Thomas Stanley, translator (1665) Claudius Aelianus His Various History. Arguments of the Chapters

The Arguments of the


The First Book.

1 Of the Polypus.
2 Of Spiders.
3 Of the Ægyptian Frogs.
4 Of the Ægyptian Dog.
5 Of the Sea-Fox.
6 Of Sea-Tortoises.
7 Of wild Swine.
8 Of the Phalangium.
9 Of the Lion, sick.
10 How the Cretan Goats cure themselves when shot.
11 That Mice have Præscience.
12 Of Pismires.
13 Of Gelo.
14 Of the Swan.
15 Of Pigeons.
16 Of Socrates drinking Hemlock.
17 Of a very little Chariot, and an Elegiack Distich.
18 Of Women vain in apparel.
19 The Luxury of the Sybarites, Colophonians, and Corinthians.
20 Of Dionysius his Sacrilege.
21 How Ismenias without dishonour adored the King of Persia.
22 The gifts which the Kings of Persia used to bestow upon Embassadours.
23 Of Gorgias and Protagoras.
24 Of the Contest betwixt Hercules and Lepreas.
25 Of Alexander's magnificence to Phocion, and his to Alexander.
26 Of Aglais a great eater.
27 Other great eaters.
28 Diet of Fish much esteemed by the Rhodians.
29 Of an Ewe which eaned a Lion.
30 That Galetes was beloved of Ptolomee not more for his beauty then his prudence
31 The Persian custome of presenting Gifts to the King.
32 Of Water presented as a gift to the King of Persia.
33 Of an extraordinary great Pomegranate presented to the same King.
34 Of a Father, who accused his Son of a Capital crime.

The Second Book.

1 How Socrates taught Alcibiades confidence not to be daunted at the people.
2 Of Pictures praised amiss.
3 Of Alexander not giving due commendations of a Picture.
4 Of the Friendship betwixt Chariton and Melanippus, and the Tyrant's mercy towards them.
5 Of well husbanding Time, and that among the Lacedemonians Walking was not permitted.
6 An instance that we ought not to please the Vulgar.
7 That the Thebans expose not Children.
8 Of Xenocles and Euripides contending at the Olympick Games.
9 Decrees of the Athenians against some Revolters.
10 Timotheus, having heard Plato discourse, judged himself to be leß happy.
11 What Socrates said of those that were put to death by the Thirty Tyrants.
12 Of Themistocles giving over Prodigality.
13 Of Socrates abused in a Comedy by Aristophanes.
14 Of a Plane-tree beloved of Xerxes.
15 Of those who besmeared the Seats of the Lacedemonian Ephori with Soot.
16 Of Phocion.
17 Of the wisedome of the Persian Magi, and of Ochus.
18 Of magnificent Suppers.
19 Of Alexander, who would be called a God.
20 Of the meekneß of King Antigonus.
21 Of Pausanias his friendship with Agatho the Poet.
22 That the Matineans were just Law-makers.
23 That Nicodorus the Wrastler became a Law-giver.
24 That Milo was strong in Body, but not in Mind.
25 That the sixth of the Month Thargelion was fortunate to the Greeks.
26 Of Hyperborean Apollo, and certain wonders concerning Pythagoras.
27 That Anniceris was a good Charioteer ; and that he who bestows much pains upon little things, neglects the greater.
28 Uppon what occasion Cock-fighting was first instituted.
29 How Pittacus made an Embleme of Fortune.
30 Of Plato.
31 That no Barbarian is impious.
32 How Hercules his name was changed, and of the Oracle of Apollo concerning it.
33 Of the Images of Rivers.
34 Of Old age.
35 That Sleep is the Brother of Death ; and of the decease of Gorgias.
36 Of Socrates falling sick in his old age.
37 Of a Law which prohibited the sick to drink Wine.
38 A Law of the Romans and other people not allowing Wine to all persons, nor of all ages.
39 The Law of the Cretans concerning Learning.
40 That Beasts love not Wine, and of some Beasts that will be drunk.
41 Of some who were lovers of Drink, and great Drinkers.
42 Of Plato's renown, and of his Laws for equal Distribution.
43 Certain eminent persons among the Grecians very poor.
44 A description of a Picture made by Theon a Painter.

The Third Book.

1 Thessalian Tempe described.
2 Of Anaxagoras bearing the death of his Children with courage.
3 Of Xenophon bearing the death of his Son unmovedly.
4 That Dio was not troubled at the loß of his Son.
5 Antigonus seeing his Son dead, was nothing troubled.
6 Of the Magnanimity of Crates.
7 Of the Calumny of the Vulgar.
8 That Phrynichus was chosen General for a certain Poem.
9 Of Love.
10 Of Lacedemonian Friendship.
11 Of the Soul.
12 Of Friendship amongst the Lacedemonians.
13 Of the Drunkenneß of the Tayprians.
14 Of the Drunkenneß of the Byzantines.
15 Of the Drunkenneß of the Argives, Corinthians, Thracians and Illyrians.
16 A comparison betwixt the two Generals, Demetrius and Timotheus.
17 That Philosophy is not inconsistent with Political Government, and that some Philosophers have governed Commonwealths.
18 Of the Discourse betwixt Midas the Phrygian, and Silenus ; and the incredible relations of Midas.
19 Of the dissension between Aristotle and Plato.
20 Of Lysander, and some Gifts presented to him.
21 Of the Magnanimity of Themistocles.
22 Of the Piety of Æneas, and compaßion of the Greeks to the Trojans.
23 Of Alexander.
24 How much Xenophon was delighted with Bravery.
25 Of Leonides, and three hundred more, who gave themselves up to death voluntarily for the preservation of Greece.
26 Of Pindarus the Tyrant.
27 Of Plato's Poverty, and how he betook himself to Philosophy.
28 How Socrates reformed the Pride of Alcibiades.
29 Of the Poverty and Pride of Diogenes.
30 Of certain persons extremely Modest.
31 Of the diligence of Nicias in his Art.
32 Of Alexander and Hercules, learning to play on the Lute.
33 Of Satyrus a Player on the Flute.
34 A Law common to the Romans and Lacedemonians.
35 That it was not permitted to laugh in the Academy.
36 Why Aristotle left Athens.
37 A Law of the Ceans concerning Old men.
38 Some things first found out at Athens.
39 What things some of old did eat.
40 Of Satyrs, Tityri, and Silenes.
41 Many Surnames of Bacchus.
42 Of certain Women that fell Mad.
43 Of a Lutenist murdered by the Sybarites.
44 Of one who might have aßisted his Companion, but would not: And of another that did aßist, but unfortunately.
45 An Oracle given to Philip.
46 A Law of the Stagirites.
47 Of Timotheus and some others, whom their Vertues availed nothing.

The Fourth Book.

1 Several Customes of Nations and People.
2 Of the difference betwixt Nicostratus, who plaied upon the Lute onely, and Laodocus, who both plaid and sung to the Lute.
3 Of Polygnotus and Dionysius, Painters.
4 A Theban Law concerning Artificers and Painters.
5 Persons that were mindful of Benefits.
6 An Oracle concerning the Athenians.
7 That sometimes the Dead rest not even after Death ; and of Pausanias.
8 Of the Vicißitudes of Fortune.
9 Of the Humility of Plato, and Ingratitude of Aristotle.
What respect Pericles had for the Athenian people.
11 Of the Luxury of Socrates.
12 Of the Picture of Helena drawn by Zeuxis.
13 The saying and happineß of Epicurus.
14 Of sparing and keeping Riches.
15 Of some who in sickneß learned Musick and other Sciences, in which recovering they became eminent.
Qualities of some of the Ancients.
17 Wonders and Opinions of Pythagoras.
18 Of the respect and honour which Dionysius gave to Plato.
19 That Philip honoured Learning ; and of Aristotle.
Of Democritus, and of the Renown of him, Theophrastus, Hippocrates, and others.
21 Of those who were beloved of Socrates and Plato.
22 Of the Luxury of the Athenians.
Of certain Prodigal persons.
24 How Friendship may be best preserved.
25 Of the strange Madneß of Thrasyllus.
26 Of Electra.
Of the gift of Pamphaes and Diotimus.
28 That Pherecydes fell into a Phthiriasis because of his Atheism.
29 That Alexander ridiculously believed there are infinite Worlds.

The Fifth Book.

1 That Tachos died upon using more delicate Diet.
2 Pherecydes how he died.
3 Of Hercules his Pillars.
4 Of some Trees growing in Delus.
5 Of Epaminondas his Indigence and Magnanimity.
6 Of the voluntary death of Calanus.
7 Of Anacharsis.
8 How some have born Scoffs.
9 Of Aristotle.
10 The number of some Ships and Arms which the Athenians left.
11 The Cruelty of a King of Thrace towards his Children.
12 That Demades was fined for making a Decree, that Alexander should be accounted a God.
13 That the Athenians were inclined to Novelties.
14 An Attick Law concerning the Interrment of Bodies, and killing of Oxen.
15 Places of Judicature in Athens for Murthers.
16 That a little Boy was condemned for Sacrilege.
17 Of the Superstition of the Athenians.
18 Of a Woman with child condemned to death.
19 How Æschylus condemned for Impiety was preserved.
20 Of the Fasting of the Tarentines and Rhegians.
21 That Medea did not kill her own Children.

The Sixth Book.

1 Of the Wrath, Inhumanity, Contempt, Injustice, and Violence of some towards others.
2 Of the Valour of the Son of Harmatidias.
3 Of Isadas a Boy.
4 Of him that was betrothed to the Daughter of Lysander.
5 Of the Athenian Embassadours.
6 Laconick Laws.
7 Of the Earthquake which happened at Sparta.
8 Of the Murther of Artaxerxes.
9 Of a Treasure sought by the Delphians in the Pythian Temple.
10 A Law concerning Citizens made by Pericles.
11 Of Gelo offering to resign the Government.
12 Of the Happineß of Dionysius, and what end it had.
13 Of Tyrannical Governments in Greece, which have continued in Posterities.
14 Of a Conspiracy against Darius.

The Seventh Book.

1 Of Semiramis, and how she obtained the Assyrian Empire.
2 Of the Luxury of Strato and Nicocles.
3 A Consolatory Saying of Aristippus.
4 Of the praise of a Mill.
5 Of the hand-labour of Ulysses and Achilles in many things.
6 The answer of a Scythian concerning Cold.
7 Of Demosthenes his Watchfulneß.
8 Of Alexander's grief at Hephæstion's Death.
9 Of a Modest Woman.
10 Of the Wife of Socrates.
11 Of the Shoes of the Roman Women.
12 An Apophthegm of Lysander or Philip concerning Perjury.
13 Of the Tolerance of Agesilaus.
14 Of Philosophers that went to War, and administered Civil Government.
15 How the Mitylenæans revenged themselves upon their revolted Confederates.
16 Of Rome, Remus, Romulus, and Servia.
17 Of Eudoxus coming to Sicily.
18 That the Ægyptians are courageous in Torments ; and of the Indian Women.
19 Of Solon's Stratagem against the Megareans, and how afterwards he overcame them by Argument.
20 Of an old man, a Cean, that Died his Hair.
21 Of the sedulity and care of Cæsar and Pompey, to learn such things were are requisite to govern rightly.

The Eighth Book.

1 Of Socrates his Dæmon.
2 Of Hipparchus his Wisedome, his care of Learned men ; and of Homer's Poems.
3 The Athenian Custome of killing an Oxe, and of the Diipolian and Buphonian Festival.
4 Of the Luxury of Poliarchus.
5 Of Neleus and Medon, and the Twelve Ionian Cities.
6 Of the ignorance of Learning and Institution amongst the Barbarians.
7 Of the Marriages solemnized by Alexander, after his Victory over Darius.
8 Of the Art of Painting.
9 Of a Tyrant killed by his Friend.
10 Of Solon, and the Laws written by him and Draco.
11 Of the decay and dissolution of things, and of the World it self.
12 Of Demosthenes, Æschines, Theophrastus, and Demochares.
13 Of some who never laughed.
14 Of the death of Diogenes.
15 Of the Moderation of Philip upon a Victory ; and of what he would be minded continually.
16 Of Solon and Pisistratus.
17 Of Oenycinus Monarch of the Zanclæans.
18 Of Euthymus and the Hero in Temese, and a Proverb.
19 The Epitaph of Anaxagoras, and his Altar.

The Ninth Book.

1 That Hiero loved Learning, and was liberal, and lived friendly with his Brothers.
2 Of the Victory of Taurosthenes.
3 Of the Luxury and Pride of Alexander and some others.
4 Of the diligence of Polycrates in hearing Anacreon, and of his Jealousie.
5 Of Hiero and Themistocles.
6 Of Pericles and his Sons dying of the Pestilence.
7 Of Socrates his Equanimity in all things.
8 Of Dionysius his Incontinence.
9 That Demetrius also was Incontinent.
10 Of Plato's little valuing Life.
11 Of Parrhasius the Painter.
12 Of the Epicureans banished by the Romans and Messenians.
13 Of the Gluttony and exceßive Fatneß of Dionysius.
14 Of the extraordinary Leanneß of Philetas.
15 Of Homer.
16 Of Italy, and of Mares both Man and Horse.
17 Of Demosthenes his Pride.
18 Of Themistocles.
19 That Demosthenes refused, being called by Diogenes to goe into a Cook's Shop.
20 Of Aristippus.
21 Of Theramenes.
22 Of some that studied Medicine.
23 Of Aristotle being sick.
24 Of the Luxury of Smindyrides.
25 How Pisistratus behaved himself towards his Citizens.
26 Of Zeno and Antigonus.
27 Ingenuity of Manners.
28 Of Diogenes.
29 That Socrates was fearleß, and despised Gifts.
30 Of the Providence of Anaxarchus.
31 Of a Wrastler who, having gained the Victory, died before he was Crowned.
32 Of the Statues of Phryne a Curtizan, and of the Mares of Cimon.
33 The Answer of a young man to his Father, demanding what he had learned.
34 Of persons richly clad.
35 Of Antisthenes taking pride in a torn Cloak.
36 Of Antigonus and a Lutenist.
37 How Anaxarchus derided Alexander, who would be esteemed a God.
38 Of Alexander, and the Harp of Paris.
39 Of ridiculous and extravagant affections.
40 Of the Pilots of the Carthaginian Ships.
41 Of Pausanias and Simonides.
42 Of Artaxerxes and Darius.

The Tenth Book.

1 Of Pherenice admitted to behold the Olympick Games.
2 Of the Continency of Eubatas.
3 Properties of some Creatures.
4 Of Alexander's quickneß in action.
5 Of Tyrants, out of Æsop's Writing.
6 Of Little men.
7 Of some Astronomers, and of the Great Year.
8 Of Benefits.
9 That Philoxenus was a Glutton.
10 Of the ancient Painters.
11 Of Diogenes having a pain in his Shoulder.
12 An Apophthegm of Archytas concerning Men.
13 That Archilochus defamed himself.
14 Of Idleneß.
15 Of those who were betrothed to the Daughters of Aristides and Lysander.
16 Of Antisthenes and Diogenes.
17 Of those who grew rich by publick Imployments.
18 Of Syracusian Daphnis, and of Bucolick Verses.
19 Of Eurydamus.
20 Of Agesilaus.
21 Of Plato.
22 Of Dioxippus.

The Eleventh Book.

1 Of Oricadmus and the Art of Wrastling.
2 Of the Verses of Orœbantius, Dares and Melisander.
3 Of Icchus, and Wrastling.
4 Of the Baldneß of Agathocles.
5 Of some persons unjustly condemned for Sacrilege.
6 Of an Adulterer.
7 Of Lysander and Alcibiades.
8 Of the death of Hipparchus.
9 Of certain excellent persons, Indigent, yet would not accept Gifts.
10 Of Zoilus.
11 Of Dionysius the Sicilian.
12 Of a Marchpane sent by Alcibiades to Socrates.
13 Of one in Sicily very sharp-sighted.

The Twelfth Book.

1 Of Aspasia.
2 Of the Muses.
3 Of Epaminondas, and Daiphantus, and Iolaidas.
4 Of Sesostris.
5 Of Lais.
6 Of the Parents of Marius and Cato.
7 Of Alexander and Hephæstion.
8 Of the Treachery of Cleomenes to Archonides.
9 How Timesias forook his Country voluntarily.
10 That the Æginetæ first coyned Money.
11 Of the Pallantian Hill, and of the Temple and Altar dedicated to Feaver.
12 Of an Adulterer apprehended in Crete.
13 How Gnathæna the Curtizan silenced a great Talker.
14 Of persons excellent in Beauty.
15 Of certain excellent persons who delighted to play with Children.
16 Persons whom Alexander hated for their Vertue.
17 Of Demetrius going to the House of a Curtizan.
18 That Phaon was beautiful.
19 Of Sappho.
20 Of the Nightingale and Swallow.
21 Of the Lacedemonian Women.
22 Of the Strength of Titormus and Milo, and of a certain Proverb.
23 Of the Boldneß of the Celtæ.
24 Of the luxurious Diet and Gluttony of Smindyrides.
25 Many who improv'd and benefitted the most excellent persons.
26 Of some persons addicted to Wine.
27 That Hercules was mild towards his Adversaries.
28 Of the Leocorium at Athens.
29 What Plato said of the Exceß of the Agrigentines.
30 Of the Drunkenneß of the Tarentines, and the Luxury of the Cyrenæans.
31 Of several kinds of Greek Wines.
32 Of the Vest and Shoes of Pythagoras, Empedocles, Hippias, and Gorgias.
33 That the Romans would not allow the Treachery of Pyrrhus his Physician.
34 Of the Loves of Pausanias, and of Apelles.
35 Of the Perianders, Miltiades, Sibylls, and the Bacides.
36 Of the number of the Children of Niobe.
37 Of the want of Victual to which Alexander was reduced ; and that some Towns were taken by Smoke.
38 Of the Horses, and some Customes of the Sacæ.
39 Of the Boldeß of Perdiccas, and of the Lioneß.
40 Of the Provisions which followed Xerxes.
41 Of Protogenes the Painter.
42 Of certain Men who were suckled by Beasts.
43 Certain persons who of obscure became very eminent.
44 Of those who lived a long time in the Quarries of Sicily.
45 Of Midas, Plato, and Pindar, their infancy.
46 Of a Sign which portended that Dionysius should be King.
47 Of Aristomache Wife of Dio.
48 Of Homer's Poems.
49 That Phocion forgave Injuries.
50 Of the Lacedmonians not addicting themselves to Learning.
51 Of the Pride of Menecrates, and how Philip derided him.
52 To what kind of persons Isocrates compared Athens.
53 Of several occasions of great Wars.
54 How Aristotle endeavoured to appease Alexander's Anger.
55 Of those who among the Libyans were slain by Elephants, either in Hunting or in War.
56 What Diogenes said of the Megareans.
57 Of the Prodigies which appeared to the Thebans, when Alexander brought his Forces against their City.
58 Of Dioxippus.
59 Of Truth and Beneficence.
60 Of Dionysius and Philip.
61 Of honour given to the Wind Boreas.
62 A Persian Law concerning those who give the King Advice.
63 Of Archedice a Curtezan.
64 Of Alexander dead.

The Thirteenth Book.

1 Of Atalanta.
2 How Macareus was punished for Cruelty.
3 Of the Monument of Belus, and the unfortunate sign which happened to Xerxes there.
4 Of Euripides drunk at a Feast.
5 Of Laius.
6 The properties of Arcadian, Thatian, and Achæan Wines.
7 Of the taking of Thebes by Alexander, and of Pindar.
8 Of Lysander.
9 Of Lamia.
10 Of Dionysius marrying two Wives in one Day.
11 Of the conquest over the Persians, and of Isocrates.
12 How Meton freed himself from an expedition ; and of the madneß of Ulysses.
13 Of the Munificence of Ptolemee.
14 Of the Verses and Poetry of Homer.
15 Of some persons extraordinary foolish.
16 Of the Apolloniats and of their Country, and of Epidamnum.
17 A Proverb, and of Phrynichus.
18 Of Dionysius.
19 What Cleomenes said of Homer and Hesiod.
20 Of one who died chearfully through willingneß to see some of the dead.
21 Of Phrygian Harmony.
22 Of the Temple and Statue of Homer.
23 Of Lycurgus the Lacedemonian.
24 Of some who have been harmed by Laws, which they themselves made.
25 Of Pindar in a contest worsted by Corinna.
26 How Diogenes in extreme indigence comforted himself.
27 Of Socrates.
28 Of the Servant of Diogenes torn in pieces by Dogs.
29 Of Hope.
30 Of Olympias grieving for Alexander's death, and want of burial.
31 That Xenocrates was Compaßionate.
32 How Socrates refelled the boasting of a Curtizan.
33 Of the fortune of Rhodopis a Curtizan.
34 Of Dionysius.
35 What natural remedies the Hart, being not well, useth.
36 Of the death of Eurydice, Daughter of Philip.
37 Of Gelo, and those who conspired against him.
38 Of Alcibiades.
39 Of Ephialtes.
40 Of Themistocles.
41 Of Phocion.
42 Of Epaminondas.
43 Of Timotheus.
44 Of the emulation betwixt Themistocles and Aristides.
45 Of the Cruelty of Dionysius.
46 Of the Gratitude of a Dragon.

The Fourteenth Book.

1 How Aristotle stood affected as to love of Glory.
2 Of Agesilaus, and the Barbarians breaking their Oaths.
3 Of Prodigality.
4 Of Aristides dying of the biting of a Weezel.
5 What persons the Athenians chose for Government.
6 Aristippus his opinion concerning chearfulneß.
7 A Lacedemonian Law concerning the Complexion and Constitution of the Body, and such as are too Fat.
8 How Polycletus and Hippomachus argued the common people of Ignorance.
9 Of the Patience of Xenocrates.
10 How Phocion retorted upon Demades.
11 How a King ought to behave himself towards his Subjects.
12 How the Persian King employed himself whilest he travelled.
13 Of the Tragedies of Agatho.
14 Of Stratonicus a Lutenist.
15 Of the Discourses of Socrates.
16 Of the ambition of Hipponicus.
17 Of Archelaus, and of the Pictures of Zeuxis.
18 How one that was angry threatned to punish his Servant.
19 Of the Modesty of Archytas in speaking.
20 Of a ridiculous Story.
21 Of the Poet Syagrus.
22 Of a Tyrant forbidding his Subjects to talk together.
23 Of Clinias and of Achilles, who used to repress anger by Musick.
24 Of some persons who have nothing valued Money in regard of their Countrymen. And of some who slew their Creditors.
25 How one persuaded a State to concord.
26 Of Antagoras railing at Arcesilaus.
27 Of Agesilaus.
28 Of Pytheas an Oratour.
29 That Lysander brought wealth into Sparta.
30 How Hanno would have Deified himself.
31 Of Ptolemee surnamed Tryphon.
32 Of Pimandridas, who praised not his Son for gathering together Riches.
33 Of Plato and Diogenes.
34 Of whom the Ægyptians learned Laws, and of their Judges.
35 Of Lais.
36 That they are ridiculous who think highly of themselves because of their Parents.
37 Of Statues and Images.
38 Of Epaminondas and Pelopidas.
39 How Antalcidas found fault with a Present perfumed with Unguent.
40 Of the Cruelty of Alexander Tyrant of the Pheræans.
41 Of Apollodorus his Madneß in Wine.
42 A Sentence of Xenocrates.
43 Of Ptolemee and Berenice.
44 A Lacedemonian Law concerning Covetousneß.
45 Of certain Women worthy praise.
46 Of the Battel of the Magnetes against the Ephesians.
47 Of Zeuxis his Picture of Helen, and of Nicostratus a Painter.
48 Persons of whom Alexander was jealous.
49 Why Philip made the Sons of the noblest Persons wait on him.


Valid XHTML 1.1 Valid CSS

This page is by James Eason.