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R. E. Lee: A Biography

by Douglas Southall Freeman

published by Charles Scribner's Sons,
New York and London, 1934

The text, and illustrations except as noted, are in the public domain.

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This site is not affiliated with the US Military Academy.


General Prefatory Note.

Manuscript Sources.

    Lee Material.

    Collateral Material.

Printed Sources and Authorities.

    Biographies, Appraisals, Critiques, and Collected Letters of General Lee.

    Books and Articles on Lee's Ancestry, Youth and Career Prior to April 18, 1861.

    Lee during the War between the States.

       Collections: Sources, Narratives, Anecdotes, Serials (except Newspapers).

       Biographies, Other than of Lee.



       Histories and Studies of Lee's Battles and Campaigns.

       Histories of Brigades, Regiments and Other Units of the Confederate Forces Commanded by General Lee.

       Personal Narratives.

          By Union and Confederate General Officers and by Officers of General Lee's Staff.

          Other Personal Narratives.

       General and Miscellaneous.

    Books and Articles on Lee's Career after Appomattox.

    Selected Maps.



This bibliography is designed to be critical rather than comprehensive. It includes something less than half the works cited in the text, but it aims to bring together, under appropriate headings, those titles that are believed to be of value to the student of Lee's career. Readers who are reviewing particular incidents will find in the footnotes of the text many references that are not considered of sufficient importance to be listed here.

In the first general division of the bibliography, that devoted to Manuscripts, the various collections of Lee material are named, according to their location, in approximately the order of their use by the writer. The arrangement of the collateral manuscript material is alphabetical by the name of the owner or custodian. In addition to those manuscripts that can reasonably be regarded as collections, large or small, a multitude of single letters of General Lee's are extant. A few of these are in the hands of the descendants of Captain Smith Lee and have been assembled or copied by Mrs.  p544 C. P. Cardwell. The remaining letters are so widely scattered that it has not seemed desirable to attempt to list them. Among the names in the Appendix of Acknowledgments will be found those of many persons who own and have given the writer access to particular letters written by General Lee.

The general arrangement within the various subdivisions of the section of Printed Sources and Authorities is alphabetical by authors or editors. To this, the only exception is the selected list of the biographies of General Lee.

In the subdivision on the War between the States, of the section devoted to Printed Sources and Authorities, will be found a heading Personal Narratives. Next to the Southern Historical Society Papers,​1 the items mentioned there contain, in the aggregate, more unfamiliar material on General Lee than perhaps any other classification. This list, which represents a winnowing of all the titles under this classification in the Library of Congress, in the New York Public Library and in the Virginia State Library, has, for convenience, been put under two captions — (1) Personal Narratives by Union and Confederate General Officers and by Officers of General Lee's Staff, and (2) Other Personal Narratives. Precedence for the entries under the former caption should not be taken to imply that the other minor narratives are of minor importance. In some instances their writers are the only known witnesses of important historical events. Along with these personal narratives, the reader may wish to consult the biographies in the subsection on the War between the States.

Special acknowledgment of assistance in the preparation of this bibliography must be made Wilmer L. Hall and his assistants of the Virginia State Library.


U. S. Adjutant General's Department and Engineer Department of the War Department, Washington, D. C. These official archives contain at least 90 per cent of all the extant military papers of Robert E. Lee. They cover the entire period from the date of his application for a cadet­ship to the time of his surrender at Appomattox Courthouse. The records of his service in the United States Army remain in the original files. The letters and documents for 1861‑65 are principally from the captured archives of the Confederate War Department.

U. S. Military Academy, West Point, N. Y. Almost the only records left at West Point of Lee's cadet­ship are the reports of his official standing, the entries on the muster and pay-rolls, and the list of books he borrowed from the library. For his administration as superintendent, the records are abundant. Those of first importance for that period are included in the official letter books of the superintendent. These letter books were photostated in full for the writer.

United Confederate Veterans, Trustees for the Grand Camp of Virginia, Richmond, Va. This collection includes Lee's headquarters Letter Books and his Order Book, together with many miscellaneous papers covering the last fortnight of the war. Included are numerous reports on the Appomattox campaign and the reports of Maj.-Gen. Indicates a West Point graduate and gives his Class.C. M. Wilcox on operations from May 4, 1864, to the end of the war. The contents of the  p545  Letter Books and of the Order Book were copied for the Official Records, but the other material has been little used. A general description of this collection, prepared by the late Judge George L. Christian of Richmond appeared in 44 S. H. S. P., 229‑31. The papers are now in a bank vault in Richmond.

Washington and Lee University, Lexington, Va. Here are the Letter Books for most of Lee's administration as president, together with the minutes of the trustees and of the faculty, and much miscellaneous material accumulated chiefly through gift. The Letter Books missing from the archives of Washington and Lee are in Lee's private papers, next to be mentioned.

U. S. Library of Congress, Washington, D. C. Lee's private papers, used by Captain R. E. Lee in his Recollections and Letters of General Lee and by Jones in his Life and Letters, have been deposited in the Library of Congress. Although they were poorly transcribed in some instance and were often most unwarrantedly "edited" by Jones, most of these papers have been printed. With the permission of the owners, Mrs. Hanson Ely and Mrs. Hunter DeButts, daughters of Captain Lee, important quotations made in this book from previously printed letters in this collection, have been verified by the originals.

C. C. Lee, Rocky Mount, Va. In the custody of C. C. Lee, Esq., trustee for the owners, are the originals of Lee's letters to his brother Charles Carter Lee. They relate almost exclusively to affairs of the family.

Duke University Library, Durham, N. C. In this library are letters and documents, more than fifty in number, that seem to have been, at one time, part of Lee's private papers, supra. They were purchased by Duke University and, in accordance with the best traditions of scholar­ship, were at once made accessible to students. Approximately two-thirds of the letters are printed, chiefly in Jones's Life and Letters.

Virginia Historical Society Library, Richmond, Va. Here are some of the most important of the early letters of Lee. A few of them are in the bound manuscripts of the Lee family, but most of them are in the papers of Indicates a West Point graduate and gives his Class.Andrew Talcott. Other of Lee's letters to Talcott are in the collection immediately following.

D. S. Freeman, Richmond, Va. The Freeman Papers contain many copies and photostats of Lee MSS. and approximately half of Lee's known letters to Andrew Talcott. These Talcott letters were presented to the writer by Mr. and Mrs. John Stewart Bryan, who purchased them from the Talcott heirs.

Huntington Library, San Marino, California. In the Huntington Library are the originals of the thirty-nine letters written to Martha Custis Williams by Lee. They cover the period 1844 to 1870, but contain none for the years of the War between the States. These letters have been edited by Avery Craven and were issued in 1933 under the title "To Markie." They are interesting but not of major importance in the life of Lee. Other letters from Lee to Martha Custis Williams belong to George L. Upshur of New York.

Miss Phoebe Elliott, Savannah, Ga. Styled the Elliott MSS. in this biography, these are the letters written by Lee to "Jack" Elliot, his "chum"  p546  at West Point, and they are among the most informative sources on Lee's life from 1831 to 1845.

Confederate Museum, Richmond, Va. Here are numbers of miscellaneous papers of General Lee, all of which, except for late accessions, are mentioned in D. S. Freeman, ed.: A Calendar of Confederate Papers.

Virginia State Library, Richmond, Va. Although sadly looted after the War between the States, the archives of Virginia, housed in the State Library, still contain some material on Lee's direction in 1861 of the mobilization of Virginia. Most of this material is printed or abstracted in H. W. Flournoy, ed.: Calendar of Virginia State Papers, v. 11.

Missouri Historical Society, St. Louis, Mo. This institution owns the letters of Lee to Henry Kayser, the engineer who took up the work of improving the harbor of St. Louis when the United States suspended appropriations. The society intends ultimately to print the papers and, meantime, denies access to them. A few extracts were given in Stella M. Drumm: Robert E. Lee and the Improvement of the Mississippi River (Missouri Historical Society Collections, vol. 6, no. 2, February, 1929).

Mrs. Frank Screven, Savannah, Ga. Among the treasures of this patriotic lady are several of General Lee's letters, originally a part of his ante-bellum correspondence with the younger members of the Mackay family.

Mrs. Marian Carter Oliver, Shirley, Va. The Shirley MSS. of the Carter family contain a few Lee letters. Most of them were written after the War between the States.

Miss Nannie H. Jones, Richmond, Va. Miss Jones and other descendants of Norvell Caskie (Mrs. Seddon Jones) have in the Caskie Papers sundry letters addressed after 1861 by General Lee to members of the Caskie family.

John Stewart Bryan, Richmond, Va. The fine library of Laburnum, the Bryan home in Richmond, includes numbers of interesting Lee letters.

Henry T. Wickham, Hickory Hill, Hanover County, Va. Although most of the great collection of Wickham Papers was destroyed by fire, some letters from members of the Lee family were saved.

J. Ambler Johnston, Richmond, Va. The Johnston MSS. list some unusual letters from Mrs. Lee and her daughters to their friends at Ingleside, the home of Doctor W. Hartwell Macon.

Manuscript Sources — Collateral Material

Bemiss MSS., formerly of New Orleans, now of Richmond, Va. The important papers of the military surgeon who attended Lee during part of his illness in 1863. Here is the fullest account of Lee's symptoms at that time. The papers are in the hands of S. M. Bemiss, Richmond, Va.

Carter MSS., Richmond, Va. Included are such of the papers of the Pampatike branch of the Carter family as escaped war and fire. They are few in number but precious, and are the property of Spencer L. Carter.

Chase Papers, Washington, D. C. The Arlington Case: George Washington Custis Lee vs. U. S., a paper by Enoch A. Chase, read before Columbia Historical Society, Feb. 1, 1928, subsequently printed in Virginia Law Review, vol. 15, no. 3, January, 1929.

 p547  Chilton Papers, Richmond, Va. Formerly the property of Brig. Gen. R. H. Chilton, chief of staff to General Lee, these papers are now in the Confederate Museum, Richmond, Va. They are of greater autographic than historical value but contain an important account of General Lee's death, written for Mrs. Chilton by Mrs. Lee.

Cocke Papers, University, Va. Miss Betty P. Cocke has preserved the large collection of papers of her distinguished grandfather, General P. St. George Cocke, defender of Manassas during the mobilization of 1861. These manuscripts are of high illustrative value, though they contain few direct references to Lee.

Cooke Diary, Mathews, Va. This war-time diary of the last survivor of the staff of General Robert E. Lee is not in a form accessible to students, but Major Cooke graciously had the important sections copied for the writer. These copies are now among the Freeman Papers.

Deneale Papers. Charles Deneale of Alexandria, Va., wrote a sketch of the early history of that city. A copy, generously made by the late Mrs. Mary G. Powell, is in the Freeman Papers.

Fairfax Papers, Richmond, Va. Chiefly of post-bellum date, these papers of Colonel John W. Fairfax, an officer of Longstreet's personal staff, contain numerous echoes of the Gettysburg controversy. The papers belong to Mrs. Henry Fairfax, widow of Colonel Henry Fairfax, son of the original owner.

Long MS., Lynchburg, Va. Soon after his promotion to brigadier general and chief of artillery of the Second Corps, Army of Northern Virginia, A. L. Long, former military secretary to General Lee, wrote a brief account of the campaign of 1863. This Long MS., as it is cited in the text, is in the possession of the heirs of A. R. Long, of Lynchburg, Virginia. It contains a few items of minor importance not covered in Long's Memoirs of Robert E. Lee.

H. B. McClellan MSS., Chicago and Biarritz. The capable adjutant general of "Jeb" Stuart's staff, Major H. B. McClellan, preserved a few interesting letters that passed between Lee and Stuart, and at some date after the war wrote an interesting memoir of his relations with General Lee. All these papers are now in the hands of the descendants of Major McClellan, who supplied the writer with full copies.

Magill Papers, Staunton, Va. The only papers of General A. P. Hill that remained in the hands of his family were a few odds and ends belonging to his daughter, Mrs. Lucy Hill Magill. On her death, they passed to her next of kin in Staunton. They are cited only once in the text and will be of little or no help to the biographer of Hill. At one time, the family possessed numbers of Hill's private letters, but gave virtually all of them to autograph collectors.

McGuire Papers, Richmond, Va. Doctor Hunter H. McGuire, medical director of the Second Corps, Army of Northern Virginia, was deeply interested in Confederate history. He kept many of his medical reports and, after the war, conducted a wide correspondence with other soldiers, chiefly of Jackson's staff. It was through him and through Major Jed Hotchkiss that Colonel G. F. R. Henderson collected much of the personal reminiscence that appears in his Stonewall Jackson. All these McGuire  p548  Papers have been carefully preserved and are in the Confederate Museum or in the possession of Mrs. Edward McGuire, Richmond, Va, as trustee for her brother and sisters, the children of Doctor H. H. McGuire.

Pemberton MSS., New York City. Lieutenant General John C. Pemberton left numerous unpublished manuscripts, which now belong to his grandson, John Pemberton of New York City. They include an unfinished defense of General Pemberton's conduct at Vicksburg. Among the papers is a letter from President Davis to General Pemberton, in which the attacks on Pemberton are compared with those directed against General Lee for his failure at Gettysburg.

Mrs. Campbell Pryor MS., Washington, D. C. These delight­ful Incidents in the Life of a Civil War Child, by the former Anne A. Banister, contain some keen recollections of General Lee during the siege of Petersburg.

Taylor MSS., Norfolk, Va. These papers of Colonel Walter H. Taylor, Assistant Adjutant General, Army of Northern Virginia, constitute the most important source of collateral MS. material on the military career of General Lee. Their principal content is a series of letters written by Taylor from Lee's headquarters to his fiancée and to members of the Taylor family. These letters cover nearly the whole period of Lee's command of the Army of Northern Virginia. Only about half of them are printed, even partially, in Taylor's Four Years with General Lee. In addition to the war-time letters, which are frankness itself, there is among the Taylor MSS. a mass of post-bellum correspondence, newspaper clippings, etc. This is of high value because Colonel Taylor, knowing more of happenings at Confederate headquarters than any one else alive in 1900, and having an accurate and retentive memory, became an unofficial court of last resort in historical argument. These precious MSS. are in the custody of W. H. Taylor III.

Yonge MSS., Richmond, Va. Included are Reminiscences of General Lee at Washington College, by S. H. Yonge.



Biographies of General Lee number close to thirty and bear date from 1865 onward. Many of them were written before the publication of the Official Records, and are often inaccurate in military detail. Still others seem to have been based entirely on previous books of the same type and have no title whatever to authority. The following selected list cites certain of the more important of these biographies in what the writer believes to be the order of their relative historical importance.

Lee, Robert E. [Jr.]. Recollections and Letters of General Robert E. Lee; New York, 1905 (2nd edition, 1924, with unimportant addenda). The principal published collection of Lee letters from 1860 to the end of Lee's life, bound together with a pleasant narrative.

Jones, J. William. Personal Reminiscences, Anecdotes and Letters of General  p549  Robert E. Lee; New York, 1874. Many score letters and countless anecdotes, a source-book rather than a biography. In using this work, caution must be exercised in citing Lee's words, as Doctor Jones was a very poor copyist.

Jones, J. William. Life and Letters of Robert Edward Lee, Soldier and Man; Washington, 1906. Incomplete and padded with reports but containing more of Lee's ante-bellum letters than any other book.

Maurice, Sir Frederick. Robert E. Lee the Soldier; Boston, 1925. The best brief study of Lee's strategy.

Taylor, Walter H. Four Years with General Lee . . . New York, 1877. Written primarily to show the weakness of the Army of Northern Virginia at different stages of military operations, but containing many extracts from Taylor's letters, certain of the most significant anecdotes of Lee, and some very intelligent observations on Lee's strategy.

Taylor, Walter H. General Lee: His Campaigns in Virginia, 1861‑65, with Personal Reminiscences; Norfolk, Va., 1906. An elaboration of the above with new material, a brief but analytical work of much importance.

Bradford, Gamaliel. Lee the American; Boston, 1912. A scholar­ly, topical treatment, accurate in most details and charmingly written but fully appreciated only by those who possess some preliminary knowledge of Lee's career.

Long, A. L. Memoirs of Robert E. Lee . . . New York, 1886. Diffuse, padded, and inaccurate in many particulars, having been written while Long was blind, but containing much material that is still highly valuable.

Davis, Jefferson. Robert E. Lee (North American Review, vol. 150, no. 398, January, 1890). An estimate of value.

Lee, Fitzhugh. General Lee; New York, 1894. Much solid narrative, interspersed with letters previously unpublished, but marred by many small inaccuracies and by poor proof-reading.

White, Henry A. Robert E. Lee and the Southern Confederacy . . . New York, 1897. Probably the best of the one-volume biographies, though published without footnotes.

Page, Thomas Nelson. Robert E. Lee, Man and Soldier; New York, 1911. Probably second only to White among recent works.

Swift, Eben. The Military Education of Robert E. Lee (Virginia Magazine of History and Biography, vol. 35, no. 2, April, 1927). A very valuable article, adequate except for lists of Lee's military reading brought to light subsequent to General Swift's inquiry.

Winston, Robert W. Robert E. Lee . . . New York, 1934. For the ante-bellum life of General Lee, the fullest of the one-volume biographies.

Cooke, John E. A Life of Gen. Robert E. Lee; New York, 1875. Early and in many particulars inaccurate but possessing in respect to certain incidents, the value of a narrative by a discerning eye-witness.

McCabe, James D., Jr. Life and Campaigns of General Robert E. Lee . . . New York, 1866. The earliest extensive biography. Grossly inaccurate in detail but useful for quotations from contemporary newspapers and for the estimate of Lee held by those closest to the events.

 p550 Mason, Emily V. Popular Life of General Robert Edward Lee; Baltimore, 1872. Very crude but containing some material, doubtless procured from Mrs. Lee, available nowhere else.

Bruce, P. A. Robert E. Lee; Philadelphia, 1907. A useful short work.

Brooks, William E. Lee of Virginia; Indianapolis, 1932. Contains the fullest exposition of the theory that Lee hesitated in 1861 whether he should join Virginia or remain with the Union.

Young, James C. Marse Robert, Knight of the Confederacy; New York, 1929. Includes some new material.

Craven, Avery, ed. "To Markie." The Letters of Robert E. Lee to Martha Custis Williams; Cambridge, Mass., 1933. See Manuscript Sources, Lee Material, supra, p545.

Johnstone, W. J. Robert E. Lee the Christian; New York, 1933. A useful compilation.


The lengthy study of the Lee genealogy by Doctor Edmund Jennings Lee: Lee of Virginia, 1642‑1892 (Philadelphia, 1895) is so comprehensive that no other work on Lee's ancestry need be cited or consulted. A full bibliography of the United States Military Academy, as it was in Lee's cadet­ship and superintendency, is given in Centennial of the United States Military Academy (Washington, 1904, 2 vols.). Lee's published reports while an officer of the bureau of engineers appear as parts of the reports of the chief engineer, which are attached to those of the secretary of war. These last usually were printed as executive documents of the successive sessions of Congress. Full bibliographies of the general historical literature on the Mexican War of 1846‑48 appear in J. H. Smith: The War with Mexico (New York, 1919, 2 vols.) and in G. L. Rives: The United States and Mexico, 1821‑1848 (New York, 1913, 2 vols.). As so much is available elsewhere, the appended list includes only those books and articles that have special interest or importance for the period here covered.

Anderson, Charles. Texas Before and on the Eve of the Rebellion . . . Cincinnati, 1884. Invaluable on Lee's political views in the winter of 1860‑61.

Anderson, Robert. An Artillery Officer in the Mexican War . . . New York, 1911.

Andrews, Marietta M. Scraps of Paper . . . New York, 1929. Contains an account of Lee's wedding, written by Mrs. Marietta Turner Powell, one of the bridesmaids.

Baylies, Francis. A Narrative of Major General Wool's Campaign in Mexico in the Years 1846, 1847 and 1848 . . . Albany, 1851. Includes a reference to Lee's engineering service with Wool's column.

Boyd, Thomas. Light-Horse Harry Lee; New York, 1931. The fullest study of the career of Lee's father.

 p551  Claiborne, J. F. H. Life and Correspondence of John A. Quitman . . . New York, 1860, 2 vols. Gives Quitman's version of the advice given by Lee and the other engineers at a council of war called on September 11, 1847, to consider plans for attacking Mexico City.

Darby, John F. Personal Recollections . . . St. Louis, 1880. The autobiography of the man who was mayor of St. Louis during Lee's labor for the improvement of the Mississippi.

Decker, Karl and McSween, Angus. Historic Arlington . . . Washington, 1904.

Drumm, Stella. Robert E. Lee and the Improvement of the Mississippi River . . . (Missouri Historical Society Collections, vol. 6, no. 2, February, 1929). Quotes the Kayser Papers, for which see Manuscript Sources, Lee Material, supra, p546.

An Exact and Authentic Narrative of the Events which Took Place in Baltimore on the 27th and 28th of July last [Baltimore (?) 1812]. Covers, though inadequately, the part of Henry Lee in the Baltimore riot.

Graves, Charles A. The Forged Letter of General Robert E. Lee (Reports Va. State Bar Association, 1914, 1915, 1917‑18 . . .) [Richmond 1914?-1918?]. A critical analysis of the forged letter in which Lee was alleged to have told Custis Lee that "duty, then, is the sublimest word in our language."

Hallowell, Benjamin. Autobiography of . . . Philadelphia, 1883. Includes recollections of Lee by one of his early teachers.

Hitchcock, Ethan A. Fifty Years in Camp and Field; the Diary of . . . edited by W. A. Croffut . . . New York, 1909. Contains more references than any like work to Lee's activities in Mexico.

Hughes, George W. Memoir Descriptive of the March of a Division of the United States Army under the Command of Brigadier-General John E. Wool from San Antonio de Bexar, in Texas, to Saltillo, in Mexico . . . (Sen. Doc. No. 32, 1st sess., 31st Congress).

Johnson, William. Sketches of the Life and Correspondence of Nathanael Greene . . . Charleston, S. C., 1822, 2 vols. The book that provoked Major Henry Lee's Campaign of 1781 in the Carolinas. Contains much of importance regarding "Light-Horse Harry" Lee.

Lee, [General] Henry. A Correct Account of the Conduct of the Baltimore Mob . . . Winchester, Va., 1814. Not actually Lee's composition but based on information supplied by him.

Lee, [General] Henry. Memoirs of the War in the Southern Department of the United States . . . A New [Third] Edition, with Revisions, and a Biography of the Author, by Robert E. Lee; New York, 1869. For a critique of this see supra, vol. IV, pp415 ff.

Lee, [Major] Henry. Observations on the Writings of Thomas Jefferson with particular reference to the attack they contain on the memory of the late General Henry Lee . . . New York, 1832; 2nd ed., Philadelphia, 1839. The second is the edition cited in the text.

Lee, [Major] Henry. The Campaign of 1781 in the Carolinas; Philadelphia, 1824.

McClellan, George B. Mexican War Diary . . . edited by William Starr Myers . . . Princeton, 1917.

 p552  Maryland Senate. Correspondence Relating to the Insurrection at Harpers Ferry, 17th October, 1859; Annapolis, Md., 1860 (Maryland Senate Doc. Y, March, 1860).

Maury, Dabney H. Recollections of a Virginian in the Mexican, Indian and Civil Wars . . . New York, 1894. Includes the story of Lee's narrow escape from death in front of Vera Cruz.

Packard, Joseph. Recollections of a Long Life, edited by Thomas J. Packard . . . Washington, 1902. By an Alexandrian who knew Lee well.

Parker, W. H. Recollections of a Naval Officer, 1841‑1865 . . . New York, 1883. Contains a good description of the arrival of the U. S. fleet off Vera Cruz; gives the location of Smith Lee's battery.

Powell, Mrs. Mary G. History of Old Alexandria; Richmond [c. 1928]. Quoted many times, a repository of much useful information on the Alexandria of Lee's boyhood.

Rhodes, Charles Dudley. Robert E. Lee, the West Pointer . . . Richmond, 1932.

Richeson, Voorheis. History of the Fifth Cavalry; Army Recruiting News, vol. 11, no. 18, Sept. 15, 1929.

Taylor, Zachary. Letters from the Battlefields of the Mexican War; Reprinted from the Originals in the Collection of Mr. William K. Bixby of St. Louis, Most. . . . Rochester, 1908. Shows that Lee and Taylor were fourth cousins.

U. S. Congress, Senate. Report of the Select Committee of the Senate Appointed to Inquire into the Late Invasion and Seizure of the Public Property at Harpers Ferry . . . (Sen. Comm. report No. 278, 1st sess., 36th Congress), Washington, 1860. Contains Lee's report, but no reference to the omitted paragraph regarding President Buchanan's suppressed proclamation. In the separately paged Testimony (pp46‑47) appears Lee's evidence.

U. S. Military Academy. Article 78, Army Regulations — Regulations of the Military Academy. Undated, but approximately 1829; no title page; Library of Congress.

U. S. Military Academy. Official Register of the Officers and Cadets of the U. S. Military Academy . . . June, 1826, June, 1827, June, 1828, June, 1829. Official reprints of 1884.

U. S. Military Academy. Regulations for the . . . with an Appendix . . . New York, 1853. The regulations revised during Lee's superintendency and issued by his order.

U. S. Military Academy. Centennial of . . . Washington, 1904. See supra, p550.

U. S. President (Polk). Message from the President of the United States to the two houses of Congress . . . at the commencement of the first session of the Thirtieth Congress (Exec. Doc. No. 1, 1st sess., 30th Congress); Washington, 1847. Contains the reports by General Winfield Scott and his subordinates on the campaign from Vera Cruz to Mexico City.

Villard, Oswald Garrison. John Brown . . . a Biography Fifty Years After; Boston, 1911. The standard work, contains some important facts  p553  on Lee's part in suppressing the Harpers Ferry Insurrection; has an admirable bibliography.

Virginia General Assembly. Report of the Committee Appointed . . . for the Purpose of Reinterring the Remains of General Henry Lee . . . at Lexington, Virginia . . . (Richmond, c. 1914).

West, Decca Lamar. Robert E. Lee in Texas; Texas Monthly, April, 1930.



Annals of the War, Written by Leading Participants North and South . . . Philadelphia, 1879. Important for Gettysburg and the Wilderness.

Battles and Leaders of the Civil War . . . New York, [1887‑88]. 4 vols. Next to the Official Records and the Southern Historical Society Papers, the most useful source on military operations, though its editorial footnotes are not without a Northern bias. [Online: Vols.  I •  II •  III •  IV.]

Bernard, George S., ed. War Talks of Confederate Veterans . . . Petersburg, Va., 1892. Numerous narratives of the defense of Petersburg, with special reference to the battle of the Crater.

Candler, Allen D., comp. The Confederate Records of the State of Georgia; Atlanta, 1909‑11, 6 vols. Contain some correspondence of Lee not elsewhere published.

Confederate, A [Pseudonym]. The Grayjackets . . . Philadelphia, 1867. A depository of anecdote, much of which has real historical value.

Confederate States of America, Congress. Journal of the Congress of the Confederate States of America, 1861‑65; Washington, 1904‑5, 7 vols. (Sen. Doc. No. 234, 2nd sess., 58th Congress).

Confederate Veteran; Nashville, Tenn., 1893‑1932, 40 vols. Along with much triviality, this magazine contains mines of personal narrative that have been ignored by historians.

[De Fontaine, F. G.] Marginalia, or Gleanings from an Army Note-book, by Personne, Army Correspondent of the Charleston Courier . . . Columbia, S. C., 1864. A very rich collection of contemporary anecdote.

Freeman, D. S., ed. A Calendar of Confederate Papers . . . Richmond, 1908. Covers the collection of the Confederate Museum, Richmond.

Freeman, D. S., ed. Lee's Dispatches . . . New York, 1915. The confidential correspondence of Lee with Davis, unavailable to the editors of the Official Records.

La Bree, Benjamin, ed. Camp Fires of the Confederacy . . . Louisville, 1899. A miscellany that contains some useful material.

Military Historical Society of Massachusetts. Papers . . . Boston, 1895‑1913, 13 vols. One of the most valuable and scientific of all collections of military narratives and studies of the War between the States.

Military Order of the Loyal Legion of the United States. Military Essays and Recollections: Papers read before the commandery of the state of Illinois . . . Chicago, 1899, 3 vols.

Moore, Frank, ed. The Rebellion Record . . . New York, 1862‑1871, 12 vols.

 p554  Our Living and Our Dead. Official Organ, North Carolina Branch, Southern Historical Society . . . Raleigh, N. C., 1874‑76; 3 vols. and one no. of vol. 4. Contains some personal narratives of importance.

Southern Historical Society Papers; Richmond, Va., 1876‑1930, 47 vols. Includes more valuable, unused data than any other unofficial repository of source material on the War between the States. A general index through vol. 38, compiled by Mrs. Kate Pleasants Minor, was issued as the July-October, 1913 number of the Virginia State Library Bulletin. This is now out of print. Perhaps the most notable of all the material in the S. H. S. P., is that covering the Gettysburg controversy, which crowded vols. 4‑7 inclusive. For a history of this, see ibid., vol. 5, pp88‑89 and vol. 23, p342.

U. S. Congress. Joint Committee on the Conduct of the War: Report of . . . in Three Parts . . . Washington, 1863. Federal post mortem on the Peninsular Campaign, Second Manassas and Fredericksburg; interesting sidelights on Lee's general­ship as seen from "the other side."

U. S. General Staff School, Fort Leavenworth, Kan. Source Book of the Peninsula Campaign in Virginia, April to July, 1862 . . . Fort Leavenworth, Kan., [1921]. A useful compilation.

U. S. War Department. The War of the Rebellion: A Compilation of the Official Records of the Union and Confederate Armies; Washington, 1880‑1901, 70 vols. in 128. The volumes of this work to which were given the serial numbers 112 and 113 have never been printed. Concerning this, the prime source of all, it is only necessary to warn the investigator that some of the most important of Lee's dispatches were inaccessible to the editors, or else were received late and appear in vol. 51, part 2.


Bradford, Gamaliel. Confederate Portraits; Boston, 1917. Includes studies of Longstreet and "Jeb" Stuart.

Cooke, John E. Wearing of the Gray . . . Being Personal Portraits, Scenes and Adventures of the War . . . New York, 1867. Especially good for the sidelights it throws on the cavalry of the Army of Northern Virginia.

Evans, Clement A., ed. Confederate Military History, Atlanta, Ga., 1899, 12 vols. and a supplement, vol. 13. A work of uneven merits in its narrative sections but containing in the volume, or part of a volume, devoted to each state, a most useful collection of the biographies of the general officers born in or credited to that state.

Phillips, U. B., ed. The Correspondence of Robert Toombs, Alexander H. Stephens and Howell Cobb . . . Washington, 1913. Includes numerous observations on Lee by Robert Toombs, one of his harshest contemporary critics.

[Pollard, E. A.]. The Early Life, Campaigns, and Public Services of Robert E. Lee, with a Record of the Campaigns and Heroic Deeds of His Companions in Arms . . . by A Distinguished Southern Journalist . . . New York, 1870. First published in 1867 as Lee and His Lieutenants, but not exclusively a biography of Lee. Full of inaccuracies but containing many sketches of Confederate officers that give a fair view  p555  of the esteem in which various commanders were held by their immediate contemporaries. The tone throughout is laudatory.

Snow, William Parker. Southern Generals, Who They Are, and What They Have Done . . . New York, 1865. Published anonymously but reissued in 1867 as Lee and His Generals and credited to Snow — a work very similar to Pollard, supra.


Arnold, Thomas J. Early Life and Letters of General Thomas J. Jackson . . . New York [1916].

Basso, Hamilton. Beauregard, the Great Creole; New York, 1933.

Butler, Pierce. Judah P. Benjamin . . . Philadelphia, 1907.

Capers, H. D. Life of C. G. Memminger; Richmond, Va., 1893.

Claiborne, J. H. Seventy Five Years in Old Virginia; Washington, 1904.

Clay, Mrs. Clement C. A Belle of the Fifties; New York, 1904.

[Cooke, J. E.] The Life of Stonewall Jackson . . . by a Virginian . . . Richmond, 1863. Much expanded in later editions.

Coolidge, Louis A. Ulysses S. Grant; Boston, 1917.

Cox, William E. Address on the Life and Character of General Stephen D. Ramseur . . . Raleigh, N. C., 1921.

Dabney, R. L. Life and Campaigns of Lieut-Gen. Thomas J. Jackson . . . New York, 1866. Until Henderson the most dependable authority upon Jackson and even now very useful.

Jefferson Davis, Constitutionalist, His Letters, Papers and Speeches, collected and edited by Dunbar Rowland; Jackson, Miss., 1923, 10 vols. Some material not printed elsewhere.

[Davis, Varina Howell] Jefferson Davis . . . A Memoir by His Wife New York, 1890, 2 vols.

Drake, James Vaulx. Life of General Robert Hatton; Nashville, Tenn., 1867. Hatton was a colonel in the West Virginia campaign of 1861; his letters, here printed, are valuable.

Fleming, Francis P. Memoir of Capt. C. Seton Fleming of the Second Florida Infantry, C. S. A. . . . Jacksonville, Fla., 1884. Contains some useful letters on Rapidan-Cold Harbor operations of May-June, 1864.

French, Samuel G. Two Wars: An Autobiography; Nashville, Tenn., 1901.

Garland, Hamlin. Ulysses S. Grant; New York, 1920.

Goode, John. Recollections of a Lifetime . . . Washington, 1906. The author was a member of the Confederate Congress. His memoirs include several anecdotes of Lee.

Grant, Ulysses S. Personal Memoirs; New York, 1885, 2 vols. [The work is online here.]

Henderson, G. F. R. Stonewall Jackson and the American Civil War; London, New York, 1898, 2 vols. The standard work and one of the most interesting of military biographies.

Hoge, P. H. Moses Drury Hoge; Richmond, 1899.

Holloway, L. C. [O. O.] Howard, the Christian Hero; New York, 1885.

Howard, O. O. Autobiography . . . New York, 1907, 2 vols.

Hudson, Joshua H. Sketches and Reminiscences . . . Columbia, S. C.,  p556  1904. The author was lieutenant colonel of the Twenty-sixth South Carolina infantry. His autobiography is a valuable source on the later stages of the investment of Petersburg.

Hughes, Robert M. General [Joseph E.] Johnston; New York, 1893.

Humphreys, H. H. A. A. Humphreys, A Biography; New York, 1893.

Hunter, Martha T. A Memoir of R. M. T. Hunter; Washington, 1903. Includes an account of a long conference between Lee and Senator Hunter in the winter of 1864‑65.

Hunton, Eppa. Autobiography; Richmond, Va., 1933. Has several interesting incidents relating to Lee.

Jackson, Mary Anna. Memoirs of Stonewall Jackson . . . Louisville, Ky., 1895. By his widow.

Johnson, Bradley T. A Memoir of the Life and Public Service of Joseph E. Johnston . . . Baltimore, 1891.

Johnston, T. Cary. Robert Lewis Dabney; Richmond, 1903. Besides some useful material on the war, this book contains a significant, though second-hand account of the "White Sulphur Letter."

Johnston, William Preston. The Life of General Albert Sidney Johnston . . . New York, 1878. Includes an incident of Lee's work as military adviser to the president.

Keyes, Erasmus D. Fifty Years Observations of Men and Events; New York, 1884.

Life and Reminiscences of Jefferson Davis . . . by Distinguished Men of His Time . . . Baltimore, 1890.

McClellan, H. B. The Life and Campaigns of Maj.-Gen. J. E. B. Stuart . . . Richmond, Va., 1885. By Stuart's A. A. G. The standard work.

McIlwaine, Richard. Memories of Three Score Years and Ten; Washington, 1909. Includes some sidelights on the retreat to Appomattox.

Meade, George Gordon. The Life and Letters of . . ., by George Meade; edited by George Gordon Meade; New York, 1913, 2 vols. The fullest contemporary account of Lee's operations during 1863‑65 by one of his principal opponents.

Mercer, Philip. The Life of the Gallant [John] Pelham; Macon, Ga., 1929. A sketch of the career of the gallant chief of the Stuart Horse Artillery.

Miles, Nelson A. Personal Recollections and Observations . . . Chicago, 1896.

Nicolay, John George, and Hay, John. Abraham Lincoln. A History; New York, 1890, 10 vols.

Noll, Arthur Howard, ed. Doctor Quinard, Chaplain C. S. A. and Second Bishop of Tennessee . . . Sewanee, Tenn., 1905. Contains memoirs of a chaplain in the West Virginia campaign.

Noll, Arthur Howard. General Kirby Smith . . . Sewanee, Tenn., 1907.

O'Ferrall, Charles T. Forty Years of Active Service . . . Washington, 1904.

Pearson, Henry G. James S. Wadsworth of Geneseo; New York, 1913.

Polk, J. M. Memories of the Lost Cause and Ten Years in South America . . . Austin, Tex., 1907. A curious book, cited once for an episode at Gettysburg.

 p557  Polk, W. M. Leonidas Polk: Bishop and General; New York, 1893, 2 vols.

Pryor, Mrs. Roger A. My Day; Reminiscences of a Long Life; New York, 1909.

Pryor, Mrs. Roger A. Reminiscences of Peace and War; New York, 1904.

Reagan, John H. Memoirs with Special Reference to Secession and the Civil War . . . New York, 1906. Several incidents relate to Lee.

Robertson, A. T. Life and Letters of John A. Broadus; Philadelphia, 1901.

Roman, Alfred. The Military Operations of General Beauregard . . . New York, 1884, 2 vols.

Royall, William L. Some Reminiscences . . . Washington, 1909. Especially important for a long letter on the battle of the Wilderness, written to Royall by Colonel W. H. Palmer.

Shotwell, Randolph A. The Papers of . . . Edited by J. G. de R. Hamilton . . . Raleigh, 1929.

Slaughter, Philip. A Sketch of the Life of Randolph Fairfax . . . Third edition; Baltimore, 1878. Contains Lee's letter to Doctor Orlando Fairfax on the death of Randolph Fairfax.

Smith, William Ernest. The Francis Preston Blair Family in Politics; New York, 1933. 2 vols.

Thomas, John W., Jr. Jeb Stuart; New York, 1930.

Tyler, Lyon G. The Letters and Times of the Tylers; Richmond, 1884‑1896, 3 vols. In vol. 2 are several references to Lee.

Walker, C. Irvine. The Life of Lieutenant-General Richard Heron Anderson . . . Charleston, S. C., 1917.

Wise, Barton H. The Life of Henry A. Wise of Virginia; New York 1899.

Withers, Robert E. Autobiography of an Octogenarian . . . Roanoke, Va., 1907.


Alexander, E. P. Lee at Appomattox (Century Magazine, vol. 63, no. 6, April, 1902).

Allan, William. The Army of Northern Virginia in 1862 . . . Cambridge, 1892. Excellent as far as records were available at the time of publication.

Barnard, J. G. The Peninsula Campaign and Its Antecedents . . . New York, 1864.

Bates, Samuel P. The Battle of Gettysburg . . . Philadelphia, 1875.

Battine, Cecil. The Crisis of the Confederacy . . . London, 1905. Evidently intended as a sequel to Henderson's Jackson; in some respects good but lacking the background of intimate knowledge of the ground and of the army.

[Benham, Henry W.] Recollections of West Virginia Campaign . . . May, June and July, 1861 . . . Boston, 1873, from Old and New, June, 1872, and carrying the pagination of the magazine.

Bigelow, John, Jr. The Campaign of Chancellorsville . . . New Haven, 1910. A model in the comprehensive treatment of a battle.

Borcke, Heros von. Die grosse Reiterschlacht bei Brandy Station . . . Berlin, 1893. With Justus Scheibert as co‑author. The fullest study of the action of June 9, 1863.

 p558 Boykin, E. M. The Falling Flag: Evacuation of Richmond, Retreat and Surrender at Appomattox . . . New York, 1874. The writer was in Gary's cavalry brigade.

Brooks, U. R. Butler and His Cavalry in the War of Secession . . . Columbia, S. C., 1909. Useful for the campaign of 1864.

Burns, James R. Battle of Williamsburgh . . . New York, 1865.

Chamberlain, Joshua L. Passing of the Armies . . . New York, 1915. Covers the surrender of the Army of Northern Virginia.

Chesney, C. C. Essays in Modern Military Biography; New York, 1874.

Chesney, C. C. A Military View of Recent Campaigns in Virginia and Maryland . . . London, 1903.º

Cook, Joel. The Siege of Richmond . . . Philadelphia, 1862. Indispensable on the preliminaries of the Seven Days.

Curtis, Newton M. From Bull Run to Chancellorsville . . . New York, 1906. Clears up an obscure aspect of Gaines's Mill.

Dodge, Theodore A. The Campaign of Chancellorsville . . . Boston, 1881.

Doubleday, Abner. Chancellorsville and Gettysburg; New York, 1882 (Campaigns of the Civil War — VI).

Draper, J. W. History of the American Civil War . . . New York, 1867‑1870; 3 vols.

English Combatant, An. Battle-fields of the South, from Bull Run to Fredericksburg . . . [Dedication signed T. E. C.] . . . New York, 1864, 1 vol. edition; London, 1863, 2 vol. edition.

Fremantle, Lt. Col. A. J. L. Three Months in the Southern States, April-June, 1863; New York, 1864. The classic "foreign observer's" account of Gettysburg. account

Fuller, J. F. C. Grant and Lee; New York, 1933. By one of Grant's admirers.

G., J. C. Grant's Last Campaign . . . Raleigh, 1866. Good material on events during and preceding the retreat to Appomattox.

Gordon, Geo. H. History of the Army of Virginia, under John Pope . . . Boston, 1880.

Gordon, Geo. H. A War Diary of Events in the War of the Great Rebellion, 1863‑65 . . . Boston, 1882.

Green, Jacob L. General William B. Franklin and the Operations of the Left Wing at the Battle of Fredericksburg . . . Hartford, Conn., 1900.

Guide to the Fortifications and Battlefields around Petersburg . . . Petersburg, 1866.

Hall, Granville D. Lee's Invasion of Northwest Virginia in 1861 . . . Chicago, 1911. Chiefly a reprint of official reports but includes some late comment by George A. Porterfield.

Henderson, G. F. R. The Science of War . . . London, 1905. Contains his excellent Campaign in the Wilderness.

Hill, D. H. A History of North Carolina in the War Between the States . . . Raleigh, N. C., 1926, 2 vols. By the son of Lieutenant General Indicates a West Point graduate and gives his Class.D. H. Hill. Covers only the period to Sharpsburg. Notable for its bibliographical footnotes.

Hoke, Jacob. The Great Invasion of 1863; Dayton, Ohio, 1887. A Pennsylvania view of the invading Confederate army of 1863.

 p559  Hotchkiss, Jed and Allan, William. The Battlefields of Virginia. Chancellorsville . . . New York, 1867. Especially useful on events of the late winter of 1862‑63.

Humphreys, A. A. The Virginia Campaign of 1864 and 1865; New York, 1883 (Campaigns of the Civil War — XII).

Hyde, Thomas W. Following the Greek Cross, or Memories of the Sixth Army Corps; Boston, 1895.

Johnston, R. M. Bull Run, Its Strategy and Tactics; Boston, 1913. Everything that such a book should be.

Jones, Samuel. The Siege of Charleston . . . New York, 1911. Against the background of Lee's previous labors there.

Law, E. M. The Fight for Richmond in 1862 (Southern Bivouac, vol. 2, nos. 11 and 12, 1887). A good account of Gaines' Mill and Savage Station by a participant in the former battle.

McClellan, G. B. McClellan's Own Story; New York, 1887 [1886]. The narrative of Lee's adversary in the Seven Days' campaign and at Sharpsburg.

Marks, Reverend J. J. The Peninsula Campaign in Virginia . . . Philadelphia, 1864. By a minister who spent much time at Savage Station and observed McClellan's retreat to the James.

Marshall, Charles. Appomattox. An Address Delivered before the Society of the Army and Navy of the Confederate States in the State of Maryland on Jan. 19, 1894 . . . Baltimore, 1894. A major authority on the details of Appomattox.

Maury, Richard L. The Battle of Williamsburg . . . Richmond, 1880.

Montfort, E. R. From Grafton to McDowell . . . Cincinnati, 1886. Contains some useful descriptions of Tygart's Valley.

Mosby, John S. Stuart's Cavalry in the Gettysburg Campaign; New York, 1908. A controversial document of uneven merit.

Page, Charles A. Letters of a War Correspondent . . . Boston, 1899. Gives some useful references to terrain, weather, etc.

Palfrey, F. W. The Antietam and Fredericksburg; New York, 1882 (Campaigns of the Civil War — V).

Porter, Fitz John (defendant). Proceedings and Report of the Board of Army Officers . . . in the Case of Fitz John Porter . . . Washington, 1879. Two editions, that in two volumes (Congressional Series No. 1871, 1872) contains the important maps.

Robertson, Leigh. The South before and at the Battle of the Wilderness . . . Richmond, 1878.

Ropes, John C. The Story of the Civil War . . . New York, 1894‑1913. 3 parts in 4 vols., completed by W. R. Livermore. An admirable study.

Ross, Fitzgerald. A visit to the Cities and Camps of the Confederate States . . . Edinburgh and London . . . 1865. Reprinted from Blackwood's Edinburg Magazine.

Scales, Alfred M. The Battle of Fredericksburg . . . Washington, 1884.

Schaff, Morris. The Battle of the Wilderness; Boston, 1910. The fullest account of operations of May 4‑7, 1864.

Schaff, Morris. The Sunset of the Confederacy; Boston, 1912. Narrative  p560  of the retreat to Appomattox, wordy and rhetorical but mustering many little-known facts.

Scheibert, Justus. Der Bürgerkrieg in dem Nordamerikanischen Staaten; Militärisch beleuchtet für den deutschen Offizier . . . Berlin, 1874. The summary by a Prussian observer of the military methods of the American armies; especially important for its statement of Lee's theory of the function of the high command; translated both into French and into English.

Smith, Gustavus W. Confederate War Papers; Fairfax Court House, New Orleans, Seven Pines, Richmond, and North Carolina . . . New York, 1884.

Smith, Gustavus W. The Battle of Seven Pines . . . New York, 1891.

U. S. War Department. Proceedings, Findings, and Opinions of the Court of Inquiry . . . in the Case of Gouverneur K. Warren . . . Washington, 1883, 3 vols. Much material on Five Forks.

Venable, C. S. The Campaign from the Wilderness to Petersburg. Address . . . Before the Virginia Division of the Army of Northern Virginia . . . Richmond, 1879. Reprinted in 14 S. H. S. P. and quoted therefrom in the text of this work.

Webb, W. S. The Peninsula; New York, 1882 (Campaigns of the Civil War — III).

Wells, Edward L. [Wade] Hampton and His Cavalry in '64; Richmond, 1899.

Wise, George. Campaigns and Battles of the Army of Northern Virginia . . . New York, 1916.

Wise, Jennings C. The Long Arm of Lee . . . Lynchburg, Va., 1915, 2 vols. The fullest study of the artillery of the Army of Northern Virginia.

[Wolseley, Garnet, later Viscount Wolseley.] A Month's Visit to the Confederate Headquarters . . . (Blackwood's Edinburg Magazine, vol. 93, no. 567, January, 1863). Visited the Army of Northern Virginia shortly after the Sharpsburg campaign.

Young, Jesse Bowman. The Battle of Gettysburg . . . New York, 1913.


The brigade and regimental histories of the Army of Northern Virginia are by no means as numerous as those of the Army of the Potomac. In addition to those here listed, some will be found in the S. H. S. P.

Baylor, George. Bull Run to Bull Run . . . Richmond, 1900. A history of Co. B., Twelfth Virginia Cavalry.

Beale, R. L. T. History of the Ninth Virginia Cavalry . . . Richmond, 1899.

Blackford, Charles M., Jr. Annals of the Lynchburg Home Guard . . . Lynchburg, Va., 1891.

Caldwell, J. F. J. The History of a Brigade of South Carolinians Known First as Gregg's and subsequently as McGowan's Brigade . . . Philadelphia, 1866. A most useful work.

 p561  Clark, Walter, ed. Histories of the Several Regiments and Battalions from North Carolina in the Great War 1861‑65; Written by Members of the Respective Commands . . . Raleigh and Goldsboro, N. C., 1901. Five invaluable volumes with many little-known references to General Lee.

Daniel, Frederick S. Richmond Howitzers in the War . . . Richmond, 1891.

Davis, Reverend Nicholas A. The Campaign from Texas to Maryland . . . Richmond, 1863. A history of the Fourth Texas through the battle of Fredericksburg.

Dickert, D. Augustus. History of Kershaw's Brigade . . . Newberry, S. C., 1899. Most useful.

Figg, Royal W. Where Men Only Dare to Go . . . Richmond, 1885. A history of the Parker Battery.

Goldsborough, W. W. The Maryland Line in the Confederate States Army; Baltimore, 1869.

Hackley, Woodford B. The Little Fork Rangers . . . Richmond, 1927.

Harrison, Walter. Pickett's Men . . . New York, 1870. A brief history of the division.

Head, Thomas A. Campaigns and Battles of the Sixteenth Regiment, Tennessee Volunteers . . . Nashville, Tenn., 1885. Invaluable on the Cheat Mountain campaign.

Herbert, Arthur. Sketches and Incidents of Movements of the Seventeenth Virginia infantry . . . n. p., n. d. Brief.

Hurst, M. B. History of the Fourteenth . . . Alabama Volunteers . . . Richmond, 1863.

Irby, Richard. Historical Sketch of the Nottoway Grays, Afterwards Co. G., Eighteenth Virginia Regiment . . . Richmond, 1878.

Izlar, William V. A Sketch of the War Record of the Edisto Rifles . . . Columbia, S. C., 1914. This unit belonged to Hagood's brigade.

Loehr, Charles T. War History of the Old First Virginia Infantry Regiment . . . Richmond, 1884.

McCarthy, Carlton, ed. Contributions to a History of the Richmond Howitzer Battalion; Richmond, 1883‑86, 4 pamphlets.

McDaniel, J. J. Diary of Battles, Marches, and Incidents of the Seventh S. C. Regiment . . . n. p., 1862. Very brief.

Myers, Frank M. The Comanches: A History of White's Battalion, Virginia Cavalry, Laurel Brig., Hampton Div., . . . Baltimore, 1871. Good on the activities of the cavalry during the retreat to Appomattox.

Nichols, G. W. A Soldier's Story of His Regiment [61st Georgia] and Incidents of the Lawton-Gordon-Evans Brigade . . . n. p., 1898.

Owen, William M. In Camp and Battle with the Washington Artillery of New Orleans; Boston, 1885. Often quoted.

Polley, J. B. Hood's Texas Brigade . . . New York, 1910. A most informative work on a very famous brigade.

Reid, J. W. History of the Fourth Regiment of S. C. Volunteers . . . Greenville, S. C., 1892.

Shaver, Lewellyn A. History of the Sixtieth Alabama Regiment . . . Montgomery, 1867. Exceptionally accurate.

 p562 Shoemaker, John J. Shoemaker's Battery; Memphis, Tenn., n. d. This battery belonged to the Stuart Horse artillery.

Sloan, John A. Reminiscences of the Guildford Grays . . . Washington, 1883. Concerns Co. B, Twenty-seventh N. C. Regiment.

Thomas, Henry W. History of the Doles Cooke Brigade . . . Atlanta, 1903. Most informative.

Wise, George. History of the Seventeenth Virginia Infantry . . . Baltimore, 1870. Belonged to Pickett's division but was not at Gettysburg.


Alexander, E. P. Military Memoirs of a Confederate . . . New York, 1907. Occasionally overcritical but, on the whole, the most valuable single commentary on the operations of the Army of Northern Virginia.

Butler, Benjamin F. Private and Official Correspondence of . . . During the Period of the Civil War; Norwood, Mass., 1917.

Cooke, Giles B. Just Before and After Lee Surrendered to Grant . . . n. p., 1922. Reprinted in two editions from The Houston (Texas) Chronicle, Oct. 8, 1922.

Early, Jubal A. A Memoir of the Last Year of the War for Independence in the Confederate States of America . . . Lynchburg, Va., 1867.

Early, Jubal A. Autobiographical Sketch and Narrative of the War Between the States; with notes by R. H. Early . . . Philadelphia, 1912. This contains the whole text of the preceding item and much material on earlier operations. Early was also a prolific contributor to the Gettysburg controversy. [The work is online here, although without the notes; in a single 1.1‑MB page.]

Gibbon, John. Personal Recollections of the Civil War . . . New York, 1928. Completed in 1885 on the basis of war-time diaries and letters.

Gordon, John B. Reminiscences of the Civil War . . . New York, 1903. Rich in incident but written late in life.

Grimes, Bryan. Extracts of Letters of . . . to His Wife. Written while in Active Service in the Army of Northern Virginia . . . Complied by Pulaski Cowper . . . Raleigh, 1883. Excellent on operations witnessed by General Grimes.

Hagood, Johnson. Memoirs of the War of Secession from the Original Manuscripts of . . . Columbia, S. C., 1910. Useful material on operations of Hoke's division, May-December, 1864.

Hood, John B. Advance and Retreat . . . New Orleans, 1880. Comment on operations of the Army of Northern Virginia to the autumn of 1863, and thereafter concerned with the Army of Tennessee.

Johnston, Joseph E. Narrative of Military Operations during the late War between the States . . . New York, 1872.

Longstreet, James. From Manassas to Appomattox, Memoirs of the Civil War in America . . . Philadelphia, 1896. Important but inaccurate. For the various charges that Longstreet did not write some of the historical papers that appeared over his signature, and for his part in the Gettysburg controversy, see 4 S. H. S. P., 4, and 5 ibid., 273‑74; New Orleans Republican, Feb. 27, 1876; Philadelphia Weekly Times, Feb.  p563  23, 1878. Colonel Henderson's review of Longstreet's book, originally published in the United Service Journal, was reprinted in 39 S. H. S. P., 104.

Longstreet, James. General Longstreet as a Critic; Washington Post, June 11, 1893, p10, cols. 1 and 2. An important critique.

Marshall, Charles. An Aide-de‑Camp of Lee, Being the Papers of Colonel Charles Marshall . . . Edited by Major General Sir Frederick Maurice . . . [Boston, 1927]. A major authority for the incidents covered but, unfortunately, incomplete.

Paxton, Elisha Franklin. Memoir and Memorials . . . Composed of his Letters from Camp and Field . . . Collected and Arranged by his son, John Gallatin Paxton; Washington, 1907.

Pickett, George E. Soldier of the South . . . Pickett's War Letters to His Wife . . . Boston, 1928. One of several editions of General Pickett's letters, edited by his wife. They are rarely quoted in these volumes.

Sorrel, G. Moxley. Recollections of a Confederate Staff Officer; New York, 1917, 2d ed. One of the most charming of all books on the War between the States, with some candid character sketches.

Taylor, Richard. Destruction and Reconstruction: Personal Experiences of the Late War; New York, 1879. Excellent on the Valley campaign of 1862 and on the Seven Days; delightfully written.


Anderson, C. S. Train Running for the Confederacy (Locomotive Engineering, 1892, 1893, 1897, 1898). Contains much valuable data on the transportation of the Army of the Valley and the Army of Northern Virginia.

Beale, G. W. A Lieutenant of Cavalry in Lee's Army; Boston, 1918.

Blackford, Mrs. Susan Lee (Colston). Memoirs of Life in and out of the Army in Virginia during the War between the States . . . Lynchburg, Va., 1894‑96, 2 vols. Contains a noble account of Appomattox.

Borcke, Heros von. Memoirs of the Confederate War for Independence . . . London, 1866, 2 vols. Not literally accurate in all particulars but useful on relations between Lee and Stuart.

Brock, Miss Sally [Mrs. Richard Putnam]. Richmond During the War . . . New York, 1867.

Brown, Philip F. Reminiscences of the War of 1861‑1865 . . . Richmond, 1917. Good on Malvern Hill and Crampton Gap. The writer was in St. Paul's church, Richmond, on the day the city was evacuated.

Casler, John O. Four Years in the Stonewall Brigade . . . Guthrie, Okla., 1893.

Chamberlaine, William W. Memoirs of the Civil War . . . Washington, 1912. A most useful book by an officer often in contact with Lee.

Chamberlayne, C. G., ed. Ham Chamberlayne — Virginian . . . Richmond, Va., 1933. Charming letters by a young artillerist.

Chesnut, Mary Boykin. A Diary from Dixie . . . New York, 1905. A standard work on Southern society during the war, by the wife of James Chesnut, Jr. [The work is online here.]

 p564 Corbin, Richard W. Letters of a Confederate Officer to His Family in Europe during the Last Year of the War of Secession . . . New York, 1913. By a member of General Field's staff; good on operations north of the James in 1864.

Dame, William M. From the Rapidan to Richmond and the Spotsylvania Campaign; Baltimore, 1920. By a member of the Richmond Howitzers.

Dawson, Francis W. Reminiscences of Confederate Service . . . Charleston, 1882. Some first-hand views of Lee and of Longstreet.

De Leon, T. C. Belles and Beaux and Brains of the 60's . . . New York, 1909.

De Leon, T. C. Four Years in Rebel Capitals . . . Mobile, Ala., 1890.

Dunaway, Wayland F. Reminiscences of a Rebel . . . New York, 1913.

Dunlop, W. S. Lee's Sharpshooters . . . Little Rock, Ark., 1899. Contains much information on the Spotsylvania campaign.

Eggleston, George Cary. A Rebel's Recollections . . . New York, 1875. A very sprightly and intelligent narrative.

Fletcher, W. A. Rebel Private, Front and Rear . . . Beaumont, Texas, 1908. No direct references of importance to Lee but good on the morale of Hood's brigade; one of the most diverting of personal narratives.

Gill, John. Reminiscences of Four Years as a Private Soldier in the Confederate Army . . . Baltimore, 1904. The author was one of Jackson's couriers during the Seven Days.

Gilmore, Harry. Four Years in the Saddle; New York, 1866.

Graham, James A. The James A. Graham Papers; edited by H. M. Wagstaff . . . Chapel Hill, N. C. 1928. Excellent for the viewpoint of a young soldier of good education and social position.

Harrison, Mrs. Burton. Recollections Grave and Gay . . . Richmond, 1911. Admirable picture of war-time Richmond, with a few glimpses of Lee.

Hopkins, Luther W. From Bull Run to Appomattox, A Boy's View . . . Baltimore, 1908; 2d edition, 1911. The author belonged to the troop of cavalry that served as Lee's escort on entering Maryland in 1862.

Howard, McHenry. Recollections of a Maryland Soldier and Staff Officer . . . Baltimore, 1914. An excellent narrative.

Huse, Caleb. The Supplies for the Confederate Army . . . Boston, 1904.

Johnston, David E. The Story of a Confederate Boy in the Civil War . . . Portland, 1914. One of the best of all the personal narratives, written by a member of the 7th Virginia Infantry, Kemper's Brigade.

Jones, J. B. A Rebel War Clerk's Diary . . . Philadelphia, 1866, 2 vols. Full of war-office gossip, much of it concerning Lee.

Lee, Miss S. L. War Time in Alexandria, Virginia (South Atlantic Quarterly, vol. 4, no. 3, July, 1905).

Lewis, John H. Recollections from 1860 to 1865 . . . Washington, 1895. By a lieutenant in Pickett's division.

Lewis, Richard. Camp Life of a Confederate Boy of Bratton's Brigade . . . Charleston, S. C., 1883.

Livermore, Thomas L. Days and Events, 1860‑66; Boston, 1920. A good picture of Lee, as he appeared to thoughtful men in the Army of the Potomac.

 p565  Lyman, Theodore. Meade's Headquarters, 1863‑65; Letters of . . . from the Wilderness to Appomattox . . . Boston, 1922. Admirably edited by George R. Agassiz.

McCarthy, Carlton. Detailed Minutiae of Soldier Life . . . Richmond, 1882. Very rich in its descriptions of army life.

McGuire, Judith W. [Mrs. John P.] Diary of a Southern Refugee . . . Richmond, 1889, 3d edition. One of the best and most familiar accounts of Richmond during the war.

McKim, Randolph H. A Soldier's Recollections . . . New York, 1910. Excellent on Steuart's brigade at Gettysburg.

Malone, Bartlett Y. Diary of . . . edited by W. W. Pierson, Jr. . . . Chapel Hill, N. C., 1919. By a member of the 6th N. C. Infantry; a curious document but very useful for its notes on the weather.

Mixson, Frank M. Reminiscences of a Private . . . Columbia, S. C., 1910. One of the best and frankest narratives by a private soldier, a member of the 1st South Carolina Infantry, Jenkins's Brigade. Very full on the attempt to recover Fort Harrison, Sept. 30, 1864.

Moncure, E. C. Reminiscences of the Civil War . . . n. p. [1914?] A thrilling account of the march from Spotsylvania to the North Anna, May, 1864; republished in Bulletin of the Virginia State Library, Nos. 2‑3, July, 1927.

Monteiro, Aristides. War Reminiscences of a Surgeon of Mosby's Command . . . Richmond, 1890.

Moore, Edward A. The Story of a Cannoneer under Stonewall Jackson . . . New York, 1907. One of the half-dozen best; describes the career of the Rockbridge Artillery.

Morgan, W. H. Personal Reminiscences of the War of 1861‑65 . . . Lynchburg, Va., 1911.

Mosby, John S. Memoirs of [edited by Charles W. Russell]; Boston, 1917.

Mosby, John S. War Reminiscences . . . Boston, 1887.

Napier, Bartlett. A Soldier's Story of the War . . . New Orleans, 1874.

Nisbet, James Cooper. Four Years on the Firing Line . . . Chattanooga, Tenn., 1914. By a captain in Trimble's old brigade.

Parks, Leighton. What a Boy Saw of the Civil War (Century Magazine, vol. 70, no. 2, June, 1905). Some fine incidents of Lee's two invasions of Maryland.

Peck, R. H. Reminiscences of a Confederate Soldier . . . Fincastle, Va., n. d. By a member of the 2d Virginia Cavalry.

Polley, J. B. A Soldier's Letter to Charming Nellie . . . New York, 1908. The author belonged to Hood's Texas brigade.

Potts, Frank. The Death of the Confederacy . . . edited by D. S. Freeman; Richmond, 1928. Published originally in The Palmetto Leaf, Cedar Springs, S. C., Dec. 25, 1926, Jan. 1 and 8, 1927. An important letter on the evacuation of Richmond and the surrender at Appomattox.

Stewart, William H. A Pair of Blankets . . . New York, 1911. Many interesting references to Lee, especially in Pennsylvania and at the battle of the Crater.

Stiles, Robert. Four Years under Marse Robert; Washington, 1903. Accurate and wholly delight­ful.

 p566 Stonebraker, Joseph R. A Rebel of '61 . . . New York, 1899.

Taylor, Charles E. War Letters (Wake Forest Student, vol. 35, no. 6, March, 1916. The author was with Lee in western Virginia.

Toney, Marcus B. The Privations of a Private . . . Nashville, Tenn., 1905. This author, also, was with Lee in western Virginia.

Welch, Spencer G. A Confederate Surgeon's Letters to his Wife . . . Washington, 1911. This author, the surgeon of the 13th South Carolina, McGowan's brigade, wrote a series of letters that are to be rated among the very first sources of information on the health, morale, and food supply of the Army of Northern Virginia.

West, John C. A Texan in Search of a Fight . . . Waco, Texas, 1901. Some good contemporary letters on the march into Pennsylvania and on Hood's charge, July 2, 1863.

Wood, James H. The War . . . Cumberland, Md., 1910. The author was a captain in the 37th Virginia.

Worsham, John H. One of Jackson's Foot Cavalry . . . New York, 1912. Excellent in every way, especially for the campaigns in Western Virginia, 1861.

Wright, Mrs. D. Giraud. A Southern Girl in '61 . . . New York, 1905.


Davis, Jefferson. The Rise and Fall of the Confederate Government . . . New York, 1881, 2 vols. Indispensable but singularly reticent on Davis's dealings with General Lee.

Henry, Robert S. The Story of the Confederacy; Indianapolis, 1931. The best short narrative of the war by a Southerner; graphic and dependable.

Jones, J. William. Christ in the Camp or Religion in Lee's Army . . . Richmond, 1887.

Lonn, Ella. Desertion during the Civil War; New York, 1928.

Moore, Albert Burton. Conscription and Conflict in the Confederacy . . . New York, 1924. An excellent study of conscription and exemptions.

Ramsdell, Charles W. The Confederate Government and the Railroads (American Historical Review, vol. 22, no. 4, July, 1917).

Ramsdell, Charles W. General Robert E. Lee's Horse Supply, 1862‑1865 (American Historical Review, vol. 35, no. 4, July, 1930).

Randall, James G. The Newspaper Problem in its Bearing upon Military Secrecy during the Civil War (American Historical Review, vol. 23, no. 2, January, 1918).

Shanks, H. T. The Secession Movement in Virginia, 1847‑1861; Richmond [1934].

Smith, Edward C. The Borderland in the Civil War . . . New York, 1927.

Smith, Francis H. The Virginia Military Institute . . . Lynchburg, 1912.

Stephens, Alexander H. A Constitutional View of the Late War between the States; Philadelphia, 1868, 2 vols.

Swantner, Eva. Military Railroads during the Civil War (Military Engineer, vols. 21‑22). Contains little on the South.  p567 


The manuscript material and the works of R. E. Lee, Jr., and of J. william jones are supplemented by a number of works, among which the following are of especial interest or importance:

Acton, John Emerich Edward Dalberg Acton First Baron. Selections from the Correspondence of . . . Edited with an Introduction by John Neville Figgis and Reginald Vere Laurence . . . London, 1917. Contains Lee's letter in answer to Acton's inquiry regarding secession and the attitude of the Southern States after the war.

Avary, Myrta L. Dixie After the War; New York, 1906. Some useful anecdotes.

Bond, Christiana. Memories of General Robert E. Lee; Baltimore, 1926, reprint of Recollections of General Robert E. Lee, originally published in South Atlantic Quarterly, vol. 24, 1925.

McDonald, Hunter. General Lee after Appomattox; originally printed in Tennessee Historical Magazine, vol. 9, no. 4, January, 1926.

Macrae, David. The Americans at Home: Pen-and‑Ink Sketches of American Men, Manners and Institutions; Edinburgh, 1870, 2 vols. Contains (vol. 1) accounts of a visit to Lexington and of an interview the General Lee; includes, also, some incidents of Lee and the army. The first edition spells the name MacRae, the second Macrae. The latter form of the name is used in the text.

Martin, C. S. General Lee and a School of Commerce (Journal of Political Economy, vol. 34, 1926).

Riley, Franklin P. General Robert E. Lee After Appomattox; New York, 1922. Consists chiefly of memoirs by former students, together with several useful essays on Lee's career at Washington College.

South Carolina, University of. Robert E. Lee: Centennial Celebration of His Birth, Held under the Auspices of the . . . Columbia, S. C., 1907. Contains an address by Major H. E. Young of Lee's staff and an article on Lee as a college president by Doctor Edward S. Joynes of Lee's faculty, a paper in which the author supplemented the data published in the University Monthly, March, 1871.

U. S. Congress. Report of the Joint Committee on Reconstruction, at the first session of the Thirty-ninth Congress; Washington, 1866. Bureau edition. Issued also as House report No. 30, 1st sess., 39th Congress. Contains Lee's testimony as a witness before the committee.


Maps used by Lee during the Mexican War and a copy of one of those drawn by him are in the library of the Virginia Military Institute; those made by him personally or under his direction in Mexico are in the War Department, Washington.

The Atlas to Accompany the Official Records of the Union and Confederate  p568  Armies . . . Washington, 1891‑95, is the great vade mecum for the study of Lee's campaigns, but it can be supplemented as follows:

Maps of the Seven Days Campaign, Prepared by Lieutenant Colonel H. L. Landers, F. A., Historical Section, Army War College, Washington, D. C., August, 1929; drawn by Donald E. Windham. These maps have never been published.

Maps of Second Manassas contained in the two-volume edition of the Fitz John Porter Inquiry, supra, p559.

Atlas of the Battlefields of Antietam, Prepared under the direction of the Antietam Battlefield Board . . . Washington, 1904, the most detailed and accurate maps of any single battlefield on which the Army of Northern Virginia fought.

Topographic Map of Fredericksburg and Vicinity, Virginia, Showing Battlefields . . . Surveyed in 1931; issued by the Department of the Interior, Geological Survey.

Maps in John Bigelow, Jr.: The Campaign of Chancellorsville; New Haven, 1910. These cover every phase of the operations.

Map[s] of the Battlefield of Gettysburg . . . Office of the Chief of Engineers, U. S. Army, 1876. These are the famous John B. Bachelder maps.

M. F. Steele. American Campaigns; Washington, 1909, 2 vols. The second volume includes a convenient collection of maps, of virtually all the major operations of the War between the States.

For operations in Virginia, from the beginning of the campaign of 1864, there is available the series of maps prepared at the instance of General Grant and under the direction of Brevetted Brigadier General N. Micheler. These maps are reproduced in the Atlas of the Official Records but on a very small scale. The separate sheets, done in black and white, with the fortifications in color, are on a scale 3 inches to the mile or, for large sectors, 1½ inches to the mile. Although the names of residents and even of streams are often wretchedly misspelled, these maps are almost essential to close study of the terrain.

There are, in addition, some good maps in Battles and Leaders of the Civil War, and often, most unexpectedly, one finds valuable sketches in the Official Records. This is especially true of the reports of General G. K. Warren.

Before the historical student despairs of finding a map of a front he is studying, it is well to make direct inquiry not only to the Library of Congress but also to the War Department, where many maps not printed in the Atlas of the Official Records are in existence, and properly indexed. The Confederate Museum, Richmond, likewise contains some unpublished maps. Those available there in 1908 are listed in D. S. Freeman, ed. Calendar of Confederate Papers, 486 ff. A few rare maps have been added to the collection since that time. The map section of the Virginia State Library is also useful.


In the preparation of this biography, the files of all Richmond newspapers for the period of the War between the States have been searched, as have The  p569  Charleston Mercury and The National Intelligencer of Washington. The New York Herald, The World, The New York Times, and The New York Evening Post have been examined for special periods of the war. For events after the close of hostilities, The Lexington (Va.) Gazette is the principal newspaper authority on Lee, but the papers of virtually all the cities visited by him contain accounts of his movements. As these publications are cited in the footnotes for all General Lee's journeyings, it has not been thought necessary to list them here. Generally speaking, newspaper material on Lee during the war is historically less valuable than might be thought. In the South it was fragmentary or laudatory, and in the North it was, in the main, uncritically hostile. Reports after the war were much more accurate and substantially supplement General Lee's correspondence.

The Author's Notes:

1 These will be cited in this bibliography, as in the text, by the abbreviation S. H. S. P.

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