold; if the pain has been quite dispersed, the patient may even return to wine, but should always before anything else drink some water.

p369 9 [Legamen ad versionem Latinam]The class in which humour collects upon the head18 is different. In that case it is necessary to shave the head to the scalp; then to apply mustard until it causes ulcers; if this is of little avail, recourse must be had to the scalpel. The following measures are the same as for dropsical patients: exercise, sweating, smart rubbing, and such food and drink as will specially promote urination.

3 1   [Legamen ad versionem Latinam] Again, about the face there originates an affection which the Greeks call "dog spasm."19 And it begins along with acute fever; the mouth is drawn to one side by a peculiar movement, and so it is nothing else than a distortion of the mouth. In addition there is frequent change of colour in the face as well as over all the body, also an inclination to sleep. In this case blood-letting is the best thing; if that does not end the disorder, the bowels are moved with a clyster; when not even thus dispersed, vomiting is provoked by white hellebore. It is necessary besides to avoid the sun, fatigue and wine. If it is not dispersed by these measures, use running, rubbing of the affected part gently and repeatedly, also rub other parts for less time, but smartly. It is also useful to provoke sneezing; to shave the head, to pour over it hot sea water, or at any rate salt and water, provided that sulphur is also added; after this affusion the patient should again be rubbed; should chew mustard, applying at the same time to the parts of the mouth affected a wax salve, likewise to the p371unaffected parts mustard until it produces erosion. Food of the middle class is most suitable.

4 1   [Legamen ad versionem Latinam] But if there is paralysis of the tongue, which sometimes occurs of itself, sometimes is produced by some disease, so that the man's speech is not distinct, he should gargle a decoction of thyme, hyssop or mint; drink only water; have the head, face, the parts under the chin and the neck smartly rubbed; the tongue itself smeared with laser; chew very acrid materials, mustard, onion, garlic, and strive with all his force to pronounce words; hold his breath at exercise; frequently pour cold water over his head; on occasion eat a quantity of radish and then vomit.

5 1   [Legamen ad versionem Latinam] Again there is dripping from the head sometimes into the nose, which is a mild affair; sometimes into the throat, which is worse, sometimes into the lung, which is worst of all. When the drip is into the nostrils, a thin phlegm is discharged from them; there is slight pain, and a feeling of weight in the head, with frequent sneezing; if the drip is into the throat, it irritates and excites a slight cough; if the drip is into the lung, besides the sneezing, cough and even weight in the head, there is lassitude, thirst, a feeling of heat, and bilious urine.

2 [Legamen ad versionem Latinam]Another although not very different affection is gravedo. This closes up the nostrils, renders the voice hoarse, excites a dry cough; in it the saliva is salt, there is ringing in the ears, the blood-vessels in the head throb, the urine is turbid. Hippocrates20 named all the above coryza; I note that now the Greeks reserve this term for gravedo, the dripping they call catastagmus. These affections are commonly of short duration, but if neglected may last a p373long while. None is fatal, except that which causes ulcers in the lung.

3 [Legamen ad versionem Latinam]Whenever we feel anything of the sort, we should forthwith keep out of the sun, and abstain from the bath, wine and coition; but the use meanwhile of anointing and of customary food is allowable. The patient should walk, but only briskly and under cover; after that the head and face should be rubbed for more than fifty strokes. This complaint is generally relieved, provided that we take care of ourselves for a couple of days, or for three at the most. 4 [Legamen ad versionem Latinam]When the disease has been relieved so that the drip of phlegm becomes thick, or the gravedo so that the nostrils are more open, the bath may be resumed, much water, at first hot, then lukewarm, being used to foment the face and head; next, along with more food, wine may be taken. But if on the fourth day the phlegm is still thin, or the nostrils still stuffed up, the patient should take dry Aminaean wine, then for a couple of days water; after which he can return to the bath and his usual habits. Nevertheless, even during those days, when some things are to be avoided,21 it is not expedient to treat the patients as sick men, but they are to do everything as in health, unless these symptoms have been liable to cause more prolonged and severe trouble; for then a somewhat more careful attention is needed.

6 [Legamen ad versionem Latinam]Therefore in such a case if there is a drip into the nose or into the throat, besides the treatment described above, the patient from the start should walk a good deal during the first days: have the lower limbs smartly rubbed, together with more gentle rubbing of the chest, face and head; his accustomed food should be reduced by one-half; he p375may take eggs, also starchy and such-like foods, which thicken phlegm; thirst should be resisted as far as he can bear it. When by these measures a patient has been prepared for the bath, and has used it, there may be added to the diet small fish or meat, provided that at first he should not take the full quantity of food; undiluted wine should be taken more freely.

7 [Legamen ad versionem Latinam]But if the drip is into the lung also, there is even more need for walking and rubbing and the same regimen as to diet, and if that diet is not effective, more acrid food is to be employed; he should allow himself more sleep, and abstain from all business; but the bath should be tried at a somewhat later stage.

8 [Legamen ad versionem Latinam]In the case of gravedo, he should lie in bed on the first day, neither eat nor drink, cover the head, and wrap wool around the throat; on the next day he should get up, and still abstain from drink, or, if he must have some, take not more than one tumbler-full of water; on the third day he may eat the crumb of bread, but not much, with some small fish, or light meat, and water for drink. Should the patient be unable to restrain himself from using a fuller diet, he is to provoke a vomit; when he gets to the bath, he should foment freely his head and face with hot water until he sweats, and then have recourse to wine. After the above measures it is scarcely possible for the same discomfort to persist; but if it does so, use cold, dry, light food with the least possible fluid, whilst continuing the rubbings and the exercises, such as are needed in all such sorts of illness.

6 1   [Legamen ad versionem Latinam] From the head we pass to the neck, which is liable to harm from diseases of considerable p377gravity. There is, however, no disease more distressing, and more acute, than that which by a sort of rigor of the sinews, now draws down the head to the shoulder-blades, now the chin to the chest, now stretches out the neck straight and immobile. The Greeks call the first opisthotonus, the next emprosthotonus, and the last tetanus,22 although some with less exactitude use these terms indiscriminately. These diseases are often fatal within four23 days. 2 [Legamen ad versionem Latinam]If the patients survive this period, they are no longer in danger. They are all treated by the same method and this is agreed upon, but Asclepiades in particular believed in blood-letting, which some said should be particularly avoided, because the body was then especially in need of that heat which was in the blood. But this is false; for it is not in the nature of the blood to be especially hot, but of all that composes man, the blood24 most quickly turns, now hot, now cold. Still, whether or no it ought to be let, can be learnt from the instructions concerning blood-letting (II.10, 11). 3 [Legamen ad versionem Latinam]But anyhow it is right to give castory, and with it pepper or laser; further, a warm and moist fomentation is needed. For this purpose most pour hot water freely at intervals over the neck. This affords temporary relief, but renders the sinews more susceptible to cold, a thing certainly p379to be avoided. It is, therefore, more beneficial, first to anoint the neck with a liquid wax-salve, then to apply ox-bladders or leathern bottles filled with hot oil, or else a hot meal plaster, or a pod of round pepper crushed up in a fig. 4 [Legamen ad versionem Latinam]The best thing, however, is to foment with moistened salt according to the method already described (II.17.9, 10; 33.1). Whatever meanwhile is being done, the patient should be brought near a fire, or into the sun in hot weather, and old oil in particular should be rubbed into his neck, shoulder-blades and spine; or if that is not at hand, Syriac25 oil, or if not even that, oldest lard. Rubbing applied to the whole length of the vertebrae is beneficial, but especially so to those of the neck. Therefore, with certain intervals however, this procedure should be carried out both by day and by night. During such intervals some kind of an emollient composed of heating substances should be put on. 5 [Legamen ad versionem Latinam]Cold is especially to be guarded against; and so there ought to be a fire kept burning constantly in the room in which the patient is lying, especially during the hours before dawn, when the cold is particularly intense. It is not unserviceable to keep the head closely clipped, moistened with hot iris or cyprus oil, and covered by putting on a cap; sometimes even to submerge the patient either in hot oil, or in hot water in which fenugreek has been boiled and a third part of oil added. If the bowels also have been moved by a clyster, this often relaxes the upper parts. Should the pain grow even still more severe, cups should be applied to the neck after the skin has been incised; or the same spot is to be burnt either with the cautery, or by mustard. 6 [Legamen ad versionem Latinam]When the pain has been relieved and the neck begins to be p381moved, it can be recognized that the disease is yielding to treatment. But for a long while food which has to be chewed should be avoided; sops and eggs, raw or soft boiled, are to be used; any kind of soup may be taken. But if the patient has done well, and the neck appears to be all right, then will be the time to begin with pulse porridge, or well-moistened crumbled bread. He is to chew bread, however, earlier than to drink wine, because the use of wine is particularly risky, and so ought to be deferred for a longer time.

7 1   [Legamen ad versionem Latinam] Whilst this kind of disease involves the region of the neck as a whole, another equally fatal and acute has its seat in the throat. We call it angina;26 the Greeks have names according to its species. For sometimes no redness or swelling is apparent, but the skin is dry, the breath drawn with difficulty, the limbs relaxed; this they call synanche. Sometimes the tongue and throat are red and swollen, the voice becomes indistinct, the eyes are deviated, the face is pallid, there is hiccough; that they call cynanche: the signs in common are, that the patient cannot swallow food nor drink, and his breathing is obstructed. It is a slighter case when there is merely redness and swelling, not followed by the other symptoms; this they call parasynanche. Whichever form occurs blood must be let if strength permits; if there is no surplus strength, then move the bowels by a clyster. Cups also may be applied with benefit under the chin, also outside the throat, so as to draw out the matter which is suffocating. p383Next, moist foments are needed, for dry ones hinder the breath. Consequently sponges, dipped into hot oil at intervals, should be put on; that is better than hot water; but most efficacious here too is hot moistened salt. 3 [Legamen ad versionem Latinam]Moreover, it is useful: to make a decoction with hydromel of hyssop, catmint, thyme, wormwood, or even of bran, and dried figs, and to gargle with it; afterwards to smear the palate with ox-gall, or with the medicament made of mulberries. It is also appropriate for a cough to dust the palate with pounded pepper. If there is little effect from these remedies, the last resource is to make sufficiently deep incisions into the upper part of the neck under the lower jaw, or into the palate in front of the uvula, or into the veins under the tongue, in order that the disease may discharge through the incisions. If the patient is not benefited by all this, it must be recognized that he has been overcome by the disease. 4 [Legamen ad versionem Latinam]But if these measures have relieved the disease, and the throat again admits both food and breath, a return to health is easy. And sometimes nature also assists when the disease moves from a more restricted to a more widespread seat; so when redness and swelling have arisen over the praecordia,27 it may be recognized that the throat is becoming free.28 But whatever has relieved it, the patient should begin with fluids, especially with the hydromel decoction; next soft and unacrid food should be taken until the throat has returned to its original condition. 5 [Legamen ad versionem Latinam]I hear it commonly said that if a man eat a nestling swallow,29 for a whole year he is not in danger from angina; and that when the disease attacks anyone it is also beneficial to burn a nestling which has been preserved in salt and to crumble the powdered ash into p385hydromel which is administered as a draught. Since this remedy has considerable popular authority, and cannot possibly be a danger, although I have not read of it in medical authorities, yet I thought that it should be inserted here in my work.

8 1   [Legamen ad versionem Latinam] There is also in the region of the throat a malady which amongst the Greeks has different names according to its intensity. It consists altogether in a difficulty of breathing; when moderate and without any choking, it is called dyspnoea; when most severe, so that the patient cannot breathe without making a noise and gasping, asthma; but when in addition the patient can hardly draw in his breath unless with the neck outstretched, orthopnoea.30 2 [Legamen ad versionem Latinam]Of these, the first can last a long while, the two following are as a rule acute. The signs common to them are: on account of the narrow passage by which the breath escapes, it comes out with a whistle; there is pain in the chest and praecordia, at times even in the shoulder-blades, sometimes subsiding, then returning; to these there is added a slight cough. Blood-letting is the remedy unless anything prohibits it. Nor is that enough, but also the bowels are to be relaxed by milk, the stool being rendered liquid, at times even a clyster is given; as the body becomes depleted by these measures the patient begins to draw his breath more readily. 3 [Legamen ad versionem Latinam]Moreover, even in bed the head is to be kept raised; the chest movement assisted by hot foments and plasters, dry or even moist, and later either emollients are to be applied or at any rate a wax-salve made with cyprus, or iris ointment. Next, on an empty stomach the patient should take a draught of hydromel, in which either hyssop or crushed caper root has been boiled. p387It is also of use to suck either soda or white nasturtium seed, parched, crushed and then mixed with honey; and for the same purpose, galbanum and turpentine resin are boiled together to a coherent mass, and a bit of this, the size of a bean, is sucked every day, or unfused sulphur 1 gram and 0·66 gram of southernwood are pounded up in a cupful of wine and sipped lukewarm. 4 [Legamen ad versionem Latinam]It is also not a foolish idea that the liver of a fox should be dried, pounded and the mash sprinkled into the above, or that the lung of that animal, as fresh as possible, roasted without touching iron in the cooking, should be eaten. In addition to the above, gruels and light food are to be used, at intervals also a light dry wine, occasionally an emetic. Some kind of diuretic is also beneficial, but there is nothing better than a walk until almost fatigued, also frequent rubbings, especially of the lower extremities, either in the sun, or before a fire, done by the patient himself or others, until he sweats.

9 1   [Legamen ad versionem Latinam] But in the interior parts of the throat there is sometimes ulceration. For this most employ plasters and hot foments externally; they also order hot steam to be inhaled by the mouth. Others say that by these measures the parts are rendered more soft and more liable to the complaint already existing there. But these applications are salutary if cold can be completely avoided; if cold is to be apprehended, they are useless. But anyhow to rub the throat is dangerous; for it provokes ulceration. Nor are diuretics useful, because in the course of being swallowed they can also make thin the phlegm there, which is better suppressed. Asclepiades, who wisely advises many things, which we p389also ourselves practise, said that very sour vinegar should be sipped; for by this the ulcers are constricted without doing harm. But whilst vinegar can suppress bleeding, it cannot heal the actual ulcerations. For that purpose lycium is better, and Asclepiades approved equally of it, or leek or horehoundº juice, or almonds pounded up with tragacanth and mixed with raisin wine, or linseed pounded and mixed with sweet wine. Exercise also by walking and by running is necessary, and smart rubbing from the chest downwards should be applied to the whole of the lower part of the body. The food too should be neither very acrid nor rough, honey, lentils, wheat porridge, milk, pearl barley gruel, fat meat and especially a leek decoction and anything mixed with it. Of drink the least possible is proper; water can be given either by itself, or when quince or dates have been boiled in it. Bland gargles are of service also, or when ineffectual then repressants. This sort of affection is not acute, and cannot last long; nevertheless, it requires timely treatment, lest it should become a severe and chronic complaint.

10 1   [Legamen ad versionem Latinam] Cough again is generally owing to ulceration of the throat. This is incurred in many ways: and so when the throat has healed the cough is ended. Nevertheless, at times cough is a trouble by itself, and when it has become chronic, is difficult to get rid of. Sometimes the cough is dry, sometimes it excites phlegm. Hyssop should be taken every other day; the patient should run whilst holding the breath, but not where there is dust; he should practise reading loudly, which may at first be impeded by the cough, but later overcomes it; next walking; then manual exercises also, and the chest should p391be rubbed for a long while. After such exercises he should eat three ounces31 of very juicy figs, cooked over charcoal. Besides the above, when the cough is moist, smart rubbings with some kind of heating substance are good, provided that the head too is briskly rubbed when dry; in addition, cups are applied to the chest; mustard put on outside over the throat until there is slight excoriation; and a draught taken, composed of mint, almonds, and starch; first of all dry bread should be eaten, then any kind of bland food. But if the cough is dry and very troublesome, it is relieved by taking a cup of dry wine, provided that this is done only three or four times at rather long intervals; further, there is need to swallow a little of the best laser, to take juice of leeks or horehound; to suck a squill, to sip vinegar of squills, or at any rate sharp vinegar; or two cupfuls of wine with a bruised clove of garlic. In every case of cough it is of use to travel, take a long sea voyage, live at the seaside, swim, sometimes to take bland food, such as mallows, or nettle-tops, sometimes acrid; milk cooked with garlic; gruels to which laser has been added, or in which leeks have been boiled to pieces; a raw egg to which sulphur has been added; at first warm water to drink, than, in turn, one day water, the next day wine.

11 [Legamen ad versionem Latinam] When blood is spat up there is more cause for alarm,32 although that presents at one time less, at another more of danger. Blood sometimes comes from the gums, sometimes from the mouth, and that at times copiously, yet without cough, without ulceration, without any disease of the gums, so that there is no expectoration. But just as there is on occasion bleeding from the nostrils, so also does it p393burst out from the mouth. And sometimes it is blood which flows, sometimes something resembling water in which fresh meat has been washed. On the other hand, blood may come from the uppermost part of the throat, at one time when there is ulceration in that part, at another without ulceration, but either the mouth of some blood-vessel has opened, or the blood breaks out of certain tubercles which have originated there. When this happens, neither food nor drink does harm, nor is there any expectoration as from an ulcer. When, however, the throat and air tubes are ulcerated, the frequent cough also forces out blood; at times it is even brought up out of the lung or out of the chest or out of the sides or out of the liver. Often women, in whom the blood is not being given out through the menses, expectorate blood.

3 [Legamen ad versionem Latinam]According to medical authorities blood gains exit either from some part eroded, or ruptured, or from the opened mouth of some blood-vessel; the first they call diabrosis, the second rhexis, the third anastomosis. The last is the least harmful, the first, the worst. And often indeed it happens that pus follows the blood.33 Now at times to stop the bleeding suffices to promote recovery; but if there follow ulcerations, or pus, or a cough, according to the situation there arise various and dangerous classes of diseases. But if only blood flows out, both the remedy and the ending are the quicker. 4 [Legamen ad versionem Latinam]Nor ought we to ignore that in those who are in the habit of bleeding or in whom the back or hips ache whether after hard running or walking, a limited flow of blood is not disadvantageous as long as fever is absent, and when blood is passed by the p395urine it even relieves this very lassitude; nor indeed, in the case of a fall from a height, is there anything alarming if blood comes with the urine,34 so long as there is nothing else unusual in the urine; nor does vomiting of blood bring about danger, even when repeated, if before it recurs the body is allowed to regain strength and fill up; and it does no harm at all in a robust man, if not excessive, and when it excites neither cough nor fever.

5 [Legamen ad versionem Latinam]The foregoing are general remarks: now I come to the particular points mentioned above. If blood escapes from the gums, it suffices to chew purslane; if from the mouth, undiluted wine should be held in it; if this does no good, then vinegar. If in spite of these remedies there is a severe outburst, since this may be the death of the patient, its attack is best diverted by applying a cup to the occipital region,35 after first incising the skin; when this happens in a woman whose menses are not forthcoming, a cup is applied to each groin, likewise after making incisions. 6 [Legamen ad versionem Latinam]But if the bleeding comes from the throat, or from more internal parts, there is more to fear, and a more active treatment is to be adopted. Blood should be let, and if the flow from the mouth is not lessened, the venesection should be repeated a second or a third time, and every day a little. From the first also the patient should sip either vinegar or plantain or leek juice with frankincense, and outside over the seat of pain there is to be applied unscoured wool soaked in vinegar, cooled at intervals by means of a sponge. Erasistratus used also to bind up the legs and thighs and the forearms of such patients in several places.36 This constricting Asclepiades declared far from being beneficial, to be even harmful. 7 [Legamen ad versionem Latinam]But that it often p397answers well experience bears witness. Yet there is no necessity to bind the patient in many places; it is enough to do it below the groins and above the ankles and at the upper part of the arms, also the forearms. Further, if fever is troublesome, gruel must be given, and for drink water in which has been boiled any one of the intestinal astringents. But if fever is absent, there may be given: either washed spelt or bread soaked in cold water and also soft eggs, and for drink either that mentioned above, or sweet wine or cold water; but drink must be given with the knowledge that in this disease thirst is an advantage. 8 [Legamen ad versionem Latinam]Besides these, there are needed rest, freedom from care, and silence. The head also of the patient whilst in bed should be kept raised, and well shaved; the face is often to be bathed with cold water. On the other hand, there is danger in wine, the bath, coition, oil in the food, all acrid food; the same applies to hot foments, a hot close room, much bedclothes piled on the patient. Rubbings also are useful after the bleeding has quite stopped. Then indeed a beginning can be made on the arms and legs, avoiding the chest. A patient in this case should live through the winter by the sea, during the summer inland.

12 1   [Legamen ad versionem Latinam] Below the throat is placed the stomach,37 in which there tend to occur many chronic complaints. For sometimes great heat affects it, sometimes flatulence, sometimes inflammation, sometimes ulceration; at times phlegm collects, at times bile; but the most frequent malady is that in which it undergoes paralysis, nor does anything else so affect it, or, p399through it, the whole body. As diverse as are its complaints, so are the remedies.

When heated, it should be bathed externally at intervals with vinegar and rose oil, and road dust38 applied with oil, and those plasters which simultaneously repress and soothe. For drink, unless there is anything against it, lukewarm water is the best.

2 [Legamen ad versionem Latinam]If there is flatulence, it is beneficial to apply cups,39 but there is no need to incise the skin; dry and hot foments do good, but not the strongest kind. At intervals there should be enjoyed abstinence from food; a draught of wormwood or hyssop or of rue on an empty stomach is useful. Exercise at first should be light, then more is to be taken, especially such as moves the upper limbs; the kind most appropriate in all complaints of the stomach.40 3 [Legamen ad versionem Latinam]After exercise there is need of anointing, rubbing, occasionally also the bath, yet less often than usual; now and then a clyster; later, food which is hot but not flatulent, and similarly hot drinks, first water and after the flatulence has subsided, dry wine. In all complaints of the stomach this also is to be prescribed, that each should adopt in health that regimen which has cured him; for his weakness will recur unless his health is protected by the same measures as those by which it was restored.

4 [Legamen ad versionem Latinam]But if there is inflammation of any kind, which is generally followed by swelling and pain, the primary remedies are rest, abstinence, a belt of sulphurated wool, and the wormwood draught upon an empty stomach. If a burning heat troubles the stomach, it should be fomented at intervals with vinegar and p401rose oil; next food should be given in moderation, external applications are also to be made which simultaneously both repress and soothe; next after that, when these are taken off, hot meal plasters are put on to disperse the remnants of the disease: now and again a clyster must be given, exercise must be taken, and a fuller diet.

5 [Legamen ad versionem Latinam]But if ulcers attack the stomach, generally the same treatment should be applied as has been prescribed in the case of an ulcerated throat (IV.9). Exercise, also rubbing of the lower extremities, is to be practised; bland and glutinous foods taken short of satiety; and all pungent and sharp food withdrawn. Sweet wine is to be used if there is no fever, or if that causes flatulence at any rate light wine, but neither very cold nor too hot.

If the stomach becomes filled with phlegm an emetic is needed, sometimes on an empty stomach, sometimes after food: there is benefit in exercise, rocking, a sea-voyage, rubbing. Nothing should be eaten or drunk unless hot, whilst such things must be avoided as have tended to collect phlegm.

6 [Legamen ad versionem Latinam]There is worse trouble when the stomach is vitiated by bile. Patients who are troubled with this, vomit up bile at intervals of some days, and worst of all, vomit black bile. For such a clyster is appropriate, and draughts of wormwood should be given; rocking and a sea-voyage are necessary; vomiting when possible is induced by sea-sickness; indigestion must be avoided, the food should be such as is readily swallowed, and not repugnant to the stomach, the wine must be dry.

7 [Legamen ad versionem Latinam]But the commonest and worst complaint of the stomach is paralysis, when it does not retain food, p403and the nutrition of the body is wont to cease, and so it is consumed by wasting. In this sort of disease the bath is most harmful; reading aloud and exercise of the upper limbs are needed, as also anointing and rubbings; it is good for the patient to have cold water poured over him, and to swim in cold water, also to submit his stomach to jets of it, especially at the back of the stomach from the shoulder-blades downwards, to bathe in cold medicinal springs, such as those at Cutilia and Simbruvium. Food should be also taken cold, rather thatº which is digested with difficulty than that which readily decomposes. Hence many who can digest nothing else, digest beef,41 and therefore it may be inferred that neither poultry no venison, nor fish except the harder kinds, should be given. The most suitable drink is wine cold, or else undiluted and well heated, particularly Rhaetic or Allobrogic wine, or any other which is both dry and seasoned with resin; if there is none of the above at hand, then the harshest possible, especially Signine wine. If food is not retained, water must be given and a more copious vomit elicited, after which food is to be given again, and then cups are to be applied two fingers' breadth below the stomach, and they are to be kept on two or three hours. 9 [Legamen ad versionem Latinam]If simultaneously there is both vomiting and pain, there should be placed over the stomach unscoured wool or sponge soaked in vinegar, or a refrigerant plaster. The arms and legs too are to be rubbed sharply, but not for long, and to be kept warm. If pain is more severe, a cup is to be put on four fingers' breadth below the praecordia, and following that bread in cold vinegar and water is to be given; should this not be retained, after the vomiting, p405anything light or not unsuitable for the stomach can be given; if even that is not retained, give a cupful of wine every hour until the stomach settles down. 10 [Legamen ad versionem Latinam]Radish juice also is an active remedy; more active still is a mixture of the juice of sour and sweet pomegranates in equal parts, with the addition of endive and mint juice, the least quantity of the last; the whole of the above may be mixed thoroughly well with an equal quantity of cold water, which is better than wine for tightening up the stomach. 11 [Legamen ad versionem Latinam]Now, vomiting when spontaneous should be arrested; but if there is nausea, or if food turns acid inside, or decomposes, both of which are manifested by eructations, the food should be evacuated, and the stomach forthwith replenished by the taking of food of the kind just noted (§ 9). When immediate apprehension has been removed a return should be made to the prescriptions given above (§ 7).

13 1   [Legamen ad versionem Latinam] The stomach is girt about by the ribs, and in these also severe pains occur. And the commencement either is from a chill, or from a blow, or from excessive running, or from disease. But at times pain is all there is the matter, and this is recovered from be it slowly or quickly; at times it goes on until it is dangerous, and the acute disease arises which the Greeks call pleurisy.42 To the aforesaid pain in the side is added fever and cough; and by means of the cough, phlegm is expectorated when the disease is less serious, but blood when it is grave. 2 [Legamen ad versionem Latinam]At times also there is a dry cough without expectoration, which is worse than the former condition, and better than the latter. The appropriate remedy for severe and recent pain is blood-letting; but if the case is either of a slighter or of a more chronic kind, p407then this remedy becomes either unnecessary or belated; and recourse is to be had to cupping after incising the skin. It is also appropriate to apply vinegar and mustard upon the chest until this raises ulcerations and pustulations, and then a medicament to draw out the humour that way. 3 [Legamen ad versionem Latinam]Besides the above the side should be first surrounded with a sheet of sulphurated wool; next, after the inflammation has subsided somewhat, have dry and hot foments applied to it. From these transition is made to emollients. If the pain persists for a longer time, it may finally be dispersed by resin plaster. Food and drink should be taken hot, avoiding cold. Along with the above treatment, however, it is not unfitting to rub the lower limbs with oil and sulphur. If the cough has been relieved, the patient should read a little out loud, and now take both sharp food and undiluted wine. Though such are what medical practitioners prescribe, yet our country people, lacking these remedies, find help enough in a draught of germander. 4 [Legamen ad versionem Latinam]The foregoing are the remedies common to all cases of pain in the side: there is more to do if this affection has also become acute. In such cases, besides what has been described above, attention must be given to the following: that the food be as thin and bland as possible, and gruel is most suitable, especially that made with pearl barley, or soup made by boiling a chicken with leeks, and this may be given, but only every third day, if the patient's strength permits of this; the drink should be hydromel in which hyssop or rue has been boiled. 5 [Legamen ad versionem Latinam]The times at which these should be given will become apparent from the way the fever increases or diminishes, so that it should be given when there is least fever, not forgetting, p409however, that a dry throat must not be combined with that kind of cough; for often when there is no expectoration, the cough is incessant and chokes the patient. On this account I stated above that a cough which brings up nothing is of a worse kind than that causing phlegm to be expectorated. But here the disease does not allow of wine being sipped as prescribed above (10.3); pearl barley gruel is to be taken instead. 6 [Legamen ad versionem Latinam]As these have to sustain the patient during the hot stage of the disease, as soon as there is a little remission, the diet can be increased and also some wine given, as long as nothing is given that will either chill the body or irritate the throat. If the cough persists in convalescence, it will be well on one day to omit the wine, and on the next to take a little extra wine with the food. And also at the beginning of a cough, as stated above, it is not amiss to sip cupfuls of wine; but sweet or at any rate light wine, is the more suitable in this kind of illness. If the malady has become inveterate the body must be strengthened by food fit for an athlete.

14 1   [Legamen ad versionem Latinam] Passing from the framework of the body to the viscera, we come first to the lung, where a grave and acute disease arises, which the Greeks name peripleumoniacon.43 The conditions are these: the lung is attacked as a whole; this is followed by a cough which draws up bile or pus; there is a feeling of weight over the praecordia and all the chest; there is difficult breathing, high fever, persistent insomnia, loss of appetite, wasting. This sort of disease has in it more of danger44 than of pain. Blood should be let if there is strength enough; if not, dry cups should be applied over the praecordia. 2 [Legamen ad versionem Latinam]Then if the patient is strong enough he should be rocked to disperse the p411disease; if not, he should yet be moved about in the house: his drink should then be a decoction of hyssop with a dried fig, or hydromel in which hyssop or rue has been boiled; he should be rubbed twice daily, longest between the shoulder-blades, then the arms, feet and legs, but lightly over the lung. As regards food too, in this instance it should be neither salted nor acrid nor bitter nor constipating, but of the rather blander kinds. 3 [Legamen ad versionem Latinam]Therefore on the first days pearl barley or spelt or rice gruel in which fresh lard has been boiled are to be given; with this raw eggs, pine kernels in honey, bread or washed groats of spelt in hydromel; then he may drink not only water by itself but also lukewarm hydromel, or even this cold in summer, unless there is some objection. But whilst the disease is on the increase, it is enough to give these every other day. When the increase has come to a stand, he should abstain, so far as is practicable, from everything except lukewarm water. If the strength begins to fail, hydromel is to be added. For the relief of pain it is helpful to apply foments hot, or those which both repress and soothe. 4 [Legamen ad versionem Latinam]The application to the chest of salt, well rubbed up and mixed with wax-salve, is beneficial because it slightly erodes the skin, and thereby draws out that flood of the matter by which the lung is being oppressed. Useful also is any one of the emollients45 which draw out the matter. During the pressure of the disease it is not wrong to keep the patient with the windows shut: when he is somewhat better, some windows should be opened three or four times a day to let in a little air. Next during recovery he should for several days abstain from wine, use rocking, rubbing and gruels; to the previous foods add: of vegetables, p413leeks, of meat, trotters and tit-bits, also small fish, so long as for a while nothing but what is soft and bland is consumed.

15 1   [Legamen ad versionem Latinam] Further a disease of another of the viscera, the liver, is also sometimes chronic, sometimes acute: the Greeks call it hepaticon.46 There is severe pain in the right part under the praecordia, which spreads to the right side, to the clavicle and arm of that side;47 at times there is also pain in the right hand, there is hot shivering. In a grave case there is vomiting of bile; sometimes the patient is nearly choked by hiccough. Such are the signs when acute; but in a more chronic case, where there is suppuration within the liver, the praecordia on the right side become hard and swollen; after a meal there is greater difficulty in breathing; then supervenes a sort of paralysis of the lower jaws.48 2 [Legamen ad versionem Latinam]When the disease has become inveterate, the abdomen and legs and feet swell; there is wasting of the chest and arms and about the clavicle on both sides. It is best to begin by letting blood; then the bowel is to be moved, if nothing else takes effect, by black hellebore. Externally plasters are to be applied, first repressants, then hot ones to disperse; appropriate additions are iris or wormwood unguents; after these emollients. 3 [Legamen ad versionem Latinam]Gruels, moreover are to be given, all food hot and not too nourishing, generally that kind which is also suitable to pleurisy (IV.13, 4), and in addition such food and drink as promote urination. Beneficial in this disease are: thyme, savory, hyssop, catmint, starch, sesamum p415seeds, laurel berries, young pine-cone tips, knotgrass, mint, quince pulp, the fresh raw liver of a pigeon. Some of the above may be eaten alone, some can be added to the gruel or draughts, so long as they are taken sparingly. There is no objection to wormwood rubbed up in honey and pepper, of which a dose is taken daily. All cold things must be especially avoided; for nothing is more harmful to the liver. 4 [Legamen ad versionem Latinam]Rubbings of the extremities should be employed; all manual work should be avoided, and all more active movement; the patient should never even hold his breath for long together. Anger, hurry, weight-lifting, boxing, running are harmful. A copious affusion of the body with water, hot in winter, tepid in summer, is beneficial, also free anointing and sweating at the bath. But if the liver suffers from an abscess, the same is to be done as in other internal suppurations. Some even with a scalpel make an incision over the liver, and burn through into the actual abscess with the cautery.49

16 1   [Legamen ad versionem Latinam] Now the spleen50 when affected swells, and with it simultaneously the left side; and this becomes hard and resists pressure. The abdomen is tense: there is even some swelling of the legs. Ulcerations either do not heal at all, or at any rate form a scar with difficulty: there is also pain and some difficulty in walking fast or running. Rest increases this complaint, and so there is need for exercise and work; nevertheless, care must be taken lest if carried too far fever be excited. Anointings and rubbings and p417sweatings are necessary. All sweet things are hurtful, also milk and cheese; but sour things are the most suitable. 2 [Legamen ad versionem Latinam]Therefore sharp vinegar may be sipped by itself, vinegar of squills is even better. Such patients should eat salt fish or olives preserved in strong brine, lettuce dipped in vinegar, also endive in the same, beet with mustard, asparagus, horse-radish, parsnip, trotters, chaps, poultry not fatted, and similar game. The drink too, when taken on an empty stomach, should be wormwood decoction; after food, water in which a blacksmith has from time to time dipped his red-hot irons; since this water especially reduces the spleen. For it has been observed that animals reared by our blacksmiths, have small spleens.51 3 [Legamen ad versionem Latinam]Dry thin wine can also be given: and everything, whether food or drink, which causes urination. Of particular value in this respect are: trefoil seeds or cummin or celery or creeping thyme or broom tops or purslane or catmint or thyme or hyssop or savory: for these seem best adapted to draw out humour from the spleen. Ox-spleen52 may be usefully given to eat; rocket and nasturtium in particular render the spleen smaller. Palliatives must also be applied externally: there is one made of ointment and dates which the Greeks call myrobalanon, or that made of linseed and nasturtium53 seeds, to which wine and oil have been added; or that made of green cypress and a dried fig; or that made with mustard to which is added a fourth part by weight of he-goat's kidney fat, and which is rubbed up in the sun and applied forthwith. Moreover, capers54 may be employed in several ways; for they may be both p419taken with the food, and the brine and vinegar in which they have been soaked may be sipped. They may be even applied externally, the root or bark having been rubbed up with bran or the capers themselves with honey. There are also emollients suitable for this affection.

17 1   [Legamen ad versionem Latinam] As regards the kidneys,55 these when they have become affected, continue diseased for a long while. It is worse if bilious vomiting is added. The patient should rest, sleep on a soft bed, keep the bowels loose even using a clyster when they do not act otherwise; he should sit frequently in a hot bath; take neither food nor drink cold, abstain from everything salted, acid, acrid, and from orchard fruit; drink freely; add whether to the food or to the drink pepper, leeks, fennel, white poppy; which are the most active in causing a discharge of urine. As an additional remedy when there is ulceration of the kidneys, if the ulcerations are still in need of being cleaned, sixty cucumber seeds stript of the husk, twelve pine kernels, of aniseed as much as can be taken up by three fingers, and a little crocus, are rubbed up together, and divided between two draughts of honey wine: but if it is merely pain which has to be relieved, thirty of the cucumber seeds, twenty pine kernels, five almonds, and a little crocus are rubbed up together and given in milk. And besides it is right to apply certain emollients, and especially such as extract humour.

18 1   [Legamen ad versionem Latinam] From the viscera we proceed to the intestines, which are subject to diseases, both acute and chronic. p421And in the first place mention is to be made of cholera,56 because it appears to be a complaint common to the stomach and intestines: for there occur simultaneously diarrhoea and vomiting, and in addition flatulence. The intestines are griped, bile bursts upwards and downwards; first it is watery, then like water in which fresh meat has been washed; at times it is white in colour, at other times black or variously coloured. Hence the Greeks term this affection by the name of cholera. 2 [Legamen ad versionem Latinam]Besides those symptoms which are mentioned above, often the legs and arms are also contracted, there is urgent thirst, and fainting; when such things occur together, it is not to be wondered at if the patient dies suddenly, and yet in no other disease is there less time for affording relief. Therefore immediately upon the commencement of the above signs, the patient should drink as much as he can of tepid water, and vomit. Vomiting hardly ever fails to follow; but even if it does not occur, nevertheless it is advantageous to have mixed fresh material with that which is decomposed; the cessation of vomiting is a step towards recovery. 3 [Legamen ad versionem Latinam]If this happens, the patient should abstain forthwith from all drink; if there are still gripings, the stomach should be treated with cold and moist foments, or if there is pain in the belly, these should be lukewarm, so that the belly itself is relieved by moderately warm applications. But if vomiting, diarrhoea and thirst give rise to severe distress, and the vomit still contains undigested food, it is not yet a fitting time for wine: water should be given, not cold but rather lukewarm: pennyroyal p423in vinegar should be applied to the nostrils, or wine sprinkled with polenta, or mint in its natural state. 4 [Legamen ad versionem Latinam]But when the indigestion has been relieved, there is then greater apprehension of fainting. Recourse therefore should then be had to wine. The wine taken should be thin, aromatic, mixed with cold water, adding either polenta or crumbled bread, and bread by itself ought also to be taken, and as often as either the stomach or intestines discharge their contents, so often should the patient recruit his strength by these means. Erasistratus said that a draught should have mixed with it at first three or five drops of wine, subsequently gradual additions of undiluted wine. If Erasistratus both gave wine at the beginning and was influenced by fear of causing indigestion, he acted not without reason; if he thought that severe weakness could be relieved by three drops of wine, he erred. 5 [Legamen ad versionem Latinam]But if the patient is empty and his legs are contracted, a draught of wormwood should be given at intervals. If the extremities become cold, they should be anointed with hot oil to which a little wax has been added, and stimulated by hot foments. If there is no relief even from the above remedies, outside over the actual stomach cups should be applied, or mustard laid upon it. When he has settled down, he should go to sleep. On the next day he should be sure to abstain from drinking, on the third day he should go to the bath, gradually recruit himself with food. Whoever easily gets to sleep is quickly restored; the trouble is brought back by indigestion and also by fatigue and cold. If, after the suppression of the cholera, slight fever persists, there is need for a clyster, and then to take food and wine.

p425 19 1   [Legamen ad versionem Latinam] Now the disorder just described is both acute and has its seat between the intestines and stomach, so that it is not easy to say to which part it most belongs. That which the Greeks term coeliacus57 has its seat at the gateway of the stomach and is usually both acute and chronic. Under this affection the belly becomes hard and painful; the bowels void nothing, not even wind; the extremities become cold; the breath is passed with difficulty. 2 [Legamen ad versionem Latinam]To begin with it is best to apply hot foments and plasters all over the belly to relieve pain, after food to induce a vomit and thus to empty the belly; next on the following days to apply dry cups to the abdomen and hips; to loosen the bowels, by giving milk and cold salted wine; also if in season green figs, provided that neither drink nor food is given all at once but a little at a time. 3 [Legamen ad versionem Latinam]It is enough, therefore, to take two or three cupfuls at intervals, and food in the same proportion; a cup of milk, mixed with one of water, and so administered, is suitable; flatulent and pungent foods are more useful, hence it is well to add pounded garlic to the milk. And as time goes on there is need for: rocking, especially a sea-voyage; rubbing three or four times a day, soda being added to the oil; hot-water affusions after food; then mustard should be put upon all the extremities, omitting the head, until there is irritation and redness, especially if the body is robust and virile. 4 [Legamen ad versionem Latinam]Gradual transition should next be made to remedies which confine the bowels. Roast meat, such as is nutritious and does not readily decompose, is to be given; and for drink, p427boiled rainwater, of which two or three cupfuls should be drunk at a time. If the disorder is of longer standing the proper thing is to swallow a bit of the best laser the size of a peppercorn, to drink wine and water on alternate days, between meals at times to sip a cupful of wine; to administer a clyster of tepid rain-water, especially if pain persists in the lower bowel.

20 1   [Legamen ad versionem Latinam] In the intestines proper two diseases have their seat, one in the small, the other in the large. The mr is acute, the latter may become chronic. Diocles of Carystus named the disease of the small intestines chordapsos, of the large eileos. I note that by many the former is now termed eileos, the latter colicos.58 The former excites pain, at times above, at times below the navel. At one or the other of these places there is inflammation; neither motion nor wind is passed downwards. If the upper part is affected, food, if the lower, faeces is returned by the mouth; if either happens the disease is chronic. 2 [Legamen ad versionem Latinam]Additional signs of danger are if the vomit is bilious, malodorous, either varying in colour of black. The remedy is blood-letting or cupping in several places, the skin not being incised at all; for it is sufficient to do so in two or three places; in the others it is quite enough to extract wind.59 Next attention should be turned to the seat of disease: for there is commonly a swelling over it. And if this is situated above the navel, there is no use in the clyster; if below, to clyster the bowels as Erasistratus advised is the best remedy and often that is all the treatment required. Now the clyster should consist of strained pearl barley gruel, together with oil and honey, nothing else being added. 3 [Legamen ad versionem Latinam]If there is no p429swelling, the two hands should be placed upon the upper part of the belly, and little by little drawn downwards; for the seat of the trouble may be thus discovered, owing to its being necessarily resistent; and from this one can form an opinion whether the bowels should be clystered or not. The treatments common to both forms are: the application of hot plasters, put on from the breasts to the groins, and back to the spine, and often changed; rubbing of the arms and legs; immersing the patient all over in hot oil. If the pain is not relieved, there is injected into the bowels from below three or four cupfuls of hot oil. When we have brought it about by these measures that wind is now passed down and out, tepid honeyed wine, not much, is given to drink; for before that every care should be taken that nothing at all is drunk. If the honeyed wine is kept down, then give gruel. 4 [Legamen ad versionem Latinam]When pain and feverishness have subsided, then at length a fuller diet is adopted, but nothing flatulent nor solid nor rich, lest the intestines, whilst still weak, take harm; but for drink nothing is better than plain water, for in this disease vinous and acid drinks are objectionable. Subsequently the patient should avoid the bath, walking, rocking and other bodily movements; for this disorder is very liable to recur, and, unless the intestines have already returned to a sound state, either cold or shaking of any kind may cause a return of the trouble.

21 1   [Legamen ad versionem Latinam] The disease which is in the larger intestine is situated chiefly in that part which I have described as a blind alley (IV.1, 8). There is extreme flatulence, violent pains especially on the right side; the intestine which appears to undergo torsion, . . . almost forces out wind. In most cases it comes on after chills and p431fits of indigestion, then subsides, and in course of time often recurs so as to be a cause of suffering but without shortening the length of life. At the commencement of the pain, dry, hot foments should be applied, at first mild, then stronger ones, at the same time rubbing is used to draw off the matter to the extremities, into the legs and arms; if the pain be not so dispersed, dry cups should be applied. There is even a medicament compounded for this very purpose called colicos: Cassius60 used to boast that he had invented it. It is of more benefit when given as a draught, but when applied externally too it relieves pain by dispersing the wind. Until griping has quite ceased it is not right to take properly either food or drink. I have already stated what kind of food should be used in this kind of disorder (1, 7). The composition of the medicament termed colicos is as follows: costmary, anise, castor, of each 12 grams, of parsley 12 grams, of long and round peppers, a.a. 8 grams, of poppy tears, round rush, myrrh, nard, a.a. 24 grams, all mixed together with honey. This may be either swallowed by itself of the taken in hot water.

22 1   [Legamen ad versionem Latinam] The most akin to the above among intestinal maladies are gripings,61 called by the Greeks dysenteria. The insides of the intestines ulcerate; from these blood trickles and at times is excreted with some faeces which are always liquid, at times with a sort of mucus, sometimes at the same time something fleshlike comes down; there is frequent desire to stool and pain in the anus. Along with this p433pain a scanty motion is discharged, and by this too the griping pain is intensified: and after a while there is some relief and a short interval of ease; sleep is broken, feverishness comes; when the disorder has continued for a long while, it either carries off the patient, or even, although it come to an end, puts him to torture. 2 [Legamen ad versionem Latinam]Rest must be adopted from the first, since any shaking sets up ulceration; next on an empty stomach he is to sip a cupful of wine to which has been added powdered cinquefoil root; then repressant plasters are put upon the abdomen, which in the case of disorders of the upper abdomen is not expedient; whenever the patient goes to stool, he should bathe the anus with hot water in which vervains have been boiled; purslane should be eaten, whether cooked or pickled in strong brine; also such foods and drink as are astringent to the bowel. 3 [Legamen ad versionem Latinam]If the distemper is of longer standing, there should be injected into the rectum either a tepid cream of pearl barley, or milk, or melted fat, or deer marrow, or olive oil, or rose oil with butter or with raw white of egg, or a decoction of linseed, or if sleep does not occur, yolk of eggs in a decoction no rose-leaves: for such remedies relieve pain and mitigate ulceration, and are of special utility if loss of appetite has ensued. 4 [Legamen ad versionem Latinam]Themison has stated in writing that the strongest brine should be used in these cases. Food too should be of the kind which will act as mild astringents. But diuretics if they take effect are beneficial by directing humour to another part: if they do not take effect, they increase the trouble; so unless for those on whom they act promptly, they should not be used. If there is feverishness, the drink should be hot water, either plain or with some astringent62 p435in it; if none, then light dry wine. If for several days other remedies have done no good, and the disease is now of long standing, drinking of very cold water acts as an astringent upon the ulcerations and starts recovery. 5 [Legamen ad versionem Latinam]But as soon as the movement of the bowels is under control, there should forthwith be a return to warm drinks. Sometimes also there is discharged a putrid sanies having a foul odour, sometimes unmixed blood escapes. If the former occurs, a hydromel clyster should be given, and then the other things mentioned above injected. An effective remedy even for intestinal canker is a lump of minium rubbed up with 250 grams of salt, dissolved in water, and administered as a clyster. But if there is a flux of blood, food and drink should be astringent.

23 1   [Legamen ad versionem Latinam] From dysentery there proceeds sometimes leienteria,63 when the intestines cannot retain anything, and whatever is swallowed is straightway excreted imperfectly digested.64 Sometimes in the patients this drags on, sometimes it hurries them off. In this affection especially astringents should be put on the chest, and when the skin becomes ulcerated, then an emollient to draw out humour; and the patient should sit in a decoction of vervains; take both food and drink which control the bowel: and have cold water poured over him. 2 [Legamen ad versionem Latinam]Nevertheless, care should be taken lest with all these remedies there be an opposite trouble p437set up by excessive flatulence. Consequently, little by little, the intestines should be strengthenedº by some additions daily. As in the case of any abdominal flux, so in this, it is particularly necessary that the patient should go to stool, not as often as inclined, but as often as compelled, so that by such delay the intestines may be got into the habit of holding up their contents. There is another thing which, whilst applicable equally to all similar affections, is to be specially observed in this, that as many beneficial medicaments are disagreeable to the taste, such as the mixture containing plantain and blackberries and any mixture containing pomegranate rind,º that shall be chosen which the patient likes most. Moreover, if he loathes all of them, something to excite his appetite should be interposed, less useful, perhaps, but most pleasant. Exercise and rubbing are needed in this disease also, as well as heat, whether of the sun, or a fire, and baths; and according to Hippocrates,65 a vomit even by white hellebore, when other measures prove of little avail.

24 1   [Legamen ad versionem Latinam] Again, worms also occasionally take possession of the bowel, and these are discharged at one time from the lower bowel, at another more nastily from the mouth: and we observe them sometimes to be flattened,66 which are the worse, at times to be rounded.67 For the flat worms there should be given as draughts, a decoction of lupins, of or of mulberry bark, to which may be added, after pounding, either hyssop or a vinegar cupful68 of pepper, or a little scammony. Alternatively on one day let him eat a quantity of garlic and vomit,º then on the next day take a handful of fine pomegranate roots, crush them and boil them in a litre and a half of water down to one-third, p439to this add a little soda, and drink it on an empty stomach. 2 [Legamen ad versionem Latinam]At three hours' interval, let him take two further draughts; but with the addition of half a pint of sea water or strong brine; then on going to stool, sit over a basin of hot water. Again, for the round69 worms which especially trouble children, both the same remedies may be given and some milder ones, such as pounded-up seeds of nettles or of cabbage or of cummin in water, or mint in the same or a decoction of wormwood or hyssop in hydromel or cress seeds pounded up in vinegar. It is also of service either to eat lupin or garlic, or administer into the lower bowel a clyster of olive oil.

25 1   [Legamen ad versionem Latinam] There is, again, another affection which the Greeks call tenesmos, slighter than all those last spoken of. It should be counted neither with acute nor with chronic diseases, since it is readily relieved, and never by itself fatal. As in the case of dysentery, there is equally the frequent desire for stool, and equally the pain when anything is passed. There is a discharge resembling phlegm and mucus; sometimes it is even slightly bloodstained; but mingled with properly formed faeces derived from food. 2 [Legamen ad versionem Latinam]The patient should sit in hot water, and make application frequently to his anus. For this there are several suitable medicaments; butter in rose oil, gum acacia dissolved in vinegar; that wax-salve which the Greeks call tetrapharmacon, made liquid with rose oil; alum wrapped up in wool and so applied; the same clysters as are beneficial in dysentery; the same decoction of vervains to foment the lower parts. He should drink on alternate days water and a thin dry wine p441lukewarm or better cold. The diet should be the same as prescribed above 922) for dysentery.

26 1   [Legamen ad versionem Latinam] Even slighter, while recent, is diarrhoea,70 in which the stool is liquid and more frequent than ordinary; and sometimes the pain is bearable, at times very severe, when it is a worse affair. But a flux from the bowel for one day is often salutary, and even for several days, provided that fever is absent and it subsides within seven days. For the body is purged, and whatever is about to cause a complaint inside is evacuated with advantage. But persistence is the danger; for it excites at times dysentery and feverishness and exhausts strength. 2 [Legamen ad versionem Latinam]It is sufficient on the first day to rest, and not to check the movement of the bowels. If it stops of itself, the patient should make use of the bath, and take a little food; if it persists, he should abstain, not only from for, but even from drink. If on the day following, in spite of all, the stool is still liquid, he should rest as before and take a little astringent food. On the third day he should go to the bath; be rubbed all over vigorously except the abdomen, sit with his loins and shoulder-blades before a fire; take food of an astringent kind, and a little undiluted wine. 3 [Legamen ad versionem Latinam]If on the fourth day the flux persists, he should eat more but provoke a vomit afterwards, and counter in a general way the diarrhoea by thirst, hunger and vomiting, until it subsides for it is scarcely possible that after so attending to it, the bowel will not be controlled. Another method to suppress the diarrhoea is to dine and then vomit; the next day to rest in bed, in the evening to be anointed, but lightly, then to eat about half a pound of bread soaked in undiluted Aminaean wine; after that something roasted, poultry in particular, p443and lastly to drink the same wine mixed with rain-water; and to do so until the fifth day, then vomit again. 4 [Legamen ad versionem Latinam]Now Asclepiades, against the opinion of previous writers, affirmed that the drink should be kept constantly cold, indeed as cold as possible. I myself hold that each should trust in his own experiences, whether hot than cold drink should be made us of. It sometimes happens also that this disorder, having been neglected for several days, is more difficult to relieve. Such a patient should commence with an emetic; then the following day at evening be anointed in a warm room; take food in moderation, and the sourest wine undiluted; a wax-salve with rue should be applied to the abdomen. 5 [Legamen ad versionem Latinam]In this affection neither walking nor rubbing is of benefit; sitting in a carriage and even more riding on horseback is advantageous; for nothing strengthens the intestines more. But if use is to be made of medicaments as well, the most suitable is that made from orchard fruit. At the time of the vintage, pears and crab apples are thrown into a large vessel; and if the latter are not to be had, green Tarentine or Signine pears, Scaudian, or Amerian apples, sweet-scented.71 6 [Legamen ad versionem Latinam]To these are added quinces and pomegranates with their rind, service fruit, and those that are called torminalia, which we use by preference, so that these occupy one-third of the jar; then this is next to be fille up with must, and boiled until all the ingredients have become resolved into a uniform mass. It is not unpleasant to the taste, and taken as needed, it controls the bowel gently, without any harm to the stomach. It is enough to take in one day two or three p445spoonfuls. Another composition is stronger: myrtle berries are gathered, and wine expressed from them is boiled down to one-tenth, of which a cup72 is sipped. A third can be prepared at any time by scooping out the inside of a pomegranate, removing all the seeds, and returning the pulp into the cavity, than raw eggs are pounded in, and stirred round with a small rod; next the fruit itself is heated over charcoal, for it does not burn so long as the inside is liquid; when the inside begins to dry the pomegranate is taken off the brazier and with a spoon the inside is scooped out and eaten. By certain acrid additions this remedy can be made more active; thus also it may be stirred up in peppered wine and mixed with salt and pepper, and so eaten. 8 [Legamen ad versionem Latinam]Pease porridge, with which a little of an old honeycomb has been boiled, also lentil porridge boiled with pomegranate rind, also a decoction of bramble tops eaten with oil and vinegar, are efficacious, as also draughts of a decoction of dates or quinces or dried service fruits or brambles. Such are the kind I refer to whenever I say an astringent draught should be administered. 9 [Legamen ad versionem Latinam]Also a half-pint of wheat is boiled in dry Aminaean wine, and first the wheat is eaten on a stomach empty both of food and drink, afterwards the wine itself is drunk and can be justly counted amongst the most active remedies. Also there can be given to drink Signian wine, or dry and resinated wine, or any other dry wine. And a pomegranate may be pounded up along with its rind and seeds, and mixed with wine of the above sort; the p447patient either sips it undiluted, or drinks it mixed with water. But it is superfluous except in bad cases to make use of medicaments.

27 1   [Legamen ad versionem Latinam] From the womb of a woman, also, there arises a violent malady;73 and next to the stomach this organ is affected the most by the body, and has the most influence upon it. At times it makes the woman so insensible that it prostrates her as if by epilepsy. The case, however, differs from epilepsy, in that the eyes are not turned nor is there foaming at the mouth nor spasm of sinews; there is merely stupor.74 In some women this attack recurs at frequent intervals and lasts throughout life. When this happens, if there is sufficient strength, blood-letting is beneficial; if too little, yet cups should be applied to the groins. If she lies prostrate for a long while, or if she has done so at other times, hold to her nostrils an extinguished lamp wick, or some other of these materials which I have referred to as having a specially foetid odour (III.20, 1), to arouse the woman. For the same end, affusion with cold water is also effectual. And there is benefit from rue pounded up with honey, or from a wax-salve made up with cyprus oil or from hot moist plasters of some sort applied to the external genitals as far as the pubes. At the same time also the hips and the backs of the knees should be rubbed. Then when she has come to herself, she should be cut off from wine for a whole year,a even if a similar attack does not recur. Friction should be applied daily to the whole body, but particularly to the abdomen and behind the knees. Food of the middle class should be given: every third or fourth day mustard is to be applied over the hypogastrium until the skin is reddened. If induration p449persists, a convenient emollient appears to be bitter sweet steeped in milk, then pounded and mixed with white wax and deer marrow in iris oil, or suet of beef or goat mixed with rose oil. Also there should be given in draught either castory, or git,75 or dill. If the womb is not healthy, it is cleaned with square rushes; but if it is actually ulcerated a wax-salve is made with rose oil, with pounded rose-leaves added to give it consistence. When painful the womb should be fumigated from below with sulphur. But if excessive menstruation is doing harm to the woman, the remedy is to scarify and cup the groins, or even to apply cups under the breasts. If the menstrual discharge is bad, the following medicaments are to be applied to evoke blood: costmary, pennyroyal, white violet, parsley, catmint and savory and hyssop. Let her include what is suitable in her diet: leeks, rue, cummin, onion, mustard, or any other acrid vegetable. If blood bursts out from the nose at a time when it should do so from the genitals, the groins are to be scarified and cupped, repeating this every thirtieth day for three or four months, then you may be sure that this affection has been cured. But if there is no show of blood, you may be sure that there are pains coming in the head. Then blood is to be let from the arms, and you have given relief at once.

. . . constricting remedies. White olives also produce the same effect, also black poppy seeds, taken p451with honey, and liquid gum, mixed with pounded celery seeds, and given in a cupful of raisin wine. Besides the above, draughts suited for all bladder pains are made from aromatics, such as spikenard, saffron, cinnamon, cassia, and such like, also decoction of mastic does good. If in spite of these pain becomes intolerable and there is blood in the urine, venesection is proper, or at any rate wet cupping over the hips.

2 [Legamen ad versionem Latinam]But when the urine76 exceeds in quantity the fluid taken, even if it is passed without pain, it gives rise to wasting and danger of consumption; if it is thin, there is need for exercise and rubbing, particularly in the sun and before a fire. The baths should be taken but seldom, and the patient should not stay in it for long; the food should be astringent, the wine dry and undiluted, cold in summer, lukewarm in winter, and in quantity the monument required to allay thirst. The bowels also are to be moved by a clyster or by taking milk. If the urine is thick, exercise and rubbing should be more though, and the patient should stay longer in the bath; food and wine should be of the lighter kind. In both affections, everything that promotes urine should be avoided.

28 1   [Legamen ad versionem Latinam] There is also a complaint about the genitals, an excessive outflow of semen;77 which is produced without coition, without nocturnal apparitions, so that in course of time the man is consumed by wasting. Salutary remedies in this affection are: vigorous rubbings, affusions, swimming in quite cold water; no food and drink taken unless cold. He should, moreover, avoid everything indigestible, everything p453flatulent; nothing should be taken of those things which appear to collect the semen, such things are siligo, simila, eggs, spelt, starch, all glutinous flesh, pepper, colewort, bulbs, pine kernels. It is not inexpedient to bathe the lower extremities in a decoction of astringent vervains, to cover the hypogastrium and groins with plasters prepared from the same decoction, and in particular from rue preserved in vinegar: also the patient should avoid sleeping on his back.

29 1   [Legamen ad versionem Latinam] It remains for me to come to the extremities of the body which are interconnected by joints. I begin with the hips. In these severe pain is wont to occur,78 and this often weakens the patient, and some it never leaves: and on this account it is a difficult class to treat, for it is generally after chronic diseases that a pestiferous force directs itself to the hip; which, as it releases other parts, seizes upon this, which now becomes the seat of the disease. The hip is to be first fomented with hot water, after which hot plasters are applied. Those which appear to be especially beneficial are these: caper bark chopped up and mixed either with barley meal or with fig decoction, or darnel meal boiled in diluted wine and mixed with sour wine lees: since these are apt to grow cold, by night it is better to put on emollients. Inula root also pounded and afterwards boiled in dry wine and applied widely to the hip is among the most efficacious of remedies. If these do not resolve the trouble, then hot moist salt79 is to be employed. If even these measures do not end the pain, and a swelling supervenes, the skin is incised and cups are to be applied; diuretics are given; and the bowels if costive are to be clystered. p455The ultimate measure and the most efficacious in cases of old standing, is to set up issues in three or four places over the hip by burning the skin with cauteries. But rubbing is also to be employed, particularly in the sun and often each day, in order that the materials of the disease, which have been doing harm by collecting, may be the more readily dispersed; and the rubbing is applied actually over the hips in the absence of ulceration; if there is any, then to other parts. Since now some issue often has to be set up by the hot cautery, in order that matter may be extracted, it is the general rule not to let ulcerations of this kind heal offhand, but to let them drag on until the complaint which we aim to relieve has quieted down.

30 1   [Legamen ad versionem Latinam] Next to the hips come the knees, in which pain now and again occurs, and these same plasters and cuppings are a safeguard, as also when any pain arises in the shoulder or other joints. Riding on horseback is of all things the most injurious to anyone with painful knees. All such pains, when of long standing, are hardly ever ended except by cauterization.

31 1   [Legamen ad versionem Latinam] Joint troubles80 in the hands and feet are very frequent and persistent, such as occur in cases of podagra and cheiragra.81 these seldom attack eunuchs or boys before coition with a woman, or women except those in whom the menses have become suppressed.82 Upon the commencement of pain blood should be let; for when this is carried out at once in the first stages it ensures health, often for a year, sometimes for always. Some also, when they have washed themselves out by drinking asses' milk, evade this disease in perpetuity; some have obtained lifelong p457security by refraining from wine, mead and venery for a whole year; indeed this course should be adopted especially after the primary attack, even although it has subsided. But if the malady has already become established, it may be possible to act with more freedom in those seasons83 in which the pain tends to remit; but he should adopt more careful treatment at those times in which it recurs, which is generally in spring or autumn. 3 [Legamen ad versionem Latinam]Now when the pain requires it, in the morning the patient should be rocked; then carried to a promenade;84 there he should move about, and in the case of podagra he should take short turns at sitting down and walking about: next before taking food and without entering the bath itself, but in a hot room, he should be gently rubbed, sweated, and then douched with lukewarm water: the food following should be of the middle class; diuretics are given with it, and an emetic whenever he is of a fuller habit. When the pain is very severe, it makes a difference whether there is an absence of swelling, or a swelling with heat, or swellings which already hardened. 4 [Legamen ad versionem Latinam]For if there is no swelling, hot foments are needed. Either sea-water, or strong brine should be heated, then poured into a vessel; and as soon as he can bear it, the man puts his feet in, over the vessel is spread a cloak, and over him a blanket; after that hot water is poured over the lip of the vessel, a little at a time, to prevent the contents from losing heat: and then at night heating plasters are applied, especially mallow root boiled in wine. 5 [Legamen ad versionem Latinam]But if there is swelling and heat, refrigerants are more useful, and the joints may be rightly held in very cold water, but not every day, nor for long, lest the sinews become hardened. There is to be applied p459also a cooling plaster; this, however, is not to be kept on for long, but a change made to those which soothe as well as repress. If pain is greater, rind of poppy-heads is to be boiled in wine, and mixed with wax-salve made up with rose oil; or wax and lard, equal parts, are melted together, and then the wine mixed with these; and as soon as this application becomes hot, it is to be removed and another immediately put on. But if the swellings have grown hard and are painful, the application of a sponge frequently squeezed out of oil and vinegar, or out of cold water, or the application of pitch, wax and alum, equal parts mixed, gives relief. There are also several emollients suitable alike for the hands and feet. But if the pain does not allow of anything being put on, when there is no swelling, the joint should be fomented with a sponge which has been dipped in a warm decoction of poppy-head rind, or of wild cucumber root, next the joints are smeared with saffron, poppy-juice and ewe's milk. 7 [Legamen ad versionem Latinam]But if there is a swelling, this ought to be bathed with a tepid decoction of mastic or some other repressant vervain, and then covered with a medicament composed of bitter almonds pounded up in vinegar, or of white lead, to which has been added the juice of pounded pellitory. The stone, too, which corrodes flesh, which the Greeks call sarcophagos,85 is carved out so as to admit the feet; when these are painful, they are inserted and held there, and are usually relieved. In Asia Minor Assian86 limestone is held in esteem for this purpose. When pain and inflammation have subsided, which should happen within forty87 days, unless the patient is in fault, gentle exercise, spare diet, soothing anointings, p461are to be employed, provided that also then the joints may be rubbed with an anodyne salve or with a liquid wax-salve of cyprus oil. 9 [Legamen ad versionem Latinam]But riding on horseback is harmful for those with podagra. Those, too, in whom joint-pains tend to recur at certain seasons ought both to take precautions beforehand as to their diet, lest there should be a surfeit of harmful material in the body, and to use an emetic the most frequently; and those in any anxiety as to their body should make use of clystering, or of purgation by milk. This treatment for those with podagra was rejected by Erasistratus, lest a flux directed downwards might fill up the feet, though it is evident that any purgation extracts, not only from the upper parts, but also from the lower as well.

32 1   [Legamen ad versionem Latinam] Now from whatever disease he is recovering, if his convalescence is slow, the patient ought to keep awake from dawn, but nevertheless stay at rest in bed: about nine o'clock he should be gently stroked over with anointed hands, after that by way of amusement, and as long as he pleases, walk, all business being omitted: then he should use conveyances88 for a good while, be rubbed much, often change his residence, climate and diet. 2 [Legamen ad versionem Latinam]Having taken wine for three or four days, he should for one or two days drink water only. For thus he will ensure that he does not lapse into a complaint which causes wasting, but soon gets back his full strength. When he has, in fact, completely recovered, it will be dangerous for him suddenly to change his way of life and to act without restraint. Therefore he should only little by little leave off what has been prescribed, and pass to a way of life of his own choosing.89


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Thayer's Note:

a Celsus, writing in the early 1c A.D., thinks nothing of this: women regularly drank wine. Let this counteract the nonsense you may have seen plastered all over the Web that it was somehow forbidden.


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Page updated: 26 May 04