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Bill Thayer
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CAP. XI: Germaniae magnae situs (Europae tabula quarta)
Book II, Chapter 10: Greater Germany (Fourth Map of Europe)

My notes on the map:

No information has been added to Ptolemy's text as I have it: there is no topographic data and except for the Danube, the courses of the rivers remain unmapped, since at best, Ptolemy gives only the mouth and the source.

To accommodate Ptolemy's own data, three adjustments had to be made to the coast. He does not list Phleum and Laciburgium in his plotting of the coast, so they must be at least slightly inland; conversely, he calls the asterisked point on the NW coast of Cimbria a promontory (as indeed it is) so I adjusted the coast after it, drawing a bay of arbitrary depth.

Notice that while the orientation of the rest of the map is more or less accurate, Cimbria — modern Denmark — is tilted clockwise by about 60°. As in the even more striking case of Scotland in Ptolemy's map of Britannia, I attribute the rotation to the fact that Roman troops never reached the region: Ptolemy thus had no land measurements available and had to rely on pilots' accounts, influenced by winds and sea-currents.

Germaniae latus occidentale Rhenus fluvius terminat, septentrionale vero Germanicus Oceanus, cuius lateris descriptio haec est.

Post Rheni fluvii ostia

The western boundary of Germany is the river Rhine, and its northern boundary is the Germanic Ocean, of the shore of which the following is a description.

After the mouths of the Rhine river:

Vidri fluvii ostia The mouths of the Vidrus river 27*30 54o45
Marnamanis portus Marnamanis, a port 28*00 54o15
Amisiae fluvii ostia The mouths of the Amisia river 29*00 55o00
fontes fluvii The sources of the river 32*00 53o00
Visurgis fluvii ostia The mouths of the Visurgis river 31*00 55o00
fontes fluvii the sources of the river 34*00 52o30
Albis fluvii ostia The mouths of the Albis river 31*00 56o15
fontes fluvii the sources of the river 39*00 50o00

Cimbricae Chersonesi The Cimbrian peninsula
post Albim prominentia the cape after the Albis 32*00 56o50
proxima prominentia the next cape 35*00 58o20
sequens maxime borealis the next one, the northernmost 38*40 59o30
prima post conversionem prominentia the first cape after the bend 39*20 59o20
pars maxime orientalis the easternmost part of it 40*15 58o30
proxima infra hanc the next one below this one 37*00 57o00
ad ortum solis inflexio a bend towards the east 35*00 56o00
Chalusi fluvii ostia the mouths of the Chalusus river 37*00 56o00
Suevi fluvii ostia the mouths of the Suevus river 39*30 56o00
Viaduae fluvii ostia the mouths of the Viadua river 42*30 56o00
Vistulae fluvii ostia the mouths of the Vistula river 45*00 56o00
caput fluvii the head of the river 44*00 52o30
fons qui ab eo ad occasum est et ad Albim fertur the source which is to the west and is said to be towards the Albis 40*10 52o40

Meridianum vero latus terminat Danubii fluminis pars occidentalis, cuius haec positio est: The south side is bounded by the western part of the Danube river, whose position is this:
caput fluminis [Danubii] the head of the Danube river 30*00 46o20
ubi primus qui ex Germania decurrit in eum influit fluvius where the first river that flows into it from Germany enters 32*00 47o15
ubi a latere meridiano fluvius in eum influit, qui appellatur Ænus where a river flows into it from the south side; it is called the Aenus 34*00 47o20
ubi secundus a septentrionali parte fluvius in eum influit ex Gabretae Silvae regione decurrens where a second river flows into it from the northern side from the region of the Forest of Gabreta 36*00 46o40
ubi proximus a septentrionibus Lunam Silvam praeterfluens fluvius in eum effunditur where next from the north a river traversing the Luna Forest throws itself into it 39*20 47o20
sequens inflexio, a qua meridiem versus [Danubius] inflectitur the next bend, from which the Danube turns southwards 40*40 47o50
ubi a meridiana parte fluvius in eum influit, qui appellatur Arabo where a river flows into it from the north, which is called Arabo 41*00 47o40
flexio prope Curtam a bend near Curta 42*00 47o00
proxima inflexio prope Carpin, quae omnium est maxime septentrionalis the next bend near Carpis, which is the northernmost one of all 42*30 48o00

Orientale latus terminatur eo intervallo, quod est inter hanc inflexionem et Sarmaticos montes supra eam sitos, quorum The eastern side is bounded by that interval, which is between this last bend and the abovementioned Sarmatian mountains,
australis terminus the southern boundary of which is in 42*30 48o30
septentrionalis vero and the northern boundary of which is in 43*30 50o30
atque intervallo inter hos montes et Vistulae caput quod supra indicavimus; deinde mari tenus ipso flumine. and the interval between these mountains and the head of the Vistulae is that which we indicated above; then to the sea by the river itself.

Montium qui Germaniam intersecant celeberrimi sunt quos modo diximus quique proprie nuncupantur Sarmatici, atque ii, qui Alpibus cognomines supra Danubii caput sunt, Of the mountains that traverse Germany the most famous are those we have mentioned and are properly called the Sarmatian Mountains, and those, which under the name of Alps are above the head of the Danube,
quorumque extremae partes sitae the farthest parts of which are at 29*00 47o00
et and 33*00 48o30
atque qui Abnobaei dicuntur, quorum extremae partes sitae sunt and those that are called Abnoba, the farthest parts of which are located in 31*00 49o00
et and 31*00 52o00
et Melibocus, cuius partes extremae sitae sunt and the Melibocus, the farthest parts of which are located in 33*00 52o30
et and 37*00 52o30
infra quem est Semanus Silva; et Asciburgius mons, cuius extrema sita sunt below which is the Semanus Forest; and Mt. Asciburgius, the farthest parts of which are 39*00 54o00
et and 44*00 52o30
atque qui dicuntur Sudeti montes, quorum extrema sita sunt and those mountains that are called Sudeti, the farthest parts of which are at 34*00 50o00
et and 40*00 50o00
infra quos est Gabreta Silva; inter hos vero et Sarmaticos montes est Orcynius Saltus. below which is the Gabreta Forest; and between them and the Sarmatian mountains is the Orcynian valley.

Habitant autem Germaniam praeter Rhenum fluvium, si a septentrionibus progredimur, Bructeri minores et Sygambri, infra quos Suevi Langobardi; deinde Tencteri et Incriones inter Rhenum et Abnobaeos montes; atque deinde Intuergi et Vargiones et Caritni, infra quos Vispi et Helvetiorum Desertum usque ad eos quos diximus Alpes montes. Those that inhabit Germany on the other side of the river Rhine, if we go towards the north, are the Bructeri minores and the Sygambri, below whom the Suevi Langobardi; then the Tencteri and the Incriones between the Rhine and the Abnobaei mountains; and then the Intuergi and the Vargiones and the Caritni, below whom the Vispi and the Desert of the Helvetii until those mountains we referred to as the Alps.

Oram praeter Oceanum inhabitant supra Bructeros Frisii usque ad Amisiam fluvium; post hos Cauchi minores usque ad Visurgim fluvium; deinde Cauchi maiores usque ad Albim fluvium; inde per cervicem Cimbricae Chersonesi Saxones, ipsam autem Chersonesum supra Saxones ab occasu Sigulones, deinde Sabalingii, deinde Cobandi, supra quos Chali, et rursus supra hos ad occasum Fundusii, ad ortum Charudes, omnium vero maxime ad septentriones Cimbri; post Saxones a Chaluso fluvio ad Suevum fluvium Farodini, deinde Sidini usque ad Viaduam fluvium, et post eos Rugiclei usque ad Vistulam fluvium.

Ex gentibus introrsum et in media terra habitantibus maximae sunt gentes Suevorum Angilorum, qui ad orientem sunt a Langobardis septentriones versus extenti usque ad mediam Albis fluvii partem, et Suevorum Semnonum, quorum fines ultra Albim ab ea quam diximus parte orientem versus pertingunt usque ad Suevum fluvium, et Burguntarum, qui inde usque ad Vistulam habitant. Of the people of the interior and those wo live inland the most important are the Suevi Angili, who are to the east of the Langobardi extending towards the north and up to the central part of the Albis river, and the Suevi Semnones, whose boundaries beyond the Albis extend from the area we mentioned towards the east up to the Suevus river, and the Burguntae, who inhabit from there to the Vistula.

Minores vero etiam interiacent gentes et quidem inter Cauchos minores et Suevos Bructeri maiores, infra quos Chaemae; inter Cauchos maiores et Suevos Angrivarii, deinde Laccobardi, infra quos Dulgubnii; inter Saxones et Suevos Teutonoari atque Viruni; inter Pharodinos et Suevos Teutones atque Avarni; inter Rugicleos et Burguntas Aelvaeones.

Rursus infra Semnones sedes habent Silingae, et infra Burguntas Lugi Omani, infra quos Lugi Diduni usque ad Asciburgium montem; et infra Silingas Calucones ad utramque ripam Albis fluminis, infra quos Chaerusci et Camavi usque ad Melibocum montem, a quibus ad orientem circa Albim fluvium Baenochaemae, supra quos Batini, et supra hos infra Asciburgium montem Corconti et Lugi Buri usque ad Vistulae fluvii caput; infra hos autem primi Sidones, deinde Cotini, deinde Visburgii supra Orcynium Saltum. Back below the Semnones the Silingae have their seat, and below the Burguntae the Lugi Omani, below whom the Lugi Diduni up to Mt. Asciburgius; and below the Silingae the Calucones and the Camavi up to Mt. Melibocus, from whom to the east near the Albis river and above them, below Mt. Asciburgius, the Corconti and the Lugi Buri up to the head of the Vistula river; and below them first the Sidones, then the Cotini, then the Visburgii above the Orcynius valley.

Rursus ad orientem ab Abnobaeis montibus sedes habent infra Suevos Casuari, deinde Nertereani, deinde Danduti, infra quos Turoni et Marvingi; infra Camavos Chattae et Tubanti, atque supra Sudetos montes Teuriochaemae, infra montes vero Varisti; deinde Gabreta Silva; et infra Marvingos Curiones, deinde Chaetuori, atque Danubio tenus Parmaecampi; infra Gabretam Silvam Marcomani, infra quos Sudini, et usque ad Danubium fluvium Adrabaecampi; infra Orcynium Saltum Quadi, infra quos ferri fodinae et Luna Silva, infra quam magna gens Baemorum Danubio tenus, et finitimi eis iuxta fluvium Racatriae quique ad fluminis flexiones habitant Racatae.

Oppida vero per Germaniam ponuntur in climate septentrionali haec: The following towns are found in Germany in the northern climate:
Phleum Phleum 28*45 54o45
Siatutanda Siatutanda 29*20 54o20
Tecelia Tecelia 31*00 55o00
Fabiranum Fabiranum 31*30 55o20
Treva Treva 33*00 55o40
Leufana Leufana 34*15 54o40
Lirimiris Lirimiris 34*30 55o30
Marionis Marionis 34*30 54o50
altera Marionis another Marionis 36*00 55o50
Coenoënum Coenoënum 36*20 55o30
Cistuia Cistuia 37*20 54o30
Alisus Alisus 38*00 55o00
Laciburgium Laciburgium 39*00 56o00
Bunitium Bunitium 39*30 55o30
Virunum Virunum 40*30 55o00
Viritium Viritium 41*00 54o30
Rugium Rugium 42*30 55o40
Scurgum Scurgum 43*00 55o00
Ascaucalis Ascaucalis 44*00 54o15

In climate infra illud sito oppida sunt haec: In the climate located below that one, there are the following towns:
Asciburgium Asciburgium 27*30 52o30
Navalia Navalia 27*20 54o00
Mediolanium Mediolanium 28*45 53o50
Teuderium Teuderium 29*20 53o20
Bogadium Bogadium 30*15 52o00
Stereontium Stereontium 31*00 52o10
Amisia Amisia 31*30 51o30
Munitium Munitium 31*40 52o30
Tulifurdum Tulifurdum 32*00 54o00
Ascalingium Ascalingium 32*30 53o45
Tulisurgium Tulisurgium 32*40 53o20
Pheugarum Pheugarum 32*40 52o15
Canduum Canduum 33*00 51o50
Tropaea Drusi the Trophy of Drusus 33*45 52o45
Luppia Luppia 34*30 52o45
Mersovium Mersovium 35*30 53o50
Aregelia Aregelia 36*30 52o20
Galaegia Galaegia 37*30 52o20
Lupfurdum Lupfurdum 38*10 51o40
Susudata Susudata 38*30 53o50
Colancorum Colancorum 39*00 53o30
Lugidunum Lugidunum 39*30 52o30
Stragona Stragona 39*40 52o20
Limis lucus the grove of Limis 41*00 53o30
Budorigum Budorigum 41*00 52o40
Leucaristus Leucaristus 41*45 52o40
Arsonium Arsonium 43*30 52o20
Calisia Calisia 43*45 52o50
Setidava Setidava 44*00 53o30

In climate infra illud sito oppida sunt haec: In the climate located below that one there are the following towns:
Alisum Alisum 28*00 51o30
Budoris Budoris 28*00 51o00
Mattiacum Mattiacum 30*00 50o50
Arctaunum Arctaunum 30*10 50o00
Novaesium Novaesium 31*30 51o10
Melocabus Melocabus 31*30 50o40
Gravionarium Gravionarium 31*30 50o10
Locoritum Locoritum 31*30 49o20
Segodunum Segodunum 31*30 49o00
Devona Devona 32*30 48o45
Bergium Bergium 33*00 49o30
Menosgada Menosgada 34*00 49o30
Bicurgium Bicurgium 34*30 51o15
Marobudum Marobudum 35*00 49o00
Redintuinum Redintuinum 38*30 50o30
Nomisterium Nomisterium 39*00 51o00
Meliodunum Meliodunum 39*00 49o00
Casurgis Casurgis 39*15 50o10
Strevinta Strevinta 39*15 49o30
Hegetmatia Hegetmatia 39*40 51o00
Budorgis Budorgis 40*00 50o30
Eburum Eburum 41*00 49o30
Arsicua Arsicua 41*40 49o00
Parienna Parienna 42*00 49o20
Setovia Setovia 42*30 50o00
Carrodunum Carrodunum 42*40 51o30
Asanca Asanca 43*00 50o20

In reliquo et prope Danubium fluvium oppida sunt haec: In the remainder and near the Danube river these are the towns:
Tarodunum Tarodunum 28*20 47o50
Arae Flaviae the Flavian Altars 30*40 48o00
Riusiava Riusiava 31*00 47o30
Alcimoënnis Alcimoënnis 32*30 47o30
Cantioebis Cantioebis 32*40 48o20
Bibacum Bibacum 33*00 48o00
Brodentia Brodentia 33*45 48o00
Setuacotum Setuacotum 34*00 48o20
Usbium Usbium 35*00 47o00
Abilunum Abilunum 35*20 47o20
Furgisatis Furgisatis 36*00 48o00
Coridorgis Coridorgis 37*15 48o30
Mediolanium Mediolanium 38*00 47o10
Felicia Felicia 39*00 48o30
Eburodunum Eburodunum 39*00 48o00
Anduaetium Anduaetium 40*30 47o40
Celamantia Celamantia 41*00 47o40
Singone Singone 41*30 48o15
Anavum (Adiabum?) Anavum (Adiabum?) 41*20 47o30

Insulae supra Germaniam sitae sunt ad Albis ostia quae nominantur Saxonum tres, earumque medium situm est There are three islands located above Germany at the mouths of the Albis, which are called Saxon, and the one in the middle is located at 31*00 57o20
Supra Cimbricam Chersonesum aliae tres insulae quae Alociae dicuntur, quarum medium situm est Above the Cimbrian peninsula there are three other islands which are called the Alociae islands: the one in the middle is located at 37*00 59o20
Orientem versus a Cimbrica Chersoneso quattuor insulae quae dicuntur Scandiae, tres minores, quarum quae media est positionem habet East of the Cimbrian peninsula there are four islands called the Scandian islands, three of them smaller, of which the one in the middle has the following position: 41*30 58o00
una vero maxima et maxime orientem versus ad ostia Vistulae fluvii; partes eius extremae sitae sunt but one of them very large and the most eastwards at the mouth of the river Vistula; its ends are located
ad occasum to the West 43*00 58o00
ad ortum to the East 46*00 58o00
ad septentriones to the North 44*30 58o30
ad meridiem to the south 45*00 57o40
Appellatur vero proprie et ipsa Scandia atque inhabitant partes eius occidentales Chaedini, orientales Favonae et Firaesi, septentrionales Finni, meridianas Gutae (Gautae) et Dauciones, medias Levoni. It is properly called Scandia itself; and its western region is inhabited by the Chaedini, its eastern region by the Favonae and the Firaesi, its northern region by the Finni, its southern region by the Gutae (Gautae) and the Dauciones, and its central region by the Levoni.

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Page updated: 10 Sep 09