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Chapter VIII
This webpage reproduces part of
Celtic Britain

by Nora K. Chadwick

published by Frederick A. Praeger
New York

The text and engravings are in the public domain.


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 p167  Some Works of Reference and Sources

Primary Authorities


The Notitia Dignitatum ('Register of Officials'), fifth century, relates to the organisation of the late Roman Empire, comprising lists of officials, civil and military, and the troops and forts which they held. Ed. Otto Seeck (Berlin, 1876); see Stevens, AJ XCVII (1940), 125; Birley, TCWS, XXXIX (193), 190; White, LS

Two contemporary Latin Chronicles, the Epitoma Chronicon of Prospect of Aquitaine, and the anonymous Gaulish Chronicle. Ed. J. Mommsen, in Mon. Germ. Hist.: Auct. Antiq., IX, Chronica Minora (Berlin, 1892).

Vegetius, Epitoma Rei Militaris, fourth century, an account of the Roman army. Ammianus Marcellinus, later fourth century; Zosimus, late fifth century; and Procopius mid-sixth century, all have incidental references specified in the text above.

Roman panegyrists and poets of Gaul from the third to the fifth century. See spy W. Baehrens XII Panegyrici Latini (Leipzig, 1911): E. Galletier, Panégyriquesº LatinsI (Paris, 1949), with French translation. See references also in the works of Ausonius (fourth century), Rutilius Namatianus (early fifth century), Claudian (late fourth and early fifth century), Sidonius Apollinaris (late fifth century).

The Life of St Germanus, ed. W. Levison in Mon. Germ. Hist.: Script. Rer. Merov. VII (Berlin, 1920), 225.


Inscriptions on stone, from the fifth to the seventh century: Macalister, CIIC; Nash-Williams, ECMW.

Gildas, De Excidio Britannia: ed. and transl. by H. Williams (London, 1899). The text claims to be of the sixth century.

 p168  The Historia Brittonum, 'The History of the Britons', early ninth century: ed. F. Lot (French edition and translation, Paris, 1934); A. W. Wade-Evans, Nennius's History of the Britons (London, 1938), an English translation of the above, including also the Annales Cambriae and other matter from MS. Brit. Mus., Harley 3859 — a very useful and important compendium.

Genealogies of the Welsh princes, those from MS. Harley 3859 (the South Welsh version) edited by Wade-Evans, as above; also by J. Loth, Les MabinogionII (Paris, 1913), 326. Those in MS. XX, Jesus College, Oxford (the North Welsh version), ed. M. E. Phillimore, Y Cymmrodo VIII (1887), IX (1888). Twelve genealogies of the North British princes, contained in MS. Hegwrt 536, are edited by Skene, FABW II (Edinburgh, 1868), 454. Genealogies of the Welsh saints, mostly related to the princes, are edited by Wade-Evans, VSBG, 320.

The Welsh Laws, ed. and transl. by Wade-Evans, WML; English translation of the 'Dimetian Code' by Melville Richards, LHD (See p180 for bibliographical references.)

Lives of British saints. The chief edition, with English translation, of the Lives of the Welsh saints is that of A. W. Wade-Evans, VSBG; cf. further Ch. IX, note 16 above. Adamnán's Life of St Columba, ed. Reeves; also ed. and transl. by A. O. and M. O. Anderson.

Early Welsh bardic poetry. These early poems were published with an English translation by Skene, in FABW More scholar­ly and reliable texts have been published recently by Sir Ifor Williams. See the references in Ch. VI above.

Collections of verses composed for mnemonic purposes, such as the Beddau ('the Graves'), which lists the final resting-places of the great heroes of the past: ed. and transl. by Skene, FABW I, p309; II, p28: now in process of being re-edited. A number of collections of a form of literature known as Triads, ed. and transl. by R. Bromwich, Triads.

A valuable incidental source is Asser's Life of King Alfred, ed. and transl. by W. H. Stevenson (Oxford, 1904, new impression, 1959); the Historia Ecclesiastica, by the Venerable Bede; ed. Charles Plummer  p169 (Oxford, 1896); transl. John Stevenson (London, 1910); revised edition, 1954; also transl. L. Sherley-Price (Harmondsworth, 1955).

The Irish annals contain much of importance for Celtic Britain, especially the Annals of Ulster, ed. and transl. in 4 vols. by W. M. Hennessy (Dublin, 1887‑1901); the Annals of Tigernach, ed. and partly transl. by Whitley Stokes, in RC XVI, XVII, XVIII; the Annals of Inisfallen, ed. and transl. Seán Mac Airt (Dublin, 1951).

Key to Selected Periodicals referred to in the Notes on the Text


AB Analecta Bollandiana
AC Archaeologia Cambrensis
AJ The Antiquaries Journal
ARCH. J. Archaeological Journal
BBCS Bulletin of the Board of Celtic Studies
CBA Council for British Archaeology Reports
DHS Denbighshire Historical Society
É. C. Études Celtiques
EHR English Historical Review
JBAA Journal of the British Archaeological Association
JHSCW Journal of the Historical Society of the Church in Wales
JMM Journal of the Manx Museum
JRIC Journal of the Royal Institute of Cornwall, Second Series
JRS Journal of Roman Studies
HRSAI Journal of the Royal Society of Antiquaries of Ireland
MA Medieval Archaeology
MP Modern Philology
PBA Proceedings of the British Academy
PIM Proceedings of the Isle of Man Natural History and Antiquarian Society (New series)
PPS Proceedings of the Prehistoric Society
PRIA Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy
 p170  PSAS Proceedings of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland
PSA Som. Proceedings of the Somersetshire Archaeological Society
RC Revue celtique
REA Revue des Études anciennes
SGS Sch Gaelic Studies
SH Studia Hibernica
SHR Scottish Historical Review
TAAS Transactions of the Anglesey Antiquarian Society and Field Club
TCHS Transactions of the Caernarvonshire Historical Society
TCWS Transactions of the Cumberland and Westmorland Antiquarian and Archaeological Society
TDGS Transactions of the Dumfriesshire and Galloway Natural History and Antiquarian Society
THSC Transactions of the Honourable Society of Cymmrodorion
ULIA University of London Institute of Archaeology
YC Y Cymmrodor
ZCP Zeitschrift für celtische Philologie

General Works of Reference, with Abbreviations

Note. Where only one work of an author is mentioned the author's name alone is generally cited. References to the works of Bede are confined to the Historia Ecclesiastica, and these are cited in the text briefly as Bede, and followed by the number of the Book and chapter of this work.

Anderson, A. O. and M. O. Adomnán'sº Life of Columba (Edinburgh, 1961) Anderson A.L.C.
Blair, P. Hunter. An Introduction to Anglo-Saxon England (Cambridge, 1956) Blair A.S.F.
Bromwich, R. Trioedd Ynys Prydein, The Welsh Triads Bromwich Triads
 p171  Bruce-Mitford, R. L. S. (Ed.) Recent Archaeological Excavations in Britain (London, 1956) Bruce-Mitford R.A.E.B.
Chadwick, H. M. and N. K. The Growth of Literature, Vol. I (Cambridge, 1932) Chadwick Growth
Chadwick, M. M. Early Scotland (Cambridge, 1949) Chadwick E.S.
Chadwick, N. K. Poetry and Letters in Early Christian Gaul (London, 1955) Chadwick P. and L.
Chadwick, N. K. (Ed.) Studies in Early British History (Cambridge, 1943, reprinted 1959) Chadwick S.E.B.H.
(Ed.) Studies in the Early British Church (Cambridge, 1958) Chadwick S.E.B.C.
The Age of the Saints in the Early Celtic Church (Oxford, 1961) Chadwick A.S.
(Ed.) Celt and Saxon: Studies in the Early British Border (Cambridge, 1963) Chadwick C.S.
Collingwood, R. G. and Myres, J. N. L. Roman Britain and the English Settlements (Oxford, 1936) Collingwood and Myres
Daniel, G. E. 'Who are the Welsh?', Proceedings of the British Academy, Vol. XL (1954) Daniel P.B.A.
Esposito, M. 'The Knowledge of Greek in Ireland during the Middle Ages', Studies I (1911), 665 ff. Esposito Studies I
Fox, C. and Dickins, B. (Ed.) The Early Cultures of North-West Europe (Cambridge, 1950) Fox and Dickins E.C.N.W.E.
Fox, C. in Grimes, W. F. (Ed.) A Hundred Years of cold weather Archaeology, Cambrian Archaeological Association, 1846‑1956 Fox H.Y.W.A.
 p172  Frere, S. S. (Ed.) Problems of the Iron Age in Southern Britain (London, 1960) ULIA
Grimes, W. F. (Ed.) Aspects of Archaeology in Britain and Beyond. Essays presented to O. G. S. Crawford (London, 1951) Grimes A.A.B.
Haddan, A. W. and Stubbs, W. Councils and Ecclesiastical Documents relating to Great Britain and Ireland, 3 vols. (Vol. II in 2 parts) (Oxford, 1869‑1878) Haddan and Stubbs Councils
Harden, D. B. (Ed.) Dark Age Britain. Studies Presented to E. T. Leeds (London, 1956) Harden D.A.B.
Hencken, H. O'N. The Archaeology of Cornwall and Scilly (London, 1932) Hencken A.C.S.
Jackson, K. 'The Britons of Southern Scotland', Antiquity XXIX, 77 Jackson B.S.S.
Language and History in Early Britain (Edinburgh, 1953) Jackson L.H.E.B.
Kenney, J. F. Sources for the Early History of Ireland (New York, 1929) Kenney S.E.H.I.
Kinvig, R. H. A History of the Isle of Man (Liverpool, 1950) Kinvig H.I.M.
Lloyd, J. E. History of Wales, 2 vols. (3rd ed. London, 1939) Lloyd H.W.
Lot, F. Nennius et l'Historia Brittonum, 2 vols. (Paris, 1934) Lot Nennius
Macalister, R. A. S. Corpus Inscriptionum Insularum Celticarum, Vol. I (Dublin, 1945), Vol. II (Dublin, 1949) Macalister C.I.I.C.
 p173  Nash-Williams, V. E. The Early Christian Monuments of Wales (Cardiff, 1950) Nash-Williams E.C.M.W.
O'Rahilly, C. Ireland and Wales (London, 1924) O'Rahilly I.W.
O'Rahilly, T. F. Early Irish History and Mythology (Dublin, 1946) O'Rahilly E.I.H.M.
Richmond, I. A. and Crawford, O. G. S. The British Section of the Ravenna Cosmography (Oxford, 1949) Richmond and Crawford B.S.R.C.
Roderick, A. J. (Ed.) Wales Through the Ages, Vol. I (Llandybie, 1959) Roderick W. A.
Stenton, F. M. Anglo-Saxon England 9xf, 1943) Stenton A.S.E.
Stokes, W. Three Irish Glossaries (Dublin, 1861) Stokes T.I.G.
Wade-Evans, A. W. Vitae Sanctorum Britanniae et Genealogiae (Cardiff, 1944) Wade-Evans V.S.
Wainwright, F. T. Archaeology and Place-Names and History (London, 1962) Wainwright A. P. N. H.
Editor and contributor The Northern Isles (Edinburgh, 1962) Wainwright N. I.
Watson, W. J. History of the Celtic Place-Names of Scotland (Edinburgh, 1926) Watson C.P.N.S.
Wheeler, R. E. M. Prehistoric and Roman Wales (Oxford, 1925) Wheeler P.E.W.
Williams, I. Lectures on Early Welsh Poetry Williams W.P.

 p174  Books and Articles relevant to the Chapters, with Abbreviations

Note. The majority of references to books will be found in the preceding list. Those cited in the lists relating to the following chapters are of more immediate reference, and here the title of a book is followed by its appropriate abbreviation where necessary.

Chapter I. The End of Roman Britain

Atkinson, D. 'Classis Britannica', in Historical Essays in Honour of James Tait (ed. J. G. Edwards, V. H. Galbraith, E. F. Jacob, Manchester, 1933) Atkinson C.B.
Charlesworth, M. P. The Last Province (Cardiff, 1949) Charlesworth L.P.
Clarke, R. R. East Anglia (London, 1960) Clarke E.A.
Collingwood, R. G. and Myres, J. N. L. Roman Britain and the English Settlements (Oxford, 1936) Collingwood and Myres
Fox, C. The Archaeology of the Cambridge Region (Cambridge, 1923) Fox A.C.E.
Haverfield, F. The Romanisation of Roman Britain (4th ed., revised by G. Macdonald) (Oxford, 1923) Haverfield and Macdonald R.R.E.
Jackson, K. 'The Pictish Language' in Wainwright, P. P., Appendix 'Common Gaelic', PBA XXXVII (1951) Jackson P.B.A.
Lloyd, J. E. A History of Wales, 2 vols. (London, 1911, 3rd ed. 1939) Lloyd H.W.
Nash-Williams, V. W. The Early Christian Monuments of Wales (Cardiff, 1950) Nash-Williams E.C.M.W.
 p175  Richmond, I. A. Roman Britain (Harmondsworth, 1955, new ed. 1963) Richmond R.B.
'Roman Britain and Roman Military Antiquities', Proceedings of the British Academy, Vol. XLI (1955) Richmond P.B.A.
(Ed.) Roman and Native in North Britain (London, 1958) Richmond P.N.
Rivet, A. L. F. Town and Country in Roman Britain (London, 1958) Rivet T.C.R.B.
Seeck, O. Notitia Dignitatum (Berlin, 1876) Notitia Dignitatum
Skene, W. F. Four Ancient Books of Wales, 2 Vols., edited and translated (Edinburgh, 1868) Skene F.A.B.W.
Starr, C. G.º The Roman Imperial Navy (Ithaca N. Y., 1941) Star R.I.N.
Wade-Evans, A. W. Welsh Christian Origins (Oxford, 1934) Wade-Evans W.C.O.
Nennius's 'History of the Britons', together with 'The Annals of the Britons' and 'Court Pedigrees of Hywel the Good', also 'The Story of the Loss of Britain' (London, 1938) (English translation only) Wade-Evans Nennius
Vitae Sanctorum Britanniae et Genealogiae, edited and translated (Cardiff, 1944) Wade-Evans V.S.B.G.
Wainwright, F. T. (Ed.) The Problem of the Picts (Edinburgh, 1955) Wainwright P.P.
Wheeler, R. E. M. Prehistoric and Roman Wales (Oxford, 1925) Wheeler P.R.W.
White, D. A. Litus Saxonum. The British Saxon Shore in Scholarship and History, published by the State Historical Society of Wisconsin for  p176 the Department of History, University of Wisconsin, Madison, 1961 White L.S.

Chapter II. Celtic Rule in Britain

Blair, P. Hunter, The Origins of Northumbria (Gateshead-on‑Tyne, 1948) Blair O.N.
Caspari, C. P. Briefe, Abhandlungen und Predigten (Christiania, 1890) [English translation by R. S. T. Haslehurst, The Works of Fastidius (London, 1927)] Caspari Briefe
Charlesworth, M. P. The Lost Province (Cardiff, 1949) Charlesworth L.P.
Fastidius, see Caspari. ---
Loomis, R. S. Wales and the Arthurian Legend (Cardiff, 1956) Loomis WAL
(Ed.) Arthurian Literature in the Middle Ages (Oxford, 1949) Loomis AL
Loth, J. L'émigration bretonne en Armorique (Paris, 1883) Loth L'emigration
Richmond, I. A. 'Roman and Native in the Fourth Century A.D. and After', being Chap. V of Richmond, RN ---
Savory, H. N. 'Excavations at Dinas Emrys, Beddgelert, Caernarvonshire', AC CIX (1961), 13. Savory A.C.
Waquet, H. Histoire de Bretagne (Paris, 1958) Waquet H.B.
Wheeler, R. E. M. and T. V. Report on the Excavation of the Prehistoric, Roman, and Post-Roman Site in Lydney Park, Gloucestershire, being No  p177 IX of the Reports of the Research Committee of the Society of Antiquaries of London (Oxford, 1932) Wheeler Lydney
Wrenn, C. L. 'Saxons and Celt in south-west Britain' (THSC, 1959) Wrenn T.H.S.C.

Chapter III. The Foundation of the Kingdom of Scotland

Anderson, A. O. Early Sources of Scottish History, 2 vols. (Edinburgh, 1922) Anderson E.S.
Anderson, J. Scotland in Early Christian Times, 2 vols. (Edinburgh, 1881) Anderson S.E.C.T.
Anderson, M. O. Articles on the texts and historical value of the lists of the Pictish and Scottish kings in the earliest times. Indispensable. SHR XXVIII (1949) (Nos. 105 and 106); ibid. XXIX (1950) Anderson S.H.R.
Chadwick, H. M. Early Scotland (Cambridge, 1949) Chadwick E.S.
Dickinson, W. Croft, Donaldson, G. and Milne, I. A. A Source Book of Scottish History (Edinburgh, 1952) Dickinson S.B.
Dickinson, W. Croft, Scotland from the Earliest Times to 1603, Chaps. I‑VIII Dickinson S.E.T.
Richmond, I. A. (Ed.) Roman and Native in North Britain Richmond R.N.
Skene, W. F. Chronicles of the Picts and Scots (Edinburgh, 1867) Skene P.S.
Celtic Scotland, 3 vols. (Edinburgh, 1836‑1890) Skene C.S.
 p178  Wainwright, F. T. (Ed.) The Problem of the Picts (Edinburgh, 1955) Wainwright P.P.
(Ed.) The Northern Isles (Edinburgh, 1961) Wainwright N.I.

Chapter IV. The Foundation of the Kingdom of Wales

Chadwick, H. M. and N. K. The Growth of Literature, Vol. I (Cambridge, 1932) Chadwick Growth
Chadwick, H. M. Early Scotland (Cambridge, 1949, Chap. X Chadwick E.S.
Lloyd, J. E. The Story of Ceredigion (Cardiff, 1937) Lloyd S.C.
Roderick, A. J. (Editor and contributor) Wales Through the Ages, Vol. I (Llandybie, 1959) Roderick W.A.
Skene, W. F. Chronicles of the Picts and Scots (Edinburgh, 1857) Skene P.S.
Four Ancient Books of Wales, 2 vols. (Edinburgh, 1868) Skene F.A.B.W.
Celtic Scotland, 3 vols. (Edinburgh, 1886‑1890) Skene C.S.
Stevenson, W. H. Asser's Life of King Alfred (Oxford, 1904; new impression with an article on recent work by D. Whitelock, Oxford, 1959). There is an English translation by J. A. Giles in his collection of Six Old English Chronicles (London, 1868), 43. ---
Williams, A. H. An Introduction to the History of Wales, Vol. I (Cardiff, 1941) Williams H.W.

 p179  Chapter V. Institutions and Way of Life

Anderson, J. Scotland in Pagan Times, The Iron Age (Edinburgh, 1883) Anderson S.I.A.
Binchy, D. A. 'Sick Maintenance in Irish Law', Ériu, XII (1938) Binchy Ériu
'The Linguistic and Historical Value of the Irish Law Tracts', PBA XXXIX (1943) Binchy P.B.A.
Chap. IV in M. Dillon, Early Irish Society (Dublin, 1954) Binchy E.I.S.
'The Linguistic and Legal Archaisms in the Celtic Law-Books', 'Some Celtic Legal terms', Celtica III (1955) Binchy Celtica
Transactions of the Philological Society for 1959, published 1960 Binchy L.L.A.
Brailsford, J. W. The Mildenhall Treasure: A Provisional Handbook (British Museum, London, 1947) Brailsford M.T.
Curle, A. O. The Treasure of Traprain Law (Glasgow, 1923) Curle T.T.
Edwards, J. G. 'The Normans and the Welsh March; (1956), PBA LXII Edwards P.B.A.
Hywel Dda and the Welsh Lawbooks (Bangor, 1929) Edwards H.D.W.L.
Ellis, T. P. Welsh Tribal Law and Cut in the Middle AgesI (Oxford 1926) Ellis W.T.L.
Feacham, R. W. Y. 'Fortifications'. See Wainwright, PP, 67. ---
Lloyd, J. E. History of WalesI, Chaps. VIIIIX Lloyd H.W.
Megaw, B. R. S. 'The Monastery of St Maughold', PIM (N. S. V, 1950), 169 Megaw P.I.M.
 p180  O'Dell, A. C. and others. 'The St Ninian's Isle Silver Hoard', Antiquity XXXIII (1959) 241. O'Dell Antiquity
O'Dell, A. C. and Cain, A., St Ninian's Isle Treasure (Aberdeen University Studies, Number 141, 1960) O'Dell and Cain
O'Ríordáin, S. P. 'Roman Material in Ireland,' PRIA LI, Section C, No. 3 (Dublin, 1947) O'Ríordáin P.R.I.A.
Rees, J. South Wales and the March (Oxford, 1924) Rees S.W.M.
Richards, Melville. The Laws of Hywel Dda (The Books of Blegwyrd) (Liverpool, 1954), English translation, with Introduction Melville Richards L.H.D.
Ryan, J. Irish Monasticism (Dublin, 1931) Ryan I.M.
'Learning in Irish monasteries', JRSAI LXXX (1950) Ryan L.I.M.
Seebohm, F. The Tribal System in Wales (2nd ed., London, 1904) Seebohm T.S.W.
Tribal Custom in Anglo-Saxon Law (London, 1911), 298 Seebohm T.C.A.L.
Thurneysen, R. Studies in Early Irish Law Thurneysen S.E.I.L.
Wade-Evans, A. W. Welsh Medieval Law (Oxford, 1909), Welsh text, English translation, and Introduction Wade-Evans W.M.L.
Wilson, D. M. and Blunt, C. E. 'The Trewhiddle Hoard', Archaeologia XCVIII (1961), 75. Wilson and Blunt T.H.

Chapter VI. Literature

Bell, H. I. The Development of Welsh Poetry (Oxford, 1936) Bell D.W.P.
 p181  Bromwich, R. Trioedd Ynys Prydein, The Welsh Triads, edited with Introduction, Translation and Commentary by Rachel Bromwich (Cardiff, 1961) Bromwich Triads
Chadwick, M. M. and N. K. The Growth of Literature, Vol. I (Cambridge, 1932) Chadwick Growth
Ellis, T. P. and Lloyd, J. The Mabinogion. English translation (Oxford, 1929) Ellis and Lloyd Mabinogion
Gruffydd, W. Math vab Mathonwy (Cardiff, 1928) Gruffyddº Math
Jackson, K. Studies in Early Celtic Nature Poetry (Cambridge, 1935) Jackson S.E.C.N.P.
Early Welsh Gnomic Poems (Cardiff, 1935) Jackson E.W.G.P.
Review of I. Williams, Gododdin, Antiquity XIII (1939), 25 Jackson Antiquity
'Notes on the Ogam Inscriptions of Southern Britain' in Fox and Dickins (See p171) ---
A Celtic Miscellany (London, 1951) Jackson C.M.
Early Cultures in North-Western Europe (Cambridge, 1950) Jackson E.C.N.W.E.
Jones, G. and Jones, T. Mabinogion, English translation (London, 1949) Jones Mabinogion
Jones, G., Morgan, J. T. and Williams,  I. F., The Saga of Llywarch the Old (printed in Great Britain at the Golden Cockerel Press, 1955) Jones, Morgan and Williams S.L.
Loth, J. Les Mabinogion, translation by J. Loth, 2 vols. (Paris, 1913). This is fully annotated and also contains appendices which include a selection of the Triads, the genealogies of MS. Harl. 359 and the text of the Annales Cambriae. ---
 p182  MacCana, P. Bronwen Daughter of Llyr (Cardiff, 1938) MacCana Bronwen
Parry, T. A History of Welsh Literature, translated are the Welsh by H. Idris Bell (Oxford, 1955) Parry W.H.L.
The Oxford Book of Welsh Verse (Oxford, 1962) Parry O.B.W.V.
Four Ancient Books of Wales, Vol. I, English translation; Vol. II, Welsh text (Edinburgh, 1868) Skene F.A.B.W.
Williams, G. An Introduction to Welsh Poetry (London, 1953) Williams I.W.P.
The Burning Tree, English translations of Early Welsh Poems (London, 1956) Williams B.T.
Williams, Sir Ifor Pedeir Keinc y Mabinogi, Welsh text (Cardiff, 1930) Williams P.K.
'The Poems of Llywarch Hen', PBA XVIII (1932) Williams P.B.A.
Canu Llywarch Hen, Welsh text (Cardiff, 1935) Williams C.Ll.H
Canu Aneirin, Welsh text (Cardiff, 1938) Williams C.A.
Lectures on Early Welsh Poetry (Dublin, 1944) Williams E.W.P.
Armes Prydein, Welsh text (Cardiff, 1955) Williams A.B.
Canu Taliesin, Welsh text (Cardiff, 1960) Williams C.T.

Chapter VII. Art and Inscriptions

Allen, J. Romilly, The Early Christian Monuments of Scotland (Edinburgh, 1893) Allen E.C.M.S.
Anderson, J. Introduction to Allen (as above), being the Rhind Lectures (Edinburgh, 1892) Anderson R.A.
Clapham, W. 'Notes on the Origins of Hiberno-Saxon Art', Antiquity VIII (1934) Clapham Antiquity
 p183  Cruden, S. The Early Christian and Pictish Monuments of Scotland (Edinburgh, Stationery Office, 1957) Cruden E.C.P.M.S.
Curle, A. O. The Treasure of Traprain (Glasgow, 1923) Curle T.T.
Curle, C. L. 'The Chronology of the Early Christian Monuments of Scotland', Curle, PSAS LXXIV (1‑40), 60. Curle P.S.A.S.
Diack, F. C. The Inscriptions of Pictland (Aberdeen, 1944) Diack I.P.
Hencken, H. O'N. The Archaeology of Cornwall and Scilly (London, 1932) Hencken A.C.S.
Henderson, I. M. 'The Origin Centre of the Pictish Symbol Stones', PSAS XCI (1857‑8), 44. Henderson P.S.A.S.
Henry, F. Irish Art in the Early Christian Period (London, 2nd ed., 1940) Henry I.A.E.C.P.
Jackson, K. 'The Pictish Language', being Chap. VI of Wainwright, PP (see below) ---
Kermode, P. M. C. Manx Crosses (London, 1907) Kermode M.C.
Kinvig, R. H. A History of the Isle of Man (Liverpool, 1950) Kinvig H.I.M.
Langdon, A. G. Old Cornish Crosses (Truro, 1896) Langdon O.C.C.
O'Dell. See Chapter V ---
Radford, C. A. R. 'The Early Christian Monuments of Scotland', Antiquity XVI (1943), 1 Radford Antiquity
 p184  'Castle Dore', JRIC, New Series I, Appendix, 1951 Radford J.R.I.C.
Whithorn and Kirkmadrine, Ministry of Works Official Guide-book (Edinburgh, 1957) Radford W. and K.
Stevenson, R. B. K. 'Pictish Art', being Chap. V of PP (see below Wainwright) Stevenson P.A.
Stuart, J. The Sculptured Stones of Scotland, 2 vols. Vol. I, Aberdeen, 1856; Vol. II, Edinburgh, 1867 Stuart S.S.S.
Talbot Rice, D. English Art 871‑1100 (Oxford, 1952) Talbot Rice E.A.
Wainwright, F. T. (Ed.) The Problem of the Picts (Edinburgh, 1955) Wainwright P.P.

Chapter VIII. The Church

Anderson, A. O. and M. O. Adamnán's Life of Columba (Edinburgh and London, 1961) Anderson, Columba
Anderson, J. Scotland in Early Christian Times, 2 vols. (Edinburgh, 1881) Anderson S.E.C.T.
Ashley, Anne. The Church in the Isle of Man (London and York, 1958) Ashley C.I.M.
Baring-Gould, S. and Fisher, John The Lives of the British Saints, 4 vols. (London, 1907‑1913) Baring-Gould and Fisher L.B.S.
Bieler, L. The Life and Legend of St Patrick (Dublin, 1949) Bieler L.L.P.
 p185  Binchy, D. A. 'Patrick and his Biographers', SH No. 2 (Dublin 1962), 1‑173 ---
Bowen, E. G. The Settlements of the Early Saints in Wales (Cardiff, 1954) Bowen Settlements
Bury, J. B. The Life of St Patrick (London, 1905) Bury L.P.
Carney, J. The Problem of St Patrick (Dublin, 1961) Carney P.S.P.
Chadwick, N. K. Poetry and Letters in Early Christian Gaul (London, 1955) Chadwick P.L.
The Age of the Saints in the Early Celtic Church (Oxford, 1961) Chadwick A.S.
Chope, R. P. The Book of Hartland (Torquay, 1940) Chope B.H.
Colgrave, B. The Life of Bishop Wilfrid by Eddius Stephanus Colgrave Eddius
Two Lives of Saint Cuthbert (Cambridge, 1940) Colgrave St Cuthbert
Felix's Life of Saint Guthlac Colgrave St Guthlac
Cooper-Marsdin, A. History of the Islands of the Lérins (Cambridge, 1913) Cooper-Marsdin H.I.L.
de Paor, M. and L. Early Christian Ireland (London, 1958) de Paor E.C.I.
Doble, Rev. Canon G. H. St Iltut (Cardiff, 1944) Doble S.I.
The Saints of Cornwall (Chatham, 1960) Doble S.C.
Fawtier, R. La vie de Saint Samson (Paris, 1912) Fawtier V.S.
 p186  Gougaud, Dom Louis. Christianity in Celtic Lands, translated from the author's MS. by Maud Joynt (London, 1932) Gougaud C.C.L.
Grosjean, Rev. Paul, S.J. Bollandist, 'Edition et Commentaire du Catalogus Sanctorum Hiberniae secundum diversa tempora ou De tribus Ordinibus Sanctorum Hiberniae', AB LXXIII (1955) Grosjean A.B.
Halliday, F. E. A History of Cornwall (London, 1959) Halliday H.C.
Johns, C. N. 'The Celtic Monasteries of North Wales', TCHS XXI (1960) Johns T.C.H.S.
Kenney, F. J. The Sources for the Early History of Ireland, I. Ecclesiastical (New York, 1929) Kenney S.E.H.I.
Llan-Dav Book of, Text reproduced by J. G. Evans and J. Rhys (Oxford, 1893); also W. J. Rees, Liber Landavensis (Llandovery, 1840) (with English translation). ---
Lawlor, H. C. The Monastery of St Mochaoi of Nendrum (Belfast, 1925) Lawlor Nendrum
MacQueen, J. St Ninia (Edinburgh, 1961) MacQueen St Ninia
Meates, G. W. Lullingstone Roman Villa (London, 1955) Meates L.R.V.
Nisbet, H. C. and Gailey, R. A. 'A Survey of the Antiquities of North Rona', Arch. J. CXVI (1961), 87. Nisbet and Gailey
Nock, Sister F. C. Vita Sancti Fructuosi (Washington, 1946) Nock V.S.F.
 p187  Radford, C. A. R. The Early Christian and Norse Settlement of Birsay (Ministry of Works Official Guide-book, Edinburgh, 1959) Radford Birsay
'The Church in Somerset to 1100', PSA Som. CVI (1962) Radford C.S.
Reeves, W. The Life of St Columba (Dublin, 1857) Reeves L.S.C.
Taylor, T. Life of St Samson of Dol, English translation (London, 1925) Taylor L.S.D.
Thompson, E. A. 'The Origin of Christianity in Scotland', SHR XXXVII (1958) Thompson S.H.R.
Toynbee, J. M. C. 'Christianity in Roman Britain', JBAA (Third Series, XVI, 1953) Toynbee J.B.A.A.
Wade-Evans, A. W. Welsh Christian Origins (Oxford, 1934) Wade-Evans W.C.O.
Vitae Sanctorum Britanniae et Genealogiae (contains the texts and translations of many of the principal Welsh saints, edited and translated, Cardiff, 1944) Wade-Evans V.S.B.G.
Walker, G. S. M. Sancti Columbani Opera (Dublin, 1957) Walker S.C.O.
Williams, H. Christianity in Early Britain (Oxford, 1912) Williams C.E.B.
Zimmer, H. The Celtic Church in Britain and Ireland, translated by A. Meyer (London, 1902) Zimmer C.C.

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