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This webpage reproduces a section of
The Fragments

of
Manetho

(Loeb Classical Library edition, 1940)

The text is in the public domain.

This page has been carefully proofread
and I believe it to be free of errors.
If you find a mistake though,
please let me know!

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Manetho

p153 Book III

Dynasty XX

Fr. 57 (from Syncellus). According to Africanus.

From the Third Book of Manetho.

The Twentieth Dynasty1 consisted of twelve kings of Diospolis, who reigned for 135 years.

(b) According to Eusebius.

From the Third Book of Manetho.

The Twentieth Dynasty consisted of twelve kings of Diospolis, who reigned for 178 years.

p155 (c) Armenian Version of Eusebius.

From the Third Book of Manetho.

The Twentieth Dynasty consisted of twelve kings of Diospolis, who reigned for 172 years.

Dynasty XXI

Fr. 58 (from Syncellus). According to Africanus.

The Twenty-first Dynasty2 consisted of seven kings of Tanis.

1. Smendês,3 for 26 years.

2. Psusen(n)ês I,4 for 46 years.

3. Nephercherês (Nephelcherês), for 4 years.

4. Amenôphthis, for 9 years.

5. Osochôr, for 6 years.

6. Psinachês, for 9 years.

7. Psusennes [II] (Susennês), for 14 years.

Total, 130 years.5

p157 Fr. 59 (a) (from Syncellus). According to Eusebius.

The Twenty-first Dynasty consisted of seven kings of Tanis.

1. Smendis, for 26 years.

2. Psusennês, for 41 years.

3. Nephercherês, for 4 years.

4. Amenôphthis, for 9 years.

5. Osochôr, for 6 years.

6. Psinachês, for 9 years.

7. Psusennês, for 35 years.

Total, 130 years.

(b) Armenian Version of Eusebius.

The Twenty-first Dynasty consisted of seven kings of Tanis.

1. Smendis, for 26 years.

2. Psusennes, for 41 years.

3. Nephercheres, for 4 years.

4. Amenophthis, for 9 years.

5. Osochor, for 6 years.

6. Psinnaches, for 9 years.

7. Psusennes, for 35 years.

Total, 130 years.

p159 Dynasty XXII

Fr. 60 (from Syncellus). According to Africanus.

The Twenty-second Dynasty6 consisted of nine kings of Bubastus.

1. Sesônchis, for 21 years.

2. Osorthôn,7 for 15 years.

3, 4, 5. Three other kings, for 25 [29] years.

6. Takelôthis, for 13 years.

7, 8, 9. Three other kings, for 42 years.

Total, 120 years.8

Fr. 61 (a) (from Syncellus). According to Eusebius.

The Twenty-second Dynasty consisted of three kings of Bubastus.

1. Sesônchôsis, for 21 years.

2. Osorthôn, for 15 years.

3. Takelôthis, for 13 years.

Total, 49 years.

p161 (b) Armenian Version of Eusebius.

The Twenty-second Dynasty consisted of three kings of Bubastus.

1. Sesonchosis, for 21 years.

2. Osorthon,9 for 15 years.

3. Tacelothis, for 13 years.

Total, 49 years.

Dynasty XXIII

Fr. 62 (from Syncellus). According to Africanus.

The Twenty-third Dynasty10 consisted of four kings of Tanis.

1. Petubatês, for 40 years: in his reign the Olympic festival11 was first celebrated.

2. Osorchô, for 8 years: the Egyptians call him Hêraclês.12

3. Psammûs, for 10 years.

4. Zêt,13 for 31 years (34).

Total, 89 years.

p163 Fr. 63 (a) (from Syncellus). According to Eusebius.

The Twenty-third Dynasty consisted of three kings of Tanis.

1. Petubastis,14 for 25 years.

2. Osorthôn, for 9 years: the Egyptians called him Hêraclês.

3. Psammûs, for 10 years.

Total, 44 years.

(b) Armenian Version of Eusebius.

The Twenty-third Dynasty consisted of three kings of Tanis.

1. Petubastis, for 25 years.

2. Osorthon, whom the Egyptians named Hercules: for 9 years.

3. Psammus, for 10 years.

Total, 44 years.

p165 Dynasty XXIV

Fr. 64 (from Syncellus). According to Africanus.

The Twenty-fourth Dynasty.15

Bochchôris of Saïs, for 6 years: in his reign a lamb16 spoke17 . . . 990 years.

Fr. 65 (a) (from Syncellus). According to Eusebius.

The Twenty-fourth Dynasty.

Bochchôris of Saïs, for 44 years: in his reign a lamb spoke. Total, 44 years.18

p167 (b) Armenian Version of Eusebius.

The Twenty-fourth Dynasty.

Bocchoris of Saïs, for 44 years: in his reign a lamb spoke.

Dynasty XXV

Fr. 66 (from Syncellus). According to Africanus.

The Twenty-fifth Dynasty19 consisted of three Ethiopian kings.

1. Sabacôn,20 who, taking Bochchôris captive, burned him alive, and reigned for 8 years.

2. Sebichôs, his son, for 14 years.

3. Tarcus,21º for 18 years.

Total, 40 years.

Fr. 67 (a) (from Syncellus). According to Eusebius.

The Twenty-fifth Dynasty consisted of three Ethiopian kings.

1. Sabacôn, who, taking Bochchôris captive, burned him alive, and reigned for 12 years.

2. Sebichôs, his son, for 12 years.

3. Taracus, for 20 years.

Total, 44 years.

p169 (b) Armenian Version of Eusebius.

The Twenty-fifth Dynasty consisted of three Ethiopian kings.

1. Sabacon, who, taking Bocchoris captive, burned him alive, and reigned for 12 years.

2. Sebichos, his son, for 12 years.

3. Saracus (Taracus), for 20 years.

Total, 44 years.

Dynasty XXVI

Fr. 68 (from Syncellus). According to Africanus.

The Twenty-sixth Dynasty22 consisted of nine kings of Saïs.

1. Stephinatês, for 7 years.

2. Nechepsôs, for 6 years.

3. Nechaô, for 8 years.

4. Psammêtichus,23 for 54 years.

5. Nechaô24 the Second, for 6 years: he took Jerusalem, and led King Iôachaz captive into Egypt.

6. Psammuthis the Second, for 6 years.

p171 7. Uaphris,25 for 19 years: the remnant of the Jews fled to him, when Jerusalem was captured by the Assyrians.

8. Amôsis,26 for 44 years.

Psammecheritês,27 for 6 months.

Total, 150 years 6 months.

Fr. 69 (a) (from Syncellus). According to Eusebius.

The Twenty-sixth Dynasty consisted of nine kings of Saïs.

1. Ammeris the Ethiopian, for 12 years.

2. Stephinathis, for 7 years.

3. Nechepsôs, for 6 years.

4. Nechaô, for 8 years.

5. Psammêtichus, for 45 [44] years.

6. Nechaô the Second, for 6 years: he took Jerusalem, and led King Iôachaz captive into Egypt.

7. Psammuthis the Second, also called Psammêtichus, for 17 years.

p173 8. Uaphris, for 25 years: the remnant of the Jews fled to him, when Jerusalem was captured by the Assyrians.

9. Amôsis, for 42 years.

Total, 163 years.28

(b) Armenian Version of Eusebius.

The Twenty-sixth Dynasty consisted of nine kings of Saïs.

1. Ameres the Ethiopian, for 18 years.

2. Stephinathes, for 7 years.

3. Nechepsos, for 6 years.

4. Nechao, for 8 years.

5. Psametichus,º for 44 years.

6. Nechao the Second, for 6 years: he took Jerusalem, and led King Ioachaz captive into Egypt.

7. Psammuthes the Second, also called Psammetichus, for 17 years.

8. Uaphres, for 25 years: the remnant of the Jews took refuge with him, when Jerusalem was subjugated by the Assyrians.

9. Amosis, for 42 years.

Total, 167 years.

p175 Dynasty XXVII

Fr. 70 (from Syncellus). According to Africanus.

The Twenty-seventh Dynasty29 consisted of eight Persian kings.

1. Cambysês in the fifth year of his kingship over the Persians became king of Egypt and ruled for 6 years.

2. Darius, son of Hystaspês, for 36 years.

3. Xerxês the Great, for 21 years.

4. Artabanus,30 for 7 months.

5. Artaxerxês,31 for 41 years.

6. Xerxês,32 for 2 months.

7. Sogdianus, for 7 months.

8. Darius, son of Xerxês, for 19 years.

Total, 124 years 4 months.

p177 Fr. 71 (a) (from Syncellus). According to Eusebius.

The Twenty-seventh Dynasty consisted of eight Persian kings.

1. Cambysês in the fifth year of his kingship became king of Egypt, and ruled for 3 years.

2. Magi, for 7 months.

3. Darius, for 36 years.

4. Xerxês, son of Darius, for 21 years.

5. Artaxerxês of the long hand, for 40 years.

6. Xerxês the Second, for 2 months.

7. Sogdianus, for 7 months.

8. Darius, son of Xerxês, for 19 years.

Total, 120 years 4 months.

(b) Armenian Version of Eusebius.

The Twenty-seventh Dynasty consisted of eight Persian kings.

1. Cambysês in the fifth33 year of his kingship became king of Egypt, and ruled for 3 years.

2. Magi, for 7 months.

3. Darius, for 36 years.

4. Xerxes, son of Darius, for 21 years.

5. Artaxerxes, for 40 years.

6. Xerxes the Second, for 2 months.

7. Sogdianus, for 7 months.

8. Darius, son of Xerxes, for 19 years.

Total, 120 years 4 months.

p179 Dynasty XXVIII

Fr. 72 (a) (from Syncellus). According to Africanus.

The Twenty-eighth Dynasty.34 Amyrteos of Saïs, for 6 years.

(b) According to Eusebius.

The Twenty-eighth Dynasty. Amyrtaeus of Saïs, for 6 years.

(c) Armenian Version of Eusebius.

The Twenty-eighth Dynasty. Amyrtes of Saïs, for 6 years.35

Dynasty XXIX

Fr. 73 (a) (from Syncellus). According to Africanus.

The Twenty-ninth Dynasty:36 four kings of Mendês.

1. Nepheritês, for 6 years.

2. Achôris, for 13 years.

3. Psammuthis, for 1 year.

4. Nepheritês [II], for 4 months.

Total, 20 years 4 months.

p181 (b) According to Eusebius.

The Twenty-ninth Dynasty: four kings37 of Mendês.

1. Nepheritês, for 6 years.

2. Achôris, for 13 years.

3. Psammuthis, for 1 year.

4. Nepheritês [II], for 4 months.

5. Muthis, for 1 year.

Total, 21 years 4 months.

(c) Armenian Version of Eusebius.

The Twenty-ninth Dynasty consisted of four kings of Mendês.

1. Nepherites, for 6 years.

2. Achoris, for 13 years.

3. Psamuthes, for 1 year.

4. Muthes, for 1 year.

5. Nepheritês [II], for 4 months.

Total, 21 years and 4 months.

p183 Dynasty XXX

Fr. 74 (a) (from Syncellus). According to Africanus.

The Thirtieth Dynasty38 consisted of three kings of Sebennytus.

1. Nectanebês, for 18 years.

2. Teôs, for 2 years.

3. Nectanebus,39 for 18 years.

Total, 38 years.

(b) According to Eusebius.

The Thirtieth Dynasty consisted of three kings of Sebennytus.

1. Nectanebês, for 10 years.

2. Teôs, for 2 years.

3. Nectanebus, for 8 years.

Total, 20 years.

p185 (c) Armenian Version of Eusebius.

The Thirtieth Dynasty consisted of 3 kings of Sebennytus.

1. Nectanebes, for 10 years.

2. Teos, for 2 years.

3. Nectanebus, for 8 years.

Total, 20 years.

Dynasty XXXI

Fr. 75 (a) (from Syncellus). According to Africanus.

The Thirty-first Dynasty40 consisted of three Persian kings.

1. Ôchus in the twentieth year41 of his kingship over the Persians became king of Egypt, and ruled for 2 years.

2. Arsês, for 3 years.

3. Darius, for 4 years.

Total of years in Book III, 1050 years42 [850].

Here ends the History of Manetho.

p187 (b) According to Eusebius.

The Thirty-first Dynasty consisted of three Persian kings.

1. Ôchus in the twentieth year of his kingship over the Persians conquered Egypt, and ruled for 6 years.

2. His successor was Arsês, son of Ôchus, who reigned for 4 years.

3. Next, Darius reigned for 6 years: he was put to death by Alexander of Macedon.

These are the contents of the Third Book of Manetho.

Here ends the History of Manetho.

(c) Armenian Version of Eusebius.

The Thirty-first Dynasty consisted of Persian kings.

1. Ochus in the twentieth year of his kingship over the Persians seized Egypt and held it for 6 years.

2. His successor was Arses, son of Ochus, who reigned for 4 years.

3. Next, Darius reigned for 6 years: he was put to death by Alexander of Macedon.

These are the contents of the Third Book43 of Manetho.


The Editor's Notes:

1 Dynasty XX c. 1200‑1090 B.C.

Setnakht: Ramessês III c. 1200‑1168: Ramessês IV‑XI c. 1168‑1090. Manetho's 12 kings probably included Ramessês XII and Herihor. The Great Papyrus Harris (time of Ramessês III) describes the anarchy between Dynasties XIX and XX: see Breasted, Anc. Rec. IV § 398.

A revised list of Dynasty XX is given by Newberry in Elliot Smith and Warren Dawson, Egyptian Mummies, 1924: see also T. E. Peet in J. Eg. Arch. XIV (1928), pp52 f.

2 Dynasty XXI, resident at Tanis, c. 1090‑950 B.C. (a dark period in Egyptian history). For identifications with monumental and other evidence see Meyer, Geschichte2, II.2, p20 n. This Tanite Dynasty overlapped with the Theban Dynasty XX: see the Report of Wenamon, Breasted, Anc. Rec. IV §§ 557‑591; C. A. H. II pp192 ff.

3 For Smendês or Nesbenebded, a local noble of Tanis, who seized the whole Delta and made himself king of Lower Egypt, see C. A. H. II p191; III pp253 f.

4 In Egyptian, Psusennes is Psukheʿmnê, "the star appearing in Thebes". In 1939‑40 tombs of certain kings of Dynasties XXI and XXII were excavated by P. Montet at Tanis, the most valuable being the intact tomb of Psusennês I, with its rich funerary equipment: in several chambers sarcophagi, vases of many kinds, and jewels were found, including the funerary outfit of Amenôphthis (Amon‑em‑apt, son of Psusennês I) and the silver sarcophagus of a certain Sesonchôsis (not the first king of Dynasty XII), (Ann. Serv. Antiq. tt. XXXIX f., 1939‑40).

5 Actual total of items, 114 years. Eusebius is probably correct with 41 years for 2nd king and 35 years for 7th (Meyer).

6 Dynasty XXII c. 950‑730 B.C., kings of Libyan origin resident at Bubastis. For identifications with the monumental and other evidence see Meyer, Geschichte2, II.2, p58. The first king, Sesonchôsis (Shishak, O. T. 1 Kings xiv.25, 2 Chron. xii) overthrew the Tanites c. 940 B.C. About 930 B.C. he captured Jerusalem and plundered the Temple of Solomon: see Peet, Egypt and the Old Testament, 1922, pp158 ff. Albright (The Archaeology of Palestine and the Bible2, 1932‑3, p199) dates the conquest of Judah by Shishak between 924 and 917 B.C.

7 The name Osorthôn is another form of Osorchô (Dynasty XXIII No. 2 — Africanus), the Egyptian Osorkon.

8 Actual total of items, 116 years.

9 Osorthôs (Aucher, Karst).

10 Dynasty XXIII, resident at Tanis: the records of these kings (dated by Breasted 745‑718 B.C.) are much confused. The name Petubatês (see Fr. 63 for the usual Grecized form Petubastis) represents the Egyptian Pedibaste. For King Osorcho (Osorkon III) see the stele of Piankhi, king of Ethiopia, whose vassal Osorkon became (Breasted, Anc. Rec. IV §§ 807, 811, 872, 878). Psammûs has not been identified.

11 The date of the first Olympic festival was conventionally fixed at 776‑775 B.C.

12 See G. A. Wainwright, Sky‑Religion, pp35 f.

13 The fact that the name Zêt, occurring in Africanus alone, is wrapped in obscurity, has led Flinders Petrie to suggest ("The Mysterious Zêt" in Ancient Egypt, 1914, p32) that the Greek letters are a contraction for ζητεῖται or other word connected with ζητέω, meaning "A question (remains)," or "Query, about 31 years": for 31 years at this time no single ruler seemed to be predominant, and further search was needed to settle who should be entered as the king of Egypt. "Zêt." is found in wall-inscriptions at Pompeii: see Diehl, Pompeianische Wandinschriften, No. 682. The next inscription, No. 683, gives "Zêtêma " in full: a riddle follows.

14 For a demotic romance of the time of Petubastis in one of the Rainer Papyri, see Krall in Vienna Oriental Journal, XVII (1903), 1: it is also found in papyri of Paris and Strassburg. Parallels may be drawn between this romance and Manetho; cf. Spiegelberg, Der Sagenkreis des Königs Petubastis (Leipzig, 1910), pp8 f.

15 Dynasty XXIV, c. 720-c. 715 B.C. Before Bocchoris, his father Tefnachte of Saïs (Tnephachthus in Diodorus Siculus, I.45.2) became the most powerful among the chiefs of the Delta (c. 730‑720 B.C.).

For King Bocchoris see Alexandre Moret, De Bocchori Rege, 1903. Cf. Diodorus Siculus, I.65, 79.1 (law of contract: Bocchoris legislated for commerce), and 94.5. See Breasted, Anc. Rec. IV § 884: the only extant monuments of King Bocchoris are a few Serapeum stelae and a wall inscription, which record the burial of an Apis in the sixth year of his reign.

16 See especially the demotic story (8 B.C.) of the prophetic lamb, quoted by Krall in Festgaben für Büdinger, pp3‑11 (Innsbruck, 1898): the lamb prophesied the conquest and enslavement of Egypt by Assyria, and the removal of her gods to Nineveh. Cf. Aelian, De Nat. Anim. XII.3, and Manetho, Fr. 54, §§ 232 ff. A reference to Manetho's description of the oracular lamb is preserved in Pseudo-Plutarch, De proverbiis Alexandrinorum (Crusius, 1887), No. 21, τὸ ἀρνίον σοι λελάληκεν. Αἰγύπτιοι τοῦτο ἀνέγραψαν ὡς ἀνθρωπείᾳ φωνῇ λαλῆσαν (or, as in Suidas, ἐν Αἰγύπτῳ, ὥς φασιν, ἀνθρωπείᾳ φωνῇ ἐλάλησεν). εὑρέθη δὲ ἔχον βασίλειον δράκοντα ἐπὶ τῆς κεφαλῆς αὐτοῦ πτερωτόν (Suidas adds, ἔχοντα μῆκος πήχεων δ´), καὶ τῶν βασιλέων τινὶ λελάληκε τὰ μέλλοντα ("The lamb has spoken to you. Egyptians have recorded a lamb speaking with a human voice [or, in Egypt, they say, a lamb spoke with a human voice]. It was found to have upon its head a royal winged serpent [4 cubits in length]; and it foretold the future to one of the kings.") See Meyer, Ein neues Bruchstück Manethos über das Lamm des Bokchoris in Zeitschr. für Ägypt. Sprache, XLVI (1910), pp135 f.: he points out the Egyptian character of the description — the royal uraeus, four cubits long, with ostrich feathers on both sides. Cf. Weill, La fin du moyen empire égyptien, pp116, 622.

17 Here some essential words have been omitted from the text.

18 Contrast the "6 years" assigned to Bocchoris by Africanus (Fr. 64): it is suspicious that Eusebius should give 44 years for each of Dynasties XXIII, XXIV, and XXV.

19 Dynasty XXV (Ethiopian), c. 715‑663 B.C.: the three kings are Shabaka, Shabatka, and Taharka.

20 Cf. Herodotus, II.137 (Sabacôs).

Shabaka had a great reputation for mildness and kind rule: Petrie (Religious Life, 1924, pp193 f.) explains that Bochchoris was treated like a mock king in the ancient festival, the burning ceremonially destroying his kingly character. See Wainwright, Sky‑Religion, pp38 ff.

21 Taharka: in O. T. 2 Kings xix.9, Tirhakah, King of Ethiopia. See Peet, Egypt and the Old Testament, 1922, pp175 ff.

22 Dynasty XXVI, 663‑525 B.C.

Saïs (see p91 n. 4), now grown in power, with foreign aid asserts independence, and rules over Egypt. Herodotus, II.151 ff., supports the version of Africanus but differs in (5) Necôs 16 years (Ch. 159), and (7) Apries 25 years (Ch. 161) (22 years in Diod. Sic. I.68). Eusebius (Fr. 69) has preserved the Ethiopian Ammeris (i.e. Tanutamûn) at the beginning of Dynasty XXVI: so in the Book of Sothis (App. IV), No. 78, Amaês, 38 years.

23 Psammêtichus I (Psametik) = Psammêtk, "man, or vendor, of mixed wine," cf. Herodotus, II.151 (Griffith in Catalogue of Demotic Papyri in the Rylands Library, III pp44, 201). See Diod. Sic. I.66, 67.

24 Nechaô is an old name, an Egyptian plural form, "belonging to the kas" or bulls (Apis and Mnevis), O. T. 2 Chron. xxxvi.2‑4. Battle of Megiddo, 609 B.C.: defeat and death of King Josiah by Necho (2 Kings xxiii.29, xxiv.1, xxv.26). Johoahaz, son of Josiah, was led captive into Egypt. For these events, see Peet, Egypt and the Old Testament, 1922, p181 ff.

25 Uaphris or Apries, in Egyptian Waḥibprêʿ, the Hophra of the O. T. Capture of Jerusalem by Nebuchadnezzar, king of Babylon, 587 B.C. See Peet, op. cit. pp185 ff.

26 Amôsis should be Amasis (Ia'ḥmase), the general of Uaphris or Apries: Amasis was first made co‑regent with Apries (569 B.C.), then two years later, after a battle, he became sole monarch.

On the character of Amasis, "the darling of the people and of popular legend," see the demotic papyrus translated by Spiegelberg, The Credibility of Herodotus' Account of Egypt (trans. Blackman), pp29 f.

27 Psammêtichus III, defeated by Cambyses the Persian, 525 B.C. The three Psametiks are differentiated as Psammêtichus, Psammuthis, and Psammecheritês (cf. Fr. 20, n. 1).

28 If 44 years are assigned to (5) Psammêtichus, the actual total is 167, as in the Armenian Version.

29 Persian Domination, 525‑332 B.C.

Dynasty XXVII, 525‑404 B.C. After conquering Egypt, Cambyses reigned three years, 525/4‑523/2 B.C. See Cambridge Ancient History, VI pp137 ff.

An interesting papyrus fragment (P. Baden 4 No. 59: 5c A.D. — see the facsimile in Plate III) contains this Dynasty in a form which differs in some respects from the versions given by Africanus and Eusebius. Like Eusebius the papyrus inserts the Magi, and calls Artaxerxês "the Long-handed" and his successor Xerxês "the Second": as in Africanus, Darius is "son of Hysta[spês]" and Xerxês is "the Great". To Cambysês the papyrus gives 6½ years: to the Magi, 7½ months. The conquest of Egypt is assigned to the fourth year of Cambysês' reign, and it was in that year that the campaign began. Artaxerxês is described as "the son" (i.e. of Xerxês); while Darius II is correctly named "the Illegitimate". See Bilabel's note on the papyrus (l.c.).

30 Artabanus, vizier, and murderer of Xerxês I, 465 B.C.

31 Artaxerxês I, "Long-hand" ("whether from a physical peculiarity or political capacity is uncertain," C. A. H. VI p2), 465‑424 B.C.

32 Xerxês II was murdered by his half-brother Sogdianus, who was in turn defeated and put to death in 423 B.C. by another half-brother Ochus (Darius II, nicknamed Nothos, "the Illegitimate"), not "son of Xerxês". Darius II died in 404 B.C.

33 The Armenian text has "15th".

34 Dynasty XXVIII‑XXX, Egyptian kings: 404‑341 B.C. — a brief period of independence.

Dynasty XXVIII, Amyrtaeus of Saïs, 404‑399 B.C.: no Egyptian king of this name is known on the monuments. See Werner Schur in Klio, XX 1926, pp273 ff.

35 6 years (Aucher, Karst): 6 months (Müller). The Armenian words for "month" and "year" are so similar that corruption is likely (Margoliouth).

36 Dynasty XXIX, resident at Mendês in E. Delta (Baedeker8, p183), 398‑381 B.C. On the sequence of these rulers see H. R. Hall in C. A. H. VI p145 and n.

37 Muthis or Muthês was a usurper, hence the number of kings is given as four. He is unknown to the Monuments. Aucher suggests that the name Muthis may be merely a repetition, curtailed, of the name Psammuthis.

38 Dynasty XXX, resident at Sebennytus (see Intro. p. xiii),º 380‑343 B.C.: Nectanebês I (Nekhtenêbef), 380‑363, Teôs or Tachôs (Zedḥôr), 362‑361, Nectanebus II (Nekhthoreḥbe), 360‑343. See E. Meyer, Zur Geschichte der 30. Dynastie in Zeitschrift für Ägyptische Sprache, Bd. 67, pp68‑70.

It is certain that Manetho knew only 30 dynasties and ended with the conquest of Egypt by Ôchus: see Unger, Chronol. des Manetho, pp334 f. Under Olymp. 107 (i.e. 352‑348 B.C.), Jerome (Chronicle, p203 Fotheringham, p121 Helm) notes: Ochus Aegyptum tenuit, Nectanebo in Aethiopiam pulso, in quo Aegyptiorum regnum destructum est. Huc usque Manethos. ("Ochus possessed Egypt, when he had driven Nectanebô into Ethiopia: thereby the kingship of the Egyptians was destroyed. So far Manetho [or, Here ends the History of Manetho]").

39 For the later renown of this king as magician in popularlegend, see the Dream of Nectonabôs, in Wilcken, Urkunden der Ptolemäerzeit, I pp369 ff.

40 Dynasty XXXI is not due to Manetho, but was added later to preserve the continuity, — perhaps with the use of material furnished by Manetho himself. No total is given by Africanus and Eusebius, — a further proof that the whole Dynasty is additional. In another passage (p486) Syncellus states: "Manetho wrote an account of the 31 (an error for 30) Dynasties of Egypt down to the time of Ôchus and Nectanebô": although mistaken about the number of the Dynasties, Syncellus is in the main correct.

41 The 20th year of the kingship of Ôchus was 343 B.C.: the phrase is parallel to that used in Fr. 70, 1, and appears therefore to be Manetho's expression.

42 The totals given by Africanus in Book III are 135, 130, 120, 89, 6, 40, 150+, 124+, 6, 20+, 38, i.e. 858+ years. To reduce to 850, assign 116 years to Dynasty XXII (as the items add), and 120 to Dynasty XXVII (Meyer).

43 Third Book (Aucher, Karst): Second Book (Müller). The Armenian words for "second" and "third" have similar forms; hence the corruption (Margoliouth).


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