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The principal essays are indicated in capital letters. Indented in hierarchal order are the illustrated remarks that accompany them. Those titles in italics are simply a reminder to myself that the essay has been re-edited and updated, its references cited in the general Bibliography, the terms indexed in the Contents, the links indicated in the Site Map, and the illustrations rescanned in a larger format. Invariably, these essays are the most recent and complete.


Ancient Rome

ACONITE

Claudius (Scribonius Largus)

Caius Julius Callistus

Dioscorides: De Materia Medica

Crateuas

Mithridatum

Mattioli (lilac)

Busbecq

Gesner (tulip)

Carolus Clusius (horse chestnut)

Gerard (potato)

Tulipomania

Semper Augustus

Conchylomania

Conus cedonulli

Conus ammiralis

Spired cones: Conus gloriamaris

Glory Cones

Conus marmoreus

Conus geographus

Conus striatus

Conus chusaki

Conus textile

Rumphius

Shell Symmetry

Epitonium scalare

da Costa

Nicander

ARCHITECTURE

Vitruvius

Orders

Corinthian

Doric

Ionic

Composite

Elements

Entablature

Cornice

Glossary of Architectural Terms

BIBLIOTHECA

CALENDAR

Intercalation

Fasti Antiades

Fasti Praenestini

Ludi

The Consular Year

Julian Calendar

Lupercalia

She-Wolf

Ides of March

Cicero

Vinalia

Robigalia

Floralia

Spring

Saturnalia

Sol Invictus

Reforms of Augustus

CIRCUS MAXIMUS

Rape of the Sabines

Roman Circuses

Circus of Maxentius

Marble Map

Trajan and Obelisk

Ovid

Pandateria

Venationes

Sphendone

Metae

Circus Plan

Lyon

Quadriga

Biga

Metae

Conformation

Relief

Roman Horse

Carthage

Naufragium

Charioteer

Scorpus

Juvenal

Factions

Nika Riot

Hippodrome

Sack of Constantinople

Horses of Saint Mark's

Serpent Column

Delphi

Battle of Plataea

Meta

Sphendone

Porphyrius

Gaming device

Theodora

Cassiodorus

Isidore of Seville

GLADIATORS

Spartacus

Martyrs (Perpetua)

Montanism

Alexamenos Graffito

Women

Secutor

Helmet

R÷mische Villa Nennig

Retiarius

Galerus

Murmillo

Helmet

Thraex

Greaves

Helmet

Hoplomachus

Equites and Lanista

Naumachia

Syracuse

MÚrida

Naumachiae

Bestiarius

Venationes

Venatores

Domestic Spectacle

Telegenii

Piazza Armerina

Africanae

Elephants

Vegetius

Amphitheater

Pompeii

Quadriporticus

Colosseum

Scriptores

Ave

Habet

Death

Pollice Verso

Zliten mosaic

Ad bestias

IMPERIAL FORA

Model of Rome

Model of Imperial Fora

Forma Urbis Romae

Forum of Julius

Model of Forum

Tabernae

Temple of Venus Genetrix

Cornice

Forum of Augustus

Model of Forum

Porticoes

Caryatids

Erechtheion

Exedrae

Temple of Mars Ultor

Precinct Wall

Corinthian capitals

Pegasus

Chimera

Perseus

Medusa

Saint Theresa

Borghese Hermaphrodite

Gladiator

Ares

Ruins

Arco dei Pantani

Pediment

Forum of Vespasian

Model of Forum

Temple of Peace

Judaea Capta

Forma Urbis Romae

Forum of Nerva

Model of Forum

Transitorium

Colonnacce

Forum of Trajan

Model of Forum

Apollodorus

Forum Square

Basilica Ulpia

Column of Trajan

Bibliotheca Ulpia

Temple of Divine Trajan

Trajan's Market

MISCELLANEA

Roman Museums

Capitoline Museum

Marforio

Dying Gaul

Ludovisi Group

Flavian Lady

Theatrical Mask

Conservators' Palace Museum

Constantine

Commodus

She-Wolf

Pius-Clementine Museum

Laoco÷n

Apollo Belvedere

Hermes

Apoxyomenos

Belvedere Torso

Augustus of Prima Porta

National Roman Museum

Discobolus

Boxer

Venus of Cyrene

Dogs in Ancient Greece and Rome

Mea Culpa

Venatio

Molossian

Cave Canem

Vertragus

Venatio

Coursing

Numismatics

Domitian

Trajan

Septimius Severus

Cleopatra

Antony

Pearl

Pompey

Allure

Beauty

Egypt

Death

Corona Civica

Appius Claudius and the Letter Z

The Battle of Teutoburg Forest

The Esquiline Venus

Edward John Poynter

Lawrence Alma-Tadema

The Cave of the Storm Nymphs

The Venus de Milo

The Base of the Statue

Venus Felix

Scythed Chariots

Lake Nemi

Charles Townley and the Clytie

Discobolus

Johann Zoffany

Collection

Trivia Questions

New Year

Vitruvian Man

Discus Thrower

Columns

Consul

Elephants

Yoke

Musa

Sling

Satyricon

Gold

Aquillius

Crassus

Carrhae

Gellius

Blind

Teeth

Reign

ROMAN FORUM

Arch of Augustus

Arch of Severus

Arch of Tiberius

Basilica Aemilia

Coin

Basilica Julia

Columns of Diocletian

Basilica of Constantine

Campo Vaccino

Clivus Capitolinus

Porticus Deorum Consentium

Column of Phocas

Curia Julia (Senate House)

Opus sectile

Plutei

Marsyas

Ficus

House of the Vestals

Vestal

Lacus Curtius

Lacus Juturnae

Temple of Juturna

Aqua Virgo

Quinaria

Cippus

Via del Nazareno

Forma Urbis Romae (Arch of Claudius)

Portico of Pompey

Regia

Rostra

Umbilicus Romae

Milliarium Aureum

Tabularium

Temple of Antoninus and Faustina

Temple of Castor

Loculi

Temple of Concord

Modillions

Temple of Divine Julius

Temple of Saturn

Aerarium

Temple of Vespasian

Fašade

Frieze

Temple of Vesta

Tullianum

Via Sacra

ROMAN URBS

Arch of Constantine

Arch of Titus

Aurelian Wall

Arch of Drusus

Baths of Caracalla

Baths

Baths of Diocletian

Plan

Circus Maximus

Colosseum

Mausoleum of Hadrian

Palatine

House of Augustus

Pantheon

Pons Aemilius

Pons Fabricius

Temple of Apollo Sosianus

Temple of Portunus

Temple of Venus and Rome

Tomb of Gaius Cestius

SCROLL AND CODEX

Papyrus

Capsa

Majuscule

Calamus

SEVERANS

Marcus Aurelius

Faustina the Younger

Commodus

Venatio

Praetorian Guard

Septimius Severus

Caracalla

Baths of Caracalla

Elagabalus

WINE

Vintages

Myrrhina

Amphorae

Autumn

Lead Poisoning

Apicius

Garum

Mullet

Fishponds

Vedius Pollio

Murenae

Thermopolium

Mount Vesuvius


Roman Britain

Albinus

Antonine Wall

BOUDICA

Torc

Stained glass portrait

Arch of Claudius

Hosidius Geta

Aqua Virgo

Colchester

Petilius Cerialis

Legio XX

Bronze statue

Chariot

Brittunculi

Vindolanda

Julius Classicianus

Caesar in Gaul

Vercingetorix

Historical Geography

Thule

MONS GRAUPIUS

Calgacus

Locations

ROMAN RUINS IN BRITAIN

Bath

Pediment

Caerleon

Barracks

Prysg Field

Caernarfon

Caerwent

Chester

Grosvenor Museum

Cirencester

Amphitheater

Chedworth

Colchester

Fishbourne

Hadrian's Wall

Vindolanda

Chesters

South Shields

Corbridge

Birdoswald

Mithras

Hardknott

Hardknott Pass

London

Lullingstone

Pevensey

Pharos

Portchester

Richborough

Defensive ditch

Silchester

St. Albans

Verulamium Museum

Wroxeter

York

Constantine

Tetrarchy

Constantius

Wade's Causeway

SAXON ADVENT

Hoxne Treasure

Bracelet

Tigress

Spoons

Pepper pot

Climate

Caerleon

Glastonbury Abbey

Arthur

Y Gododdin

Badbury Rings

Slaughter Bridge

Legendary figure

Geoffrey of Monmouth

Tintagel

Tennyson

Hunt

Waterhouse

Le Morte Darthur

Guinevere

Dinas Emrys

WALES AND RESISTANCE

Caratacus

Snowdonia

Brigantes

Legion

Legio II Augusta


Roman Spain

ROMAN RUINS IN SPAIN

Alcantara

Cordoba

Empuries

Evora

Italica

Merida

Los Milagros

San Lazaro

Bridge

Eulalia

Numantia

Salamanca

Segovia

Tarragona

Toledo

SECOND CELTIBERIAN WAR

Soria

Numantia


Classical and Hellenistic Greece

HETAIRAI

Iconography

Symposium

Kottabos

Flute girl

Lyre

Klinŕ

Dionysus

Maenads

Satyrs

Comus (Tha´s)

Red-figure vases

Cylix

Tondo

Aspasia

Pericles

Aphrodite of Cnidus

Tivoli

Capitoline Venus

Kaufmann Head

Tinted Venus

Palace of Lausus

Zeus

Moyaux

Apelles (Ludovisi Throne)

Diogenes the Cynic

PAGANISM AND CHRISTIANITY

Altar of Victory

Alaric

Honorius

Sack of Rome

Forum

Temple of Serapis (Serapeum)

Statue of Serapis

Hypatia

Mitchell

Pagan temples

Temple of Artemis

Ionic order

Amazons

Artemision

Didyma (Didymaion)

Temple ground plan

Temple blue print


Anglo-Saxon England

THE EARLY ENGLISH CHURCH

Ăthelbert

St. Augustine's Abbey

Synod of Whitby

Jarrow

Franks Casket

Pelagianism

LINDISFARNE

Lindisfarne Priory

Stonyhurst Gospel

Lindisfarne Gospels

Durham Cathedral

Codex Amiatinus

BATTLE OF MALDON

AD 991

Maldon Estuary

Maldon Manuscript

Ely Cathredral (Byrhtnoth)

Olaf Tryggvason

Olaf Tryggvason (Lewis chess pieces)

Long Serpent

Heggen Vane

Gokstad Ship

Olaf Haraldsson

London Bridge

BEOWULF

Vitellius Manuscript

Date

Synopsis

SUTTON HOO

Helmet

Coppergate

Benty Grange

"Dread fiery dragon"

Buckle

Cloisonne clasp

BATTLE OF HASTINGS

Emma

Edward the Confessor

Westminster Abbey

Harold Godwin

Forsworn

Halley's Comet

Harold Hardrada

Hauberk

Crossing the Channel

Battle axe

William reveals himself

Shield Wall

Death of Harold

Emma

Anglo-Norman Historians

Death of William

Bayeux Tapestry

Carmen de Hastingae Proelio

Battle Hill

Death of Edith

FLOWERS OF HISTORY

Exeter Book of Riddles

Exeter Book

Lady Godiva

Bestiary

Elephant

Misericord

Tiger

Heraldry

Rolls

Gonfanon

Blazon

Achievement

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