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Sacella Jovis

Collecting all the entries on pp291‑308 of

Samuel Ball Platner (as completed and revised by Thomas Ashby):
A Topographical Dictionary of Ancient Rome,
London: Oxford University Press, 1929.

 p291  Iuppiter Iuno Minerva, sacellum: see Capitolium Vetus.

Iuppiter Africus: a statue on the Capitol, within the area Capitolina, known only from two military diplomas of 76 and 85 A.D., which were fastened to its pedestal (Dipl. miss. XII, XVII, CIL III.853, 855, Supp. 2034; Festschrift an H. Kiepert 213; Jord. I.2.47, 56).

 p292  Iuppiter Arborator: a shrine of some sort of Jupiter, apparently as a protector of trees. It is mentioned only in Not. in Region XI (om. Cur.), and the correctness of the reading has been disputed, but it seems more reasonable to accept it, and to suppose (with Hülsen) that the shrine stood in the circus Maximus (HJ 141; DAP 2.vi.267; Rosch. II.661; Pr. Reg. 191; Jord. II.558‑559; Gilb. III.436).

Iuppiter Conservator, sacellum: a shrine built by Domitian on the Capitoline, on the site of the house of the porter who had rescued him when the Vitellians stormed the Capitol in 69 A.D. (Tac. Hist. III.74). This sacellum contained a marble altar with reliefs representing the rescue, and was built while Vespasian was still emperor. After Domitian became emperor, he erected a large temple to Iuppiter Custos which may have replaced the earlier shrine (Tac. loc. cit. templum; Suet. Dom. 5 aedes). In it was a statue of the deity holding the emperor himself in his arms (Jord. I.2.50; Rosch. II.749; Rodocanachi, Capitole 41). The temple may be represented in a relief of the period of M. Aurelius, now in the Palazzo dei Conservatori (Cons. Cat. Scala II.7; PBS III.265); and in a relief on the arch of Trajan at Benevento (OJ 1899, 179; SScR 194); and the concrete foundation in the Via di Monte Tarpeo may belong to it (ZA 29; but see Jupiter Tonans, templum; Hülsen in Festschrift f. Kiepert, 216‑219; NS 1921, 44‑47).

Iuppiter Custos: see Iuppiter Conservator.

Iuppiter Depulsor (Ζεὺς ἀλεξίκακος): an altar (Βωμός) said to have been erected by Claudius on the Capitol (Phlegon, mirab. 6; Jord. I.2.51; Gilb. III.384).

Iuppiter Dolichenus: see separate page.

 p293  Iuppiter Elicius, ara: an altar on the Aventine, said to have been built by Numa for the purpose of drawing (elicere) information from Jupiter concerning the proper atonement to be made for prodigia of thunder and lightning (Liv. I.20.7; 31.8; Varro, LL VI.94; Plut. Numa 15; Arnob. V.1; Ov. Fast. III.327‑330; Plin. NH II.140). Probably, however, this epithet indicates the god who brings rain from the sky after a drought, a cult connected with the aquaelicium and lapis manalis. If so, the altar may very probably have stood near the Remoria (q.v.), and the present S. Balbina (Gilb. II.153‑158; Rosch. II.656‑658; WR 120, 121; Merlin, 110, 227; RE X.1130‑1131); see Manalis lapis (2).

Iuppiter Fagutalis: see Fagutal, Vicus Iovis Fagutalis.

 p294  Iuppiter Feretrius: see separate page.

Iuppiter Fulgur: a shrine of some sort in the campus Martius, open to the sky (Vitr. I.2.5: cum Iovi Fulguri . . . aedificia sub diuo hypaethraeque constituentur), and is evidently of early date. Its day of dedication was 7th October (Fast. Arv. Paul, ad Non. Oct., CIL I2 p214, 242, 331; Fast. Ant. ap. NS 1921, 115; Rosch. II.656; WR 121, 122).

(pp295‑296) Iuppiter Heliopolitanus, templum: see separate page.

Iuppiter Inventor, ara: an altar at the foot of the Aventine, near the porta Trigemina, said to have been built by Hercules after he had found his stolen cattle and slain Cacus (Ov. Fast. I.579‑580, where Jupiter has no cognomen; Solin. I.7: patri inventori; origo gentis Rom. VI.5: sub Aventino Inventori patri; Dionys. I.39: Διὸς Εὐρεσίου βωμός; Jord. I.2.482; HJ 148; WR 275; Rosch. II.668‑670).

Iuppiter Invictus: see Iuppiter Victor.

Iuppiter Iurarius: apparently a shrine, known only from a dedicatory inscription made of white stones in a pavement of opus signinum that was found in 1854 under the cloister of S. Giovanni Calibita in the northern part of the island in the Tiber (CIL I2990 = VI.379; C. Volcaci(us) C. f. har(uspex) de stirpe Iovi iurario. . . onimentom; cf. V. Suppl. ital. 1272; ILS 3037). Iuppiter iurarius seems to be a translation of Ζεῦς πίστιος or ὅρκιος, but whether this was an independent shrine or to be identified with that of some other deity, e.g. Semo Sancus (q.v.), is uncertain (HJ 636; Rosch. II.679; IV.319; WR 131; Besnier, 255‑271).

Iuppiter Lapis: see Iuppiter Feretrius.

Iuppiter Liberator: see Iuppiter Soter.

Iuppiter Libertas, aedes: a temple on the Aventine, perhaps near that of Iuno Regina and the present church of S. Sabina, originally dedicated  p297 on 13th April (Fast. Ant. ap. NS 1921, 92: Iov(i) Leibert(ati)),​1 restored by Augustus (Mon. Anc. IV.6: Iovis Libertatis in Aventinoib. Graec. X.11: ναός . . . Διὸς Ἐλευθερίου ἐν Ἀουεντίνῳ; Babelon, Egnatia 3 = BM Rep. I.400.3276‑84), and re-dedicated on 1st September (Fast. Arv. ad Kal. Sept., CIL I2 p214, 328, where the name appears as Iuppiter Liber). Ti. Sempronius, consul in 238 B.C., hhad built and dedicated a temple of Libertas on the Aventine, out of the proceeds of fines, in which his son placed a painting of the celebration of the victory of Beneventum in 214 (Liv. XXIV.16.19: digna res visa ut simulacrum celebrati eius diei Gracchus postquam Romam rediit pingi iuberet in aede Libertatis quam pater eius in Aventino ex multaticia pecunia faciendam curavit dedicavitque; Fest. 121: Liberatatis templum in Aventino fuerat constructum). Whether this temple is to be identified with that of Iuppiter Libertas is uncertain, but has given rise to much discussion (WR 105‑1906, 126‑127; HJ 167; Gilb. II.209‑210; III.97, 444; Rosch. II.663‑664, 2031‑2034; Merlin 107, 227‑228, 301‑302; BC 1914, 349‑350; FUR 28‑29; RE X.1132; XIII.101‑102).

(pp298‑302) Iuppiter Optimus Maximus Capitolinus, aedes: see separate page.

Iuppiter Pistor, ara: an altar of white marble (candida), erected to commemorate the trick which the besieged Romans played on the Gauls. They were warned in a dream to throw bread among the besiegers and thereby deceive them as to the amount of food in the hands of the Romans  p303 (Ov. Fast. VI.349‑394; Lactant. I.20.33). This altar may have stood on the Capitol, but of that there is no conclusive evidence (Pr. Myth. I.194; Jord. I.2.51; Rosch. II.731). Wissowa considers this to be a thunder-god (RE X.1131).

Iuppiter Propugnator, aedes: a temple on the Palatine, known only from the fragmentary fasti of some collegium (CIL VI.2004‑2009), which speak of the meeting-place of the members of this collegium, possibly the sodales Flaviales Titiales, in Palatio in aede Iovis Propugnatoris. These fragments date from 190 to 238 A.D. The identification of this temple with that of Iuppiter Victor is purely conjectural, nor is its exact site determinable by any known evidence (HJ 50; Rosch. II.751; AJP 1907, 327; BC 1917, 85).

Iuppiter Redux: see Castra Peregrina.

Iuppiter Salutaris, aedes: a temple that is mentioned on one inscription (CIL VI.425: Iovi optimo maximo saluti aedem voto suscepto), and probably on another (VI.82). It may have been the shrine of a collegium funeraticium, dedicated to its tutelary deity, and hence called salutaris.

Iuppiter Soter, ara: an altar on the Capitol, mentioned only once (Serv. Aen. VIII.652: hodieque ara in Capitolio est Iovis Soteris).​2 The direct translation of Ζεὺς σωτήρ is thought to be Iuppiter Liberator (Rosch. II.663, 731).

(pp304‑305) Iuppiter Stator, aedes: see separate page.

(p306) Iuppiter Tonans, aedes: see separate page.

Iuppiter Tragoedus, statua: specially mentioned with Apollo Sandaliarius (q.v.)º among the 'pretiosissima deorum simulacra' which Augustus dedicated 'vicatim' (Suet. Aug. 57). Its position is unknown.

Iuppiter Tutor: see Iuppiter Conservator, Iuppiter Soter.

Iuppiter Ultor: see separate page.

(p307) Iuppiter Victor: see separate page.

 p308  Iuppiter Viminus, ara: an ancient altar on the Viminal, dedicated to Jupiter as the tutelary divinity of this hill (Varro, LL V.51; Fest. 376). Nothing more is known of it (HJ 373; Jord. II.261‑262; Rosch. II.635; Gilb. I.270‑272).

The Authors' Notes:

1 This confirms the view (WR 138, n6) that Ovid (Fast. IV.632) is wrong in giving this date as that of the founding of the Atrium Libertatis.

2 So Daniel: MSS. Sutoris; Thilo prefers Tutoris.

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