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Chapter 10

This webpage reproduces a section of
The Spanish Borderlands

Herbert E. Bolton

in the
Chronicles of America edition,
Yale University Press,
New Haven, 1921

The text is in the public domain.

This page has been carefully proofread
and I believe it to be free of errors.
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This site is not affiliated with the US Military Academy.

 p297  Bibliographical Note

No single work covers the entire field of this book. Numerous topics are well treated in Justin Winsor, Narrative and Critical History of America, volumes II and III (1889), whose bibliographies are even better than its essays. Broad in scope and scientific in spirit are John Gilmary Shea's History of the Catholic Missions Among the Indian Tribes of the United States, 1529‑1854 (1855), and The Catholic Church in Colonial Days, 1521‑1763 (1886). Original documents covering a wide range of subjects for the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries are contained in Pacheco and Cárdenas (et al.), Colección de Documentos inéditos, Relativos al Descubrimiento, Conquista, y Colonización de la Posesiones Españoles, 42 vols. (1864‑1884), and Colección de Documentos Inéditos de Ultramar, segunda série, 13 vols. (1885‑1900).

A number of works, though not general, deal with considerable portions of the field. For the Atlantic seaboard there is Peter J. Hamilton, The Colonization of the South (1904). In Spanish there is Don Gabriel de Cárdenas Z. Canos (anagram for Don Andrés Gonzalez Barcía), Ensayo Cronologico para la Historia General de la Florida (1723), which, though annalistic, is broader in scope than any subsequent treatment of Florida. It covers the Atlantic and Gulf areas from 1512 to 1722.

 p298  The Southwest is best covered by the various volumes of Hubert Howe Bancroft's Works. The parts relating to the Spaniards, which were written mainly by Henry Oak, are an unsurpassed mine of information. A popular introduction to Spanish activities in the Southwest, vigorous and entertaining in style, is Charles F. Lummis, Spanish Pioneers (1893). The same region is covered with emphasis on colonizing methods in Frank W. Blackmar, Spanish Institutions of the Southwest (1891). An excellent eighteenth-century work in Spanish is Juan Domingo de Arricivita, Chrónica Seráfica y Apostólica del Colegio Propaganda Fide de la Santa Cruz de Querétaro (1792). It was written by an official chronicler who had been a missionary in Texas. A general documentary collection is Herbert E. Bolton, Spanish Exploration in the Southwest, 1542‑1706 (1916).

Early Exploration. Aside from these few general and regional works, most of the materials are special, and can be listed according to the chapters of this book. Early sixteenth century explorations are admirably treated in Woodbury Lowery, Spanish Settlements Within the Present Limits of the United States, 1513‑1561 (1901).º Popular accounts of the exploration of Florida are Graham, Hernando de Soto (1903), Grace King, De Soto and his Men in the Land of Florida (1898), and, though old, Theodore Irving, The Conquest of Florida by Hernando de Soto (1835).º The standard treatise on Coronado is George Parker Winship, The Coronado Expedition, 1540‑1542 (Fourteenth Annual Report of the Bureau of Ethnology, 1896). Contemporary narratives are contained in Hodge and Lewis,  p299 Spanish Explorers in the Southern United States (Original Narratives of Early American History, 1907); Ad. F. and Fanny Bandelier, The Journey of Cabeza de Vaca (Trail Makers Series, 1905); Pedro Castañeda and others, The Journey of Coronado (Trail Makers Series, 1904), edited by George Parker Winship. Edward Gaylord Bourne, Narratives of the Career of Hernando de Soto (Trail Makers Series, 1904); Buckingham Smith, Colección de Varios Documentos para la Historia de la Florida (1857). Garcilaso de la Vega, La Florida del Ynca (1605).

Early Florida. Menéndez de Avilés is the theme of Woodbury Lowery's second volume, Spanish Settlements Within the Present Limits of the United States, 1562‑1574 (1905). A graphic and scholar­ly account of the expulsion of the French by Menéndez is given by Francis Parkman in his Pioneers of France in the New World (1865). Documentary collections are E. Ruidíaz y Caravía, La Florida, su Conquista y Colonización por Pedro Menéndez de Avilés (1893), and Genaro García, Dos Antiguas Relaciones de la Florida (1902).

New Mexico. Spanish New Mexico can be studied in Hubert Howe Bancroft, Arizona and New Mexico (1888), and Ralph Emerson Twitchell, Leading Facts of New Mexican History, vol. I (1911). Antiquated but useful is W. W. H. Davis, Spanish Conquest in New Mexico (1869). Mission antiquities are treated in L. Bradford Prince's beautifully illustrated Spanish Mission Churches of New Mexico (1915). The authority on the Pueblo Revolt is Charles W. Hackett, who has published several scholar­ly papers on the subject,  p300 based on manuscript materials, in the Southwestern Historical Quarterly and Old Santa Fé. An excellent regional study is Anne E. Hughes, Beginning of Spanish Settlement in the El Paso District (1914). A contemporary account of Oñate's work by an eyewitness is Gaspár de Villagrá, Historia de la Nueva Mexico (1610), which is written in verse. A rare picture of New Mexico in 1630 is Alonso de Benavides, Memorial, translated by Mrs. Edward E. Ayer and annotated by Frederick Webb Hodge and Charles F. Lummis (1916). Documents are contained in Ralph Emerson Twitchell, The Spanish Archives of New Mexico, 2 vols. (1914), and Herbert E. Bolton, Spanish Exploration in the Southwest, 1542‑1706 (1916), where extensive recently discovered material is presented.

Pimería Alta and Baja California. The work of the Jesuits in Pimería Alta and Baja California is treated in Hubert Howe Bancroft's North Mexican States, 2 vols. (1883‑89) [Thayer note: Both volumes are online at Archive.Org: Vol. I Vol. II], his Arizona and New Mexico (1888), Fr. Zephyrin Engelhardt, The Missions and Missionaries of California, vol. I (1908), and Theodore H. Hittell, History of California, vol. I (1885). An interesting popular book, of slight historical merit, however, is Arthur North, The Mother of California (1908). Excellent eighteenth century accounts are José Ortega, Apostólicos Afanes de la Compañía de Jesús (1754); Miguel Venegas, Noticia de la California, 3 vols. (1757); and Francisco Xavier Alegre, Historia de la Compañía de Jesús, 3 vols. (1841). The foundational source for Kino's work is his own Historical Memoir of Pimería Alta (1919) edited by Herbert E. Bolton.

 p301  Texas. The only general sketch of Spanish Texas is contained in Garrison's Texas, A Contest of Civilizations (1903). More detailed, for the ground covered, are R. C. Clark, The Beginnings of Texas (1907), William Edward Dunn, Spanish and French Rivalry in the Gulf Region of the United States, 1678‑1702 (1917); and Herbert E. Bolton, Texas in the Middle Eighteenth Century (1915). Of the four named only the last two are based on adequate materials. Documents and monographs by Austin, Bolton, Buckley, Clark, Cox, Dunn, Marshall, McCaleb, and others are in the Texas State Historical Association Quarterly and the Southwestern Historical Quarterly. The story of the French border is told by Francis Parkman in his La Salle and the Discovery of the Great West (1910), and his Half Century of Conflict (1892), and Pierre Heinrich, La Louisiane sous la Campaignieº des Indes (1905). Contemporary narratives are Alonso de León, Historia de Nuevo León (edited by Genaro García, in Documentos Inéditos, XXV, 1909), and Fr. Isidro Felix de Espiñosa, Chrónica Apostólica y Seráphicaº de Todos los Colegios de Propagandeº Fide (1746). Espiñosa was long a missionary on the Río Grande and in Eastern Texas. Documents are contained in Bolton's Spanish Exploration in the Southwest, and in Estéban L. Portillo, Apuntes para la Historia Antigua de Coahuila y Texas (1886).

Alta California. Histories of Alta California are numerous. The best general repositories of facts are the works of Bancroft, Hittell, and Engelhardt. Elementary sketches are Rockwell D. Hunt, California the Golden (1911) and H. K. Norton, The Story of  p302 California (1902).º The results of recent scholar­ship are presented in Irving B. Richman, California under Spain and Mexico (1911), for which the archive materials were gathered mainly by Bolton; Charles Edward Chapman, The Founding of Spanish California (1916); and Herbert Ingram Priestley, José de Gálvez (1916). Zoeth Eldredge, The Beginnings of San Francisco (1912), gives an excellent account of the Anza expeditions. Francisco Palóu's Noticias de la Nueva California (1774),º and his Junípero Serra (1787, English translation, edited by G. W. James, 1913), are excellent contemporary accounts. Documents are in Elliott Coues, On the Trail of a Spanish Pioneer, 2 vols. (1900), and in various volumes of the Academy of Pacific Coast History Publications.

Louisiana. The sketches of Louisiana under Spain have been thus far mainly written with attention fixed on New Orleans. Useful accounts are in Albert Phelps, Louisiana (1905), Charles Gayarré, History of Louisiana (1903), vol. III, Reuben Gold Thwaites, France in America (1905), pp281‑295; F. A. Ogg, The Opening of the Mississippi (1904), pp294‑459; Barbé-Marbois, History of Louisiana (English translation, 1830); W. R. Shepherd, The Cession of Louisiana to Spain (Political Science Quarterly, XIX), 439‑458; Herbert E. Bolton, Athanase de Mézières and the Louisiana Texas Frontier, 1768‑1780 2 vols. (1914), vol. I, Introduction. Peter J. Hamilton, The Colonization of the South (vol. III of G. C. Lee's History of North America, 1904); Colonial Mobile (1910) by the same author; Louis Houck, History of Missouri, 3 vols. (1908); Thomas M. Marshall, History of the Western Boundary of the Louisiana  p303 Purchase, 1803‑1841 (1914). Documentary collections are Louis Houck, The Spanish Régime in Missouri, 2 vols. (1909); James Alexander Robertson, Louisiana under the Rule of Spain, France, and the United States, 2 vols. (1911); and Bolton's Athanase de Mézières, just cited.

The Anglo-Spanish Border. The materials for the Anglo-Spanish border are still scattered and are to be found chiefly in the separate histories of the West Indies, South Carolina, Georgia, and Florida, and of the intercolonial wars. Especially useful are the works of Shea and Barcía, already cited, and Sir William Laird Clowes (and others), The Royal Navy, 7 vols. (1897‑1903).

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