Short URL for this page:
Black Hawk was now sixty-five. Discouraged as well as old he might have yielded to the forced agreement to stay in Iowa had it not been that his young men were warlike and his advisers filled his ears with false hopes. Neapope, the medicine man of his tribe and a constant mischief maker, upon his return from a trip to the British authorities at Malden, Canada, gave the old chief glowing reports of his visit. He assured Black Hawk that not only were the Chippewa, Pottawattamie, Winnebago, and other tribes ready to join him in driving out the whites, but the British also would aid him with men and supplies. From the half-breed Winnebago Prophet, whose village was located at the present site of Prophetstown, Illinois, came the advice to return to Illinois in the spring and raise a crop of corn. He was assured of the promised aid by autumn in driving out the whites.408
Black Hawk, convinced apparently by the false reports of Neapope and the Prophet, determined to reënter Illinois. Hoping to recruit some braves from Keokuk's band he went to Keokuk's village on the Iowa River, accompanied by several hundred of his own warriors. There he erected a war post around which his braves "danced themselves into a state of delirious exhaustion, reënacting all the mimicries of savage warfare".409
Then the old chief made a speech. He told of their ancient prosperity and happiness when "Our children were never known to cry of hunger, and no stranger, red p163 or white, was permitted to enter our lodges without finding food or rest." Then he recounted the coming of the white men and their friendly reception by the Indians. Little did they realize the many evils that would come from the visit of the whites. "From the day when the palefaces landed upon our shores, they have been robbing us of our inheritance, and slowly, but surely, driving us back, back, back toward the setting sun, burning our villages, destroying our growing crops, ravishing our wives and daughters, beating our pappooses with cruel sticks, and brutally murdering our people upon the most flimsy pretenses and trivial causes." Black Hawk then recited what had recently happened at Saukenuk when the whites "came with a multitude on horseback, compelling us to flee across the Mississippi for our lives, and then they burned down our ancient village and turned their horses into our growing corn." Even now, he declared, they were "running their plows through our graveyards, turning up the bones and ashes of our sacred dead, whose spirits are calling to us from the land of dreams for vengeance on the despoilers." He recited the promises of aid, and concluded the oration with an appeal to the warriors not to forsake the ancient valor of their nation but "to recross the Mississippi" at once. Then, he said, "will the deadly arrow and the fatal tomahawk hurtle through the air at the hearts and heads of the pale faced invaders, sending their guilty spirits to the white man's place of endless punishment".410
An indescribable tumult followed the conclusion of Black Hawk's speech. Neapope spoke and repeated the promises of aid from the British even naming the vessel on which their soldiers would be transported to Milwaukee. Keokuk's warriors crowded around their leader p164 and demanded to be led on the war path. It was a critical moment for the white man's friend. To have refused their demand might have meant his instant death. Seeming to acquiesce in their mad spirit he advanced to the war post to speak. He began with studied deliberation.411
"I have heard and considered your demand to be led forth upon the warpath against the palefaces, to avenge the many wrongs, persecutions, outrages and murders committed by them upon our people. I deeply sympathize with you in your sense and construction of these terrible wrongs." Then he reminded his hearers of the number and strength of the whites. "Their cabins are plenty as the trees in the forest, and their soldiers are springing up like grass in the prairies." In any contest, he added, "where our numbers are so unequal to theirs we must ultimately fail. All we can reasonably expect or hope is to wreak the utmost of our vengeance upon their hated heads, and fall, when fall we must, with our faces to the enemy. Great is the undertaking, and desperate must be our exertions. Every brave and warrior able to throw a tomahawk or wield a war‑club must go with us. Once across the Mississippi, let no one think of returning while there is a foe to strike or a scalp to take, and when we fall — if our strength permits — let us drag our feeble, bleeding bodies to the graves of our ancestors, and there die, that our ashes may commingle with theirs, while our departing spirits shall follow the long trail made by them in their passage to the land of spirits."
It was his duty, Keokuk declared, to be their father in times of peace, and their leader and champion while on the war path. "You have decided to follow the path of war, and I will lead you forth to victory if the Good Spirit prevails. If not, and the Bad Spirit rules, then will I p165 perish at my post of duty. But what shall we do with our old and infirm, our women and children? We cannot take them with us upon the war‑path, for they would hamper us in our movements and defeat us of our vengeance. We dare not leave them behind us, doomed to perish of hunger or fall captive to the palefaces, who would murder the old and the young, but reserve our wives and daughters for a fate worse than death itself."
Then Keokuk stated dramatically, "I will lead you forth upon the war‑path, but upon this condition: That we first put our wives and children, our aged and infirm, gently to sleep in that slumber which knows no waking this side of the spirit land, and then carefully and tenderly lay their bodies away by the side of our sacred dead, from whence their freed spirits shall depart on the long journey to the happy home in the land of dreams". He added, "This sacrifice is demanded of us by the very love we owe those dear ones. Our every feeling of humanity tells us we cannot take them with us, and dare not leave them behind us."412
This picture of the sacrifice demanded of them left the half-drunken and delirious warriors stunned. Following up this advantage Keokuk pointed out the folly of expecting any help from the British or Indians. Turning to the venerable Black Hawk, he begged him to "abandon this wild, visionary and desperate undertaking" and to turn his feet "from the crooked war‑path into the path that leads to peace." Keokuk's eloquence and logic fell unheeded on his rival's ears, but he had won his case with his own warriors. They now refused to go on the warpath, and the defeated Black Hawk, too proud to turn back, rode away at the head of his file of warriors to embark on his fatal enterprise.413
p166 The Black Hawk War was an effort by Indians then living in Iowa to recover lands in Illinois which they had lost. It soon became a retreat for the Indians with "a few brilliant rear guard actions", and on the part of the white man it was "a series of massacres". For Illinois it was the riddance of a few Indians; for Wisconsin the war served as an object lesson to the Winnebago and prepared the way for the subsequent removal of these Indians to the Neutral Ground across the Mississippi; while for Iowa the war was the prelude to settlement by the whites. Perhaps no other Indian war in history was participated in by so many men who later achieved prominence. Two future Presidents of the United States — Abraham Lincoln, a captain of a company of Illinois volunteers, and Colonel Zachary Taylor, the commandant of Fort Crawford — took part. The future President of the Confederacy, Jefferson Davis, then a young lieutenant stationed at Fort Crawford, was recalled from a furlough in time to participate in the war and to take charge of Black Hawk after his surrender. A later presidential candidate and for years the most notable soldier in America, General Winfield Scott, came all the way from the eastern seaboard under orders from President Jackson to put an end to the struggle. The list of future senators, governors, and generals who took part in this brief campaign included A. C. Dodge, Henry Dodge, John Reynolds, George W. Jones, Henry Atkinson, Albert Sydney Johnston, Joseph E. Johnston, David E. Twiggs, William S. Harney, Robert Anderson, and many others.414 The so‑called battles of this war were fought in Illinois and Wisconsin, and a detailed account of them does not concern this narrative. It is the purpose of this chapter rather to trace briefly the sequence of events in the p167 struggle with particular reference to the part played by troops from Fort Crawford, and to state the results of the war so far as Iowa was concerned.
Black Hawk and his followers crossed the Mississippi early in April, 1832, and proceeded in a leisurely fashion toward Rock River. The Winnebago Prophet, although he had promised to try to dissuade Black Hawk from his course, met the returning chieftain and encouraged him to continue on his mission. It is hard to determine just what were Black Hawk's plans. His apologists declare that the fact that he was encumbered by the old men, women, and children of his band indicates his peaceful intentions to return and "make corn". In his Autobiography he explained that the Prophet assured him that no white "war chief" would molest the Sauk as long as they remained peaceable. His immediate purpose seemed to be to raise a crop of corn on Rock River with the Winnebago and to await the anticipated reinforcements in the fall when a general attack on the whites would be launched.415
News of the return of Black Hawk and his band to Illinois caused widespread alarm throughout the settlements. Settlers near Rock Island fled to Fort Armstrong for protection. Fear again seized the mining community about Galena. In the meantime General Henry Atkinson, who had been sent up the Mississippi from St. Louis with a force of regulars to demand the surrender of the Sauk and Fox murderers of the Menominee, arrived at Fort Armstrong. Keokuk, too, brought a friendly band of warriors to Rock Island. Atkinson immediately took charge of affairs. He called a council of the Sauk and Foxes and demanded the surrender of ten of the principal men concerned with the murders of the previous year. p168 Keokuk replied that he was unable to deliver them as some had joined the Prophet's band at his village while others were with Black Hawk. Later, however, Sauk and Foxes friendly to the whites delivered up three men who had been engaged in the murder of the Menominee. Atkinson dispatched a messenger to Black Hawk with an order for him to return with his band of Indians to the Iowa country. Black Hawk refused, and continued to refuse when Atkinson threatened to pursue and drive them back unless they returned peaceably. Reinforcements were asked for from Fort Crawford, and Colonel Taylor moved down to Fort Armstrong with two companies of the First Infantry. Atkinson also addressed an appeal to Governor Reynolds for volunteers, and the latter responded with a fiery proclamation asking for an indefinite number of men.416
For a second time within a year the citizens of Illinois responded. "Willingly", says Theodore Calvin Pease, "even in the face of two successive bad seasons, they left their plows, grabbed their rifles, and rode away to form themselves democratically into companies at the nearest crossroad. They chose the officers as children form for a tug of war, by standing in line behind the man of their choice. Then, whooping, yelling, firing their guns in the air, they raced off to war." These undisciplined volunteers, some 1600 in number, were organized into four regiments, and three odd battalions at Beardstown late in April, whence they proceeded to Fort Armstrong. There on May 7th they were mustered into service by General Atkinson.417
Meantime Black Hawk had moved leisurely up Rock River to the Prophet's village without molestation. But the threat of a white invasion had cooled the enthusiasm p169 of the Winnebago, and Black Hawk now began to see that he had been betrayed. Continuing up Rock River to Sycamore Creek he sought to enlist the aid of the Pottawattamie against the whites. Some of the chiefs, Big Foot particularly, were eager for war, but Shabbona, who like Keokuk had long been friendly to the whites, opposed effectively any proposals to go to war. Black Hawk learned, too, that the coming of the British to aid him was a myth. Again the old leader was disillusioned. His hopes of a general uprising had gone glimmering, and he was now ready to return and "make corn" in Iowa.418 Here the Black Hawk War might have ended but for a blunder on the part of eager volunteers.419
It had been agreed at Fort Armstrong that General Samuel Whiteside should lead the pursuit of Black Hawk up Rock River as far as the Prophet's village with his mounted militia, while Atkinson with the regulars and the volunteer infantry would follow in boats with the cannon and baggage. Heavy rains impeded the progress of both detachments. Finding the Prophet's village deserted the exuberant volunteers celebrated by burning it, and marched on to Dixon. Here Whiteside found two independent mounted battalions under Majors Isaiah Stillman and David Bailey. They scorned the slow advance of Whiteside's column and received his permission to push on in search of the Indians.420
Leaving Dixon on May 13, they encamped the next afternoon •about three miles below the mouth of Sycamore Creek. Black Hawk, learning of this encampment only •eight miles distant, sent three young men with a flag of truce to arrange a council for his surrender. As the messengers approached Stillman's camp the whites espied them and "awaiting no orders, many jumped upon p170 their horses and ran the Indians in amid yells and imprecations." While they were explaining their mission five other Indians whom Black Hawk had sent to watch the effect of his offer were seen on a knoll some distance away. The excitement in camp increased, a score of men dashed away to bring the redskins into camp, and others followed. The Indians wheeled to ride away, but two were slain by a volley from the whites. When the troops in camp heard the shots one of the truce bearers was killed in cold blood. In the bedlam that followed the other two escaped. As soon as Black Hawk heard of the reception of his flag of truce he called upon his braves to sell their lives dearly, and to avenge their fallen comrades. Heedless of any danger, the volunteers, eager to join in an Indian fracas, raced forward toward the spot where Black Hawk had drawn up his men in ambush. When the foremost of the troops were almost upon them the Indians "burst from cover with the crackle of rifles — whooping, yelling, and dashing madly into the midst of the advance guard." The recruits turned and fled headlong. Certain officers tried to rally the disorganized horde, and one gallant handful of men perished in a vain attempt to cover the retreat of their fleeing comrades. Although the whites outnumbered the Indians nearly ten to one they abandoned everything in camp and rushed on toward Dixon, •twenty-five miles away. They told fearful and wonderful tales of the overpowering force of Indians that attacked them. Although only eleven men had been killed each survivor was certain that the entire force had been annihilated.421
The immediate effect of the Battle of Stillman's Run both on the Indians and the whites was tremendous. Black Hawk was elated with the easy victory, and the capture p171 of provisions, camp equipage, guns, and ammunition encouraged him to carry on hostilities. Leaving their women and children in the swampy fastnesses of Lake Koshkonong near the head of Rock River, the Indians descended upon northern Illinois and southwestern Wisconsin to harass the settlements with border warfare. Panic again swept the State at the news of Stillman's defeat, and border settlements were deserted, the inhabitants fleeing to the nearest fort for protection. Many of the volunteers, so eager for war a month before, now clamored to be discharged. Governor Reynolds issued a call for two thousand new levies, and late in May mustered the unwilling soldiers of the first campaign out of service. Three hundred of Whiteside's command were retained to protect the frontier until the new recruits could be assembled.422
In the meantime, great alarm prevailed in the lead mine region. After Stillman's defeat J. H. Lockwood, then at Galena, wrote to Agent Street at Prairie du Chien, "If there are guns and ammunition in the arsenal at your place I wish you would try and prevail on the commanding officer to forward a supply for the use of the citizens here." General Atkinson also called upon Street to recruit as many Sioux and Menominee Indians as possible at Prairie du Chien, and to send them on to assist him in the campaign against the Sauk and Foxes. Sub‑agent Burnett and John Marsh at once visited Sioux, Menominee, and Winnebago camps, and succeeded in enrolling a strong force of Indians for the campaign. Street purchased over a hundred North West guns and rifles from the American Fur Company at the Prairie, and, arming the Indian allies, sent them off in charge of Colonel William Hamilton, Atkinson's messenger, to join p172 the army on Rock River. But the Indians were not inclined to enter heartily into the war with the Sauk and Foxes. A month later they had been sent back to Prairie du Chien. Street dismissed them, and sent them up the Mississippi to keep them clear of the struggle.423
In less than three weeks after Stillman's defeat thirty‑two hundred mounted militiamen were ready to take the field under General Atkinson. News of the border warfare — the massacre of fifteen men, women, and children at Indian Creek, the sharp struggle on Pecatonica River where Major Henry Dodge with a handful brave men annihilated a band of marauders, and the fierce attack on Apple River fort — hastened the preparations of an avenging army. The volunteers were divided into three brigades under the command of Generals Alexander Posey, Milton K. Alexander, and James D. Henry. With Colonel Jacob Fry's Rangers and Dodge's Michigan Rangers, together with the regulars Atkinson had an available force of four thousand men, perhaps ten times the number of Black Hawk's warriors.424
With such a force in pursuit Black Hawk could only surrender or seek safety in flight. He chose the latter, hoping to regain the west bank of the Mississippi by a circuitous route to the northwest. But Black Hawk had his women and children to look after. They were without food much of the time, and were forced to subsist on roots, and the bark of trees, and horseflesh. Despite these handicaps the fleeing Indians eluded their pursuers until many of the volunteers grew weary of the daily round of fatigue, delay, and hardships. Governor Reynolds and his staff with many other citizen soldiers left for home. By mid July the force was reduced one‑half.425
Then the unexpected discovery of the trail of Black p173 Hawk trying to escape by way of Four Lakes and the Wisconsin River raised new hopes in the discouraged army. Hot on the trail they pursued the fleeing Indians to the banks of the Wisconsin which Black Hawk hoped to put between him and his pursuers. To protect the crossing of the main body a war party of some fifty braves made an heroic stand on the bluffs overlooking the river at this point. In later years Jefferson Davis characterized the strategy of Black Hawk in this battle of Wisconsin Heights as a brilliant achievement. "Had it been performed by white men", he said, "it would have been immortalized as one of the most splendid achievements in military history."426
That night the Indians did two things indicative of their plight. A large number of women, children, and old men were placed on a raft and in canoes borrowed from the Winnebago, and dispatched down the river in the hope that the garrison at Fort Crawford would allow them as non‑combatants to escape. But a detachment under Lieutenant Joseph Ritner, learning of their approach, fell upon them, killing fifteen, and capturing twice as many, most of whom were women and children. Nearly as many more were drowned during the onslaught, while some, escaping to the woods, either perished from hunger or were massacred by a band of three hundred Menominee from Green Bay under Colonel Samuel C. Stambaugh.427 The other incident of the night was a direct appeal by Neapope asking for quarter. Toward dawn the soldiers were terrified to hear the shrill tones of an Indian in a long harangue which they supposed was addressed to a war party. Instead, Neapope, using the Winnebago tongue and hoping to be heard by the Indian guides with the whites, confessed to the starving p174 condition of Black Hawk's band, told of their inability to fight encumbered as they were women and children, and recited their wish to be allowed to pass peaceably over the Mississippi. As the Indian guides had left the white army when Black Hawk's band was encountered the harangue fell on unheeding ears. Since his speech elicited no response Neapope fled to the Winnebago instead of returning to his fellows.428
Black Hawk with the remainder of his followers made his way through the intervening swamps and over the densely wooded hills toward the Mississippi. It was a march of horror. Some of the old men and children perished from hunger along the way, and the survivors eked out a miserable existence by eating their disabled ponies, and the bark and roots of trees. After the battle of July 21st at Wisconsin Heights the whites, instead of pressing the pursuit, withdrew to Blue Mounds to obtain a supply of provisions before following the fugitives. Here the detachments of Henry and Dodge were joined to Atkinson who took personal direction of the pursuit. This delay enabled Black Hawk to reach the Mississippi near the mouth of Bad Axe River on August first unmolested.429
He began the work of crossing, but as only a few canoes were available it was a slow process. Before much had been achieved a steamboat, the Warrior, that had been sent up the river from Prairie du Chien to warn Wabasha of the approach of Black Hawk's band, reached the scene of the crossing near midafternoon. On board were a detachment of soldiers and a small cannon. Black Hawk, eager to surrender, hoisted a white flag, and called out in the Winnebago tongue for the soldiers to send a canoe that he might come on board for a parley. A p175 Winnebago on board translated the message to Captain John Throckmorton, but the latter, believing the flag to be a decoy, ordered Black Hawk to use one of his own boats and come on board. This was impossible as all the canoes had been sent across the river with women and children. The captain discredited this excuse, and after a few minutes delay, let slip the six‑pounder, followed by a severe fire of musketry. The Indians returned the fire as best they could. After an engagement of about an hour, the Warrior, as its supply of fuel was failing, slipped down to Prairie du Chien. One man on board had been wounded, and the captain reported that twenty-three Indians had been killed.430
On the next morning a messenger brought word of the near approach of Atkinson, who after leaving Blue Mounds, had spared no efforts to catch up with the fleeing Indians. To give his people more time for crossing, Black Hawk sent back a small band of warriors to decoy the whites up the river. The ruse succeeded, and Atkinson's men began a hot pursuit. But Henry, bringing up the rear with the baggage — to which humble service the volunteers had been assigned after the battle of Wisconsin Heights so that the regulars, it was said, might have the glory of winning subsequent engagements — came upon the main trail of the fugitives and followed it to the Mississippi. His three hundred men advanced upon the Indians and took them by surprise. The red men fought desperately but in their famished condition they were no match for the whites. Foot by foot they were thrust back by bayonet charges toward the river. Women with children clinging to their necks plunged into the river, only to be drowned or killed by sharpshooters. Atkinson, hearing the din of battle, closed in p176 with his soldiers and joined in the slaughter. No quarter was extended on either side. Some Indians escaped to an island in the river, but the Warrior returning from Prairie du Chien in the midst of the engagement raked the island with canister. Old men, women, and children were slain without mercy. "It was a horrid sight", wrote a participant, "to witness little children, wounded and suffering the most excruciating pain".431
The massacre of Bad Axe continued three hours. One hundred and fifty Indians were killed, and perhaps as many more lost their lives by drowning. Perhaps fifty, mostly women and children, were taken prisoner. Some three hundred who had succeeded in reaching the Iowa side of the river, were set upon by a hostile band of Sioux who murdered half of them. Many others died of exhaustion and wounds before they reached their friends at Keokuk's village. By the second of August out of the thousand or more who crossed the Mississippi scarcely four months earlier not more than one hundred and fifty lived to return to Iowa.432
from a painting by Henry Lewis in Das Illustrierte Mississippithal
The Battle of Bad Axe
On the seventh of August General Winfield Scott, who had been sent by President Jackson to assume the direction of the war, arrived at Fort Crawford, and assumed command of the troops. He had been delayed, first at Detroit, then at Chicago, by an outbreak of cholera among the troops. On the day after his arrival at Fort Crawford he mustered the volunteers out of service. Black Hawk, who with some of his prominent followers was taken prisoner, was sent to Jefferson Barracks under the escort of Lieutenant Jefferson Davis.a Later the old chieftain was taken as a prisoner to Fortress Monroe.433
With the destruction of Black Hawk's followers and the capture of the disillusioned leader the war came to p177 an end. It now remained for the government to assess the damages. Another attack of the cholera after Scott's troops reached Fort Armstrong delayed the holding of the peace council until September, by which time the disease had run its course. The Sauk and Foxes, who were to be punished for their active part in the struggle, and the Winnebago who were to pay for their secret aid and sympathy, were summoned to meet at Fort Armstrong. Due to the recent prevalence of cholera on Rock Island, however, the conferences were held across the river at the site of the present city of Davenport.434
On September 15th the Winnebago signed a treaty by which they ceded their remaining land east of Mississippi, and agreed to take in exchange a new home in the Neutral Ground plus certain annuities. Other provisions of the treaty promised the Winnebago a school with a farm attached, a blacksmith shop, and other assistance.435 The treaty with the Sauk and Foxes was concluded on September twenty-first. By its terms the Indians reaffirmed the Treaty of 1804, and ceded to the government a strip of land west of the Mississippi extending from the Neutral Ground on the north to the northern boundary of Missouri on the south, with an average width of •about fifty miles. This strip, first known as Scott's Purchase and later as the Black Hawk Purchase, formed the nucleus of the State of Iowa. The Sauk and Foxes were to receive $20,000 annually for thirty years, the payment of their debts to the traders, Davenport and Farnham, amounting to some $40,000, an additional blacksmith and gun shop, and "forty kegs of tobacco, and forty barrels of salt" to be delivered annually at the mouth of the "Ioway river". As a reward for Keokuk's neutrality a reservation of •four hundred p178 square miles lying on either side of the Iowa River in the ceded portion of territory was set aside for his band. This was known as Keokuk's Reserve.436
In June, 1833, Black Hawk was released and taken back to Iowa. First, however, in order to impress him with the might of the white man, he was escorted on a tour through the cities of the east by Major Garland. The return of the defeated leader was pathetic. His spirit was crushed, and his death was not far distant. In his last speech the old warrior said, "Rock River was a beautiful country. I loved my towns, my cornfields and the home of my people. I fought for it. It is now yours. Keep it as we did."437 The Iowa country thrown open for settlement the same month that Black Hawk was released from prison was a monument to his last great endeavor.
408 The literature on the Black Hawk War is extensive. Black Hawk's Autobiography, first published in 1834, presents his side of the case. Other works by contemporaries include wakefield's History of the Black Hawk War; Reynolds's My Own Times; and Ford's A History of Illinois from its Commencement as a State in 1818 to 1847. There are many contributions relating various phases of the war in the Wisconsin Historical Collections, in Volume XII, pp217‑265, of which appears Thwaites's Story of the Black Hawk War. Armstrong's The Sauks and the Black Hawk War, and Stevens's The Black Hawk War, Including a Review of Black Hawk's Life, are comprehensive accounts of the affair. Thwaites's account of the Black Hawk War is sympathetic toward the Indians, while Stevens's narrative supports the whites. Excellent secondary sources appear in Quaife's Wisconsin Its History and Its People, pp409‑439; Pease's The Frontier State, 1818‑1848, pp150‑172; and Cole's A History of the People of Iowa, pp81‑100. Hitherto unpublished source materials, centering around the activities of Sub‑agent Henry Gratiot of Gratiot's Grove, appeared as Journals and Reports of the Black Hawk War in The Mississippi Valley Historical Review, Vol. XIII, pp392‑407.
409 Cole's A History of the People of Iowa, pp85, 86.
410 Armstrong's The Sauks and the Black Hawk War, pp259‑262. The report of the kept between Black Hawk and Keokuk came from a white man who was concealed in Keokuk's camp at the time. The words are either his or Perry A. Armstrong's who put the story in print.
411 Armstrong's The Sauks and the Black Hawk War, pp262‑264.
412 Keokuk's reply to Black Hawk is found in Armstrong's The Sauks and the Black Hawk War, pp265‑268.
413 Cole's A History of the People of Iowa, p94.
415 Pease's The Frontier State, 1818‑1848, p159; Wisconsin Historical Collections, Vol. XII, pp230, 231; Quaife's Wisconsin Its History and Its People, p420.
416 Stevens's The Black Hawk War, pp112‑114.
417 Pease's The Frontier State, 1818‑1848, pp160, 161.
418 Pease's The Frontier State, 1818‑1848, p162; Quaife's Wisconsin Its History and Its People, Vol. I, p421.
419 Quaife's Wisconsin Its History and Its People, Vol. I, p421.
420 Quaife's Wisconsin Its History and Its People, Vol. I, pp424, 425.
421 Pease's The Frontier State, 1818‑1848, pp162‑164.
422 Pease's The Frontier State, 1818‑1848, pp164, 165.
423 Lockwood to Street, May 16, 1832, in the Street Papers, No. 22; Atkinson to Street, May 26, 1832, in the Wisconsin Historical Collections, Vol. II, pp255, 256; Burnett to Street, in the Wisconsin Historical Collections, Vol. II, pp256‑258; memorandum of purchase of firearms for the Black Hawk War, June 7, 1832, in the Street Papers, No. 23; Street to Clark, July 13, 1832, in the Street Papers, No. 25.
424 Wisconsin Historical Collections, Vol. XII, pp241‑246; Quaife's Wisconsin Its History and Its People, Vol. I, pp427‑429.
425 Pease's The Frontier State, 1818‑1848, pp166‑167.
426 Quaife's Wisconsin Its History and Its People, Vol. I, pp431, 432.
427 Wisconsin Historical Collections, Vol. XII, pp254, 255.
428 Wisconsin Historical Collections, Vol. XII, p255.
429 Quaife's Wisconsin Its History and Its People, Vol. I, p435.
430 Wisconsin Historical Collections, Vol. XII, pp257, 258.
431 Wisconsin Historical Collections, Vol. XII, pp258‑260; Pease's The Frontier State, 1818‑1848, pp170, 171. See also Fonda's account in the Wisconsin Historical Collections, Vol. V, pp260‑264.
432 Wisconsin Historical Collections, Vol. XII, pp260, 261.
433 Wisconsin Historical Collections, Vol. XII, pp261, 262.
434 Cole's A History of the People of Iowa, p101.
435 United States Statutes at Large, Vol. VII (Indian Treaties, 1778‑1842), pp370‑373.
436 United States Statutes at Large, Vol. VII (Indian Treaties, 1778‑1842), pp374‑376.
437 Stevens's The Black Hawk War, p271; Cole's A History of the People of Iowa, p85.
Images with borders lead to more information.
The thicker the border, the more information. (Details here.)
Old Fort Crawford
History of Wisconsin
History of Iowa
A page or image on this site is in the public domain ONLY if its URL has a total of one *asterisk. If the URL has two **asterisks, the item is copyright someone else, and used by permission or fair use. If the URL has none the item is © Bill Thayer.
See my copyright page for details and contact information.
Page updated: 15 Apr 17