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Leges

The detailed section (pp683‑702) of the article LEX
by George Long, M.A., Fellow of Trinity College
on pp681‑702 of

William Smith, D.C.L., LL.D.:
A Dictionary of Greek and Roman Antiquities, John Murray, London, 1875.

 

Thayer's Note: The student can also consult the very thorough and useful catalogue of Roman laws at UNRV:

alphabetical list chronological list (under the Republic)

LE′GES. The extant authorities for the Roman Leges are the works of the classical Roman writers, of the Roman Jurists, and inscriptions. The most useful p684modern collection is that in the Onomasticon of Orellius, intitled "Index Legum Romanorum quarum apud Ciceronem, ejusque Scholiastas, item apud Livium, Velleium Paterculum, A. Gellium nominatim mentio fit." There are also extant fragments of several laws on bronze tablets, such as the Lex Thoria, which is a Lex Agraria, and is cut on the back of the same tablet which contains the Lex Servilia; the Lex Rubria; and some few other monuments.

The following is a list of the principal Leges:—

Aci′lia De Coloniis Deducendis. (Liv. XXXII.29).

Aci′lia. [Repetundae.]

Aci′lia Calpu′rnia. [Ambitus.]

Aebu′tia, of uncertain date, which with two Juliae Leges put an end to the Legis Actiones, except in certain case. [Judex, Actio.]

Another Lex of the same name prohibited the proposer of a lex, which created any office or power (curatio ac potestas), from having such of or power, and even excluded his colleague, cognati and affines (Cic. in Rull. II.8, where he mentions also a Lex Licinia, and in the pro Domo, 20).

Ae′lia. This Lex and a Fufia Lex passed about the end of the sixth century of the city, gave to all the magistrates the obnunciatio or power of preventing or dissolving the comitia, by observing the omens and declaring them to be unfavourable (Cic. Phil. II.32, pro Sestio, 15, ad Att. II.9).

There is some difficulty in stating the precise nature of these two Leges; for it is most probable that there were two. The passages in which they are mentioned are collected in Orellii Onomasticon, Index Legum.

Ae′lia Se′ntia: see separate page.

Aemi′lia De Censoribus. Lex passed in Dictatorship of Mamercus Aemilius (B.C. 433), by which the Censors were elected for a year and a half, instead of a whole lustrum (Liv. IV.24, IX.33). After this Lex they had accordingly only a year and a half allowed them for holding the census and letting out the public works to farm.

Aemi′lia Bae′bia. [Cornelia Baebia.]

Agrariae. [Agrariae Leges; and Lex Apuleia; Cassia; Cornelia; Flaminia; Flavia; Julia; Licinia; Mamilia; Sempronia; Servilia; Thoria.]

Ambitus. [Ambitus.]

A′mpia, a Lex proposed by T. Ampius and T. Labienus, tr. pl. B.C. 64, by which Cn. Pompeius was allowed to wear a crown of bay at the Ludi Circenses, and the like (Vell. Pat. II.40; Dion Cass. XXXVII.21).

Anna′les Leges were those Leges which determined at what age a man might be a candidate for the several magistratus (Cic. Philipp. V.17).

The first Lex which particularly determined the age at which a man might be a candidate for the several magistrates was the Villia. It was p685proposed by L. Villius, tr. pl. B.C. 180 (Liv. XXV.2, XL.44). According to this Lex a man might be elected quaestor at the age of thirty-one, and consul at forty-three.

There seems to have been also a Lex Pinaria on this subject (Cic. de Orat. II.65).

Antia. [Sumtuariae Leges.]

Antonia De Thermensibus, about B.C. 72, by which Thermessus in Pisidia was recognised as Libera (Puchta, Inst. vol. I § 69; Dirksen, Bemerkungen über das Plebiscitum de Thermensibus).

Antoniae, the name of various enactments proposed or passed by the influence of M. Antonius, after the death of the Dictator J. Caesar, such as the Judiciaria [Judex p650A.] Another lex that was promulgated allowed an appeal to the populus after conviction for Vis or Majestas (Cic. Phil. I.9). Various other measures proposed by M. Antonius are mentioned by Cicero (Phil. I.1, II.43, V.3, 5), Dion Cassius (XLIV.51, XLV.9, 20, 25, 34, XLVI.23, 24), and Appian (Bell. Civ. III.27, 30).

Apuleia, gave a surety an action against his co-sureties for whatever he had paid above his share [Intercessio].

Apuleia Agraria, proposed by the tribune L. Apuleius Saturninus, B.C. 101 (Liv. Epit. 69; Appian, Bell. Civ. I.29; Cic. pro Sestio, 16, 47).

Apuleia De Coloniis Deducendis (Cic. pro Balbo, 21).

Apuleia Frumentaria, proposed about the same time by the same tribune (Auct. ad Herenn. I.12). [Frumentariae Leges.]

Apuleia Majestatis. [Majestas.]

Aquilia. [Damni Injuria Actio.]

Ate′rnia Tarpe′ia. B.C. 455. This Lex empowered all magistratus to fine persons who resisted their authority; but it fixed the highest fine at two sheep and thirty oxen, or two oxen and thirty sheep, for the authorities vary in this (Cic. De Rep. II.35; Dionys. X.50; Gell. XI.1; Festus, s.vv. Multam, Ovibus, Peculatus, Niebuhr, Hist. of Rome, vol. II p300).

A′tia De Sacerdo′tiis, proposed by the tribune T. Atius Labienus, repealed the Lex Cornelia de Sacerdotiis (Dion Cass. XXXVII.37).

Ati′lia Mar′cia, enacted B.C. 312, empowered the populus to elect sixteen tribuni militum for each of four legions (Liv. IX.30).

Ati′lia. [Julia Lex et Titia; Tutor.]

Ati′nia, allowed no usucapion in a stolen thing (Gell. XVII.7; Instit. 2 tit. 6 s2). [Furtum.]

Ati′nia, of uncertain date, was a Plebiscitum which gave the rank of senator to a tribune (Gell. XIV.3). The measure probably originated with C. Atinius, who was tribune B.C. 130 (Plin. H. N. VII.45; Cic. pro Domo, 47).

Aufi′dia. [Ambitus; Senatusconsultum.]

Aure′lia Judicia′ria, [Judex, p650A.]

Aure′lia Tribuni′cia, [Tribuni.]

Bae′bia (B.C. 192), which enacted that four praetors and six praetors should be chosen in alternate years (Liv. XL.44); but the law was not observed (Meyer, Orator. Roman. Fragm. p90, 2nd ed.).

Bae′bia Corne′lia. [Ambitus.]

Caeci′lia De Censo′ribus or Censo′ria (B.C. 54), proposed by Metellus Scipio, repealed a Clodia Lex (B.C. 58), which had prescribed certain regular forms of proceeding for the Censors in exercising their functions as inspectors of Mores, and had required the concurrence of both Censors to inflict the nota censoria. When a senator had been already convicted before an ordinary court, the lex permitted the Censors to remove him from the senate in a summary way (Dion Cass. XL.57, XXXVIII.13; Cic. pro Sestio, 25; Dig. 50 tit. 16 s203 De Portorio).

Caeci′lia De Vectiga′libus. (B.C. 62), released lands and harbours in Italy from the payment of taxes and dues (portoria). The only vectigal remaining after the passing of this lex was the Vicesima (Dion Cass. XXXVII.51; Cic. ad Att. II.16, ad Quint. I.10).

Caeci′lia Di′dia (B.C. 98), forbade the proposing of a Lex Satura, on the ground that the people might be compelled either to vote for something which they did not approve, or to reject something which they did approve, if it was proposed to them in this manner. This lex was not always operative. It also contained a provision that Leges must be promulgated "trinis nundinis" before they were proposed (Cic. Phil. V.3, pro Domo, 16, 20, ad Att. II.9). [Lex and Licinia Junia.]

Caeci′lia De P. Sulla et P. Autro′nio (Orellii Onomasticon).

Cae′lia Tabella′ria. [Tabellariae Leges.]

Cali′gulae Lex Agra′ria. [Mamilia.]

Calpu′rnia De Ambitu. [Ambitus.]

Calpu′rnia De Condictio′ne. [Per Condictionem.]

Calpu′rnia De Repetun′dis. [Repetundae.]

Canule′ia. (B.C. 445), established connubium between the Patres and Plebs, which had been taken away by the law of the Twelve Tables (Liv. IV.1, 4); Cic. De Rep. II.37).

Ca′ssia (B.C. 104), proposed by the tribune L. Cassius Longinus, did not allow a person to remain a senator who had been convicted in a Judicium Populi, or whose Imperium had been abrogated by the populus (Ascon. in Cic. Cornel. p78, ed. Orelli).

Ca′ssia (Tacit. Ann. XI.25), which empowered the Dictator Caesar to add to the number of the Patricii, to prevent their extinction (cf. Sueton. Caes. 41)

Ca′ssia Agra′ria, proposed by the consul Sp. Cassius, B.C. 486 (Liv. II.41; Dionys. VIII.76).

Ca′ssia Tabellaria. [Tabellariae Leges.]

Ca′ssia Tere′ntia Frumenta′ria (B.C. 73) for the distribution of cornº among the poor citizens and the purchasing of it (Cic. Verr. III.70, V.21). [Frumentariae Leges.]

Cin′cia Lex, or Munera′lis: see separate page.

Clau′dia, a Lex passed in the time of the emperor Claudius, took away the agnatorum tutela in the case of women (Gaius, I.171).

Clau′dia De Senato′ribus, B.C. 218. The provisions of this Lex are stated by Livy (XXI.63), and alluded to by Cicero (in Verr. V.18) as antiquated and dead.

Clau′dia De Sociis, B.C. 177 (Liv. XLI.8, 9).

Clau′dia De Sena′tu cooptan′do Halesino′rum (Cic. in Verr. II.49).

Clo′diae: see separate page.

Coe′lia. [Caelia.]

Commisso′ria Lex. [Commissoria Lex.]

Corne′liae: see separate page.

Corne′lia De Novis Tabel′lis, proposed by the Tribune P. Cornelius Dolabella, B.C. 47, and opposed by M. Antonius,Magister Equitum (Liv. Epit. 113; Dion Cass. XLII.32; Plut. Anton. 9).

Corne′lia Et Caeci′lia De Cn. Pompe′io, B.C. 57, gave Cn. Pompeius the superintendence over the Res Frumentaria for five years, with extraordinary powers (Cic. ad Att. IV.1; Liv. Epit. 104; Dion Cass. XXXIX.9; Plut. Pomp. 49). [Frumentariae Leges.]

Curia′ta Lex De Impe′rio. [Imperium.]

Curia′ta Lex De Adoptio′ne. [Adoptio; and Gell. V.19; Cic. ad Att. II.7; Sueton. Aug. 65; Tacit. Hist. I.15.]

Corne′lia Bae′bia De Ambitu, proposed by the consuls P. Cornelius Cethegus and M. Baebius Tamphilus, B.C. 181 (Liv. XL.19; Schol. Bob. in Cic. pro Sulla, p361, ed. Orelli). This law is sometimes, but erroneously, attributed to the consuls of the preceding year, L. Aemilius and Cn. Baebius. [Ambitus.]

Decemvira′lis. [Lex Duodecim Tabularum.]

De′cia De Duumviris Nava′libus (Liv. IX.30; see Atilia Marcia).

Di′dia. [Sumtuariae Leges.]

Domi′tia De Sacerdo′tiis. [ Sacerdotia.]

Dui′lia (B.C. 449), a Plebiscitum proposed by the Tribune Duilius, which enacted "qui plebem sine tribunis reliquisset, quique magistratum sine provocatione creasset, tergo ac capite puniretur" (Liv. III.55).

Dui′lia Mae′nia De Uncia′rio Foe′nore B.C. 357 (Liv. II.16, 19).

The same tribunes Duilius and Maenius carried a measure which was intended in future to prevent such unconstitutional proceedings as the enactment of a Lex by the soldiers out of Rome, on the proposal of the Consul (Liv. VII.16).

Duodecim Tabula′rum: see separate page.

Fa′bia De Pla′gio. [Plagium.]

Fa′bia De Sectato′rum (Cic. pro Murena, 34).

Falci′dia. [ Legatum.]

Fannia. [Sumtuariae Leges.]

Flami′nia, was an Agraria Lex for the distribution of lands in Picenum, proposed by the tribune C. Flaminius, in B.C. 228 according to Cicero, or in B.C. 232 according to Polybius. The latter date is the more probable (Cic. Acad. II.5, de Senect. 4; Polyb. II.21).

Fla′via Agra′ria, B.C. 60, for the distribution of lands among Pompeius' soldiers, proposed by the tribune L. Flavius, who committed the Consul Caecilius Metellus to prison for opposing it (Cic. ad Att. I.18, 19; Dion Cass. XXXVII.50).

Frumenta′riae. [Frumentariae Leges.]

Fu′fia. [Aelia.]

Fu′fia De Religio′ne, B.C. 61, was a privilegium which related to the trial of Clodius (Cic. ad Att. 1.13, 16).

Fu′fia Judicia′ria. [Judex p650A, and the remarks in Orellii Onomasticon.]

Fu′ria or Fu′sia Cani′nia,º limited the number of slaves to be manumitted by testament. [Manumissio.]

Fu′ria De Fe′nore (Gaius, III.122).

Fu′ria De Sponso′ribus [Intercessio.]

Fu′ria or Fusia Testamenta′ria, [ Legatum.]

Gabi′nia Tabella′ria. [Tabellariae.]

There were various Gabiniae Leges, some of which were Privilegia, as that (B.C. 67) for conferring extraordinary power on Cn. Pompeius for conducting the war against the pirates (Cic. pro Lege Manil. 17; Vell. Pat. II.31; Dion Cass. XXXVI.6; Plut. Pomp. 25).

Gabinia LexB.C. 58, forbade all loans of money at Rome to legationes from foreign parts (Salaminii cum Romae versuram facere vellent, non poterant, quod Lex Gabinia vetabat, Cic. ad Att. V.21, VI.1, 2). The object of the lex was to prevent money from being borrowed for the purpose of bribing the senators at Rome. There was a Lex Gabiniae intitled De Senatu legatis dando (Cic. ad Q. Fr. II.13).

Ge′llia Corne′lia, B.C. 72, which gave to Cn. Pompeius the extraordinary power of conferring the Roman civitas on Spaniards in Spain, with the advice of his consilium (de consilii sententia, Cic. pro Balb. 8, 14).

Genu′cia, B.C. 341, forbade altogether the taking of interest for the use of money (Liv. VII.42). It is conjectured that Appian (Bell. Civ. I.54) alludes to this law (Orellii Onomasticon). Other Plebiscita of the same year are mentioned by Livy (VII.42).

Galliae Cisalpi′nae [Rubria.]

Hiero′nica was not a Lex properly so called. Before the Roman conquest of Sicily, the payment of the tenths of wine, oil, and other produce had been fixed by Hiero, and the Roman quaestors, in letting these tenths to farm, followed the practice which they found established (Cic. Verr. II.13, 26, 60, III.6, &c.).

Hirtia De Pompeianis (Cic. Phil. XIII.16).

Hora′tia, proposed by M. Horatius, made the persons of the Tribunes, the Aediles, and others sacrosancti (Liv. III.55) [Valeriae Et Horatiae.]

Another Lex Horatia mentioned by Gellius (VI.7) was a privilegium.

Hortensia De Plebiscitis [Plebiscitum; Publiliae Leges.]

Another Lex Hortensia enacted that the nundinae, which had hitherto been Feriae, should be Dies Fasti. This was done for the purpose of accommodating the inhabitants of the country (Macrob. I.16; Plin. H. N. XVIII.3)

Hostilia De Furtis is mentioned only in the Institutes of Justinian (IV tit. 10).

Icilia, intitled by Livy, De Aventino Publicando, was proposed by L. Icilius, tr. pl. B.C. 456. As to the object of this Lex, see the passages which are here referred to; and particularly Dionysius, and the article Superficies (Liv. III.31, 32; Dionys. VII.17; Cic. pro Sestio, 37; Niebuhr, II. p231).

Juliae: see separate page.

Junia De Peregrinis proposed B.C. 126 by M. Junius Pennus a tribune, banished peregrini from the city.

lex of C. Fannius, consul B.C. 122, contained the same provisions respecting the Latini and Italici, for we must assume that there was a Lex (Plut., C. Gracchus, 12): and a lex of C. Papius, perhaps B.C. 65, contained the same respecting all persons who were not domiciled in the city (Cic. De Off. III.11, Brut. 26, 28, de Leg. Agr. I.4; Festus, s.v. Respublicas; Meyer, Orat. Rom. Fragm. p229, 2nd ed.).

Junia Lici′nia [Licinia Junia.]

Junia Norbana: see separate page.

Junia De Libertino′rum Suffra′giis. [Clodia; Manumissio.]

Junia Petronia or Patronia (Dig. 40 tit. 1 s24). It is doubtful whether this is the same as Petronia, or is another Lex.

Junia Repetundarum [Repetundae.]

Junia Velleia allowed a child who was in the womb, and who, when born, would be the testator's suus heres, to be instituted heres, even if he should be born in the lifetime of the testator. It also so far modified the old law, that a person who by the death of a heres institutus after the testator had made his will, became a heres quasi agnascendo, did not break the will, if he was instituted heres (Gaius, II.134; Ulp. Frag. XXII.19, ed. Böcking).

De Laetoria [Curator.]

Sometimes the lex proposed by Volero for electing plebeian magistrates at the Comitia Tributa is cited as a Lex Laetoria (Liv. II.56, 57).

Lici′nia Aebutia [ Aebutia.]

Lici′nia De Ludis Apollinaribus (Liv. XXVII.23).

Lici′nia De Sacerdotiis (Cic. Lael. 25).

Lici′nia De Sodali′tiis. [Ambitus.]

Lici′nia Junia, or, as it is sometimes called, Junia et Licinia, passed in the consulship of L. Licinius Murena and Junius Silanus, B.C. 62, enforced the Caecilia Didia, in connection with which it is sometimes mentioned (Cic. pro Sestio, 64, Phil. V.3, ad Att. II.9, IV.16, in Vatin. 14).

Lici′nia Mucia De Civilibus Regundis (probably Redigundis), passed in the consulship of L. Licinius Crassus the orator, and Q. Mucius Scaevola Pontifex Maximus, B.C. 95, which enacted a strict examination as to the title to citizenship, and deprived of the exercise of civic rights all those who could not make out a good title to them. This measure partly led to the Marsic war (Cic. de Off. III.11, Brut. 16, pro Balb. 21, 24, pro Sest. 13; Ascon. in Cornel. p67).

Lici′nia Sumtuaria [Sumtuariae Leges.]

Licinia: see separate page.

Lici′nia De Creandis Triumviris Epulonibus (Liv. XXXIII.42; Orellii Onomasticon).

Liviae were various enactments proposed by the Tribune M. Livius Drusus, B.C. 91, for establishing colonies in Italy and Sicily, distributing cornº among the poor citizens at a low rate, and admitting the foederatae civitates to the Roman civitas. He is also said to have been the mover of a law for adulterating silver by mixing with it an eighth part of brass (Plin. H. N. XXXIII.3). Drusus was assassinated, and the Senate declared that all his Leges were passed contra auspicia, and were therefore not Leges (Cic. Leg. II.6, 12, pro Domo, 16; Liv. Ep. 71; Appian, Bell. Civ. I.35; Ascon. in Cic. Cornel. p62).

Lutatia De Vi [Vis.]

Maenia Lex is only mentioned by Cicero (Brutus, 14), who says that M'. Curius compelled the Patres "ante auctores fieri" in the case of the election of a plebeian consul, "which," adds Cicero, "was a great thing to accomplish, as the Lex Maenia was not yet passed." The Lex therefore required the Patres to give their consent at least to the election of a magistratus, or in other words to confer or agree to confer the Imperium on the person whom the comitia should elect. Livy (I.17) appears to refer to this law. It was probably proposed by the Tribune Maenius, B.C. 287. [Auctoritas.]

De Magistris Aquarum. (Haubold, Spangenberg, Mon. Leg. p177).

Majestatis [Majestas.]

Mami′lia De Colo′niis The subject of this lex and its date are fully discussed by Rudorff (Zeitschrift, vol. IX), who shows that the Lex Mamilia, Roscia, Peducaea, Alliena, Fabia is the same as the "Lex Agraria quam Gaius Caesar tulit" (Dig. 47 tit. 21 s3) and that this Gaius Caesar is the Emperor Caligula.

Mami′lia De Jugurthae Fauto′ribus (Sal. Jug. c40; Orellii Onomasticon).

Mami′lia Fi′nium Regundo′rum enacted in B.C. 239, or according to another supposition, in B.C. 165, fixed at five or six feet the width of the boundary spaces which were not subject to Usucapio (Rudorff, Zeitschrift, vol. X p342, &c.).

Mani′lia, proposed by the tribune C. Manilius B.C. 66, was a privilegium by which was conferred on Pompey the command in the war against Mithridates. The lex was supported by Cicero when praetor (De Lege Manilia; Plut. Pomp. 30; Dion Cass. XXXVI.23).º

The Leges Manilianae, mentioned by Cicero (De Or. I.58), were evidently not Leges Proper, but probably forms which it was prudent for parties to observe in buying and selling.

Mani′lia De Libertino′rum Suffra′giis. (Dion Cass. XXXVI.25; Ascon. in Cornel. pp64, 65), is apparently the same as the Manlia De Lib. Suff.

Ma′nlia, also called Lici′nia, B.C. 196, p695created the triumviri epulones (Liv. XXXIII.42; Cic. de Or. III.19). [Licinia.]

Manlia (357 B.C.), see Aerarium.

Ma′nlia De Libertino′rum Suffra′giis. (B.C. 58; Ascon. in Mil. p46).

Ma′rcia probably about the year B.C. 352 "adversus feneratores." (Gaius, IV.23; Liv. VII.21).

Ma′rcia De Ligu′ribus (Liv. XLII.22).

Ma′rcia an agrarian law proposed by the tribune L. Marcius Philippus, B.C. 104 (Cic. de Off. II.21).

Ma′ria proposed by Marius when tribune B.C. 119, for narrowing the pontes at elections (Cic. de Leg. III.17; Plut. Mar. 4).

Me′mmia or Re′mmia. [Calumnia.]

Mensia. This lex enacted that if a woman who was a Roman citizen (civis Romana) married a peregrinus, the offspring was a peregrinus. If there was connubium between the peregrinus and the woman, the children, according to the principle of connubium, were peregrini, as the legal effect of connubium was that children followed the condition of their father (liberi semper patrem sequuntur). If there were no connubium, the children, according to another rule of law, by which they followed the condition of the mother, would have been Roman citizens; and it was the object of the lex to prevent this (Gaius, I.78; Ulp. Frag. V.8).

Messia. (Cic. ad Att. IV.1).

Meti′lia. (Liv. XXII.25; Plut. Fabius, c9).

Minu′cia, B.C. 216, created the triumviri mensarii (Liv. XXIII.21).

Nervae Agra′ria (Dig. 47 tit. 21 s3 § 1), the latest known instance of a Lex.

Octa′via. [Frumentariae Leges.]

Ogul′nia, proposed by the tribunes B.C. 300, increased the number of Pontifices to eight and that of the augurs to nine; it also enacted that four of the Pontifices and five of the augurs should be taken from the plebes (Liv. X.6‑9).

Oppia. [Sumtuariae Leges.]

Orchia. [Sumtuariae Leges.]

Ovi′nia, of uncertain date, was a Plebiscitum which gave the censors certain powers in regulating the lists of the senators (ordo senatorius): the main object seems to have been to exclude all improper persons from the senate, and to prevent their admission, if in other respects qualified (Festus, s.v. Praeteriti Senatores; Cic. de Leg. III.12). The Lex Ovinia of Gaius (IV.109), if the reading is right, was a different lex.

Pa′pia De Peregri′nis. [Junia De Peregrinis.]

Pa′pia Poppaea. [Juliae.]

Lex Papia on the manner of choosing the Vestal Virgins is mentioned by Gellius (I.12); but the reading appears to be doubtful, and perhaps it ought to be called Lex Popilia.

Papi′ria, or Julia Papiria De Mulctarum Aestimatione (B.C. 43) fixed a money value according to which fines were paid, which formerly were paid in sheep and cattle (Liv. IV.30; Cic. de Rep. II.35). Gellius (XI.1) and Festus (s.v. Peculatus) make this valuation part of the Aternian law [Aternia Tarpeia], but in this they appear to have been mistaken according to Niebuhr (Hist. of Rome, II. p300).

Papi′ria, by which the as was made semuncialis (Plin. H. N. XXXIII.3), one of the various enactments which tampered with the coinage.

Papi′ria, B.C. 332, proposed by the Praetor Papirius, gave the Acerrani the civitas without the suffragium. It was properly a Privilegium, but is useful as illustrating the history of the extension of the Civitas Romana (Liv. VIII.17).

Papi′ria, of uncertain date, enacted that no aedes should be declared consecratae without a Plebiscitum (injussu Plebis, Cic. pro Dom. 49).

Papi′ria Plau′tia, a Plebiscitum of the year B.C. 89, proposed by the tribunes C. Papirius Carbo and M. Plautius Silvanus, in the consulship of Cn. Pompeius Strabo and L. Porcius Cato, is called by Cicero (pro Archia, 4) a lex of Silvanus and Carbo (see Civitas; Foederatae Civitates; and Savigny, Volksschluss der Tafel von Heraclea, Zeitschrift, IX).

Papi′ria Poete′lia. [Poetelia.]

Papi′ria De Sacramento (Festus, s.v. Sacramentum), proposed by L. Papirius, Tribunus Plebis, probably enacted that in the case of the Legis actio sacramento, the money should not be actually deposited, but security should be given for it (Puchta, Inst. II.161, note 101).

Papi′ria Tabellaria [Tabellariae.]

Pe′dia, related to the murderers of the Dictator Caesar (Vell. Pat. II.69).

Peducaea, B.C. 113, a Plebiscitum, seems to have been merely a Privilegium and not a general law against Incestum (Cic. de Nat. Deor. III.30; Ascon. in Cic. Mil. p46).

Pesula′nia provided that if an animal did any damage, the owner should make it good or give up the animal (Paul. S.E. 1 tit. 15 s1.3). There was a general provision to this effect in the Twelve Tables (Dirksen, Uebersicht, &c. p532, &c.), and it might be inferred from Paulus that this Lex extended the provisions of the old law to dogs. The name of the lex may be uncertain. See the note in Arndt's edition of Paulus.

Peti′llia De Pecu′nia Regis Antiochi. (Liv. XXXVIII.54).

Petre′ia. a Lex under this title, de decimatione militum, in case of mutiny, is mentioned by Appian (de Bell. Civ. II.47), according to the old editions. But the true reading is πατρίῳ νόμῳ.

Petro′nia. probably passed in the time of Augustus, and subsequently amended by various senatusconsulta, forbade a master to deliver up his slave to fight with wild beasts. If, however, the master thought that his slave deserved such a punishment, he might take him before the authorities (judex) who might condemn him to fight if he appeared to deserve it (Dig. 48 tit. 8 s11, Dig. 18 tit. 1 s42; Gell. V.14; Puchta, Inst. I. § 107, note 101; Savigny, Zeitschrift, IX. p374, on the inscription found on a wall of the amphitheatre of Pompeii).

Pinaria (Gaius, IV.15) related to the giving of a Judex within a limited time (see Puchta, Inst. I. § 53).

Pinaria. [Annales Leges.]

Plaeto′ria [Curator.]

Plaeto′ria De Praeto′re Urba′no (Varro, de Ling. Lat. VI.5; Censorinus, de Die Natali, c24).

Plau′tia or Plo′tia De Vi [Vis.]

Plau′tia or Plo′tia Judicia′ria is mentioned by Asconius (in Cic. Cornel. p79) as p696having enacted that fifteen persons should be annually elected by each tribe out of its own body to be placed in the Album Judicium.

Plau′tia or Plo′tia De Re′ditu Lepidano′rum. (Suet. Caes. 5; Gellius, XIII.3).

Plautia Papiria [Papiria Plautia.]

Poete′lia B.C. 358, a Plebiscitum, was the first Lex against Ambitus (Liv. VII.15).

Poete′lia Papi′ria B.C. 326, made an important change in the liabilities of the Nexi (Liv. VIII.28). [Nexi.]

Pompeiae: see separate page.

Popi′lia [Papia.]

Po′rciae De Capite Civium or De Provocatione enacted that a Roman citizen should not be scourged or put to death (Liv. X.9; Cic. de Rep II.31, pro Rabir. 3, 4; Sall. Catil. 51).

Thayer Note: this is the law which protected St. Paul — from scourging, at least (Acts 22.24‑29).

Po′rcia De Provinciis (about B.C. 198). The passage in Livy (XXXII.27, "Sumtus quos in cultum praetorum," &c.) is supposed to refer to a Porcia Lex, to which the Plebiscitum de Thermensibus refers; and the words quoted by Cicero (Verr. II.4, 5, "Ne quis emat mancipium") are taken, as it is conjectured, from this Porcia Lex.

Publi′cia permitted betting at certain games which required strength, as running and leaping (Dig. 11 tit. 5).

Publi′lia De Sponsoribus [Intercessio.]

Publi′lia Lex: see separate page (not the same as the next).

Publi′liae Leges: see separate page (not the same as the preceding).

Pu′pia, mentioned by Cicero (ad Quint. II.13, ad Fam. I.4) seems to have enacted that the senate could not meet on Comitiales Dies.

Quin′tia was a Lex proposed by T. Quintius Crispinus, consul B.C. 9, and enacted by the populus for the preservation of the Aquaeductus. The Lex is preserved by Frontinus (de Aquaeduct Roman.).

Re′gia: see separate page.

Re′giae. [Jus Civile Papirianum.]

Re′mmia. [Calumnia.]

Repetunda′rum. [Repetundae.]

Rho′dia The Rhodians had a maritime code which was highly esteemed. Some of its provisions were adopted by the Romans, and have thus been incorporated into the maritime law of European states. Strabo (p652 Casaub.) speaks of the wise laws of Rhodes and their admirable policy, especially in naval matters; and Cicero (pro Leg. Manil. c18) to the same effect. The Digest (14 2) contains so much of the Lex Rhodiorum as relates to jactus or the throwing overboard of goods in order to save the vessel or remainder of the cargo. This Lex Rhodiorum de Jactu, is not a Lex in the proper sense of the term.

Ros′cia Theatra′lis proposed by the tribune L. Roscius Otho, B.C. 67, which gave the Equites a special place at the public spectacles in fourteen rows or seats (in quatuordecim gradibus sive ordinibus) next to the place of the senators, which was in the orchestra. This Lex also assigned a certain place to spendthrifts (decoctores, Cic. Phil. II.18). The phrase "sedere in quatuordecim ordinibus," is equivalent to having the proper Censor Equestris which was required by the Lex. There are numerous allusions to this Lex ( Dion. XXXVI.25; Vell. Pat. II.32; Liv. Epit. 99; Cic. pro Murena, 19), which is sometimes simply called the Lex of Otho (Juv. XIV.324), or referred to by his name (Hor. Epod. IV.16). This law caused some popular disturbance in the consulship of Cicero, 63 B.C., which he checked by a speech (Cic. ad Att. II.1; Plut. Cic. c13). [Julia Theatralis.]

Ru′bria: see separate page.

Rupi′liae (B.C. 131), were the regulations established by P. Rupilius, and ten legati, for the administration of the province of Sicily, after the close of the first servile war. They were made in pursuance of a consultum of the senate. Cicero (in Verr. II.13, 15, 16, 37) speaks of these regulations as a Decretum of Rupilius (quod is de decem legatorum sententia statuit), which he says they call Lex Rupilia; but it was not a Lex proper. The powers given to the commissioners by the Lex Julia Municipalis were of a similar kind. There was also a Lex Rupilia de Cooptando Senatu Heracleiotarum (In Verr. II.50); and De Re Frumentaria (In Verr. III.40).

Sacra′tae, mentioned by Livy (II.54) and by Cicero (de Off. III.33). Leges we properly so called which had for their object to make a thing or person sacer, as in Livy (II.8, de sacrando cum bonis capite ejus qui, &c.). The consecratio was in fact the sanction by which a Lex was to be enforced (Liv. III.55). In the latter case it was the opinion of the jurisconsulti (juris interpretes) that the Lex did not make "sacrosancti" the persons for whose protection it was designed, but that it made "sacer" (sacrum sanxit) any one who injured them; and this interpretation is certainly consistent with the terms of the Lex (Festus, s.v. Sacratae leges). Cf. Liv. II.33; Dion Hal. Rom. Antiq. VI.98; and the passage referred to in Orellii Onomasticon.

Lex Sacrata Militaris is also mentioned by Livy (VII.41); but the sanction of the Lex is not stated.

Sae′nia De Patriciorum Numero Agendo enacted in the fifth consulship of Augustus (Tacit. Ann. XI.25; Mon. Ancyr. Pilae prioris Tab. 2; see Cassia.]

Sa′tura [Lex, p683A.]

Scantinia, proposed by a tribune: the date and contents are not known, but its object was to suppress unnatural crimes. It existed in the time of Cicero (Auson. Epig. 89; Juv. II.44; Cic. ad Fam. VIII.12, 14). The Lex Julia de Adulteriis considered this offence as included in Stuprum and it was punishable with a fine; but by the later Imperial constitutions the punishment was death (Sueton. Dom. 8; Paulus, S.R. II. tit. 26 s13).

Scribonia. The date and whole import of the Lex are not known; but it enacted that a right to servitutes should not be acquired by usucapion (Dig. 41 tit. 3 s4 § 29), from which it appears that the law was once different as to certain servitudes at least: and these appear to be the servitutes praediorum urbanorum, which, according to this Lex, could not be acquired by usucapion. In the case of servitutes praediorum rusticorum, and of personal servitudes, the impossibility of usucapion arose out of the nature of the thing. A "libertas servitutium" could be gained by usucapion or rather disuse, for the Lex only applied to that usucapion which took away the right (sustulit servitutem). It is perhaps doubtful if the passage of Cicero (pro Caecin. 26) should be alleged in proof of this usucapion formerly existing.

Scribonia Viaria or De Viis Muniendis, proposed by C. Scribonius Curo, tr. pleb. B.C. 51 (Orellii Onomasticon).

Sempro′niae: see separate page.

Sempro′nia De Fe′nore B.C. 193, was a Plebiscitum proposed by a tribune M. Sempronius (Liv. XXXV.7), which enacted that the law (jus) about money lent (pecunia credita) should be the same for the Socii and Latini (Socii ac Nomen Latinum) as for Roman citizens. The object of the Lex was to prevent Romans from lending money in the name of the Socii who were not bound by the Fenebres Leges. The Lex could obviously only apply within the jurisdiction of Rome.

Servi′lia Agra′ria, proposed by the tribune P. Servilius Rullus in the consulship of Cicero, B.C. 63, was a very extensive Agraria Rogatio. It was successfully opposed by Cicero (In Rullum); but it was in substance carried by Julius Caesar B.C. 59 [Julia Lex Agraria], and is the Lex called by Cicero Lex Campana (ad Att. II.18), from the public land called Ager Campanus being assigned under this Lex.

Servi′lia Glau′cia De Repetundis. [Repetundae.]

Servi′lia Judicia′ria, proposed by the consul Q. Servilius Caepio, B.C. 106. See the article Judex, p649B, and the various passages in Cicero (Brut. 43, 44, 63, 86). It is assumed by some writers that a Lex of the tribune Servilius Glaucia repealed the Servilia Judiciaria two years after its enactment (Cic. Brut. 62; Orellii Onomasticon).

Si′lia. (Gaius, IV.19). The Legis Actio called Condictio was established by this Lex in the case when the demand was a determine sum of money (certa pecunio).

Si′lia, a plebiscitum proposed by P. and M. Sillii tribuni plebis related to Publica Pondera (Festus, Publica Pondera, where the Lex is given; and the notes in the Delphin edition).

Sulpi′ciae, proposed by the tribune P. Sulpicius Rufus, a supporter of Marius, B.C. 83, enacted the recall of the exiles, the distribution of the new citizens and the libertini among the thirty-five tribes, that the command in the Mithridatic war should be taken from Sulla and given to Marius, and that a Senator should not contract debt to the amount of more than 2000 denarii (Plut. Sull. 8). The last enactment may have been intended to expel persons from the senate who should get in debt. All these Leges were repealed by Sulla (App. Bell. Civ. I.55, 59; Liv. Epit. 77; Vell. Pat. II.18).

Sulpi′cia Sempronia, B.C. 304. No name is given to this Lex by Livy (IX.46), but it was probably proposed by the consuls. It prevented the dedicatio of a templum or altar without the consent of the senate or a majority of the tribunes (cf. Gaius, II.5‑7).

Sumtua′riae. [Sumtuariae Leges.]

Tabella′riae. [Tabellariae Leges.]

Tarpe′ia Ate′rnia [Aternia Tarpeia.]

Terenti′lia, proposed by the tribune C. Terentilius, B.C. 462, but not carried, was a rogatio which had for its object an amendment of the constitution, though in form it only attempted a limitation of the Imperium Consulare (Liv. III.9, 10, 31; Dionys. Rom. Antiq. X.1, &c.). This rogatio probably led to the subsequent legislation of the Decemviri.

Testamenta′riae. Various leges, such as the Cornelia, Falcidia, Furia, and Voconia, regulated testamentary dispositions.

Tho′ria: see separate page.

Ti′tia, similar in its provisions to the Lex Publicia (Dig. 11 tit. 5 s3).

Ti′tia De Tuto′ribus (see Julia Lex et Titia, and Gaius, I.195).

Trebo′nia, a plebiscitum proposed by L. Trebonius, B.C. 448, which enacted that if the ten tribunes were not chosen before the Comitia were dissolved, those who were elected should not fill up the number (co-optare), but that the Comitia should be continued till the ten were elected (Liv. III.65, V.10).

Trebo′nia De Provinciis Consularibus. (Plut. Cat. Min. 43; Liv. Epit. 105; Dion Cass. XXXIX.33).

Tribuni′tia [Tribunus.]

Tu′llia De Ambitu. [Ambitus.]

Tu′llia De Legatione Libera. [Legatus.]

Valeriae Leges: see separate page (not the same as the next)

Valeriae Et Horatiae. see separate page (not the same as either the preceding or the next)

Valeria Horatia. [Plebiscitum.]

Va′ria. [Majestas.]

Vati′nia De Provi′nciis was the enactment by which Julius Caesar obtained the province of Gallia Cisalpina with Illyricum for five years, to which the senate added Gallia Transalpina. This Plebiscitum was proposed by the tribune P. Vatinius, B.C. 59 (Dion Cass. XXXVIII.8; Appian. Bell. Civ. II.13; Sueton. Caes. 22; Vell. Pat. II.44). A Trebonia Lex subsequently prolonged Caesar's Imperium for five years.

Vati′nia. [Repetundae.]

Vati′nia De Colo′nis, under which the Latina Colonia [Latinitas] of Novum-Comum in Gallia Cisalpina was planted B.C. 59 (Sueton. Caes. 28).

Vati′nia De Rejectio′ne Ju′dicum (Cic. in Vatin. c11; Schol. Bob. 321, 323).

Leges De Vi [Vis.]

Via′ria Lex that was talked of (Cic. ad Fam. VIII.6) is only worth mention on account of the name. Such a Lex might be De Viis Muniendis.

Some modern writers speak of Leges Viariae, but there do not appear to be any leges properly so called. The provisions as to roads (viae) in many of the Agrarian laws were parts of such leges, and had no special reference to roads (Frontinus, or, as he is often called, Pseudo-Frontinus, De Coloniis Libellus).

Vicesima′ria [Vicesima.]

Vi′llia Anna′lis [Annales, p684B and the Essay of Wex on the Leges Annales of the Romans, translated in the Classical Museum, No. X.]

Visel′lia made a man liable to a criminal prosecution who, being a Latinus, assumed to exercise the rights of an Ingenuus (Cod. IX. tit. 21).

Voco′nia: see separate page.


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