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 [decorative delimiter] Class of 1825

Vol. I

(Born Pa.)

Charles F. Smith​1

(Ap'd Pa.)


Charles Ferguson Smith: Born Apr. 24, 1807, Philadelphia, PA.

Military History. — Cadet at the Military Academy, July 1, 1820, to  p354 July 1, 1825, when he was graduated and promoted in the Army to

Bvt. Second Lieut., 2d Artillery, July 1, 1825.

Second Lieut., 2d Artillery, July 1, 1825.

Served: in garrison at Ft. Delaware, Del., 1825‑27, — and Augusta Arsenal, Ga., 1827‑29; at the Military Academy, 1829‑42, as Asst. Instructor of Infantry Tactics, June 25, 1829, to Sep. 1, 1831, — as Adjutant, Sep. 1, 1831, to Apr. 1, 1838, — and as Commandant of Cadets and

(First Lieut., 2d Artillery, May 30, 1832)

Instructor of Infantry Tactics, Apr. 1, 1838, to Sep. 1, 1842; in garrison

(Captain, 2d Artillery, July 7, 1838)

at Ft. Columbus, N. Y., 1843‑44, — and Frankford Arsenal, Pa., 1844‑45; in Military Occupation of Texas, 1845‑46; in the War with Mexico, 1846‑48, being engaged in the Battle of Palo Alto, May 8, 1846, — Battle

(Bvt. Major, May 9, 1846, for Gallant and Distinguished Conduct
in the Battles of Palo Alto and Resaca-de‑la‑Palma, Tex.)

of Resaca-de‑la‑Palma, May 9, 1846, — Battle of Monterey, Sep. 21‑23,

(Bvt. Lieut.‑Colonel, Sep. 23, 1846,
for Gallant Conduct in the several Conflicts at Monterey, Mex.)

1847, in command of the storming party which carried Federation Hill, — Siege of Vera Cruz, Mar. 9‑29, 1847, — Battle of Cerro Gordo, Apr. 17‑18, 1847, — Skirmish of Amazoque, May 14, 1847, — Capture of San Antonio, Aug. 20, 1847, — Battle of Churubusco, Aug. 20, 1847, — Storming

(Bvt. Colonel, Aug. 20, 1847, for Gallant and Meritorious Conduct
in the Battles of Contreras and Churubusco, Mex.)

of Chapultepec, Sep. 13, 1847, — Assault and Capture of the City of Mexico, Sep. 13‑14, 1847, — and in command of Light Infantry Battalion, May 1 to Nov. 3, 1847, and of the Police Guard of the City of Mexico, Sep., 1847, to June 4, 1848; in garrison at Ft. Marion, Fla., 1849; as Member of a Board of Officers, 1849‑51, to devise "A Complete System of Instruction for Siege, Garrison, Seacoast, and Mountain Artillery," which was adopted, May 10, 1851, for the service of the United States; as President of Board of Claims for supplies, etc., furnished by Colonel Fremont, in 1846, to California Volunteers, Sep. 7, 1852, to Apr. 3, 1855;

(Major, 1st Artillery, Nov. 25, 1854)

(Lieut.‑Colonel, 10th Infantry, Mar. 3, 1855)

in garrison at Carlisle Barracks, Pa., 1855; on frontier duty at Ft. Snelling, Min., 1855, — Ft. Crawford, Wis., 1855‑56, — Ft. Snelling, Min., 1856, in command of Expedition to the Red River of the North, 1856, — Ft. Snelling, Min., 1856‑57, — and Utah Expedition, 1857‑61, being in command of the Department of Utah, Feb. 29, 1860, to Feb. 28, 1861.

Served during the Rebellion of the Seceding States, 1861‑62: in command of the Department of Washington, Apr. 10‑28, 1861; as Superintendent of General Recruiting Service at Ft. Columbus, N. Y., Apr. 28 to Aug. 19, 1861; in command of District of Western Kentucky, headquarters

(Brig.‑General, U. S. Volunteers, Aug. 31, 1861)

at Paducah, Ky., Sep. 8, 1861, to Jan. 31, 1862; and in the Tennessee

(Colonel, 3d Infantry, Sep. 9, 1861)

Campaign of 1862, being engaged in the operations about Ft. Henry, Feb. 4‑6, 1862, — Assault and Capture of Ft. Donelson, Feb. 13‑16, 1862, — and in command of the advance upon Shiloh, Mar. 1862, but was

(Major-General, U. S. Volunteers, Mar. 21, 1862)

 p355  taken sick, after receiving a severe injury, before the battle, and

Died, Apr. 25, 1862, at Savannah, Ten.: Aged 56.

Buried, Laurel Hill Cemetery, Philadelphia, PA.

Biographical Sketch.

Major‑General Charles F. Smith was born, April 24, 1807, in Philadelphia, Pa. He was a grandson of a Colonel of the Continental Army, and son of Asst. Surgeon Samuel B. Smith, of the U. S. Army. Upon his graduation from the Military Academy in a distinguished class, of which the great scientist, Indicates a West Point graduate and gives his Class.Alexander D. Bache, was the head, Smith was promoted to the Artillery. After four years doing garrison duty, he was detailed, June 25, 1829, as an Asst. Instructor of Infantry Tactics at the Military academy. After the lapse of over threescore years, how vividly can I recall the tall, graceful, and handsome Lieutenant drilling our company of Cadets in marches and the manual of arms, and two years later as the soldierly Adjutant of the great Superintendent, Colonel Thayer! This latter position of exacting details Smith efficiently filled for nearly seven years, when he became the Commandant of Cadets. After thirteen years of service at the Academy, where he won the golden opinions of all over and under him, he, having been promoted to be Captain, took command of his company.

Difficulties with Mexico, in 1845, took Smith to the field. In command of a Battalion of Artillery, he led the advance across the Colorado; won his brevet of Major by his gallantry at Palo Alto and Resaca-de‑la‑Palma; for the brilliant storming of Federation Hill, at Monterey, was brevetted a Lieut.‑Colonel; and, transferred to General Scott's army, took a conspicuous part in the varied operations of that daring invasion from Vera Cruz to the enemy's capital. In the Valley of Mexico he commanded the Light Infantry Battalion, with signal ability and characteristic intrepidity, at the Capture of San Antonio, Battle of Churubusco, Storming of Chapultepec, and Assault of the City of Mexico, receiving his third brevet, — that of Colonel, — as his well-merited reward in this short war. The citizens of his native city, who appreciated the value of disciplined courage, military instruction, and skilled leader­ship, at the close of this war presented him with a Sword of Honor.

Soon after the termination of hostilities, Smith was placed upon the Board to devise a "Complete System of Instruction for Siege, Garrison, Seacoast, and Mountain Artillery." Promoted, Nov. 25, 1854, Major 1st Artillery, and, Mar. 3, 1855, appointed Lieut.‑Colonel of the new 10th Infantry, he took command, in 1856, of an expedition to the Red River of the North, and the following year against the Mormons in Utah, remaining in charge, till 1861, of the Department of Utah.

When the Rebellion began, Smith was called by his old Chief, General Scott, who appreciated his merits, to the command of the Department of Washington, embracing Maryland and the District of Columbia, in which was the defenseless capital of the Nation. In Sep., 1861, as Brigadier-General of Volunteers, he took charge of the District of Western Kentucky, headquarters Paducah, at the mouth of the Tennessee River, a post of great importance, which soon became the base of operations against the Confederate first line of defense. At once he put the place in a good condition of defense against any attack in front or flank. Engaged day and night preparing to resist the foe without, he was suddenly assailed by a secret and unscrupulous enemy within, who, aided by some scurrilous newspapers, was untiringly trying to supplant Smith in his command. Fortunately a gentleman and a soldier was at the head of the Department of the Missouri, who, knowing Smith's worth, and the falsity of the accusations against him through Halleck's Chief of Staff, who  p356 had just visited Paducah, supported the General against his demagogic adversary, and thus retained in command a hero soon to show his brilliant leader­ship against a nobler and more open foe.

After various expeditions to deceive, and prevent the concentration of, the Confederate forces, General Smith moved his command up the Tennessee, and captured Fort Heiman, at the same time that Ft. Henry surrendered. Marching next across the narrow strip between the Tennessee and Cumberland rivers, Fort Donelson, with its numerous batteries, strong intrenchments, and large garrison confronted the Union forces. We cannot go into a full description of this well-known battle. Suffice it to say that the assault of the enemy's lines on our right having failed, General Smith was ordered to storm those on our left. Instantly mounting his superb steed, the General, the impersonation of another Mars, rode along the front of his brigades, and, with brow knit in stern resolve, told the men to be ready; then, placing himself before the centre as for review, with Indicates a West Point graduate and gives his Class.McPherson at his side, cool and self-possessed, commanded to charge at double quick with fixed bayonets. Onward his volunteers advanced with the utmost intrepidity through the tempest of iron and leaden hail, opening wide gaps in the serried ranks, soon filled by other brave men. Forward they sped to the thick abatis, which seemed impassable under the deadly fire. Their knightly leader, turning in his saddle and brandishing his sword, cried out in a loud voice: "No flinching now, my lads! Here, — this is the way! Come on, my brave boys!" Threading his path through the felled timber, his noble example inspired his followers, who swarmed in after him as best they could. Then, reforming their ranks, they rushed after their gallant chief into the very jaws of death. Upward, through the smoke of battle, they climbed till the perilous goal was reached; a lodgment was made in the enemy's works, the defenders fled, the day was won, and the battle ended with "unconditional and immediate surrender." The hero of the fight, though such a conspicuous target to the sharpshooters, fortunately escaped with only a contusion below the stomach.

Indicates a West Point graduate and gives his Class.Grant generously acknowledged to Smith "that he owed his success at Donelson emphatically to him." Indicates a West Point graduate and gives his Class.Halleck, the Commander of the Department, at once telegraphed to Indicates a West Point graduate and gives his Class.McClellan: "Brig.‑General Charles F. Smith, by his coolness and bravery at Fort Donelson when the battle was against us, turned the tide and carried the enemy's outworks; make him a Major-General. You can't get a better one. Honor him for this victory, and the country will applaud." The appointment was at once made, and unanimously confirmed by the Senate; and the municipal authorities of Philadelphia voted Smith a Sword of Honor.

Shortly after the capture of Donelson, our troops were in possession of Clarksville and Nashville. Smith, March 7, 1862, was assigned to the command of the expedition then moving up the Tennessee River, of which he says: "This whole force is utterly demoralized by victory. There seems to be neither head nor tail. The utter want of discipline seems to me to be something marvelous, and yet I have to go far into the bowels of the earth with these men;" but he adds, "You shall hear a good account of me or of my death."

When the expedition had arrived at Savannah, Ten., Smith, in jumping from his steamer into a yawl, missed his foothold and badly injured the bone of the lower part of his right leg, which greatly distressed him, not so much for the pain he had to endure, but because, as he writes, "he could not take the field soon, not being able to sit on a horse, or in fact walk," which would compel him "to ride to the battlefield in an ambulance." Notwithstanding the agony he suffered, he made a reconnoissance of the river up to Chickasaw Bluff. Before the end of March the General had to take to his bed, where he was obliged to submit to a severe  p357 surgical operation. This, with his debility caused by a cold taken at Donelson, continued harassing exertions, bad climate, supervening erysipelas, and poisonous drugs, completely sapped his vital energy. To the last moment he hoped to be well enough "to be carried about the expected battlefield in a hand litter." This was denied him, and like a caged lion he chafed, hearing the tumult of Shiloh a few miles distant. "Imagine," says he, "if it be possible, my feelings, — but no, that is impossible — lying here bedridden with my injured leg, and excessive bodily weakness, listening for two days to the sounds of battle, the roar of artillery, the rattle of musketry, without being able to take my proper part in it." Ten days later I saw him on his death-bed. Though resigned to the inevitable, his soldier soul was all aglow with the anticipated success of the Union cause, in which his loyal heart was so much bound up.

On the 25th of April, 1862, this brave and noble paladin, who was as intrepid as Ney, as chivalric as Murat, and as rock-fast as Macdonald, breathed his last. The Army could boast of no better general. His stately and commanding presence inspired his soldiers with respect and almost fear. In his rigid discipline, though severe, he was always just, requiring no greater subordination from inferiors than he was ready to yield to superiors. The call of duty was to him a magic sound for which he was always ready to make every sacrifice and endure any fatigue. He was the very model of a soldier, calm, prudent, and self-poised, yet, in the hour of danger, bold almost to rashness. Had he lived he would have held a high niche in the Temple of Fame, whose doors were already opened to him. Sherman said that, "had C. F. Smith lived, Grant would have disappeared to history after Donelson."

We cannot better terminate this brief sketch of this knightly soldier than in the words of General Halleck's Obituary Order, issued from his headquarters at Pittsburg Landing on the day of Smith's death: "He had been in the service of his country for more than forty years, and had passed through all the military grades from Cadet to Major-General. He had fought with distinction in nearly all the battles of Mexico, and by his gallantry and skill had gained imperishable laurels at the Siege of Ft. Donelson. He combined the qualities of a faithful soldier, an excellent disciplinarian, an able commander, and a modest, courteous gentleman. In his death the army has lost one of its brightest ornaments, and the country a general whose place it will be difficult to supply."

General Smith's remains were borne to Laurel Hill Cemetery, in his native city, with the highest military and civic honors. Peace to his sacred dust!

The Author's Note:

1 Was the son of Dr. Samuel B. Smith, Asst. Surgeon, U. S. Army.

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