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This webpage reproduces a section of
The Fragments


(Loeb Classical Library edition, 1940)

The text is in the public domain.

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p213 Appendix II
Eratosthenes (?) (from Syncellus)

Fr. 7 (a)

Kings of Thebes.1

Apollodorus, the chronographer, recorded another dynasty of Egyptian kings, — the Thebans, as they are called, — thirty-eight kings ruling for 1076 years. This dynasty began in Anno Mundi 2900, and came to an end in Anno Mundi 3045 [3976]. The knowledge of these kings, he says, Eratosthenes took from Egyptian records and lists, and at the king's command he translated them into the Greek language, as follows:

Of the Theban kings in thirty-eight dynasties ruling 1124 years after the Dispersion,

p215 1. The first was Mênês of Thebes, whose name, being interpreted, means "everlasting".2 He reigned for 62 years. Anno mundi 2900.

2. The second king of Thebes was Athôthês, son of Mênês, for 59 years. His name, being interpreted, means "Born of Hermês".3 Anno mundi 2962.

3. The third king of Thebes in Egypt was Athôthês II, for 32 years. Anno mundi 3021.

4. The fourth king of Thebes was Miabaês, son of Athôthis, for 19 years. His name, being interpreted, means "Bull-lover".4 Anno mundi 3053.

5. The fifth king of Thebes was Pemphôs (? Sempsôs, Semempsês), son of Athôthis. His name is "descendant of Hêraclês," and he reigned for 18 years. Anno mundi 3072.

Fr. 13

6. The sixth king of Thebes in Egypt was Momcheiri of Memphis, reigning for 79 years. His name, being interpreted, means p217"leader of men". He had exceeding large limbs (and was therefore irresistible). Anno mundi 3090.

7. The seventh king of Thebes in Egypt was his son, Stoichos. The name means "unfeeling Arês". He reigned for 6 years. Anno mundi 3169.

8. The eighth king of Thebes in Egypt was Gosormiês, whose name means "all‑demanding". He reigned for 30 years. Anno mundi 3175.

9. The ninth king of Thebes in Egypt was his son, Marês, whose name means "gift of the Sun".5 He reigned for 26 years. Anno mundi 3205.

10. The tenth king of Thebes in Egypt was Anôÿphis, whose name means "revelling".6 He reigned for 20 years. Anno mundi 3231.

11. The eleventh king of Thebes in Egypt was Sirius, whose name means "son of the iris of the eye,"7 or, as others say, "unharmed by the evil eye". He reigned for 18 years. Anno mundi 3251.

12. The twelfth king of Thebes in Egypt was Chnubos or Gneuros, which means "gold"8 p219or "golden son" (or his son). He reigned for 22 years. Anno mundi 3269.

13. The thirteenth king of Thebes in Egypt was Raÿôsis, which means "the arch-masterful".9 He reigned for 13 years. Anno mundi 3291.

14. The fourteenth king of Thebes in Egypt was Biÿrês, who reigned for 10 years. Anno mundi 3304.

Fr. 17

15. The fifteenth king of Thebes in Egypt was Saôphis, "reveller," or, according to some, "money-getter, trafficker". He reigned for 29 years. Anno mundi 3314.

16. The sixteen king of Thebes was Saôphis II, who reigned for 27 years. Anno mundi 3343.

17. The seventeenth king of Thebes was Moscherês (? Mencherês), "gift of the Sun," who reigned for 31 years. Anno mundi 3370.

18. The eighteenth king of Thebes was Mosthês (? Mencherês II), who reigned for 33 years. Anno mundi 3401.

19. The nineteenth king of Thebes was Pammês, "leader-like," who reigned for 35 years. Anno mundi 3434.

p221 Fr. 22

20. The twentieth king of Thebes was Apappûs (Pepi),10 "the very great". He, they say, ruled for 100 years all but one hour. Anno mundi 3469.

21. The twenty-first king of Thebes was Echeskosokaras, for 1 year. Anno mundi 3569.

22. The twenty-second ruler of Thebes was Nitôcris,11 a queen, not a king. Her name means "Athêna the victorious," and she reigned for 6 years. Anno mundi 3570.

Fr. 33

23. The twenty-third king of Thebes was Myrtaeus (Amyrtaeus), "gift of Ammôn,"12 for 22 years. Anno mundi 3576.

24. The twenty-fourth king of Thebes was Uôsimarês, "Mighty is the Sun,"13 for 12 years. Anno mundi 3598.

25. The twenty-fifth king of Thebes was Sethinilus (Thirillus), which means "having increased his ancestral power," for 8 years. Anno mundi 3610.

p223 26. The twenty-sixth king of Thebes was Semphrucratês, which means "Heraclês Harpocratês," for 18 years. Anno mundi 3618.

27. The twenty-seventh king of Thebes was Chuthêr, "bull-lord,"14 for 7 years. Anno mundi 3636.

28. The twenty-eighth king of Thebes was Meurês (Mieirês), "loving the iris of the eye,"15 for 12 years. Anno mundi 3643.

29. The twenty-ninth king of Thebes was Chômaephtha (Tômaephtha), "world, loving Hêphaestus,"16 for 11 years. Anno mundi 3655.

30. The thirtieth king of Thebes was Soicunius (or Soicunis), † hochotyrannos, †17 (or Soicuniosochus the lord), for 60 years. Anno mundi 3666.

31. The thirty-first king of Thebes was Peteathyrês,18 for 16 years. Anno mundi 3726.

Fr. 37

32. The thirty-second king of Thebes was <Stammenemês I (Ammenemês I), for 26 years. Anno mundi 3742.

p225 33. The thirty-third king of Thebes was> Stammenemês II (Ammenemês II), for 23 years. Anno mundi 3768.

34. The thirty-fourth king of Thebes was Sistosichermês, "valiant Hêraclês" (Sistosis or Sesortôsis, "valiant Hermês or Hêraclês"), for 55 years. Anno mundi 3791.

35. The thirty-fifth king of Thebes was Marês,19 for 43 years. Anno mundi 3846.

Fr. 40

36. The thirty-sixth king of Thebes was Siphthas,20 also called Hermês, "son of Hêphaestus," for 5 years. Anno mundi 3889.

37. The thirty-seventh king of Thebes was Phruorô21 (Phuorô) or "the Nile," for 5 (? 19) years. Anno mundi 3894.

38. The thirty-eighth king of Thebes was Amuthartaeus, for 63 years. Anno mundi 3913.

[Syncellus then adds (p279) in much the same phrase as that quoted at the beginning of Appendix II: "These names Eratosthenes took from the sacred scribes at Diospolis and translated from Egyptian into the Greek language."]

The Editor's Notes:

1 This list of kings was said to have been taken by Apollodorus (2c B.C.) from Eratosthenes of Cyrene (3c B.C.) whom Apollodorus often followed as an authority; but according to Jacoby (Apollodors Chronik, pp399 ff., Fr. 117 — Pseudo-Apollodorus) the list of "Theban" kings owes nothing to either Apollodorus or to Eratosthenes, but is the work of one who sought to recommend his compilation under two distinguished names. The list, containing thirty-eight kings, who ruled for 1076 years, is of Theban origin, derived from a Royal List such as that of Karnak: the explanations of the names are interesting, and the variations in Nos. 11 and 15 may be due to the priests themselves. Historically the list is of no great worth: several of the names are not proper names, but Throne-names, such as are found in the royal Lists and the Turin Prophecy (Meyer, Aeg. Chron. pp99 ff.).

Kings 1‑5 correspond to Dynasty I, 13‑17 to Dynasty IV, 18‑22 to Dynasty VI.

2 The Egyptian form of the name Mênês may quite well be interpreted as "the abiding one," from mn, "to endure".

3 This etymology obviously assumes the presence of the divine name Thôth in the name Athôthês.

4 The first element of the name Miabaês is clearly some form of the verb mr, "to love".

5 With this interpretation of the name Marês (which may correctly explain the second element as Rê, "the Sun"), cf. ἥλιος εὐφεγγής, "a brilliant Sun," in Hymn IV line 32, A. Vogliano, Madinet Madi, Primo Rapporto (1936); see note on No. 35 infra, p224.

6 Possibly this explanation is based upon the Egyptian word unóf, "to rejoice" (B. G.).

7 In Egyptian si‑iri means "son of the eye".

8 Nûb is Egyptian for "gold".

9 Possibly, according to this explanation, Ra- (or Rha-) is the Egyptian ḥry, "master," and the rest of the name *wôse(r), "powerful" (B. G.).

10 Apappûs is the Phiôps of Fr. 20.4, with a curious misunderstanding of his reign of 94 years.

11 See p54 n. 2, and Wainwright, Sky-Religion, pp41, 45.

12 This interpretation is based upon the common Egyptian name Amenerdais, "Amûn has given him".

13 The Egyptian Wôse-mi‑Rê means "Mighty like the Sun": Uôsimarês may however be intended for the first half of the praenomen of Ramessês II, Wesê-me‑Rê, but this means "Rê is mighty in justice".

14 The first syllable of the name Chuthêr may represent the Egyptian , "bull".

15 In Egyptian, "loving the eye" is mai-îri.

16 As to the latter part of the name, "loving Hêphaestus" is in Egyptian mai‑Ptah: the emended Tô- represents the Egyptian , "world" (B. G.).

17 Bunsen employs this vox nihili to mean "a tyrant like Ôchus": Gutschmid, to mean "Suchus the lord". The latter description may refer to one of the Sebekḥotpes.

18 Peteathryês, a well-formed name Pede-Hathor, which does not occur as a king's name.

19 Besides Marês and derived forms (Marrês, Aelian, De Nat. Anim. VI.7; Marros and Mendês, Diod. Sic. I.61.1; Imandês, Strabo 17.1.3742), there are two types of variants on the name of Amenemhêt III — (1) Lamarês (Fr. 34), Lamaris (Fr. 35), Labarês, Labaris; and (2) Pramarrês, Premanrês (Pr- = Pharaoh): cf. Poremanrês, P. Mich. Zen. 84, lines 18, 21, Porramanrês in A. Vogliano, Madinet Madi, Primo Rapporto (1936), Hymn IV, line 34, where the first two syllables must be eliminated if the pentameter is to scan. [See note on p50. The temple at the vestibule of which the Hymn was inscribed is dated 95 B.C.]

20 Siphthas is King Siptah ("son of Ptah"), probably Thuôris (Thuôsris), of Dynasty XIX.

21 The Egyptian name for the River Nile is p‑yeor‑o. For comparisons of the King of Egypt with the River Nile, see Grapow, Die Bildlichen Ausdrücken des Aegyptischen, p62.

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