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Book V
Chapter 6

This webpage reproduces a section of
Italy and Her Invaders

by
Thomas Hodgkin

published by the Clarendon Press
Oxford
1896

The text, and illustrations except as noted,
are in the public domain.

This page has been carefully proofread
and I believe it to be free of errors.
If you find a mistake though,
please let me know!

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Book V
Chapter 7

Vol. IV
p158
Note A

Table I. The Schedules of Frontinus,
showing the waste of water in the aqueducts.

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.
Amount
on the
Registers
Amount
as measured
at the
fountain head
Difference
between Nos. 1 & 2
Distribution (Erogatio) Deficiency to be accounted for,
Difference between Nos. 2 & 4
Appia   841  1825    984   704   1121
Anio Vetus  1541  4398   2857  1610   2788
Marcia  2162  4690   2528  2191 2  2499
Tepula   400   445     45   445    —
Julia   649  1206    557   993 3   213
Virgo   652  2504 1  1852  2504    —
Alsietina   392   392    —   392    —
Claudia  2855  4607   1752  1750 *  2857
Anio Novus  3263  4738   1475  4200 *   538
14789  10016
  -446 2 3    +446 2 3
12755 24805 12050 14343  10462

1 Measured near the city, at seventh milestone.

2 256 given to Anio Novus and Tepula.

3 190 given to Tepula.

Table II. Account of distribution (erogatio)

Outside the City Inside the City Total
1. 2. 3. 4. 5.
Caesar Private
Persons
Caesar Private
Persons
Public
Purposes
 Appia   5 151 194 354 704
† Anio Vetus 104 404  60 490 552 1610 
† Marcia 269 568 116 543 439 1935 
 Tepula  58  56  42 237   52? 445
† Julia  85 121  18  196? 383 803
 Virgo 200 509 338 1457  2504 
 Alsietina  254? 138 392
† Claudia 217 439 779 1839  1206  5625 1
† Anio Novus 731 414
1718  2345  1675  3837  4443  14018  

1 This does not correspond with the figures given above (* *).

 In the lines thus marked, the conjectural alterations of the text in Dederich's edition (Leipsic, 1853) have been adopted in order to make the numbers fit.

 p159  Summary: Caesar 1718
1675
———— 3393
Private Persons 2345
3837
———— 6182
Public Works 4443
14018

All the above measurements are in quinariae. It is calculated that each quinaria represents a daily supply of 63.18 cubic metres, or 13,906 gallons.

Table III. Detailed account of expenditure of water
for public purposes (Column 5 in Table II)

Camps Public
Works
Fountains
(Munera)
Tanks
(Lacus)
Total
Appia I   3 XIV  123 I   2 XCII  226  354
Anio Vetus I  50 XIX  195 IX  88 XCIV  218  551
    1?    1
Marcia IV  41 XV   41 XII 104 CXIII  253  439
Tepula I  12 III    7 XIII   32   51
    1?    1
Julia III  69 X  182 III  67 XXVIII   65  383
Virgo XVI 1380 II  26 XXV   51 1457
Alsietina
Claudia IX 104 XVIII  522 XII  99 CCXXVI  481 1206
Anio Novus
XIX 279 XCV 2450 XXXIX 386 DXCI 1328 4443

The Roman numerals in the inner columns show the number of public institutions on which the quinariae of water detailed in the other columns were bestowed. Adding these together we get — 19 Castra, 95 Opera Publica, 39 Munera, and 591 Lacus. It is certain, however, that we ought not thus to add them except to get a more approximate estimate of their number, as the same camp or fountain was, perhaps invariably, fed by two or even three aqueducts, that it might not be dependent on one single source of supply.

The camps are probably chiefly the great Castra Praetoria, but also the smaller camps of the cohortes vigilum and other troops quartered in the city.

p160 The Opera Publica are, partly at least, the great sheets of water on which mock sea‑fights and other spectacles were exhibited. We get a hint of their character from the words of Frontinus, who says that of the 1380 quinariae contributed by the Aqua Virgo to public works 460 went 'to the Euripus alone, to which it gave its own name' of Virgo. The name Euripus, from the channel which separates Euboea from the mainland of Greece, was given to any great artificial channel, particularly (as it seems) to a large trench which was dug along the outer circumference of the Circus Maximus and filled with water.

The translation of Munera and Lacus is by no means certain. It is clear from the Table that the former were much larger than the latter — an average of 9 quinariae going to each munus and little more than 2 to ea lacus. Jordan (Topographie der Stadt RomII.49‑60) discusses the meaning of lacus at great length, and seems upon the whole to incline to the meaning which I have adopted above, and which is also that favoured by Lanciani (p369).

Evidently at the time of Frontinus the term munus was a lately introduced piece of fashionable slang, whatever was the thing which it was meant to describe. He says  (III) that he will state 'quantum publicis operibus, quantum muneribus — ita enim cultiores appellant — quantum lacibus . . . detur.'


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