Edward Browne (1677): An Account of Several Travels through a Great Part of Germany, pp. 71-116: Description of Vienna.
Vienna, or Wien, which the Turks call Berch, is the chief City of Austria, in the Latitude of forty eight Degrees, twenty Minutes, not much differing from the Latitude of Paris. The old Seat of the Dukes of Austria, and for a long time of the Emperours of Germany. According to ancient account it standeth in Pannonia superior, the Bounds of Pannonia extending unto Kalemburg, or Mons Cetius, five or six miles Westward of Vienna; beyond which still Westward all that lieth between that Hill and the great River Oenus, or Inne, which runneth into the Danube at Passaw, or Castra Batava, was anciently called Noricum.
It was an ancient place of Habitation in the time of the Romans, and called Vindobona, as the Learned Petrus Lambecius hath at large declared, where the Classis Istrica sometimes lay, and the tenth German Legion had its station; all this shoar or side of the Danube being famous for the actions of Roman Emperours against the Marcomanni and Quadi, who possessed the Country on the other side of the River, and especially for the wars of Marcus Aurelius Antoninus Philosophus, who notably defeated those Nations, and who, as Aurelius Victor (who was Governour of Sirmium in Pannonia inferior, in the time of Constantius ) affirmeth, fell sick at Carnuntum, now Petronel, and died at Vindobona, now Vienna. And to confirm the Antiquity hereof, besides what Wolfgangus Lazius hath delivered, not many years since some Antiquities were found. For in the year 1662. when a wall was digged up near the old Palace, the workmen digging still on below the Foundation, found a Stone Trough or Coffin, containing hard Earth and Bones, with a small Gold Coyn, a Glass Urn enclosed in a Brass one, an Iron Knife like a Sicespita, or Knife used about Sacrifices, a little Roll or Scroll of pure Gold, shut up with a Golden cover at both ends, wherein was an Inscription in strange Characters: Not far from the Sepulchral Monument were found a Head in Brass, a Brazen Patera, Lamps, Lachrymatories, and other Vessels, and a Copper Coyn of Antoninus Caracalla. The writing in the Golden Scroll, which no man could read, was conceived by the Learned Lambecius to be the old Pannonian Character, and that this might be the Monument of some Pannonian Priest in the days of Caracalla, who, as good Authors deliver, spent some time about these parts.
It is seated on the South-side of the Danube, on the ripa Romana, that side nearest to Rome, and many Roman Colonies, according to the usual position of Roman Stations, both upon this River and the Rhine, as may be exemplified in Colen, Bonna, Andarnach, Coblentz, Ments, Wormes, Spier, and Strasburg. And in like manner in the old Roman Stations, on the South or Roman side of the Danube, which were in no small number in or near the Austrian shoar, as Carnuntum, or Petronel, Vischmund, or Aquinoctium, Ebersdorff, or Ala Nova, Melck, or Nomale, Arlape, or Pechlarne, Lentia, or Lintz; for hereby they better secured their Conquests, and hindred the incursions of the Barbarians before them.
It is not seated upon the main stream of the Danube, but by a branch thereof; for the River running through a low Country; it is divided into several Streams, making many Islands. A small River named Wien, runneth by the East part of this City, and entreth the Danube below it, which upon floods doth often much hurt, yet sometimes low and very shallow, so as I have stepped over it; some will have it to give the name unto this City: it divideth part of the Suburbs from it, and hath divers Bridges over it. For that we may have a distinct apprehension of Vienna, we must consider the City and Suburbs thereof; the Suburbs are very great, and not without fair Houses, Gardens, Walks, and all Accommodations at large.
The City it self is that walled and fortified part, designed not only for convenience of Habitation, but also to sustain a Siege, or any Attack from the Turk, and is now separated from the Suburbs by a fair Esplanade, or open Ground, above a Musket shot over. The Houses near the wall were pulled down since the last Fortification in the Turkish war, when they were in some fear that the Turkish Forces about Gran and New-heusel, would move towards them. It is fortified a la moderna, with ten Bastions towards the Land, and a very deep Ditch, into which they can let the Danube: and with two other Bastions towards the water, on that part of the River which lieth on the North-side of the Town. The Bastions are large; upon one of them I saw Count Souches muster a good part of the Militia of the City. The Ditch is large and very deep, into which although they can let in the River, yet it is commonly kept dry, lest they might incommode their deep Cellars. There are two walls, the one old and inward, little considerable at present, built at first with the ransome of our King Richard the First, who in his return from the Holy War, was detained Prisoner by the Duke of Austria upon the 20th of December, 1192. The Austrians pretending they had received some affront from the King at Joppa, and that he had taken down the Ensign and Banner of Duke Leopold in a contemptuous way. The other outward of a great breadth, made of Earth, and faced with Brick, edged with Freestone, so well built, as to render this City one of the most considerable fortified places in Europe. The Esplanade gently descendeth from the Town for three hundred Paces; there are very few Out-works.
It is very uncertain who was the first Builder of Vienna, and after it had been long built, it ran to decay again for Four hundred years together, till Henry the First, Duke of Austria, in the year 1158. did much repair it; and the ransome afterwards of King Richard beautified it.
The whole compass, taking in the Suburbs, makes a very large Circuit, but the City it self, which is walled in, may be about three miles in Circumference, and is exceeding populous, as full of People, for the bigness of the place, as most of the great Cities. And I could not but take delight to behold so many Nations in it, as Turks, Tartars, Græcians, Transylvanians, Sclavonians, Hungarians, Croatians, Spaniards, Italians, French, Germans, Polanders, &c. all in their proper Habits.
The chief Gates are six: 1. Stubnthor, or the Stuben Gate towards the East. 2. Karnterthor, or the Gate of Carinthia towards the South. 3. Burgthor, the Town Gate, or Castle Gate. 4. Schottenthor, or the Scotch Gate. 5. Newthor, or the Newgate; these two last towards the West: And 6. the Gate of the red Tower towards the North, which leadeth unto the Bridge over the Danube: and towards the water-side, there is also a Port by the Emperours palace, and a Cloyster or Nunnery in the Town hath the Name of a Port called Himmel port, or the Gate of Heaven. The five first of these Gates are vaulted and arched with long passages through the Town-wall, and have good Bridges of Wood, with Draw-bridges to pass over the Town ditch: The sixth is under a Tower, and leads to the Bridges of the Danube: For that River running here in a flat low Country, divideth its streams, so that to pass it quite over, there are at present seven long Bridges made up of many thousand Trees laid one by another, after their way of making Bridges. There is also a Bridge within the City of Vienna, called the Hochbrug, or High-bridge, which is made by the crossing of two Streets at equal Angles; the ground of one street being as high as the tops of the Houses of the other, so that to continue it, they were forced to build a Bridge or Arch in the Lower-street, to let the upper pass over it.
The City is fairly built of stone, and well paved; many Houses are of six stories high; they are somewhat flat roofed after the Italian way; the Streets are not narrow, but the compass of ground will not admit them to be very broad; and their Buildings are remarkable both above and below ground; their Cellars are very deep. To satisfie my curiosity, I went into some of them, and found four Cellars one under another; they were arched, and had two pair of Stairs to descend into them. Some have an open space in the middle of each roof, to let the Air out of one Cellar into another, and from the lowest an adit or tube unto the top, to let the Air in and out from the street, somewhat after the manner of the Mines.
Aenæas Sylvius, about two hundred years since, commending the City of Nurnburg, among other expressions lets fall this: Cuperent Scotorum Reges tam egregiè quam mediocres Cives Norinbergenses habitare. The Kings of Scots would be content to dwell so well as the middle sort of Citizens of Nurnburg. I must confess, when I first entred Nurnburg, I was much surprised to see such a noble, large, spruce, rich and well built City: but Vienna doth also deserve the commendation which he affordeth it: Ubi Palatia digna Regibus & Templa quæ mirari Italia possit.. Where there are Palaces fit for Kings and Churches, which Italy may admire. And this being spoken so long ago, is now better verified of it.
The Imperial Palace is very Noble, Substantial, and Princely furnished, consisting chiefly of two Courts; the one very large, the other lesser, wherein the Emperour lodgeth. At the Entrance over the Gate, are set in Capital Letters the five Vowels, A, E, I, O, U; whereof the Phancies of men make various Interpretations. That which was told me was this, Austriæ est imperare Orbi Universo; or, Alles Erdreich Ist Osterreich Unterthan, i.e. All the World is subject to Austria. Although I could hardly believe this was the first intended meaning. Besides these two Courts is another small one, where some of the Pages lodge. I took notice of a large rough Jaspis stone lying upon the ground, little regarded or observed: it is about nine foot Diameter; it was presented unto the Emperour by the Archbishop of Salzburg, whose Country affordeth notable Quarries, and stones of many sorts; a little piece of it polished, affordeth fine yellow, red, black, and white Veins. The Palace of the Count de Draun, and that which Count Rothal hath lately built and nobly furnished, are very considerable; with many others.
There are also many fair Churches, rich Convents, and Conventual Churches; as that of the Carmelites, of the Franciscans, of the Benedictines, of St. Nicholas; In this Church I could not but take notice of the late Sepulchral Monuments of Count Strozzi and Cardinal Harach. The Dominican Convent is very fair. The Augustines have a large Church, in the middle whereof they have built a Chappel after the manner of the Holy House at Loretto; upon the top of which hang the Colours taken from the Turks and Tartars, many of which Ensigns are not square like ours, but made Escucheon-wise, some filled with Circles, wherein are expressed half Moons. The Jesuites Colledges are large, who seldome fail of noble Convents, especially in places where they have so good footing as in this. The Front of one of their Colledges openeth into a fair Piazza, in the middle whereof stands a large and high composite Column of Copper upon a Pedestal of white stone, with four Angels with Escutcheons, and on the top the blessed Virgin; Inscriptions also, in which the Emperour dedicates Austria unto her Patronage and Tuition. In another Market-Place, where the Town-house is, there is a handsome Statua of Justice in Copper.
I could not but observe the Scotch Church and Cloyster, which gave also the name unto the Scotch Gate of the City, because I somewhat wondered how the Scots in old time should be so considerable in this place, but I found by Information, and the Account of Lazius and Matthæus Merian in High-dutch, that this Convent was in former times a great Receptacle for the Scots in their long Pilgrimage unto Jerusalem, founded and endowed by Duke Henry the First, in memory of St. Gregory: and it may seem less strange that the Scots should have a Convent here, and be numerous in these parts in former Ages, if we consider that St. Colman, one of the Saints of the greatest Veneration in this Country was a Scotchman, and said to be of the Royal Blood of Scotland, who, in his passage to Jerusalem was murdered by the Baurs or Country people at Stockerau, four German miles from Vienna, and hanged on a Tree, where, as the Story goes, his Body remained uncorrupted for a year and a half, and divers Miracles being affirmed of it, it was taken down, and honourably interred near Stockerau; but by Meginhard Bishop of Aichstadt it was translated unto Melk, and afterwards sent into Hungary, and his Head kept a long time at Stullweissenburg, or Alba Regalis, according to the Account which is here given of this Saint.
The Church of St. Peter is also considerable, not for its Splendour but Antiquity, as being accounted the oldest in the City, standing in a place where in old time there stood an Altar in honour of Domitian, called Ara Flaviana. In this Church lieth the Body of that famous and learned Person Wolfgangus Lazius, with this Epitaph or Inscription:
Magnifico Nobili Clarissimo atque summâ eruditione ornatissimo viro Domino Wolfgango Latzio Vien. Philosophiæ atque Medicinæ Doctori & Professori Primario, Celeberrimi Archigymnasii Viennensis Rectori & Superintendenti Cæsareo, & ejusdem Sacræ Cæsareæ Majest. Ferdinandi Sanctissimæ memoriæ Consiliario & Historico Peritissimo, defuncto Anno Domini MDLXXXVI.
In the Church of the Capucines Convent, are interred the Emperour Matthias and his Empress, and the Empress Maria, wife to Ferdinand the Third, who out of their Devotion and Humility, chose to be buried in a Church of this poor Order. And the Capucines not admitting of Magnificent Monuments in their Churches, as in the Churches of other Orders, no Tombs are erected worthy so great an Emperour, and such Empresses.
But the Cathedral Church of St. Stephen, containeth divers Monuments of many Princes and Great Persons, and is a large stately Building, but somewhat dark by reason of the thick painted Glass: not covered with Lead, but with Tiles of wood, which is the only blemish thereof, yet makes a good show. The Steeple and Spire are very remarkable, as being high, large, strong, and handsome. On the top or Weathercock-place of the Spire stands a Cross under a Star and half Moon, according to the Figure I have elsewhere set down, which the People think to be of Gold, or at least very well gilded; and in the time of Thunder and Lightning it looked pale and whitish.
They have this Account how these came first to be set up in this place: That when Solyman the Magnificent besieged Vienna, perceiving the Forces in the City to be obstinate, he had an intent to batter down the Steeple about their ears: But some of the Bassa's and great Commanders, advertising him how unprofitable a business it would prove, and withal when he took the City, what an honour it would be unto him to have such a Noble Pyramid in his Dominions: He sent word into the Town, That he was willing to spare the Steeple, upon condition that they would set up the half Moon and Star (the Turkish Arms) upon the top thereof. They returned Answer that they would, if he would send the same unto them, which he did, and they placed it where it standeth.
This Spire hath the largest Crockets I have observed in any, they being above a yard long, and adorned with foliage work. The Spire of Landshute in Bavaria, is accounted the highest in Germany; that of Strasburg the neatest and fairest; and this of Vienna the largest and strongest. And therefore it is no wonder that when the Ambassadours of Bosna formerly came unto Vienna, they so often viewed and admired this Fabrick, and plainly said that all the mony in their Country was not sufficient to have built it.
This Steeple is accounted about four hundred sixty and five foot high, being about half way up three hundred and thirty eight steps. Besides other Hills, I could see Haimburger Hill within two miles of Presburg, and a great part of Austria, which the long Course of the Danube rendred very pleasant and delightful unto the eye. In the Chamber or Room from whence I had this prospect, there is a Clock, whose Case being of wood, was in part burnt down by Lightning, and therefore there is water always kept in this place to extinguish the fire, and a man continually watcheth in the place where the Bells hand. There is also an Instrument of wood, or wooden Bells or Hammers, which they make use of from Good-friday till Easter-sunday, all the time that our Saviour was in the Grave, during which time they permit no Bells to ring.
At one of the doors of the Church there is a stone placed in the wall, which is generally conceived to be one of the stones wherewith St. Stephen was stoned. It seemed to me some kind of pebble, and is worn and polished by the hands of the people, who when they enter at that door, do touch it with their fingers. I was also shewed one of the stones which killed St. Steven at St. Sernine, or St. Saturnine's Church in Tholouse in France, which is a Church abounding with Relique-Rarities, and where they also think they have the Bodies of seven of the Apostles, of St. George, of our King St. Edmund, and of forty Saints.
In this Church of St. Stephen, besides many Monuments of great Princes and famous Persons, divers learned men have Sepulchral Inscriptions; as Johannes Faber Bishop of Vienna; Johannes Cuspinianus, and Sebastianus Tengnagelius, formerly Library-keeper, Historiographer, and Counsellor to the Emperour, an extraordinary learned man, and skilful in fifteen Languages, as the Inscription delivers; as Hebrew, Syriack, Chaldee, Persian, Arabick, Turkish, Æthiopick, Greek, Latin, Italian, French, Spanish, German, Belgick, and English.
The University of Vienna is also remarkable, if we consider the Antiquity thereof, the number of Scholars, their course of Studies, their accommodations, priviledges and advancements. This is said to have been begun by Albertus the Third, above three hundred years past; and their Rules, Orders, and Statutes to have been borrowed from the University of Paris, and the Students were distinguished into four Divisions or Nations; who, besides the General, have their particular Rules and Officers, and were comprehended under the Classis of Austrians, Nations of the Rhine, Hungarians, and Saxons.
In the Austrian Division were contained the Friulians, all of the Diocese of Trent, all Italy, with the other Provinces beyond the Mountains.
In the Classis of the Rhine were comprehended Suevians, Alsatians, Franconians, Hassians, and all the Provinces to the South-west, as France, Spain, Navarre, Holland, Brabant.
In the third Classis, or Natio Hungariæ, were contained Hungarians, Bohemians, Polonians, Moravians, Sclavonians, all that speak the Sclavonian Tongue, and also Germans.
To the Classis, or Natio Saxonum, were reduced Saxons, Westphalians, Frislanders, Turingians, Misuians, Brandenburgers, Prussians, Livonians, Lusations, Pomeranians, with the Ultramarine Kingdoms of England, Scotland, Ireland, Sweden, Norway, and Denmark.
These Divisions take up all the Nations of Europe; and indeed there are Students here of many Nations: and upon Contentions and Differences the several Classes will hold their own, and take parts, and bandy against each other, but will all unite and hold together in differences with Towns-men or Jews, which happen sometimes unto an high degree.
They follow here the old beaten way of Knowledge: and I met with few who had any good insight in new Philosophy; but there are many good Philologers, and are well versed in Languages, History and Antiquity: and there are many Learned Men either educated here, or come from other parts. Some who had taken notice of the Royal Society in London, were very inquisitive after it; and when I had satisfied them in all particulars, were very much pleased therewith. If they should fall into the way of Experimental Philosophy, being very industrious, 'tis very probable they may do much therein, and they were sure to have the countenance of the Emperour. I found them also much affected with the English Society in other parts of Germany. At the University of Altorff I was much enquired of concerning it: and a Magistrate of Nurnburg, who had got a Telescope from London, invited me to his House, to practise the way of using it. Der Herr van Adlershelme of Leipsick, a Person of great Curiosity, was very inquisitive after the same Society. And of late years the Curiosi of Germany have held Learned Contentions and Correspondence, and printed their Observations at Leipsick. And since my Return into England, I have been solicited from Cassovia in Upper Hungary, to send the Transactions into those Parts.
During my stay at Vienna, I went unto a publick Anatomy of a Woman that was beheaded: the Lecture lasted so long, that the Body was Nineteen days unburied. It was performed by a Learned Physician, Dr. Wolfstregel, who read in Latin to the satisfaction of all persons. What I most particularly observed therein was this, The Pyramidal Muscles very plain and large; the Uterus larger than is usually observed; the Cartilago Ensiformis double; the Lungs very black; the Eye was very well shown; he produced an artificial Eye of Ivory, and another large one of Pastboard and Paper, contrived and made by himself; the Muscles of the Pharynx, Larynx, Os Hyoides, and the Tongue, after their dissection, he reduced very handsomely into their proper places again, to shew their natural situation and position. The Anatomy-Theatre was of capacity to receive above an hundred persons; and according to the custome of other places, to avoid impertinent Spectators, a piece of Mony was given for admission. Of Anatomy-Theatres, until of late, there have been few in Germany, or none. And when I was in the Anatomy-School at Altorff, near Nurenburg, that learned and civil Professor, Dr. Mauritius Hoffmannus, told me that the same was the First in Germany.
Paulus de Sorbait, Prince Professor, Physician unto Eleonora the Empress Dowager, and Knight of Hungary, was the Rector Magnificus. Zwelser, who writ Animadversions upon the Dispensatory of Ausburg, was in great repute in Vienna, and had built for himself a noble House in the City, but he died some time before my coming thither.
In fine, the University is noble, their Advancements considerable, their Priviledges great, and they have the power of life and death, from ancient and latter Concessions of their Dukes and Emperours.
But the greatest lustre unto Vienna is the Residence of the present Emperour Leopoldus; he was born in the year 1638. he was Son unto the Emperour Ferdinand the Third; he was baptized by the Names of Leopoldus, Ignatius, Franciscus, Balthazar, Josephus, Felicianus. His eldest Brother Ferdinand, King of the Romans, died of the Small Pox in his Fathers time. His Brother Carolus Josephus, Master of the Teutonick Order, dyed 1662. He married Margareta Infanta of Spain, daughter unto King Philip the Fourth, whose Children died Infants; a vertuous, affable, grave, and worthy Prince, and seemed to me to live very happily here, in the love and honour of his People, Souldiers, and Clergy.
His Person is grave and graceful; he hath the Austrian Lip remarkably, his Chin long, which is taken for a good Physiognomical mark, and a sign of a constant, placid, and little troubled mind. He is conceived to carry in his Face the lineaments of four of his Predecessours, that is, of Ruolphus the First, of Maximilian the First, of Charles the Fifth, and Ferdinand the First. He was very affectionate unto his Empress, who, though but young, was a modest, grave Princess, had a good aspect, was zealous in her Religion, and an Enemy unto the Jews. He shewed also great respect and observance unto the Empress Dowager Eleonora, who was a sober and prudent Princess, well skilled in all kind of curious Works, and delighted sometimes to shoot at Deer from a Stand, or at other Game, out of her Coach. He was also very loving unto his Sisters, beautiful and good Ladies; whereof one, the eldest, was since married unto that Noble Prince Michael Wisnowitzski, King of Poland.
He speaks four Languages, German, Italian, Spanish, and Latin. He is a great countenancer of Learned Men, and delighteth to read, and when occasion permitteth, will pass some hours at it. The worthy Petrus Lambecius his Library Keeper, and who is in great esteem with him, will usually find out some Books for him which he conceiveth may be acceptable. While I was there he recommended a Translation of Religio Medici unto him, wherewith the Emperour was exceedingly pleased, and spake very much of it unto Lambecius, insomuch that Lambecius asked me whether I knew the Author, he being of my own name, and whether he were living: And when he understood my near Relation to him, he became more kind and courteous than ever, and desired me to send him that Book in the Original English, which he would put into the Emperours Library: and presented me with a neat little Latin Book, called Princeps in Compendio, written by the Emperours Father, Ferdinandius the Third.
He is also skilful in Musick, composeth well, and delighteth much in it, both at his Palace and the Church, which makes so many Musicians in Vienna; for no place abounds more with them; and in the Evening we seldom failed of Musick in the Streets, and at our Windows: And the Emperours delight herein makes the Church-men take the greater care to set off their Church-musick, for he goeth often to Church, and not to one, but divers, especially the best Conventual Churches: and in his own Chappel some of his own Compositions are often play'd. He hath also excellent Musick in his Palace, both Vocal and Instrumental; and his private Chappel is well served, where besides the excellent Musick, there are always eight or ten Counts, Pages to the Emperour, who serve at the Altar with white wax Torches in their hands; and after the manner of the Italian Princes, divers Eunuchs to sing.
For his Recreations abroad, he delighteth much in Hunting, especially of the wild Boar in due seasons; I have known him bring home six Boars in a morning. Some stout persons, particularly Count Nicholas Serini, would encounter a wild Boar alone, but at last he unfortunately perished by one, which hath made others more wary since; and therefore when the Boar is at a Bay, the Hunts-men so stand about him, that the Emperour, or other great persons, may more safely make use of their Boar-spears upon him.
Surely there are great numbers of them about the Country, for they are no unusual or extraordinary Dish in the City, though of a delicious and pleasing taste. They feed upon Acorns, Beech-mast, and Chesnuts, upon the spring or sprout of Broom, Juniper, and Shrubs, and upon the roots of Fern, and will range into Corn-fields, and come out of Forrests into Vineyards. The Hunts-men are notably versed and skilful in that Game; for though they see it not, they will distinguish a wild from a common Swine, and guess whether that which they hunt be Male or Female, old or young, large or small, fat or lean; and this they chiefly conjecture from their tread or foot, and the casting of their hindfeet out of the track of their forefeet.
The Emperour being so good a Huntsman, it is the less wonder that he is esteemed a good Horsman. Certain it is, that he hath a very noble Stable of Horses, procured from all parts, Turkish, Tartarian, Polonian, Transylvanian, Saxon, Bohemian, Hungarian, Naples, &c. and they are well managed; and they ride them to the satisfaction of the Beholders.
Having seen the Arsenal at Venice, the Stores at Chatham, and the Naval Provisions at Amsterdam, I am not like to admire any other, especially so far from the Sea, and looked for nothing of that nature in this place. Notwithstanding I found an Arsenal, and place for Naval Vessels to be set out upon occasion, and some thereof were employed in the last Turkish war, when they attempted to destroy the Bridge of Boats which the Turks had made over the Danube, a little above Gran and Barehan. They are built somewhat like Galleys, carry great Guns, and a good number of Souldiers, and will make a fight upon the broad deep stream of the Danube, and may be handsomely brought into the Town behind one of the Bastions, when the River is high; and hereof there are some at Rab and Komora, as I have declared elsewhere.
The Emperour hath many Counsellors, great Souldiers and Courtiers about him; among which these seemed of greatest Note.
Eusebius Wenceslaus Duke de Sagan, Prince Lobkowitz, Prime Counsellor, Hoff-meister, of the Order of the Golden Fleece, a person of a grave and sober Aspect, somewhat blunt in conversation, but of a generous temper, and free from all covetousness, who spent his Revenues nobly, and unto his great reputation: He was chief Favorite unto the Emperour, and though some had no great opinion of his Abilities, yet he was the first that discovered the last Hungarian defection and revolt, whereby those Noble Persons, Count Peter Serini and Nadasti (whom I saw at Vienna) were brought unto their ends.
Henricus Gulielmus, Count of Stahrenberg, Ober-hoff-Mareschal, or Lord Marshal of the Court.
Johannes Maximilianus, Count of Lamburg, Oberst-Kammer-Herr, or Chief of the Chamber, a Person of great esteem. The Gentlemen of the Bed-chamber are numerous, and many are in extraordinary; there may be an hundred of them, all Barons and Counts. Every one of them wears a Golden Key before his Breast: and the Grooms of the Bed-Chamber wear one of Steel: Two of each attend every Night.
Gundakerus, Count Dietrichstein, Oberst-Stall-Meister, or Chief Master of the Horse.
These are the Chief. These following are also considerable.
Count Sinzendorff, Oberste-Jag-Meister, Grand Veneur, or Hunts-Master, a Person in good favour with the Emperour, who very much delighteth in Hunting, as have most of his Predecessors.
The Count of Aversberg Oberst Falken-Meister, Chief Falconer, who hath twelve Falconers under him.
The Count of Paar, Chief Master of the Emperours Post.
Leopoldus Wilhelmus, Marquiss of Baden, Captain of an hundred Hartshires, who are the Horse-guard, and ride with Pistols and Carabines out of the City; but within Vienna they cary Launces and Javelins with broad points.
Franciscus Augustinus, Count of Wallensteyn, Captain of an hundred of the Foot-guard, of a good Personage, and well esteemed of by the Emperour.
Sixty, or more, Pages, for the number is uncertain, and not limited; most of them Counts and Barons.
Raymundus, Count de Montecuculi, was his General, President of the Council of War, Governour of Rab and the Confines about it, and of the Order of the Golden Fleece; a tall Person, somewhat lean, but hath a spirit in his look: he is one of the oldest Commanders in Europe, and performed good Service in Poland, Hungary, Germany in many places, and is esteemed a prudent, valiant, and successful Commander.
The Count de Souches was also a Commander of great Fame, and in high esteem with the Emperour. He was a Native of Rochelle: he first served the Swedes in the German wars, and was a Colonel, but upon some disgust he forsook the Swedes, and served the Imperialists, and was made Governour of Brin, the second Town in Meravia. After the taking of Crembs in Austria, General Torstenson besieged Brin, and sent word unto the Governour de Souches, That if he refused to deliver up the Town he would give him no quarter. Who answered him, That he would not ask any, and also give none: and defended the place with such resolution, that after many Assaults, Underminings, and Attempts by Granado's, Torstensen was forced to rise, after a Siege of four months, which was so advantagious unto Austria and the Imperial affairs, that the Emperour took especial notice of him, made him a Baron, and of his Privy Council. He commanded also all the Forces in Vienna, and did notable Service in the last Turkish wars. He took the City of Nitra, or Nitria, not far from Strigonium or Gran; and took and slew six thousand Turks which were sent by the Vizier of Buda against him: a worthy Person, and of a good Aspect. Count Souches the younger his Son, an Heroick Commander, is Governour of the strong fortified place Leopoldstadt by Freistadt, a Person of great Civility, unto whom I was much obliged.
Count Lesly, Nephew unto Count Lesly who was sent Ambassadour to Constantinople to the Sultan from the Emperour, is a Commander worthy of that esteem he hath with the Emperour; a Person of great Courage, Civility and Humanity, which I must ever acknowledge.
The Courts of the Empress, and of the Empress Dowager, are filled with Persons of Note; and there are a great number of Souldiers in this place of great Fame, as the Marquiss Pio, Spork, Cops, and many more. Many of the Clergy and Men of Learning, are in good esteem with the Emperour; but the Jesuites Milner and Boccabella are his near Favorites. Many Strangers, both Souldiers and Scholars, have built their Fortunes here. And surely Strangers of parts and industry, so they be of the Roman Church, are not like to raise their Fortunes any where better than in these parts.
Though the Emperour goeth not to war in Person, yet hath he been successful in his wars, especially in the last Battel with the Turks at St. Godart, where the business was handsomly and actively managed, to set upon the body of the Turks, which had passed the River Rab, before the whole Forces of the Vizier could come over, to the great slaughter of the Janisaries and Turks, who fought stoutly, and were first put to a Retreat by the French Cavalry. For at first the Turks seemed to prevail, and had slain a great part of two Regiments of the Auxiliaries which came out of Franconia, and after their custome, had cut off their Heads.
Among the many notable things in Vienna, the Imperial Library is very remarkable. He who hath seen the Bodleian Library at Oxford, and the Vatican at Rome, would be much surprised to find such a notable one here, as may compare with them; especially upon the extreme Borders of the Learned part of Europe.
The number and nobleness of the Books doth much exceed the receptacle or place which containeth them, as making no fair shew at the entrance, and somewhat wanting light. But as for the number and value of the Books, they are of opinion here that it yieldeth unto none, but rather excelleth any other Library in Europe. There was a place designed for the building of a fit receptacle for them; but, I know not how, a Theatre for Comedies is now built in that place.
It is divided into eight Chambers or Rooms, which are so well filled, that many Books are fain to lye upon the Floor; and the Shelves stand so close, that there is but just room to pass between them. The Manuscripts stand distinct from the printed Books, according to their Languages, being divided into six Classes, Theological, Juridical, Medical, Philosophical, Historical, Philological. There can scarce be a more admirable Collection than the Manuscripts in part of the first Chamber, of Hebrew, Syriack, Arabick, Turkish, Armenian, Æthiopick, and Chinese Books.
It was begun, at least the Books began to be placed in this receptacle, by Maximilian the First, but hath been much encreased by succeeding Emperours, most of them, since Rodolphus the First, being much addicted unto Learning, there having been large accessions from many noble Libraries, and most upon the cost of the Emperours. The choicest Books in the famous Library of Buda, of King Matthias Corvinus, Son unto Huniades, are now in it. The notable Library of Wolfgangus Lazius, who was Library-Keeper, was brought hither, and Three thousand Books of Johannes Sambucus are now in this Repository.
Augerius Busbequius, sometime Library-Keeper hereof, added much unto it; and in his two Turkish Embassies procured great number of noble Greek Manuscripts at Constantinople, which are inscribed with his own hand, Aug. de Busbeck. emit Constantinopoli. A great many were added from the Library of the Learned Johannes Cuspinianus, Library Keeper, and Counsellor unto the Emperour. The notable Libraries and Mathematical Instruments of Tycho Brahe, Kepler, and Gassendus, were purchased for it. But the largest accession was made by the noble Library of Count Fugger, which consisting of sixteen thousand Volumes, was purchased by Ferdinand the Third. Many were brought, some few years past, from the Ambrasian Library by Inspruck, by the Learned Petrus Lambecius, Library Keeper, Historiographer, and Counsellor unto the present Emperour; who hath also an excellent Library which is like to be added unto the Imperial. He then reckoned the Volumes in this great Library to amount at least to Fourscore thousand; and by this time that number may be increased, for he added some yearly. And the number might almost be endless, if they would make use of their priviledge, for the Emperour hath a right to have two Books of all that are printed in Germany.
They have also a great advantage at Vienna, to acquire good Manuscripts from the Turkish Dominions, for the Emperour is obliged to have a Resident with the Grand Signor wheresoever he moveth or ordereth him to be; even at the last fight of St. Godart, the Emperour's Resident was in the Turkish Camp. And when I was at Larissa in Thessaly, the Resident Signor di Casa Nova, was inquisitive after Books to be found among the Greeks in Monasteries and other places. And this Emperour, like his Father, will spare no cost toward such Acquiries.
By the especial favour of my noble Friend Lambecius, I went many times into this Library, and he was so courteous as to let me have what Books I desired unto my private Lodging: He would shew me divers Books upon what Subject I required, and offered me a sight of what Books he thought rare and estimable; and amongst others I could not but take notice of these following.
A Letter of the present Emperour of China, in the Chinese and Tartarian Languages, unto the present Emperour of Germany, weaved in a very fine Roll.
Another old Roll written in unknown Letters, yet a little resembling the Greek.
A Book in the Runick Language.
A very fair Manuscript of Ptolemy, with the Mapps drawn in Colours.
The oldest Manuscript and true Exemplar of Livie, in large Letters, without distinction of Words or Sentences, very uneasie to be read, a thousand years old, and brought, not many years since, from the Library near Inspruck.
An old fair Greek Manuscript of Dioscorides, written eleven hundred years since, in very large Letters, without distance of Words, or Accents, wherein all the Plants are lively painted; also the Pictures of Dioscorides, Galen, Pamphilus, Cratevas, and other ancient Physicians, bought of a Jew at Constantinople for an hundred Ducats by Busbequius.
A Book of Geometrical Propositions demonstrated in the China Language.
Another fair one in the China Tongue with Pictures.
A noble old Greek Manuscript in great uncial Letters, without stops, points, or distance of words.
An ancient Greek Manuscript of the Book of Genesis, in large Letters, without distance or accents, thirteen hundred years ago; wherein are Forty eight Pictures or Draughts in Miniature or Water colours, much conducing to the knowledge of ancient Habits, the manner of Feasting, postures at Meals, waiting of Servants and Musical Instruments: Wherein I could not but take notice of the Golden Spot upon Josephs breast; and the manner of the Execution of Pharaoh's Baker, his Head being put through a forked piece of wood, and his Hands tyed behind him.
A fair Book of Albert Durer, wherein are many fine Paintings in Miniature or Limning; as also a Sphere, and within it a Globe carved and painted by him.
A fair Book of Michael Angelo, wherein, besides many rare things in Architecture, are all the paintings and designs of the Belvedere in little.
A fair Alcoran in Arabick, interlined with the Turkish to explain it.
The Bible in the Coptick and Persian Languages.
Luther's own Bible, marked with his own Hand, and interlined by him with Notes in many places.
A fair Greek Manuscript of the New Testament, fifteen hundred years ago written in Letters of Gold upon Purple.
There was also a Magical Glaß, obtained by the Emperour Rodolphus, whereby to see Apparitions, and converse with Spirits; which some conceive to be the same, or of the like nature with that used by Kelly.
Of ancient Greek, Roman, and Gothick Medals and Coyns, in Gold, Silver, and Copper, to the number of sixteen thousand. Among the Copper Coyns they pretend to have two of the Emperour Marcus Otho.
I let fall some Drops into this Ocean, adding some Coyns, Intaglia's, and Inscriptions not to be found in that large work of Gruterus; which having found in the Emperours furthest Dominions and Turkish parts, long out of his possession, where there had been no great enquiry after them; were shewed unto his Imperial Majesty by Petrus Lambecius, and so well accepted by him, that he said I might have the use of what Books I desired; and at my return into England he gave me a formal Pass in Latin for my safe Travel, and that my Trunks or Goods might not be searched, which takes off a great deal of trouble in passing so many Principalities and free Cities, Commanding all in his own Dominions, and Requesting all Princes in Germany to favour me, and permit me to pass freely without molestation: It was thus Subscribed,
Comes in Kinigseggs.
Ad mandatum Sacr. Cæs.
The Rarities of the great Duke of Tuscany, The Treasure of Loretto, St. Mark, St. Denis in France, of the Duke of Saxony at Dresden, and others, were very satisfactory to me. Yet having a fair opportunity, I would not leave Vienna without a sight of the most noble Treasury or Repository of his Imperial Majesty; especially having heard so much thereof, and knowing it to be the Collection of many succeeding Emperours. I therefore took a fit opportunity to remain divers hours in it, and was extremely delighted with the rich and magnificent Curiosities thereof. To set down all I saw, were a work too large for this Volume; and the Catalogue of them, which is kept in this place, taketh up a large Volume in Folio. I shall therefore only mention these following, whereby some conjecture may be made of the rest.
In the first Cupboard or Case were many noble Vessels, turned and shaped out of Ivory, a Cup turned by the Emperours own Hand; another turned by Ferdinandus the Third, Gallant Cups of Amber; Spoons and Vessels of Mother of Pearl; many noble works in Coral; a fine Galley in Ivory, and Cups made out of Rhinocerot's horn.
In the second,
An Elephant of Ivory with a Castle upon his back, and over the Castle a Ship, with much other fine work in the same piece. Two fair Pillars of Ivory; good Basso Relievo in Ivory; a fair Cranium or Deaths-head, and much other variety of Ivory work. A Picture in Oyl of Ganimede, by Corregio.
In the third,
A fine Picture of an old Man's headin Oyl by Albert Durer: great Variety of Watches and Clock-work in Silver: a fine Centaur in Silver, which is a curious Watch.
In the fourth,
More Watches and Clock-work; a gallant Ship of Silver, a Triumphal Chariot, a Turk riding and attended, a Globe and a Sphere in Silver, a curious Landskip in Oyl by Corregio, a Cupid by the same hand, with a fine Copy of it.
In the fifth,
A curious Filigrane Handkerchief, and two fair Filegrane Platesbrought out of Spain by the Empress Margarita; an Indian Basket of an Indian sort of Filegrane mixed with Birds; a Bason of Agate finely wrought with silver Craw-fishes in it.
In the sixth,
Is contained a strange Collection of Intaglie and old Roman Stones, admirable for their work and largeness. A large Agate whereon is wrought the History of that Victory which Augustus Cæsar obtained over the Dalmatians and Pannonians in the ninth year of our Lord; about five inches long, and four broad, highly valued.
An Onyx with the Head of Alexander and Olympia.
A Shell with a Battel carved in it.
A Chain with the Heads of all the Austrian Family.
A Dog in a very large Sardonyx.
In the seventh,
A noble Head in Oyl by Hans van Ach. The Head of Maximilianus the First in Plaister, with a lock of his own Hair. Mother of Pearl in many shapes. Fine Baskets, and the twelve Cæsar's Heads.
In the eighth, most of Chrystal,
A noble Vessel about a yard and half high, made out of one piece of Chrystal. An Urne. The Head of the Empress. A fair Dragon. The Head of the Queen-Mother of France. A Chrystal in which the Picture of our Saviour may be seen thrice one way, and once another way.
The ninth of Chrystal also,
A noble Ewer. A fair Vessel of very clear Chrystal, lately bought. A large Head. Fair Crosses, and other Varieties.
The tenth of Gold and precious Stones.
Five Crowns. The Imperial Crown, rich in Jewels, and hath a very large blew Saphir on the top. A Model of that Crown with which the Emperour is crowned, much richer than the Original. A Paragon Diamond of seventeen Carats and a half. Very large Rubies. A Scepter of Unicorns horn, set with rich Stones. A Locket of the greatest Diamonds. A magnificent Scepter, Globe, Croß, and Crown, which cost seven hundred thousand Crowns. An Opal bigger than my hand, as it was taken out of the Mine; and many other fair Opals. A very large Emerald. A Ship in an Emerald. A fair Ring-Dial.
The eleventh of Gold.
A noble Bason used at the Baptism of the Austrian Family. Scepters, Scimeters, Knives, and other rich Presents from the Turk. Three rich Dog-Collars, sent with three Dogs out of England, with this Mark on them . A large lump of pure Gold, as it was taken out of the Mine, as broad as my hand. A fair piece of Gold Ore, wherein the pure Gold shooteth upon a white Stone. Divers great Basons of Gold and Coral.
In the twelfth.
Vessels of Jaspis, Agate, Lapis Lazuli, Oriental Granates. Cups of Onyx, Sardonyx. Large ones of Lapis Nephriticus: and a great one of an Amethyst.
In the thirteenth.
A large high Vessel of Bohemian Topaz. Flowers well made out of precious Stones. A Cup of an Hungarian Diamond. A piece of Ambergreece as big as a mans head, sent from the Grand Signor. A noble Jaspis-stone. A large Stone of Agate on the outside, and a bed of large Amethysts naturally in it in the middle, which is an extraordinary and pleasant Rarity.
In the rest,
Noble Chyrsolites, Jacynths, Oriental Granates, Beryls or Aquamarines. The notable rich Smaragdus, or Emerald, or a Cup out of that Stone. Three great ones having been already taken out, valued at three hundred thousand Crowns. A Picture in Oyl of the little King Vladislaus Lokeli, King of Hungary. Ten rich Turkish Saddles with Furniture for Horses, set with fair Turcois Stones. A great number of Gold Vessels and fine Figures in Coral, Turkish Knives, Gauntlets, and Table men of Gold. Delicate Pictures in Wax. Very large Bezoar-stones. Indian-gold Cards and Counters. A vast Medal of the Emperours Arms, weighing two thousand two hundred Ducats, or a thousand pounds English. A Cup out of Solomon's Temple. Fair Amber. Rare Inlaying in Wood. Bacchus and other Statua's out of a very high Rhinocerot's horn. A fine Picture of the Mountain Vesuvius. Jewels with black Feathers given by the Turkish Ambaßadours. A notable Picture of a lean Skeleton Priest, who lived so four years. A noble Cabinet-clock with large motions. A fair Bason and Ewer of carved Ivory. King Philip the Second of Spain in Diamond Armour, set in Gold. A near Picture of an old Man courting a young Woman, with this Motto:
Arctum Annulum nè gestato.
A Knife swallowed by a Peasant near Prague, which was nine months in his Stomach, and safely cut out 1602. The like happened also to a person in Prussia, of which Daniel Becker hath written a peculiar Tract under this Title, De Cultivoro Prussiaco. A fair Crucifix of Pearl. Indian Pictures made of Feathers. The King of Sweden, Gustavus Adolphus's Buff-coat in which he was killed at the Battel of Lutzen. Tilly's Sword. An Angel in Ivory with Hair and Clothes of Filegrane of Gold. A neat Crucifix of Wood by Albertus Durer. Two very large Looking-glasses with the Frames of Silver. All the Gospels written and painted. Many brave Statua's and Pictures every where. The Head of Charles the First King of England, in white Marble. A Pedistal of Amber, over which a Croß. The Head of St. Valerius Bishop of Triers. The Picture of St. Katherine of Sienna, drawn by Sigismund King of Poland. A Picture of the Emperour as he giveth Audience, to be looked upon through a little round hole. A neat Table of Inlay'd Stone made by the present Empress Dowager Eleonora. A Nail of our Saviour's Croß almost a foot long; our Saviour's Blood; and two Thorns of his Crown, the one whiter than the other. Priests Garments covered all over with large Pearl. The great and high esteemed Agate Dish, between three and four spans Diameter, with X R I S O S naturally in it. Unto which one applied that of S. Luke, Dico vobis quia si hi tacuerint, lapides clamabunt.
Unto which magnificent Rarities there is one more added, the noble Chain of Pearl of eight yards long, taken from the Graff Tokoly in the late Hungarian war, as I understand since my return.
I went unto divers noted Places about Vienna: I walked unto the Hill of Vienna, two English miles distant from the Town, going up all the way by an easie Ascent; from when I had a prospect of the City, and the Campagnia about it, together with the high Mountains in Steirmark covered with Snow: and in my return saw the Palace of the Empress Dowager without the Town, called la Favorita, and passed by the Convent of the Paulini.
About two English miles Eastward from Vienna, there is a very noble Garden-place belonging to the Emperour, built by Rodolphus the Second, which hath been formerly well furnished, and provided with Plants, but now seems to be neglected, and somewhat ruinous. It consisteth of an inward and an outward square Garden: The inward is two hundred ordinary paces square, about the same bigness with the Place Royal at Paris: It hath a Portico or Cloyster, supported by Forty Pillars of white Stone on each side, and is covered with Copper; as are also the Pavillions which the common people think to be Gold. Besides this, there is an handsome row of buildings well seated, called Néw-gabaú, in which at present are many wild Beasts kept. Lions and Tigres breed here, and have young ones. Some say this was the place of Solyman the Magnificent's Tent when he besieged Vienna.
There is also, about two or three miles from Vienna, a noted place of Devotion, called Arnols, much frequented, especially in Lent, divers carrying Crosses very heavy all the way upon their shoulders. There is here a little House built exactly after that of the Sepulchre at Jerusalem; and also a handsome Copy of the Picture of our Saviour and the Virgin Mary, with their exact heights. That of our Saviour is about two yards high; that of the blessed Virgin three or four fingers breadth lower: These are taken from the Original in St. John de Lateran at Rome. Hither the Empress desired to go one morning from her own Palace on foot, out of Devotion, which she performed, though with a great deal of difficulty, she being not used to walk, and the way was dusty. The Emperour accompanied her, and all the Court followed on foot, which made a handsome shew.
Nearer unto Vienna there is also a remarkable place for Devotion, called Itzing: and in the way from Vienna unto it, the twelve Stations of the Cross are marked out in imitation of what is observed near Jerusalem, in the Via Crucis, or Dolorosa, in our Saviours proceeding from the City unto Mount Calvary; the Figures thereof are printed, and the several paces between every Station set down. The Emperour hath a handsome Park near Vienna, called the Brater, wherein I beheld the effects of the great Lightning and Thunder which happened three days before, upon many great Trees which were torn, split, or twisted. There is a House of Pleasure in it, where among other things, I could not but take notice of a Musical Instrument which I had not seen before, a Seat or Chest-drum; it hath a Cord like that of a Sea-trumpet, but soundeth like a Kettle-drum.
I went also unto Laxambourg, whither the Emperour often retireth; he hath a House in this place, but it is old, and not large. There is also a House of Pleasure in the Mote, into which there is no other passage but through a high Corridore. The Castle is commodiously seated for the Emperours recreation; and there is an eight-square House in the Marsh, from which the Nobility and the Empress Dowager sometimes used to shoot, she being very expert therein. Over the Gate of the Emperours House hangs a great Rib and Jaw-bone, whereof I could get no better account, then they were the Rib and Jaw-bone of a heathen-maid. They seemed to me to be Bones of an Elephant. But many things that are old or obscure, they call, in this Country, Heathen: as Roman Coyns, they call Heathen mony. And the Peasants brought me, in a place which had been formerly an old Roman Station, part of the bit of a Bridle digged up, which they concluded to be a Heathen Key.
From hence I went unto Mannersdorff, seated not far from the River Leyta, where there is a natural hot Bath, called the Wildebath; it ariseth under a Church, the Church being built over the Spring-head. The water of it is but Lukewarm, and therefore when they desire it hotter, they boyl it, and so bathe in Tubs in a large room. From that Substance which sticketh to the sides of the Coppers in the boyling of it, they judge it to be impregnated with Sulphur, Salt-peter, and Chalk. The water colours the stones, and makes them look, when wet, like fine Turquoises. And the vapour of the Bath hanging upon the Moss on the sides, gives it an Amber or Gold colour. The Physicians of Vienna have given a good account concerning the use of these Baths in High-dutch. Not far from hence is a noted Quarry of Stone, out of which a great part of Vienna is built. The Stones being large they cut and square them at the Quarry.
From hence I proceeded to the Newsidler-sea or Lake, so called from Newsidle, which is a Town seated upon the Northern part of it, consisting of one street and some back-houses, and a small, square, old Castle upon a Hill, from whence I had a good prospect over the Lake. It is about three German miles broad, and seven miles long. The fairest Lake in these parts, affording plenty of Fish; encompassed and thickly set about with small Towns and Villages; and hath no River, at least not considerable, running into or out of it. A little way from the Gate of Newsidle they dig out a black earth, out of which they make Salt peter. In this Journey, not far from Himburg, we passed by a place called Rauckward, which, though it seems not high, looks over a great part of Austria, and as far as Brin, the second City of Moravia, a part also of the Kingdom of Bohemia, and a part of the Kingdom of Hungaria. I went afterwards four English miles up the Stream of the Danube, to see a noted Quarry of Stone in a Hill called Altenburg. The beds, rows, or cases of Stones lye not horizontally, but rather elevated Northward, about the height of the Angle forty, yet are not always so regularly placed, but rather follow the shape of the Hill, and according to that are differently situated. Here I also observed a Substance between a Clay and a Stone called Leberstein, or Liverstone; and upon many of these Stones I found the figures of Trees and Leaves, though not so deep or neat as upon the Stones by Florence; yet very prettily marked, and often with broader Leaves than I had elsewhere observed. I passed forward to Closter-Neuburg, a Town most of it belonging to that notable rich Monastery seated here, founded by St. Leopoldus Marquess of Austria, and since much enriched by succeeding Donations.
Matthæus Merian hath a good cut of the Prospect of the Danube here abouts, and in what manner it passeth downwards between the two great Hills of Kalenburg and Bisuburg. Upon one Peak of Kalenburg live divers Camaldulenses, of an Order the most severe of any, living most upon Roots and Herbs, in the manner of Hermites. Near their Cells they had paved the ground with those Stones I mentioned, which were naturally marked with the shapes of Trees and Plants.
After an open Autumn there followed a sharp Winter at Vienna, in the months of December and January. The branches of the Danube were soon frozen over. The main Stream, by reason of its swift Current, held out longer, but was afterwards also frozen. Some have thought that this River is more apt to freez than others. And we read of Battels which have been fought upon this River frozen; but I could not make any regular Observation thereof. This hard weather the ground being covered with Snow, afforded handsome Recreations unto men, and some unto the Ladies, in running Courses in handsome Sleds and Devices upon the Snow. Their Sleds were well contrived in the shape of Gryphins, Tigers, Swans, Scallop Shells, Dolphins, Peacocks, and the like Curiosities, carved, painted, and gilded. The Lady sits in one of these, richly habited in Velvet, lined with rich Furrs, set off with Lace and Jewels, in a Velvet Cap lined with Sables. The Sled is drawn by a Horse, dressed up with Feathers of all colours, and Bells hanging about him, a pair of Stags horns behind his head, Ribbons and other Ornaments: one or more Pages ride by on Horse-back with Torches in their hands. And after this manner they perform their Course upon the frozen Snow about the streets of Vienna in the night, with good speed one after another. A Gentleman sits behind the Lady and guides the Horse. But the Frost breaking up put an end to these Recreations. The Frost began and ended here the same day that it began and ended in England.
The Festivity of Christmas was observed much after the same Manner, Ceremonies, and Solemnities as in Italy. On Christmas-day the Emperour dined publickly, attended with many Nobles and great Persons, and three remarkable low Dwarfs. Upon St. Stephens-day he went to the Cathedral of St. Stephen, and went up to the Altar, kneeled, and kissed the Plate whereon the Hostia had lain. At the Epiphany or Twelfth-tide, the old custome of choosing King and Queen was observed at Court. Count Lesley happened to be King, the Emperour laid the Cloath, and the Empress filled out Wine, together with other old Customes.
Before Christmas there was an extraordinary mirth and jollity at the Court upon occasion of a Marriage: For Count Serau, Governour of Gratz in Styria, married a natural Daughter of Philip the Fourth, King of Spain, which was observed with many noble Solemnities and Bravery. And the Nobility and Ladies were so substantially splendid, that I was much surprised thereat.
This was followed by a Funeral Solemnity for the County of Draun, who was Colonel of the Forces in Vienna, and who had one of the noblest Houses in the City; his Corps was brought out of Italy, and interred in the Dominican Church, where he formerly built a very fair Altar, there was raised for him a Castrum Doloris, handsomely contrived and set round with white Wax Torches and Candles.
While I was in Vienna, the Empress Margarita was delivered of a Daughter, which was Christned by the Name of Maria, Antonina, Josepha, Benedicta, Rosalia, Petronella, but she lived not many months. When the Empress came abroad, she brought the Child to the Augustines Church, where Cardinal Carlo Carassa, the Pope's Nuncio, received it, blessed it, and laid it upon the Altar.
During my stay here, the Election was in readiness for a King of Poland, after the voluntary resignation of that Crown by King Casimir; and Couriers often passed between that Country and this. There were Competitors the Czar of Muscovy's Son, the Duke of Newburg, and the Prince of Lorrain. The French moved actively for the Duke of Newburg, the Emperour for the Prince of Lorrain, who was then at Vienna, in great favour with the Emperour, who greatly promoted his interest; a Person of great esteem, and who, if General Lubomirski had been living, who was his intimate Friend, in all probability might have obtained the Crown; and thereupon it was conceived that he should have married the Emperour's Sister. But the Poles made choice of one of their own Country, who was no Competitor, Michael Wisnowitski, lately deceased, who also married the Sister of the Emperour.
When I was here, there were many Ambassadours of Note, Don Balthasar de la Cueva, Marquiss of Malagon, and brother to the Viceroy of Naples, was Ambassadour for Spain. Cardinal Carlo Carassa was the Pope's Nuncio. The Venetian Ambassadour Extraordinary, solicited for assistance for Candia, and he obtained the Regiment of Porcia under Marquiss Pio. Count Souches the younger, who waas Governour of Leopoldstadt, and many noble and valiant Souldiers were preparing for that Expeditions. The Turks gave assurance of the Grand Signor's intent to maintain the Peace inviolably; and requested the Emperour not to assist the Venetians or Transylvanians, nor to promote, but rather hinder, the Election of the Emperour of Muscovy's Son to the Crown of Poland. The Bishop of Beziers, sent by the King of France to the election of the King of Poland, came not hither, but passed through Nurenburg, where I lodged at the same Inn: They were generally here against the French interest, and so were a great part of the Polish Nobility. An Ambassadour came also from the Cham of Tartary, to confirm a Peace, and afford mutual Assistance upon occasion. Cha Gagi Aga was the Ambassadour, who brought a Present of the best Tartarian Horses, which are of high esteem for swiftness, hardiness, boldness in passing frozen Rivers, and taking and swimming over great Streams. He was dismissed with noble Presents of Plate. The Emperour presented the Cham of Tartary with a fair Silver Bason and Ewer, and a curious Watch; and sent Presents unto the Chammine his Wife; and also to his Sister and four Brothers. His Followers were stout men, of good stature, course Complexions, wearing long furr'd Vests and Calpack's, or furr'd Caps. Some of them had silver Rings with the same Signatures of the Turkish Seales. They took much Tobacco in very long Pipes. Their Tobacco is not in Rolls, but in Leaves, and dry. They went about wandring and gazing at most things, as Churches, Houses, Shops: And took much delight to be in the Fair, where they would take much notice of small trifles. Yet these are the men that make such sad Incursions into the Eastern parts of Europe, and carrying away so many thousands, sell them to the Turks, and so repair the defect of People in Turky. And now after the Consumption of men in Constantinople, and the Country about by the Plague, are like to be active in that Trade, hoping to find better Markets for their Plagiaries and Depredations.
There are divers Greeks who trade to Vienna, and many live in the Town, among which I met with three considerable persons. One a grave Abbot, who was forced from his Convent by the Turk, upon suspicion that he corresponded with those of Candia. Another who went by the name of Constantinus Catacuzenos, and was of the Blood Royal of the Catacuzeni. The third was Jeremias a Greek Priest, who had travelled through Italy and France into England, and from thence through the Low-Countries and Germany to Vienna, and intended for Constantinople. He came into England to enquire after a young man who was in a Ship which was first taken by an Algerine, and afterwards by an English man of war in the Levant. He was very kindly used in England, and particularly at Cambridge. He did a great deal of honour at Vienna unto the English Nation, declaring that they were the most civil, generous, and learned people he had met with in all his Travels, and that he no where found so many who could speak or understand Greek, or who gave him so good satisfaction in all parts of Knowledge: And as a testimony of his respect and gratitude, requested me to enclose a Greek Letter unto Dr. Pierson, now Lord Bishop of Chester, and Dr. Barrow, now Master of Trinity Colledge in Cambridge.
Most men live here plentifully, there being abundance of all provision. They have great quantity of Corn, which upon Scarcity, by the help of the Danube, might be brought unto them from remoter parts. The Country affordeth such plenty of wine, that they send a considerable quantity up the River. They have also rich wines out of Hungary and Italy, and such variety, that there are more than thirty several sorts of Wine to be sold in Vienna. They are not also without good Beer. Halstadt in Austria affordeth them Salt, where they make it by letting in water into the hollow parts of a Mountain, where it drinketh in the Salt of the Earth, and is afterwards let out and boiled up. This affordeth great profit to the Emperor, and therefore the Hungarian Salt is not permitted to be brought higher than Presburg. They have also plenty of Sheep and Oxen; but for Oxen at present they are also supplied from Hungary, nor only from the Countries in the Emperours Dominions, but from the Turkish parts, by permission of the Grand Signor; and they are brought hither by the Eastern Company of Vienna. They eat much wild Boar, whereof the Fat is delicious, like that of Venison with us. They want not Hares, Rabbets, Partridges, Pheasants. A Fowl called Hasenhendal, or Gallina Corylorum, is much esteemed by them, which made me the more wonder to meet with some odde dishes at their Tables; as Guiny-pigs, divers sorts of Snails, and Tortoises.
The Danube, and many Rivers which run into it, afford them plenty of Fish, extraordinary Carps, Trouts, Tenches, Pikes, Eels, several sorts of Lampries, and many Fishes finely coloured; the white Fish, Crevises very large; the best come out of the River Swechet, not far from Vienna. They have also that substantial large fish, called a Scheiden, or Silurus Gesneri, larger than Pike, Salmon, or any of our River Fishes; but the great Fishes called Hausons, or Husones, in Johnstonus, for largeness exceed all others; some being twenty foot long. Some think this to be the same Fish which Ælian nameth Antacetus, and speaketh largely of the fishing for them in Ister. I was at the fishing places for the Hausons in Schüt Island, between Presburg and Komara, for they come not usually higher, especially in shoals; and it is much that they come so high, for they are conceived to come out the Euxine-sea, and so up the stream. They eat them both fresh and salted; they taste most like Sturgeon. It is a Cartilagineous Fish, consisting of gristles, and they have a hollow nervous chord all down the back, which being dried serveth for a whip. When they fish for them they blow a Horn or Trumpet, and know where they go by moving of the water. From Venice they are supplied with Oysters, with salt Sturgeon, and sometimes with red Herrings, and great variety of other Fishes pickled up: as also with Oranges, Limons, and other Fruits. Observing much freedom, musick, and jollity in the City. I wondered how they could content themselves without Plays, for there were few while I was there, till the Players came hither out of Saxony, and acted here for a time. The Jesuites would sometimes entertain the Emperour and Empress with a Comedy at their Colledge; and I had once the favour to be at one when they were present.
But they have Dancing and Fencing often, and every Holy-day after dinner, the people flock to some Inns where there is Dancing in the inward Rooms, and Fencing and Playing of Prizes upon a Stage in the Yard; and at the Windows, or from the Galleries, behind the Fencers playing at several Weapons; and commonly pass the rest of the day in delights and merry Company.
In Treason and high Crimes they cut off the right Hand of the Malefactor, and his Head immediately after. I saw a woman beheaded sitting in a Chair, the Executioner striking off her Head with a Fore-blow, she behaved her self well, and was accompanied unto the Market-place by the Confraternity of the Dead, who have a charitable care of such Persons, and are not of any Religious Order, but Lay men, among whom also in this place there are many Fraternities and Orders; as of the Holy Virgin, of the Holy Cross and others. Another person also executed after the same manner; as soon as his Head fell to the ground, while the Body was in the Chair, a man ran speedily with a Pot in his hand, and filling it with the Blood yet spouting out of his Neck, he presently drank it off, and ran away; and this he did as a Remedy against the Falling Sickness. I have read of some who have approved the same Medicine; and heard of others who have done the like in Germany. And Celsus takes notice, that in his time some Epileptical persons did drink the Blood of the Gladiatours. But many Physicians have, in all times, abominated that Medicine. Nor did I stay afterwards so long as to know the effect thereof, as to the intended cure. But most men looked upn it as of great uncertainty: and of all men the Jews, who suffer no Blood to come into their Lips, must most dislike it.
At Presburg they have a strange way of Execution, still used at Metz, and some other places, by a Maid, or Engine like a Maid finely dressed up with her hands before her. The Malefactor salutes her first, and then retireth. But at his second salute she openeth her hands and cuts his Heart in sunder.
Though the Winter was sharp, yet the advantage of Stoves, and lying between two Feather-beds, made it tolerable: For they use Stoves here as in other parts of Germany, where they lodge and eat in Stoves; and great Persons have Stoves in the Church, or such as look into the Church. There are Stoves also in the publick Schools where Lectures are read. And this way of lying between two Feather-beds, with a neat laced sheet spread over, is more convenient in a cold Country, than most others they make use of. For in the common Inns in Germany they generally sleep upon Straw, and also in Hungary almost every where; and more Easterly upon the ground, spreading a Carpet or Saddle-cloath under them: and more Northerly they content themselves with the Skins of Beasts, Bears, Elks, or the like; upon which they sleep in the night. Those that sleep lowest are coolest in a Stove; those that lye upon Tables, Benches, or higher, are more exposed to the heat. The Citizens of Vienna are well attired, and use Furs very much. The Women wear a high Velvet Bonnet, lined or faced therewith. The Place seemed to be healthful; but they speak much of the Colica Austriaca, as an Endemial and Local Disease, very hardly yielding unto good Medicines. They speak good German at the Court and in the City; but the Common and Country people seemed to speak grumblingly, and besides their accent, have divers words different from other parts.
They have a Custome upon St. Nicholas-day to put some small Gift into the Childrens shoes; among other things they put in Medals and Dollars made of paper and flower gilded and silvered over, yet scarce worth a penny. They sell Trochies or Tablets in the Markets, made of the puple of the Fruit of Hip-briar, made sharp with Spirit of Sulphur, very refreshing. Some carry about them a Thunderstone, as a defence against Thunder: and they rub their Childrens gums with a Wolfs tooth instead of Coral.
When I was at Venice in the time of the Carnival, I observed many Recreations and Shews, as Rope-dancing, flying down the Rope, cutting off Bulls-necks with Swords, and many other. But at Vienna a notable trick which I saw there pleased me much: A man of a middle Stature laid down upon his back, and a heavy anvil was placed upon his Breast, as much as two men could well lift, then two other men with great Hammers laid on, until they had given almost an hundred blows, and cut in sunder a great Horshoe of iron, about half an inch thick.
Here is no Christian Religion publickly permitted but the Roman, and therefore those of the Protestant and Reformed Religion are fain to resort unto Presburg, Forty miles off, for which they have some convenience by the Danube, and a Coach which goeth every day. In the time of Maximilian the Second, they were permitted the Exercise of their Religion in the Church of the Holy Cross, in the City of Vienna. But afterwards were prohibited by Rodolphus the Second. The Emperour Matthias gave them permission to meet at Hernals, a little more than an English mile from Vienna; and gave leave to their Ministers to come into the City, and there to christen, marry, baptize, and visit the sick. From which time they encreased very much, till Ferdinand the Second, returning from the Battel of Prague, banished their Minister from Vienna and Arnols; sent the Freyherr Jorger, to whom the Castle of Arnolds belonged, Prisoner unto Lintz; and never gave over till he had taken away their Priviledges and Freedom of meeting publickly in any part of lower Austria.
But here are no small number of Jews, who have a distinct Habitation assigned them over the Water. They have also a Street allowed them in the City for the day time, but they must all depart at night beyond the River into the Suburbs.
They are much distasted by the Citizens and Tradesmen, and the Scholars agree but ill with them. While I was at Vienna there was a quarrel between them to an high degree. For the Scholars assaulted the Jews town, beat, wounded, and threw divers of them into the River. Divers Scholars were wounded, some killed, and also some Souldiers who were commanded out to compose the Fray: and the Jews Town was guarded many days by the Souldiers of the City. This begot such ill Blood and Complaints; that a good number of the Jews were to be banished at a certain day. The Jews, to ingratiate with the Empress, then with Child, presented her with a noble Silver Cradle, but she would not receive it. And there was great danger of the general banishment of them when I left that City, which was afterwards effected, they being severely prohibited from living, not only at Vienna, but in any part of Austria, where there were formerly whole Villages of them, so as they were forced to betake themselves into the Dominions of the Turk, unto Venice, into Poland and Bohemia. They being not permitted to dwell in the Neighbour Countries of Hungary subject to the Emperour, Styria, or Carinthia.
I must confess they seemed useful unto the place for ready accommodation of any thing, either by sale or exchange, but the people looked with an evil eye upon them, as taking away much of their Trade and Employment. They also looked upon them as useless in war for defence of the place; and were not without some jealousie that they held correspondence with the Turks, and gave Intelligence of their Affairs unto them. Yet the Souldiery dealt much with them, and Captains for the suddain habiting, furnishing, and accommodating of their Companies. And dining one day with a Commander at a Jews house, amongst other Discourse I asked the Jew concerning the ten Tribes, and where they were? He said they were far off in Asia, beyond a great Lake which was continually stormy, and scarce passable, but upon their Sabbath-day, upon which days the Jews do not willingly travel.
I have seen their Circumcision at Rome, Padua, and other parts. Their Physicians ordinarily profess great skill in Urines; and the common people resort unto them rather than unto Christians, and are so credulous, and have such an opinion of them, that they might be made to believe they have some old Receipts of King Solomon.
There are many Jews in Italy, yet they seem to me to be in greater numbers in Germany. In Amsterdam they are also grown very numerous. At Franckfurt they told me there were seven thousand of them, which seemed scarce credible. At Colen they are in great numbers: at Hamburg not a few. But the greatest number surely is in Prague.
Though they be permitted in many Countries, yet divers Christian Princes and States have assigned them some mark in their Habits, to distinguish them. In Avignon their Hats are yellow. In Italy their Hats are covered over with Taffate. In Germany they wear Ruffs and Gowns with great Capes. In Holland I observed no distinction. But the Jews there, most of them having come out of Portugal, there may be some suspicion of them from their Complexion.
Lastly, when I consider the old strength of Vienna, consisting in an old wall and a deep ditch, I cannot much wonder that Matthias Corvinus, King of Hungary, took this City. And I must ascribe it, under God, unto the singular valour and resolution of the Defendants, that Solyman the Magnificent, with two hundred thousand men, was not able to take it, and though he made large breaches, could never enter it, but lost some thousands at an Assault, and departed at last with the loss of a great part of his Army. But this place is now in a far better condition, strongly fortified, and able to resist the greatest Forces of Turky. The houses are cleared from the wall; and yet for better security, when I was there, Count Souches advised the Emperour to pull down part of the Suburbs upon the other side of the nearest branch of the Danube, lest the Turks might take advantage to play upon the two Bastions on that side.
It would be a sad loss for Christendome if this place were in the hands of the Turk; and no man knows where he would rest. If he should begin with this place, and take it, the strong holds of Rab, Komara, and Leopoldstadt would want their support, and soon fall into his possession; and if he were Lord of Austria, a great part of Germany would lye bare unto him: and probably it would not be long before he visited Italy, into which Country he would then find other ways than by Palma nova.
James Eason welcomes most comments, criticism, and suggestions.