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The Anonymus Valesianus

 p509  First Part

The Lineage of the Emperor Constantine

1 1 [Legamen ad versionem Latinam] Diocletian ruled with Herculius1 Maximianus for twenty years.

2 [Legamen ad versionem Latinam] Constantius,2 grandson of the brother of that best of emperors Claudius,3 was first one of the emperor's bodyguard, then a tribune, and later, governor of Dalmatia.4 With Galerius he was appointed Caesar by Diocletian;5 for he put away his former wife Helena and married Theodora, daughter of Maximianus, by whom he afterwards had six children,6 brothers of Constantine. But by his former wife Helena he already had a son Constantine, who was later the mightiest of emperors.

2 2 º[Legamen ad versionem Latinam] This Constantine, then, born of Helena, a mother of very common origin, and brought up in the town of Naissus,7 which he afterwards splendidly adorned, had but slight training in letters.8 He was  p511 held as a hostage by Diocletian and Galerius,9 and did valiant service under those emperors in Asia. After the abdication of Diocletian and Herculius,10 Constantius11 asked Galerius to return his son; but Galerius first exposed him to many dangers. 3 [Legamen ad versionem Latinam] For when Constantine, then a young man, was serving in the cavalry against the Sarmatians, he seized by the hair and carried off a fierce savage, and threw him at the feet of the emperor Galerius. Then sent by Galerius through a swamp, he entered it on his horse and made a way for the rest to the Sarmatians, of whom he slew many and won the victory for Galerius. 4 [Legamen ad versionem Latinam] Then at last Galerius sent him back to his father. But in order to avoid meeting Severus12 as he passed through Italy, Constantine crossed the Alps with the greatest haste, ordering the post-horses to be killed13 as he went on; and he came up with his father Constantius at Bononia,14 which the Gauls formerly called Gesoriacum. But his father Constantius, after winning a victory over the Picts, died at York, and Constantine was unanimously hailed as Caesar by all the troops.

3 5 [Legamen ad versionem Latinam] In the meantime, two other Caesars had been appointed,15 Severus and Maximinus; to Maximinus was given the rule of the Orient; Galerius retained Illyricum for himself, as well as the Thracian provinces and Bithynia; Severus received Italy and whatever Herculius had formerly  p513 governed.16 6 [Legamen ad versionem Latinam] But after Constantius died in Britain, and his son Constantine succeeded him, Maxentius, the son of Herculius, was suddenly hailed as emperor by the praetorian soldiers in the city of Rome. By order of Galerius, Severus took the field against Maxentius, but he was suddenly deserted by all his followers and fled to Ravenna. Thereupon Galerius, with a great army, came against Rome, threatening the destruction of the city, and encamped at Interamna17 near the Tiber. 7 [Legamen ad versionem Latinam] Then he sent Licinius and Probus to the city as envoys, asking that the son-in‑law, that is Maxentius, should attain his desires from the father-in‑law, that is Galerius, at the price of requests rather than of arms. Galerius' proposal was scorned, and having learned that through Maxentius' promises many of his own men had been led to desert his cause, he was distressed and turned back; and in order to furnish his men with whatever booty he could, he gave orders that the Flaminian Road should be plundered.18 8 [Legamen ad versionem Latinam] Maximianus19 took refuge with Constantine. Then Galerius made Licinius a Caesar20 in Illyricum, and after that, leaving him in Pannonia, returned himself to Serdica, where he was attacked by a violent disease and wasted away so completely, that he died with the inner parts of his body exposed and in a state of corruption21 — a punishment for a most  p515 unjust persecution,22 which recoiled as a well-merited penalty upon the author of the iniquitous order. He ruled for nineteen years.

4 9 [Legamen ad versionem Latinam] Severus Caesar was low both in character and in origin, given to drink, and hence a friend to Galerius. Accordingly Galerius made Caesars of him and Maximinus, without Constantine having knowledge of any such step. To this Severus were assigned some cities of Pannonia, Italy, and Africa. Through this chance Maxentius became emperor; for Severus was deserted by his men and fled to Ravenna. 10 [Legamen ad versionem Latinam] Summoned to support his son Maxentius, Herculius came to Ravenna, deceived Severus by a false oath, gave him into custody, and took him to Rome in the condition of a captive; there he had him kept under guard in a villa belonging to the state, situated thirty miles from Rome on the Appian Road.23 When Galerius later went to Italy, Severus was executed; then his body was taken to a place eight miles from the city, and laid in the tomb of Gallienus. 11 [Legamen ad versionem Latinam] Now Galerius was such a tippler24 that when he was drunk he gave orders such as ought but to be obeyed; and so, at the advice of his prefect, he directed that no one should execute any commands which he issued after luncheon.

12 [Legamen ad versionem Latinam] Meanwhile Constantine, after defeating the tyrant's25 generals at Verona, went on to Rome. When he had reached the city, Maxentius came out and chose a plain26 above the Tiber as the place to do battle. There the usurper was defeated, and when  p517 all his men were put to flight, he was prevented from escaping by the crowd of fugitives, thrown from his horse into the river, and drowned. On the following day his body was recovered from the Tiber, and the head was cut off and taken to Rome. When his mother was questioned about his parentage, she admitted that he was the son of a Syrian. He ruled for six years.27

5 13 [Legamen ad versionem Latinam] Now Licinius was a native of New Dacia, and was of somewhat common origin. He was made emperor28 by Galerius, in order that he might take the field against Maxentius. But when Maxentius was overthrown and Constantine had recovered Italy, he made Licinius his colleague on condition that he should marry Constantine's sister Constantia at Mediolanum. After the celebration of the wedding Constantine went to Gaul, and Licinius returned to Illyricum. 14 [Legamen ad versionem Latinam] Some time after that Constantine sent Constantius29 to Licinius, to persuade him to confer the rank of Caesar on Bassianus, who was married to a second sister of Constantine (named Anastasia), to the end that, after the manner of Maximianus, Bassianus might hold Italy and thus stand as a buffer between Constantine and Licinius. 15 [Legamen ad versionem Latinam] But Licinius thwarted such an arrangement, and influenced by Bassianus' brother Senicio, who was loyal to Licinius, Bassianus took up arms against Constantine. But he was arrested in the act of accomplishing his purpose, and by order of Constantine was condemned and executed. When the punishment of Senicio was demanded as the instigator of  p519 the plot and Licinius refused, the harmony between the two emperors came to an end; an additional reason for the break was, that Licinius had overthrown the busts and statues of Constantine at Emona.30 Then the two emperors declared open war. 16 [Legamen ad versionem Latinam] Their armies were led to the plain of Cibalae.31 Licinius had 35,000 infantry and cavalry; Constantine commanded 20,000. After an indecisive contest, in which 20,000 of Licinius' foot soldiers and a part of his mail-clad horsemen were slain, he himself with a great part of his other cavalry made his escape under cover of night to Sirmium. 17 [Legamen ad versionem Latinam] From there, taking with him his wife, his son, and his treasures, he went to Dacia and appointed Valens, who was commander on the frontier, to the rank of Caesar. Then, having through Valens mustered a large force at Hadrianopolis, a city of Thrace, he sent envoys to Constantine, who had established himself at Philippi, to treat for peace. When the envoys were sent back without accomplishing anything, the war was renewed and the two rivals joined battle on the plain of Mardia. After a long and indecisive struggle, the troops of Licinius gave way and night aided them to escape. 18 [Legamen ad versionem Latinam] Thereupon Licinius and Valens, believing that Constantine (as turned out to be the case), in order to follow up his advantage, would advance farther in the direction of Byzantium, turned aside and made their way towards Beroea.32 As Constantine was eagerly pushing on, he learned that Licinius had remained behind him; and just then, when his men were worn out from fighting and marching, Mestrianus was sent to him as an envoy, to propose  p521 peace in the name of Licinius, who promised to do as he was bidden. Valens was ordered to return again to his former private station;33 when that was done, peace was concluded by both emperors, with the stipulation that Licinius should hold the Orient, Asia, Thrace, Moesia, and Lesser Scythia.34 19 [Legamen ad versionem Latinam] Then Constantine, having returned to Serdica, arranged with Licinius, who was elsewhere, that Crispus and Constantinus, sons of Constantine, and Licinius, son of Licinius, should be made Caesars, and that thus the rule should be carried on in harmony by both emperors. Thus Constantine and Licinius became colleagues in the consulship.35 20 [Legamen ad versionem Latinam] In the regions of the Orient, while Licinius and Constantine were consuls, Licinius was stirred by sudden madness and ordered that all the Christians should be driven from the Palace.36

Soon war flamed out again between Licinius himself and Constantine. 21 [Legamen ad versionem Latinam] Also, when Constantine was at Thessalonica, the Goths broke through the neglected frontiers, devastatedº Thrace and Moesia, and began to drive off booty. Then because of fear of Constantine and his check of their attack they returned their prisoners to him and peace was granted them. But Licinius complained of this action as a breach of faith, on the ground that his function had been usurped by another. 22 [Legamen ad versionem Latinam] Finally, by using sometimes humble entreaties and sometimes arrogant threats, he aroused the deserved wrath of Constantine. During the interval before the civil war began, but while it was in preparation, Licinius  p523 gave himself up to a frenzy of wickedness, cruelty, avarice and lust; he put many men to death for the sake of their riches, and violated their wives. 23 [Legamen ad versionem Latinam] Now peace was broken by consent of both sides; Constantine sent Crispus Caesar with a large fleet to take possession of Asia, and on the side of Licinius, Amandus opposed him, likewise with naval forces. 24 [Legamen ad versionem Latinam] Licinius himself had covered the slopes of high mountain near Hadrianopolis with a huge army. Hither Constantine turned his march with his entire force. While the war went on slowly by land and sea, although Constantine's army had great difficulty in scaling the heights, at last his good fortune and the discipline of his army prevailed, and he defeated the confused and disorganised army of Licinius; but Constantine was slightly wounded in the thigh. 25 [Legamen ad versionem Latinam] Then Licinius fled to Byzantium; and while his scattered forces were on the way to the city, Licinius closed it, and feeling secure against an attack by sea, planned to meet a siege from the land-side. But Constantine got together a fleet from Thrace. Then Licinius, with his usual lack of consideration,37 chose Martinianus as his Caesar. 26 [Legamen ad versionem Latinam] But Crispus, with Constantine's fleet, sailed to Callipolis,38 where in a sea-fight he so utterly defeated Amandus that the latter barely made his escape with the help of the forces which he had left on shore. But Licinius' fleet was in part destroyed and in part captured. 27 [Legamen ad versionem Latinam] Licinius, abandoning hope on the sea, by way of which he saw that he would be blockaded, fled with his treasures to Chalcedon. Constantine  p525 entered Byzantium, where he met Crispus and learned of his naval victory. Then Licinius began a battle at Chrysopolis,39 being especially aided by the Gothic auxiliaries which their prince Alica had brought; whereupon the army of Constantine was victorious, slaying 25,000 soldiers40 of the opposing side and putting the rest to flight. 28 [Legamen ad versionem Latinam] Later, when they saw Constantine's legions coming in Liburnian galleys, the survivors threw down their arms and gave themselves up. But on the following day Constantia, sister of Constantine and wife of Licinius, came to her brother's camp and begged that her husband's life be spared, which was granted. Thus Licinius became a private citizen,41 and was entertained at a banquet by Constantine. Martinianus' life was also spared. 29 [Legamen ad versionem Latinam] Licinius was sent to Thessalonica; but Constantine, influenced by the example of his father-in‑law Herculius Maximianus,42 for fear that Licinius might again, with disastrous consequences to the State, resume the purple which he had laid down, and also because the soldiers mutinously demanded his death, had him assassinated at Thessalonica,43 and Martinianus in Cappadocia. Licinius reigned nineteen years and was survived by his wife and a son. And yet, after all the other participants in the abominable persecution44  p527 had already perished, the penalty he deserved would surely demand this man also, a persecutor so far as he could act as such.45

6 30 [Legamen ad versionem Latinam] In commemoration of his splendid victory Constantine called Byzantium Constantinople after his own name; and as if it were his native city, he adorned it with great magnificence and wished to make it equal to Rome. Then he sought out new citizens for it from every quarter,46 and lavished such wealth on the city, that thereon he all but exhausted the imperial fortunes. There he also established a senate47 of the second rank, the members of which had the title of clari.48 31 [Legamen ad versionem Latinam] Then he began war against the Goths, rendering aid also to the Sarmatians, who had appealed to him for help.49 The result was that almost a hundred thousand of the Goths were destroyed by hunger and cold through Constantinus Caesar.50 Then he also received hostages, among whom was Ariaricus, the king's son. 32 [Legamen ad versionem Latinam] When peace with the Goths had thus been secured, Constantine turned against the Sarmatians, who were showing themselves to be of doubtful loyalty. But the slaves of the Sarmatians rebelled against all their masters51 and drove them from the country. These Constantine willingly received, and  p529 distributed more than three hundred thousand people of different ages and both sexes through Thrace, Scythia, Macedonia, and Italy.

33 [Legamen ad versionem Latinam] Constantine was also the first Christian emperor, with the exception of Philippus52 who seemed to me to have become a Christian merely in order that the one-thousandth year of Rome53 might be dedicated to Christ rather than to pagan idols.54 But from Constantine down to the present day all the emperors that have been chosen were Christians, with the exception of Julian, whose disastrous life forsook him in the midst of the impious plans which it was said that he was devising. 34 [Legamen ad versionem Latinam] Moreover, Constantine made the change55 in a just and humane fashion; for he issued an edict that the temples should be closed without any shedding of pagan blood. Afterwards he destroyed the bravest and most populous of the Gothic tribes in the very heart of the barbarian territory; that is, in the lands of the Sarmatians.

35 [Legamen ad versionem Latinam] Constantine also put down a certain Calocaerus,56 who tried to achieve a revolution in Cyprus. He made Dalmatius, son of his brother of the same name,57 a Caesar; Dalmatius' brother Hannibalianus he created King of Kings and ruler of the Pontic tribes,58 after giving him his daughter Constantiana59 in marriage. Then it was arranged that the younger Constantine should rule the Gallic provinces, Constantius Caesar the Orient, Constans Illyricum and Italy, while Dalmatius was to guard  p531 the Gothic coastline.60 While Constantine was planning to make war on the Persians, he died in an imperial villa61 in the suburbs of Constantinople, not far from Nicomedia, leaving the State in good order to his sons. He was buried in Constantinople, after a reign of thirty-one years.62

The Editor's Notes:

1 This name was conferred on Maximianus by Diocletian.

2 Constantius Chlorus, father of Constantine, emperor 305‑306.

3 Claudius II; his mother was Claudia, daughter of Crispus, brother of Claudius II; cf. Eutr. IX.22; Hieron. a. Abr. 2307.

4 Under the emperor Carus, who wished to make him Caesar in place of his own brother Carinus.

5 In 292.

6 Three sons: Dalmatius, Julius Constantius, and Hannibalianus; and three daughters: Constantia, Anastasia, and Eutropia.

7 In Moesia, on the river Margus; cf. XXI.10.5; modern Niš, in Yugoslavia.

8 minus = minus iusto, Tillemont IV. p132 (Wagner).

9 To secure his father's loyalty.

10 Maximianus (Herculius), in 305.

11 Constantius Chlorus.

12 He had been appointed Caesar by Galerius; see 3.5, below.

13 At each station, so that his pursuers could not use them; cf. Zos. II.8; Ps.-Aur. Vict., Caesares, 40.2, cum ad frustrandos insequentes publica iumenta quaqua iter egerat interficeret; and for another meaning, Amm. XV.1.2.

14 Boulogne, cf. Amm. XX.1.3.

15 By Galerius.

16 He had governed Italy and Africa.

17 In Southern Umbria on the river Nar, just below its junction with the Velinus; modern Terni.

18 Text and meaning are uncertain. Apparently he went along the Flaminian Road; cf. Lact., De Mort. Persec. 27.5, dedit militibus potestatem ut diriperent omnia vel corrumperent, ut si quis insequi vellet, utensilia non haberet.

19 Ille seems to refer to Maximianus, who wished to resume his imperial power; if so, something is missing from the text.

20 Other writers imply that he was made an Augustus at once.

21 Cf. Oros. VII.28.12, putrescente introrsum pectore et visceribus dissolutis.

22 Of the Christians; cf. Lact., De Mort. Persec. 33; Eusebius, Church Hist. VIII.16.3 ff.

23 According to Zos. II.10, and Pseud.-Aur. Vict., Epit. 40.3, it was at Tres Tabernae.

24 Pseud.-Vict. 40.19, makes this statement regarding Maxentius.

25 Maxentius, called "tyrant" because his sovereignty was not officially recognized.

26 Saxa Rubra, near the Mulvian Bridge.

27 The number is lacking in the text, but is known from the Panegyrics of Constantine and other sources. It was from 306‑312.

28 I.e., Augustus; see Introd. to Vol. I, p. xxv. He seems never to have been a Caesar.

29 His son, the future emperor, Constantius II.

30 Modern Laibach in Carinthia.

31 Cf. Amm. XXX.7.2.

32 A town of Thrace; cf. Amm. XXVII.4.12; XXXI.9.1.

33 "Private" here means "not royal"; cf. Lucan, V.666 ff.; quamvis plenus honorum et dictator eam Stygias et consul ad umbras, privatum, Fortuna, mori.

34 This was at the time a part of Moesia.

35 In 319.

36 Orosius uses the same language.

37 I.e., without consulting Constantine; cf. § 9, above.

38 Modern Gallipoli, on the Hellespont.

39 Modern Scutari, opposite Constantinople.

40 For this meaning of armati, cf. Amm. XV.4.8; XXVI.1.6.

41 See note 1, on 5.18, above.

42 See note 4, on § 8 above. The second wife of Constantine's father was a daughter of Maximianus; see 1.2, above.

43 Cf. Eutr. X.6.1, contra religionem sacramenti privatus occisus est.

44 Of the Christians; see § 8, note 1, above.

45 That is, as subordinate to Galerius (see § 8, Caesarem fecit), who was the leader in the persecution (§ 8, auctorem).

46 Hieronymus says that he nearly depopulated the other cities of the empire.

47 According to Zos. III.2, Julian established a senate at Constantinople; see Amm. XXII.9.2, and cf. Paneg. Lat. (p527)XI.24 (Gratiarum actio Juliana), cum Senatui non solum veterem reddideris dignitatem, sed plurimum etiam novi honoris adieceris.

48 The Roman senators were clarissimi.

49 In 334.

50 The son of Constantine the Great, afterwards Constantinus II; see § 19, above.

51 The Limigantes; see Amm., XVII.13.1; XVII.12.18 ff.

52 Philip, the Arab, emperor from 244 to 249.

53 The one-thousandth year since the founding of the city.

54 The words are those of Orosius, VII.28.

55 From the pagan to the Christian religion.

56 He was a camel-driver.

57 See 2.2, note 6, above.

58 See Amm. XIV.1.2, note 2.

59 This was Constantia, wrongly called Constantine in XIV.11.22 and elsewhere, afterwards wife of Gallus Caesar.

60 The name Gothica ripa was applied at that time to Thrace, Macedonia and Achaia.

61 The place where he died was called Ancyrona or Anchyro or Anchyronis, Hieron., Chronica, ann. Abr. 2353 (T.L.L.).

62 From the death of Constantius Chlorus, in 306, to 337.

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