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1. In the Cynegetica ("On Hunting"), a poem in Greek ascribed to Oppian, the Molossian is described: "impetuous and of steadfast valour, who attack even bearded bulls and rush upon monstrous boars and destroy them....They are not swift, but they have abundant spirit and genuine strength unspeakable and dauntless courage." Used by the shepherds of Epirus in the mountains of northwestern Greece, the Molossian was a heavy mastiff. "If you are not bent on looks and deceptive graces," writes the poet Grattius, a contemporary of Ovid, and "when serious work has come, when bravery must be shown, and the impetuous War-god calls in the utmost hazard, then you could not admire the renowned Molossians so much." They were used to protect the flock and guard the house, as does Scylax (Pup) in the Satyricon, which is brought in on a chain and introduced to Trimalchio's guests as guardian of the house and slaves.

2. The palaeographic term for capital letters is majuscule. A capitalis script could be capitalis quadrata (square capitals) or, as in Trimalchio's case, capitalis rustica (rustic capitals), a more cursive letterform, narrow with thin stems and heavy serifs, that was easier to produce using a pen or brush.

3. Cave canem, "Beware of the Dog," as one still can see in the famous mosaic from the entrance hall to the House of the Tragic Poet in Pompeii.

4. Diogenes the Cynic, from the Greek for "dog," because of his irascible behavior and biting retorts. Upon meeting him, Alexander the Great is reported to have said, "Had I not been Alexander, I should have liked to be Diogenes." Once, reproached for behaving indecently in public, Diogenes lamented that he only wished it were as easy to relieve hunger by rubbing one's stomach. He was, as someone said, "A Socrates gone mad."