Note to Browne’s Musæum Clausum

The Pápa mutiny of 1600 is treated at length by Knolles in his History of the Turkes (1638). Knolles describes the end of the rebellion, pp. 1118-1119:

The Lord Swartzenburg thus slaine, the government of the army was by Mathias the Arch-duke committed to the Lord Redern, a noble man both valiant and learned; who although he were very sickly, came unto the camp before Pappa the 8 of August; where understanding that the rebels now brought unto extremity, had a purpose by night to fly away and so be gon, he caused a more vigilant, he caused a more vigilant and strong watch to be kept; when lo, according to his expectation, the next night after, about two houres before day they began to issue out: whereof the watch giving knowledge to the Generall, they were indeed suffered to goe out as unperceived, but presently after at their heels were sent out the Lord Nadasti and the Earle of Thurn, with 200 Hussars, and after them the chiefe Colonell and County Solmes, with part of their horsmen also, who in three divers places overtaking them neer unto a great wood called Packem, slew most part of them: De la Mota their chiefe captain or ringleader being slain by the chief Colonell, because he would not yeeld, and his head by him afterwards presented unto the Generall in the campe: 200 Wallons the Hussars under the leading of the Lord Nadasti, County Solmes, and County Thurn, found out in the wood, who albeit that they for a space made great resistance, yet in the end were enforced to yeeld, and so with their two ensignes were brought into the campe. The Hussars also upon another passage light upon other 200 moe of these rebellious Wallons, who because the[y] stood strongly upon their guard, and were more desperatly set than the rest, the Generall sent out other 200 of the Colonels horsemen upon them, by whom and the Hussars they were almost all slaine: divers others of them also were slaine in comming out of the towne, and in the marishes thereabouts. Their Generals Lieutenant with such other of their principall commanders as were taken, were by the Lord Rederns commandement delivered unto the Provost Martiall; the rest of the rebellious traitors he at the request of the souldiers divided into divers parts of the army, there to the terror of others to be executed, from whom the souldiers could hardly be persuaded even for the present to hold their hands. But afterwards having brought them to Rab, & leave given them to do with them their pleasure, they as farre exceeded in the cruell manner of their execution, as they had before in their outragious dealings, especially the Hungarians and Wallons, notwithstanding most of them were of the Wallon countries.1 Some of them they impailed, some they brake upon the wheele; some of their skins they cut off their bodies as it were into thongs, and so poured into the wounds vineger, salt, and pepper; from some others they cut off their privities, some they rosted, and some they put into the Tenalia;2 upon some they dropped molten pitch, and then casting gunpouder upon them, so burnt them to death; othersome they hanged upon yron hookes; and some they put in the ground up to the chin, and for their desport with yron bullets bouled at their heads. In all which torments no signe of compassion was to be seene, the tormentors to make their pain the greater, doing nothing but deride them: the miserable wretches in the meane time confessing the hainousnesse of their offence and craving for death as a favor. A most horrible thing it was to see, how whilest some were thus tortured, others were brought to see the same misery they themselves were by and by to endure. Amongst the rest of these exquisite torments, one Peter Orsy caused one of the mutiners to be sowed up in the belly of a mare, with his head hanging out, and so to be rosted, in which miserable torment he lived three houres, and then died: after which he caused the loathsome body so rosted, to be given to them that lay starving upon the wheele to eat. Thus was the dangerous mutiny at Pappa with much ado ended, and that strong towne like to have bin lost, preserved: the rebels themselves being become a dreadfull example to all posterity, for all them to looke upon that shall attempt the like villany.


1 That is to say, the cruelty of the loyal soldiers was as excessive as had been the treachery of the rebels; and especially the cruelty of the Walloons (= Browne’s “French”), notwithstanding that the rebels were also mostly Walloons. On behalf of the loyal soldiers, it should be remembered that when the Turks took over countryside in those days, their cruelties to the civilian population were so excessive that even Knolles, not a prude, is driven to remark he cannot decently describe them; had the rebels turned over Pápa, the local women and children would have been treated far worse than the rebels were eventually. Under such conditions, treachery is harshly punished.

2 Tenalia: forceps; presumably used for tearing flesh, in this case.

This page is by James Eason.

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