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Joaquín Cabezas García (1867‑1948), a graduate of the men's normal school of Santiago (1886), was sent abroad three years later to study the Swedish system of physical and manual education, and continued his studies in Belgium in psychology and pedagogy. In 1893 he was made professor of manual training in the normal school and also taught gymnastics in the National Institute. He created the School of Physical Education in 1906 and reorganized it in 1919, thus making it peculiarly his institution. He is the author of numerous textbooks and has played an important part in all educational activities. — F, II, 304; Hoy, August 27, 1936, p16.
Andrés Avelino Cáceres (1833‑1924) was born at Ayacucho, Peru. As a youth he served under Ramón Castilla and from 1857 to 1860 he was military attaché at Paris. During the war against Chile he became a general and after the fall of Lima he was provisional president. In 1886 he became regular president and after an interval was again suggested for the office but declined because of intense opposition. He held diplomatic posts in France, Great Britain, and Italy. — E, X, 256.
Narciso Campero (1815‑1896) was born in Valle de Tojo, Bolivia, and studied law in Argentina, but he returned to his native country to fight against Chile. He completed his law studies in the University of Chuquisaca (now Sucre), pursued military studies in Europe, and took an active part in the uprisings against the dictators, Córdoba and Melgarejo. By successive stages he rose to the rank of general of division, minister of war, and supreme commander of the Bolivian army. During the war with Chile, in which he gave a good account of himself, he became president of Bolivia and in that capacity he had to accept the Treaty of 1884. He then retired to private life. — E, X, 1265.
Enrique Campino (1794‑1877?), who was picked out by the conspirators to head the revolt,º was himself a member of congress and came from a prominent family. His military record, however, was bad and his name inspired no confidence. He was later implicated in the conspiracy of Quillota but was saved from execution (see p269). He held the office of senator in 1863. — B, XV, 131‑144; F, II, 320‑323.
Estanislao del Canto Arteaga (1840‑1923) was born in Quillota and educated in the Military School, which he entered in 1856. Beginning his service in 1859, the year of the second uprising against Montt, he took part in the battle of Cerro Grande (see p299) and engaged in numerous campaigns against the Araucanians. As colonel he participated in the Peruvian campaigns and in 1889 he was prefect of police in Santiago. Relegated to Tacna by president Balmaceda, he was in an p460 excellent position to aid the revolutionists against that executive. He became general of division in 1891, was sent on a military mission to Europe in 1892, and forced to retire from the army in 1897. His later years were embittered by jealousy of his associates. — F, II, 343‑344.
Ignacio de la Carrera (1747‑1818) was born in Santiago, his mother being the daughter of a member of the audiencia of Chile. He had a restless disposition, and his father sent him to Peru where he passed some seven years in Lima; and then to Spain, where he lived for a year and a half in Cádiz, devoted to business. His wealth and aristocratic connections made him a valuable adherent of the patriotic cause to which his three sons were martyrs. See Miguel Luis Amunátegui, Camilo Hernández (2 vols., Santiago, 1889), I, 5‑7; J. T. Medina, "Bibliografía de Don José Miguel Carrera," in Rev. chil. de hist. y geog., XL, 326‑371; F, II, 364.
José Miguel Carrera (1785‑1821), the first president of Chile, was born in Santiago and executed in Mendoza. His parents wished him to have a literary career, but, having decided military tastes, he entered the cavalry regiment of Farnesio in Spain and distinguished himself during the war against the French, rising to the rank of captain. On learning of the outbreak of the revolution he returned to Chile and after the fall of Martínez de Rozas took the conspicuous part detailed in the preceding pages. As a consequence of the rivalry with O'Higgins, he did not support the latter in the battle of Rancagua. After this reverse he went to Buenos Aires in 1816 and thence to the United States. He returned to Buenos Aires in 1816 and later organized a plan to seize the supreme power in Chile, but was captured and shot. A monument was erected to him in Santiago in 1864. — E, XI, 1324; B, VIII, 392. See Collier and Cruz, La primera misión de los Estados Unidos de América en Chile, passim; Luis Galdames, La evolución constitucional de Chile, 1810‑192, I, 189‑191; Vicuña Mackenna, El ostracismo de los Carreras; for the Diario militar of Carrera see "Colección de historiadores i de documentos relativos a la independencia de Chile," Vol. I. A description of Carreras' Diario militar is to be found in B, IX, 634‑637, especially n. 9 on p636. See also ibid., n. 14, on pp610‑615; Agusto Iglesias, José Miguel Carrera. La rebelión armada en América (Santiago, 1934).
José Miguelº Carrera.
Courtesy Instituto de Cinematografía Educativa, Universidad de Chile.
Thayer's Note: In the print edition, this photo accompanies that of a statue of Bernardo O'Higgins, and the caption is bracketed by
The two leading figures of the War for Independence. . . . Rivals for control of the revolutionary movement.
Mariano Casanova Casanova (1833‑1906) was born in Santiago, began his studies in the National Institute, and finished them in the Conciliar Seminary. He early displayed talents that justified his receiving orders as presbyter and being chosen professor in the seminary and member of the faculty of sacred sciences and theology in the University of Chile. In 1861 he received the degree of attorney from the university. In 1865 he journeyed to Europe and then took up parish p461 duties in Valparaiso, where he was distinguished for his pulpit eloquence and for a polemical controversy with the Protestant, David Trumbull. In 1888 he founded the Catholic University of Santiago. In 1886 he became archbishop of Santiago and four years later tried to harmonize congress and Balmaceda. Remaining neutral during the civil war, he added to his prestige by a second visit to Europe in 1894, during which he had an audience with the pope. In 1895 he completed a code of laws for the Chilean church; in 1896, made a spectacular fraternal visit to Argentina; and, in 1899, brought about a meeting of all the higher clergy of South America. — F, II, 377‑378.
Carlos Casanueva Opazo (1874‑1957)a received his degree in law in 1896 but, preferring the Church, he was ordained as presbyter in 1900. Although holding a few parish charges, his main efforts have been in the field of religious education and journalism and in behalf of the unprivileged classes. In 1920 he became rector in the Catholic University where he improved and broadened its scientific courses. He opened its classes to women in 1924, to adults in 1926, and at various times has organized conferences on topics of general business interest. Modest, industrious, and talented, he has done much to make his institution deservedly popular.— F, II, 381.
Caupolicán (d. 1558), the Araucanian chief, was probably born near Palmaiquén in the early part of the sixteenth century. After defeating Valdivia and Villagra, as narrated in the text, he himself suffered three disastrous routs, was taken prisoner, and barbarously executed. It is claimed that he tried without success to save Valdivia from torture and death and that he on his part offered to return Valdivia's skull, sword, and gold chain if he were spared. The failure of his messenger to bring back these articles meant his own death at Cañete. His fame apparently is due more to the verses of Ercilla than to his own skill and valor, although he possessed those qualities to a remarkable degree. Nicanor Plaza (q.v.) has made a famous statue of this chieftain. — E, XII, 645.
Thomas Cavendish (1555?‑1592) was a native of Trimley St. Martin, Suffolk, England. Like many of his contemporaries he early took to piracy. His first considerable voyage was in 1585 in the company of Sir Richard Grenville, who sailed under the direction of Sir Walter Raleigh to attempt the first settlement of Virginia. After returning to England, he sought to imitate the exploit of Sir Francis Drake and in July, 1586, set out with a fleet of three ships on what proved to be the second English circumnavigation of the globe. Later in that year he discovered and named Port Desire, near the Strait of Magellan. On March 30, 1586, he reached the Bay of Quintero on the Chilean coast; at Arica, some time later, he plundered and burned p462 several Spanish ships; and, continuing his plunder, burning course along the entire South American coast and across the Pacific, he finally reached Plymouth on September 15, 1588. His arrival aroused great enthusiasm among his fellow countrymen. He attempted to repeat his exploit but died at sea on this voyage. See Dictionary of National Biography, IX, 358‑363.
José Ignacio Cienfuegos Astorga (1762‑1845) was born and educated in Santiago and became curate in Talca in 1790. He became active in the movement for independence and suffered exile on the island of Juan Fernández. On his return he served as archdeacon in the cathedral at Santiago, was proprietary senator under O'Higgins, was a member of various congresses, and was interested in promoting education. In 1827 he founded the Instituto literario of Talca, which afterwards became the liceo of that city. In addition to the journey to Rome mentioned in the text, he was later, because of charges made by the papal delegate, forced to go to Rome to clear himself. This he did successfully and later became bishop of Concepción. Retiring from this charge in 1837, he spent the rest of his life in Talca. Barros Arana gives an account of his mission to Rome. — B, XIII, 568‑577; F, II, 400.
Abdón Cifuentes Espinosa (1836‑1928) was born in San Felipe, province of Aconcagua. Coming from a family of moderate means it was necessary for him to struggle hard for professional and political position. He was educated in the liceo of San Felipe and in the National Institute at which in 1862 he became professor of history. He early showed marked literary aptitude as well as ultramontane tendencies and was soon regarded as the ready scribe and fiery orator of the conservative party. He was one of the founders and a long-time contributing editor of El independente, a conservative organ. He helped organize the Unión católica de Chile, a charitable and cultural society of the Catholic Church and was one of the founders of the Catholic University of Santiago. In 1889 he was made professor of public constitutional law on its staff. In 1867 he became subsecretary in the ministry which carried through the legislation noted in the text (on p313). He was elected deputy from Rancagua and in congress at once became the chief orator of the conservative party, a leadership that he maintained to the end of a long political career. In the revolution of 1891 he espoused the side of congress and with the success of the revolutionists became senator. His literary output was largely polemic in character and much of it has not survived the papers in which it was published. Characterized in his early years as the spoiled child of the party, he lived to become its grand old man, honored and respected even by those who disagreed with his political and religious views — p463 E, XIII, 191; F, II, 402‑405; Justo and Domingo Arteaga Alemparte, Los constituyentes chilenos de 1870 in "Biblioteca de escritores de Chile," II, 422‑425. His addresses have been collected in three volumes, Colección de discursos de Abdón Cifuentes (Santiago, 1916). The Diario ilustrado of Santiago, of Sunday, May 16, 1926, published a two-page sketch of his life, on the occasion of his ninetieth birthday.
Thomas Cochrane (1775‑1860), Earl of Dundonald, was a native of Anesfield, Lanarkshire, Scotland. He lived a varied and tumultuous life. Entering the British navy in 1795, he filled the years of his early service with brilliant exploits at sea and continual wrangling with his associates and superiors, varied by equally stormy political experiences. Despite his popularity with the masses, he failed to gain due promotion and was unjustly accused of fraud, fined, and imprisoned. This punishment, it seemed, was due more to his independent course in parliament than to any real guilt. Hence he was in a mood to enter the Chilean service in 1818. He soon made Chile the mistress of the southern Pacific, but received no compensation for this service. He even lost his share of the prize money for the daring capture of Valdivia. Nor did he fare better in the Brazilian or Grecian service, although the former bestowed a marquisate on him. Later he was restored to rank and partial compensation in the British navy, in which service he became vice-admiral in 1842 and admiral in 1854. In his later years he distinguished himself by his mechanical inventions. As a commander he prevailed in personal combat, in which he was able to do much with small means. His career presents an injudicious admixture of political independence and bad temper, of honesty, skill, and daring, of insubordination, and popular appeal. — F, II, 416. His own account of his life appears in Narrative of Services in the Liberation of Chile, Peru, and Brazil. See B, XII, 173, et seq.; Pilling, The Emancipation of South America, chap. xxii; and Dictionary of National Biography, XI, 165‑175.
Carlos Condell de la Haza (1843‑1887), born in Valparaiso, was partly of Scotch ancestry. After studying in the colegio of the French Fathers and in England, he entered the Naval School at Valparaiso in 1858. In 1865 he showed his qualities as a fighter as well as seaman by capturing the Spanish vessel Covadonga. The same qualities gave him a victory over the Peruvian cruiser Independencia, in the battle of Iquique (see p327). He died at Quilpué, with the rank of vice-admiral. — E, XIV, 1066; F, II, 428‑429.
Simón de Cordes (d. ca. 1600), mariner, was born in Antwerp. As a young merchant, he resided for a year in Lisbon and married there. p464 Acting as vice-admiral in the Dutch navy, in 1598 he was sent with a fleet to attack the Spaniards in the South Seas, and was later reinforced by two other Dutch expeditions. One report represents him as having been killed by natives on the island of Santa María, near Concepción; another states that he disappeared en route to Japan. — E, XV, 554; B, III, 305‑320; IV, 102‑114.
Rafael Correa Muñoz (1863‑1959),b born in Santiago, was a pupil of Pedro Lira and has attracted attention because of his animal pictures. His paintings have been exhibited in Paris, in Buffalo, and in Argentina. His exhibition in Santiago in 1924 attracted wide attention. In 1926 he was elected president of the Sociedad de Bellas Artes of Chile — F, II, 449.
Jean Gustave Courcelle-Seneuil (1813‑1892) was born in Seneuil, France.c In youth and early manhood he combined work in metallurgy with his studies in economics. After 1848 he served as subordinate in the treasury office, but with the establishment of the empire he went to South America and for ten years (1853‑1863) taught political enemy in the law school of the University of Chile. After his return to France he served on the Council of State in 1879 and in 1882 entered the Academy of Moral and Political Science. While in Chile he edited the Ley de Bancos (Banking Law). Original in his concepts, he sought to give a scientific background to economics and to separate theory from practice. He strongly defended free trade and favored decentralization in government. He died in Paris. — E, XV, 1358; F, II, 467‑468.
Miguel Cruchaga Tocornal (1867‑1949)d became an advocate in 1889 and took the part of congress in the revolution of 1891. He began to teach law in the Catholic University in 1892 and in the University of Chile four years later. He was deputy from Melipilla (1900‑1906) and as such became prominent in matters of finance and foreign affairs. He became minister of the treasury in 1903 and of the interior in 1905. He served continuously as minister and ambassador abroad from 1908 to 1927, when, having failed to settle the long-standing dispute with Peru, he temporarily withdrew in favor of Carlos Dávila (see p410),e until Alessandri again brought him into office. In the course of his diplomatic activities he was frequently called to serve upon mixed commissions where other countries were involved. His textbook on international law has been deservedly popular in Chile. He has also written numerous pamphlets on diplomatic and financial questions and has been a member of important international gatherings. — F, II, 484‑486; Hoy, December 23, 1932, p8; August 30, 1935, p3; January 14, 1937, p35.
José María de la Cruz Prieto (1801‑1875) was born in Concepción, p465 saw service under Carrera, and after the disaster at Rancagua (see p184) emigrated to Mendoza with other fugitive revolutionists, and there joined San Martín. After the battles of Chacabuco and Maipú, in which he fought bravely, he assisted as secretary of the committee that organized the first Peruvian expedition, and occupied numerous subordinate military posts. He was twice in the cabinet as minister of war and marine, served as governor of Valparaiso and intendant of Concepción, and deputy and senator. He was general in chief of the army in south Chile, when he was put forward as presidential candidate against Montt, but after the battle at Loncomilla he retired to private life. — E, XVI, 643; F, II, 493‑495.
William Dampier (1652‑1711) cruised along the coast of California in 1685 and afterward sailed to the Philippines and the coast of China, arriving in England on September 16, 1691. Dampier made another voyage in 1704, returning in 1707, and in the following year was commissioned as pilot on an expedition with Woodes Rogers around the world, returning in 1711. His own writings form the best source for his expeditions. Also see Early Voyages to Australia (R. H. Major, ed. London, 1859), Hakluyt Society Publications, 1st Series, Vol. XXV, p99‑111, 134‑164. Dampier's career connects him with earlier filibustering enterprises and the more regular naval and scientific work of the eighteenth century. Moreover, he was able to write of his adventures in a clear, entertaining, and convincing style. His voyages embraced the East Indies, the China coast, Australia, the West Indies, and the coasts of both Americas, where he had already made two extensive forays before undertaking the more regular voyages during the War of Spanish Succession, in which Selkirk (q.v.) figures. See Willard Hallam Bonner, Captain William Dampier: Buccaneer-Author (Stanford University, 1934).
Carlos Dávila Espinoza (1884‑1955),f native of Los Angeles,º known especially as editor and director of La nación (1917‑1927) and of Los tiempos, has through these publications revolutionized the press of Chile. As ambassador to the United States (1927‑1931) he made his country and its resources better known and increased the nitrate sales. After his short and troubled presidency he took up newspaper work in New York. He was noted for his moderate socialistic ideas. — F, II, 541; Hoy, July 8, 1932, p4; September 16, 1932, p8.
Hilarión Daza (né Grasolé. 1840‑1894) was born in Sucre and adopted his maternal name of Daza. His uncle gave him a rudimentary education, after which the nephew entered the army. In 1864 he gained the confidence of the Bolivian tyrant Melgarejo, and in 1870 gained popularity by starting a revolt against his patron. In 1873 he took p466 over the government and initiated some beneficial reforms. In the early stages of the war with Chile, showing himself inept, his soldiers deposed him. He ranks as close second to Bolivia's worst president, Melgarejo.º — E, XXVI, 1378; Dennis, Tacna and Arica, passim.
Sebastián Díaz, O. P. (1741‑ca. 1813), a native of Santiago and a graduate in 1763 of the University of San Felipe, was a well-known Dominican friar, the second prior of his order in Chile, and one of the most learned teachers of the University of San Felipe. His principal work, noted in the text, was probably published in Lima in 1782 but failed to present the ideas of the author clearly or in agreeable form; hence it was superseded when better books came in from the outside. — M, p240. See also J. T. Medina, Historia de la literatura colonial de Chile, II, 533‑547.
Juan Díaz de Solís (d. 1516) was born at Lebrija near Seville. He had already served in the Casa da India of Portugal before he was selected by the Spanish government in 1508, together with Vicente Yáñez Pinzón, to course the American Atlantic coast from Honduras to the fortieth parallel of south latitude. In 1512 he was made pilot major of Spain to succeed Amerigo Vespucci. In 1513 he began preparations for a western voyage to the Spice Islands but did not leave until the end of 1515 and early in the following year discovered La Plata River where he met his death. — E, XVIII, 895.
Ignacio Domeyko (1802‑1889) was born in Lithuania. As a boy he beheld the march of Napoleon's forces against Russia; as a youth he and his intimate friend Adam Mickiewicz attended the University of Wilna, where with other students they frequently clashed with the Russian authorities. He also studied in Vienna. In 1831 he joined in the futile revolt that still further enslaved his native Poland and forced him into a Paris exile. In 1837 he left Paris for Chile under contract to teach chemistry, mineralogy,º and other natural sciences in the liceo of La Serena. In 1856 he took up his professional work in the capital, and in 1876 became rector of the University of Chile. He was at one and the same time a scientist, a sincere Christian, and a poet. — F, II, 585. See also M. L. Amunátegui, Ensayos biográficos, I, 185‑415.
Francis Drake (ca. 1545‑1596) had, strictly speaking, begun his expeditions — whether piratical or not — long before 1578. In 1565, at the age of twenty, he had made a voyage to the coast of Guinea under Sir John Hawkins, his kinsman and mentor. He likewise accompanied Hawkins to the West Indies on the ill-fated voyage of 1567‑1568, in the course of which the principals lost all the vessels of their small fleet at Vera Cruz except the ones they personally commanded. In 1570 Drake obtained a privateering commission from Queen Elizabeth under p467 which he made two profitable raids in the West Indies and the Caribbean area before starting out in 1577 on his famous voyage to the Pacific. From September, 1578, until near the end of that year, he continued his seizure of ships along the coast of Chile. See Sir Julian S. Corbett, Drake and the Tudor Navy (New York, London [etc.], 1899), and William Wood, Elizabethan Sea Dogs (New Haven, 1921), pp95‑195, 221‑229. See also Henry Raup Wagner, Sir Francis Drake's Voyage Around the World, its Aims and its Achievements (San Francisco, 1926).
Alberto Edwards Vives (1874‑1934) was born in Valparaiso. He held a minor official position in the revolution of 1891, became an attorney in 1896, was elected as deputy in 1909, and became chief of the statistical office ten years later. As such he was in charge of the Census of 1920, and at different dates — 1914, 1915, 1926 — was minister of the treasury. He edited the writings of J. J. Vallejo (see p275). For a sketch of his life and outstanding contributions see Rev. chil. de hist. y geog., LXXIV (Jan.‑April, 1933), 5‑64. See also F, III, 33.
Mariano Egaña Fabres (1793‑1846) was born in Santiago, finished his study of law at the age of eighteen, and shortly thereafter was made secretary of the junta representativa of the sovereignty of Chile. After Rancagua he went into captivity with his father to Juan Fernández. After his return he became fiscal agent of the court of appeals and held other offices under the government. During the years 1824‑1829 he was minister plenipotentiary in various European countries. In 1830 he was made minister of the interior but refused the office, preferring to act as fiscal agent of the supreme court. In 1831 he was elected to the chamber of deputies, became its president in 1836, and in addition was plenipotentiary to Peru. He later acted as minister of justice until 1841. He played a leading part in framing the Constitution of 1833. — E, XIX, 170; F, III, 39‑41.
Juan Egaña Riesco (1769‑1860) was born in Lima of a Chilean father and a Peruvian mother. He was graduated in jurisprudence from the University of San Marcos in Lima, and took up his residence in Chile near the end of the century. He became the chief legislator of the early years of the republic; and he also devoted considerable attention to the education of youth, being one of the founders of the National Institute. His son, Mariano Egaña, collaborated with him in various important matters of legislation. — F, III, 36‑37. See also Amunátegui Solar, Bosquejo histórico, pp10, 11.
Juan Sebastián de Elcano (1476‑1526) was a native of Guetaria (Guipúzcoa). Accustomed from his youth to a seafaring life, he embarked with Magellan in 1519, and during the early part of the voyage p468 alternately opposed and supported his chieftain. After Magellan's death, Elcano took charge of the two remaining ships of the squadron and conducted one successfully back to Spain, thus completing the first circumnavigation of the globe. For this feat and for its probable value in the spice trade, he was rewarded by a coat of arms representing a globe, set off by two clove buds and the inscription Primus Circumdedistiº Me. He was one of the commissioners appointed by Spain to settle the dispute with Portugal over the Spice Islands. In 1525, as second in command, he joined the expedition of García Jofre de Loaisa, bound for the Spice Islands but, separating from his leader at the Strait of Magellan, he claimed to have discovered the open sea below the tip of the continent. He rejoined Loaisa, and after a stormy passage of fifty-one days the two passed through the strait into an equally stormy Pacific. Loaisa perished from the hardships of the voyage in July, 1526, and Elcano a month later. The Spanish government never paid to his mother the salary due him, but in 1671 an admirer dedicated a tomb for him in his native town. In 1800 and in 1869 monuments were erected there in his honor. — E, XIX, 496‑498.
Alonso de Ercilla y Zúñiga (1533‑1594), born in Madrid, was the son of a noted jurist who died when the poet was hardly a year old. His widowed mother became a lady in waiting to Empress Isabella, wife of Charles V. As a boy Ercilla early became a page to Philip II and journeyed with the prospective monarch through Flanders, France, Germany, and England. In Spain he met and conversed with the leading conquerors of Mexico and Peru. He was in London with Philip II when that prince received tidings of Valdivia's death. He accompanied Jerónimo de Alderete (q.v.) when that leader started for America and continued on to Lima after his superior's death. He arrived in Chile with Hurtado de Mendoza, in 1557, and was commissioned as captain; but, when in the following year an altercation arose between him and a fellow officer, he was banished from that colony. Despite this rigorous penalty Ercilla, upon his return to Spain, regained the favor of Philip II, to whom he dedicated his famous epic. The first part of La araucana appeared in 1569, the second in 1578, and the third in 1590. The work follows Ariosto in spirit and is worthy a place beside Os Lusiadas of Camoens. In 1571 the poet became knight of the Order of Santiago and later served as gentleman in waiting to Leopold II of Austria. — M, pp254‑272; Coester, The Literary History of Spanish America (New York, 1916), pp6‑10.g
Fernando Errázuriz (1771‑1841) was a member of the junta that succeeded O'Higgins who, like many other men of the period, suffered persecution after Rancagua. He was a member of the convention of p469 1822 and for many years senator, becoming president of the senate. He served three different times as president ad interim of the republic. — E, XX, 543.
Federico Errázuriz Echaurren (1850‑1901) became an advocate at the age of twenty-three but never practiced law. He preferred the simple but elegant life of the great Chilean landowner, an occupation which he combined for nearly thirty years with service in congress. Professedly a liberal, he made little of political principles but utilized his knowledge of human nature to advance his personal fortune. He served as minister of war in 1890 and for a few months in 1894 was minister of justice. As deputy in 1891 he exerted himself to amplify the law extending pardon to the Balmacedists. Elected a senator in 1894, he but also two years later a vigorous campaign for the presidency. He succeeded in defeating his more austere rival through unlimited promises and the lavish use of funds, but needed the decision of a court of honor to gain the office by the narrow majority of two votes. He was a careful but not distinguished executive. The most important act of his administration was the settlement of boundary disputes with Argentina. He died in office a few weeks before the completion of his term. F, III, 59‑61.
Ladislao Errázuriz Lazcano (1882‑1934)h received his title as advocate in 1905 and immediately affiliated with the liberal party. Son of an active revolutionist of 1891 and member of a family that had already given two presidents to the republic, he early aspired to this high office. He became a member of congress in 1915 and a senator in 1920. Already recognized as an orator and skilful politician, in 1920, he became minister of war and was responsible for the mobilization of troops to the northward during prospective trouble with Peru. With the fall of the Alessandri government in 1924, he began to plan his own candidacy for the presidency. He was aided by the National Union and the support of that group aroused the fears of the military clique that had displaced Alessandri and overthrown the junta headed by Altamirano. As a result of this last overturn Errázuriz and others suffered temporary exile. Reëlected senator in 1926, he returned to Chile where he was enthusiastically received by his fellow unionists. An object of attention to the Ibáñez government, he again suffered exile and has since played little part in public affairs. — F, III, 68‑70.
Crescente Errázuriz Valdivieso (1839‑1931) was born in Santiago and educated in the seminary of that city, where he was ordained presbyter in 1863. He later served as professor in the seminary and held the chair of canon law in the University of Chile. In addition to holding many subordinate church offices, he founded El estandarte católico in 1874 and entered the Dominican order ten years later. He was favorably p470 known for his historical work. Los oríjenes de la iglesia chilena, 1540‑1603, with published in 1873 and at once established his reputation as a serious historian. He was called to the archbishopric of Santiago in 1919 and during the course of ten years he reorganized the dioceses of his jurisdiction, encouraged social and religious movements among the laity, sought to regulate extremes in fashions and public exhibitions, and promoted eucharistic congresses. His most substantial contribution to contemporary life was to bring about the peaceful separation of Church and State — long a bitter issue in Chilean politics. His sympathetic character, his simple eloquence, and his forceful and correct literary style added much to his prestige. During his service as archbishop, his birthdays called forth numerous expressions of personal regard in the daily press. — F, III, 74‑77; Rev. chil. de hist. y geog., LXXII (May‑Aug., 1932), 5‑175.
Federico Errázuriz Zañartu (1825‑1877), born in Santiago, was a member of an illustrious Chilean family of Navarrese descent. Educated in the Conciliar Seminary, the National Institute, and the University of Chile, he obtained his degree as advocate in 1846. He became a member of the faculty of laws in 1847 and of the faculty of theology in 1848. One of the early members of the Reform Club (see p286), he consistently opposed the administration of Montt and along with Lastarria, Bilbao, and others suffered exile under that magistrate because of his part in the outbreak of 1851. Later he pursued a less partisan course. He was noted as a historian, served in congress, filled efficiently two ministerial posts in the administration of Pérez, introducing in each important reforms, and in 1871 became president of the republic. In this office he continued the course of reform and of material progress that characterized his ministries. — E, XX, 544; F, III, 77‑80.
Erasmo Escala (1826‑1884) was born in Valparaiso, entered the Military School as cadet in 1837, and in the following year joined the army for service in Peru. During the uprisings of 1851, he supported the government and lost his left hand fighting in the streets of Santiago, but continued in the conflict until the decision at Loncomilla (see p290). He helped defend Valparaiso during its bombardment by the Spaniards in 1866. After his successful campaigns in Antofagasta and Tarapacá he became general of division. Following the war he became deputy in congress, affiliated with the conservative party. — F, III, 81‑82.
Alonso de Escobar Villaroel (1503‑1574) came to Peru in 1531, took part in the siege of Cuzco and the pacification of Upper Peru, and later distinguished himself for his gallant and vigorous combats with the Indians of Chile. For six years he was a member of the town council of p471 Santiago, serving twice as alcalde, and even after his offense against the faith he was given a public commission by that body. — M, p280.
Juan Nepomuceno Espejo (1821‑1876) was born in Talca. His first public service occurred in connection with the campaign against Santa Cruz (see p270).º After the battle of Yungay he entered the National Institute and began in 1843 his connection with a series of short-lived opposition papers. Lastarria (see p275) was his literary mentor and under such tutelage he knew both exile and imprisonment. Freed from prison through the efforts of Manuel Camilo Vial, he supported the policy of that minister for a time, then resigned from the editorial staff of El progreso, the paper he then edited, to take part in the gold rush to California. On his return to Chile in 1854 he entered business, but four years later returned to journalism and to the liberal cause. He took part in the "religious" disputes of the sixties and served in parliament from 1864 onward. A journalist by nature, he was also one of the most popular poets of Chile. — E, XXII, 164; F, III, 93; Justo and Domingo Arteaga Alemparte, Los constituyentes chilenos de 1870, in "Biblioteca de escritores de Chile," II, 250‑256.
Agustín Eyzaguirre Arechavala (1776‑1837) was born and died at Santiago. He was elected a member of the first national congress of 1811. In 1813, as a member of the junta gubernativa, he exerted himself strongly to arouse public spirit and at the same time to bring about certain liberal reforms. After Rancagua he was confined on the island of Juan Fernández. During the O'Higgins government, he remained outside Chile looking after his own affairs, being one of the chief promoters and the director of a silk-importing company. After the resignation of O'Higgins in 1823, he returned to Chile and was twice appointed to office, once as a member of the junta gubernativa which succeeded O'Higgins and again as vice-president of Chile in 1826. After being in office for four months, a military rising compelled his retirement. — E, XXII, 1580; F, III, 115.
José Alejo Eyzaguirre Arechavala (1783‑1850) was born in Santiago, educated in the Conciliarº Seminary and the University of San Felipe, and received his investiture as a priest in 1807. He was absent from the country until 1815 and in 1822 was banished by O'Higgins. Called back by Freire, he served in the congress that adopted the Constitution of 1828 (see p232), and in the council of state. In 1844 he was named archbishop of Santiago but resigned the following year. — F, III, 115.
c There are a number of tiny places in France by this name; according to the Encyclopedia Brittanica — but its brief sketch of Courcelle-Seneuil's life (q.v.) may not be entirely trustworthy — his native village is the one in the département of Dordogne. It is not a full commune, but a hamlet in the commune of Vanxains.
f His mother's name and the year of his death are filled in here from the photoillustrated biographical sketch in Icarito, the Chilean school encyclopedia. The year of his death from the text rather than the heading, which seems to be a typo; note also that Icarito has him born in 1887.
h The years of his birth and death are filled in here from the biographical sketch (with photo and bibliography) on the website of the Chilean National Congressional Library.
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