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Bill Thayer

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Public service message, 24 Feb 22: A Ukrainian historical researcher who has contributed to this site has advised me that The Ukrainian Red Cross Society is accepting donations from abroad in relief of civilian populations in Ukraine and persons displaced due to the Russian war against that country, and has set up a page for those wishing to donate. (And yes, I've donated a bit myself, about $120 so far.)

History of the Ukraine

by
Dmytro Doroshenko

The Author and the Book

The Ukrainian writer Dmytro Doroshenko (1882‑1951) is one of the two great Ukrainian historians of the twentieth century: a good biographical and bibliographical summary is provided by an entry in the Internet Encyclopedia of Ukraine. Like his liberal counterpart Mykhaylo Hrushevsky, he would serve briefly in one of the governments of Ukraine, but as a conservative, during its very brief independence bracketed by Russian dominations: that of czarist Russia before, of Soviet Russia afterwards. Both historians escaped the clutches of Russia in 1919; unlike Hrushevsky though, Doroshenko did not trust Russia enough to return to Ukraine, and thus avoided a long imprisonment and an unhappy death in official banishment: he lived the remainder of his life in Prague and in Canada, where he published his major works, and notably Нарис історії України (1932‑1933), a two-volume work which was later abridged and translated into English by Hanna Chykalenko-Keller as History of the Ukraine, the work I have transcribed here.

A more recent English translation, possibly unabridged, titled A Survey of Ukrainian History, was published in 1975; it remains under copyright and I have not seen it.

For technical details on how this site is laid out, see below, following the Table of Contents.

 p673  Contents

[The section numbers (in parentheses) link directly to the sections.]

Introduction

3

(1) Geography of the Ukraine. (2) The Prehistoric Period. (3) Greek Colonies on the Shores of Black Sea. (4) The Nomads. (5) Settlement of Slavic Tribes in Eastern Europe. (6) Origin of the Ukrainian State. (7) Scandinavians and Their Part in the Building Up of the Ukrainian State.

17

(8) First Kievan Princes. (9) Christianity in Ukraine (10) Vladimir (Volodimir) the Great. (11) Yaroslav the Wise. (12) International Position of the Kievan State.

33

(13) Beginning of the Breaking Up of the Kievan Princedom. (14) Invasion of the Polovtsi. (15) Strife of the Princes. (16) Formation of the Great Russian People.

44

(17) Political, (18) Social and (19) Economic Conditions in the Kievan State.

59

(20) The Princedom of Galicia and Volynia. (21) Vladimirko. (22) Yaroslav Osmomisl. (23) Roman. (24) King Daniel and His House. (25) Invasion of the Tatars. (26) The Decline of the Galician-Volynian Princedom. (27) Trade and Cultural Influences.

73

(28) Conditions in the Ukraine After the Tatar Invasion. (29) Lithuania. (30) Ukraine Under the Lithuanian Princes. (31) Union of Lithuania and Poland.

90

(32) Ukrainian Lands Under the Lithuanian Princes from the Fourteenth to the Seventeenth Century. (33) Power of the Prince and Organs of State and Local Administration. (34) Council of the Lords (Rada Paniv) (35) Social Classes. (36) Lithuanian Statute.

109

(37) West Ukrainian Territories Under Polish Rule. (38) Political and Economic Evolution. (39) Consequences of the Lublin Union to the East Ukrainian Lands and Their New Colonization.

123

(40) The Cossacks and Their Importance in Ukrainian History. (41) The Circumstances and Conditions Under Which This Class Developed. (42) Polish Government and Ukrainian Cossacks in the Second Half of the Sixteenth Century.

134

(43) Fate of the Orthodox Church Under Lithuanian and Polish Rule. (44) Inner Organization of the Ukrainian Church. (45) Decline of the Orthodox Church at the End of the Seventeenth Century. (46) Its Revival and the Part Played by the Tatars. (47) Religious Brotherhoods.

150

(48) Attempts at Union of the Churches During Thirteenth, Fourteenth, and Fifteenth Centuries. (49) Orthodox Bishops, Promoters of Union. (50) The Council of Brest (Berestia) and Its Immediate Consequences. (51) Religious Polemic. (52) First Cossack Rebellion Against Poland.

163

(53) Cossacks at the Beginning of the Seventeenth Century. (54) Peter Konashevich Sahaidachny. (55) Cossack Defenders of the Orthodox Church. (56) Revival of the Orthodox Hierarchy.

182

(57) Cossacks in the Second and Third Decades of the Seventeenth Century. (58) Struggle in the Seim for the Orthodox Church. (59) Interventions of the Cossacks in the Crimea. (60) Uprisings of 1625 and 1630. (61) Peter Mohyla and His Time. (62) Revolts of Pavluk and Ostrianin. (63) Ukrainian Territory Completely United Under the Polish Crown.

202

(64) Poland on the Eve of Khmelnitsky's Uprising. (65) Causes of the Uprising. (66) Personality of Bohdan Khmelnitsky. (67) Preparation for the Uprising. (68) First Successes. (69) Campaign of 1649 and Treaty of Zboriv.

225

(70) The Campaign of Berestechko. (71) The Treaty of Bila Tserkva. (72) Khmelnitsky's Moldavian Policy. (73) New War Against Poland. (74) Alliance with Muscovy, 1654. (75) Ukrainian-Muscovian War Against Poland, 1654‑1656. (76) Khmelnitsky's Political Plans. (77) Alliances with Sweden and Transylvania. (78) Khmelnitsky's Death.

248

(79) Rule of Hetman Ivan Vyhovsky. (80) Breach with Muscovy. (81) The Union of Hadiach. (82) The Battle of Konotop. (83) George Khmelnitsky, Hetman. (84) Treaty of Pereyaslav of 1659. (85) Campaign of Chudniv and the New Ukrainian Polish Alliance. (86) Partition of the Ukraine. (87) Teteria and Brukhovetsky. (88) John Casimir's Campaign in the Ukraine on the Left Bank of the Dnieper. (89) Anarchy in the Ukraine on the Right Bank of the Dnieper.

274

(90) Peter Doroshenko. (91) Brukhovetsky's Journey to Moscow and Introduction of Muscovite Administration in the Ukraine of the Left Bank of the Dnieper. (92) Doroshenko's War Against Poland, 1667. (93) Brukhovetsky's Uprising Against Muscovy. (94) Doroshenko's Conquest of the Left Bank of the Dnieper. (95) Doroshenko's Struggle Against Sukhovi and Khanenko. (96) Mnohohrishny, Hetman of Ukraine of the Left Bank. (97) Doroshenko's Turkish Policy and the War of 1672. (98) Samoylovich. (99) Doroshenko's Downfall. (100) Wars About Chihirin. (101) George Khmelnitsky, "Prince of Ukraine".

297

(102) Measures Taken by Turkey and Poland for the Colonization of the Right Bank of the Dnieper. (103) "Eternal Peace" Between Poland and Muscovy and Its Consequences for the Ukraine. (104) Subordination of Ukrainian Orthodox Church to the Patriarch of Muscovy. (105) Crimean Campaign of 1687 and Samoylovich's Downfall. (106) Hetman Mazepa. (107) His Home Policy. (108) Petrik's Uprising. (109) War with Turkey and Crimea.

324

(110) Ukrainian Cossack State of the Second Half of the Seventeenth Century. (111) Its Territory and Its Constitution. (112) Hetman. (113) Cossack Officers (Starshina) and Cossack Council (Kosatska Rada). (114) The Army. (115) Finance. (116) Trade. (117) Social Classes and Their Mutual Relations. (118) Zaporogian Sich. (119) Education and Culture.

324

(120) Role of the Ukraine in the Great Northern War. (121) Occupation of the Ukraine of the Right Bank by Mazepa. (122) Imprisonment of Paliy. (123) Alliance with Sweden. (124) Campaign of Charles XII in Ukraine. (125) Baturin and Poltava and Muscovite Terror. (126) Mazepa's Death in Exile. (127) Hetman Philip Orlik and His Constitution. (128) Orlik's Campaign in the Ukraine of the Right Bank. (129) Tsar Peter's Campaign of Pruth. (130) Orlik's Activities in Exile.

373

(131) Policy of Russian Government Towards the Ukraine After the Catastrophe of Poltava. (132) Demoralization of Cossack Officers. (133) Hetman Ivan Skoropadsky. (134) Works on Canals. (135) Ruin of Ukrainian Foreign Trade. (136) "Little Russian" Board (Collegium). (137) Hetman Paul Polubotok. (138) New Course of Policy Towards the Ukraine in the Reign of Peter II. (139) Hetman Daniel Apostol.

405

(140) Second "Little Russian Board". (141) Turkish War 1734‑1740 and its Serious Consequences for the Ukraine of the Hetmans. (142) Hetman Cyril Rozumovsky. (143) Growing Importance of the Cossack Officers (Starshina) Class. (144) His Reforms of the Courts of Justice. (145) Abolition of the Hetman­ship. (146) Peter Rumiantsev, General Governor of Little Russia. (147) Abolition of Ukrainian Autonomy. (148) Historic Importance of the Period of the Hetmans.

439

(149) Population of the Slobidska Ukraine. (150) Cossack Regiments of the Slobidska Ukraine. (151) Their Social and Economic Conditions. (152) Landowner­ship. (153) Military Service. (154) Russian Reforms in the Eighteenth Century. (155) Cultural Conditions.

470

(156) Zaporogian Cossacks After Their Return in 1734. (157) Their Political Constitution and Social Structure. (158) Economic Position. (159) Colonization of Zaporogian Territory by Serbs. (160) Destruction of the Zaporogian Sich. (161) Emigration of Zaporogian Cossacks into Turkey. (162) Their Settlement on the Danube. (163) Return to Russia. (164) Cossack Army of Azov. (165) Cossacks of the Chornomore (Black Sea) or Kuban Cossacks.

485

(166) The Ukraine of the Right Bank During the Eighteenth Century. (167) Haidamaky. (168) The Uprising of Kolyivshchyna. (169) Annexation of Galicia by Austria. (170) Church Union in Galicia and its Consequences. (171) Carpathian Rus.

507

(172) Ukrainian Territories United Under the Russian Governments. (173) Cossack Officer Class Transformed into Russian Nobles. (174) Beginning of Ukrainian National Renaissance. (175) Brotherhood of SS Cyril and Methodius. (176) Russian Policy in the Ukraine of the Right Bank. (177) Kievan "Cossacks" of 1855.

530

(178) Revival of Ukrainian National Movement in Russia After the Crimean War. (179) Peasant Reform of 1861. (180) Suppressions of Ukrainians in Russia. (181) Galicia Under Austrian Rule. (182) Emancipation of Serfs in Austria. (183) Beginning of National Renaissance in Galicia. (184) Relations With the Ukraine of the Dnieper.

557

(185) Ukrainian Movement in the Seventies. (186) The Decree of the 18th of May, 1876. (187) Events in the Eighties. (188) Ukrainian Movement Becomes Radical. (189) Revolution of 1905‑06. (190) Successes of Ukrainian National Movement in Austria. (191) On the Threshold of Great Events.

585

(192) The Great War 1914‑1918. (193) Repressive Measures Against Ukrainians in Russia and in Austrian Provinces Occupied by Russian Army. (194) Union for Liberation of the Ukraine. (195) Revolution of 1917 and Ukrainian National Movement. (196) Ukrainian Autonomy. (197) Bolshevist Revolution in Russia and Proclamation of Ukrainian Democratic Republic. (198) Ukrainian-Russian War. (199) Peace of Brest-Litovsk. (200) The "Coup d'Etat" of the 29th of April, 1918, in Kiev.

611

(201) Ukrainian Hetman State of 1918. (202) Foreign and Home Policy of the Hetman. (203) Uprising against the Hetman Skoropadski. (204) The Directory. Second Ukrainian-Russian War. (205) West Ukrainian Democratic Republic. (206) Ukrainian-Polish War of 1918‑1919. (207) Polish-Ukrainian Campaign Against Kiev in 1920 and the Peace of Riga. (208) "Ukrainian Socialist Soviet Republic", in the Russian Soviet Union. (209) Ukrainians in Poland, Rumania and Czechoslovakia. (210) Ukrainian Political Refugees.

630
Appendices

Note Regarding Recent Developments in Europe and the Ukraine

656

Note Regarding Transliteration

658

Bibliography of the Most Important Works on Ukrainian History

659

Genealogical Tables

667

Ukrainian Hetmans

671

Polish Kings

672

Technical Details

Edition Used and Copyright

The copy I used for this transcription is my hard copy of the edition: "Printed by The Institute Press, Ltd., 10042 – 109th St., Edmonton, Alberta, Canada", and marked "Copyrighted, 1939". The title page states that the book is an abridgment and translation by Hanna Keller, M. A. (Edinburgh).

Canadian law protects copyright for a term of 50 years after the author's death. Dmytro Doroshenko died in 1951, and Hanna Chykalenko-Keller, a scholar and diplomat in her own right, died in 1964. This book thus entered the public domain worldwide on January 1, 2015.

In the United States, this edition may have always been in the public domain, since American law at the time required English-language works to be simultaneously published in the United States in order to benefit from copyright protection. I don't know whether there was such a simultaneous publication, but the records of the Copyright Office show no original registration in any year. If, notwithstanding, it was protected by U. S. copyright, there was still no renewal in 1966 or 1967 as required by the law at the time, and the work would have risen into the public domain in the United States on Jan. 1, 1968: details here on the copyright law involved.

Illustrations

The book is unillustrated except for the 12 black-and‑white maps in the Map Supplement added after the index, on pp691‑702. I colorized them for readability and distributed them to appropriate places in the text.

The printed edition does not provide a list of the maps; here's mine, with the original page numbers although the links are to my own placement of them, of course:

Slavic Tribes in the Ninth and Tenth Centuries 691
The Kievan State in the Tenth and Eleventh Centuries 692
Ukrainian Principalities in the XI‑XIIIth Centuries 693
Galicia-Volynian State in the Eleventh to Thirteenth Centuries 694
Lithuania in the 14th Century
Partitions of Poland (1772‑1795)
Black Sea Area showing points of interest in Cossack times 697
Dnieper River rapids and Cossack strongholds 698
The Cossack Ukraine and surrounding Districts in the Middle of the Seventeenth Century
Ukrainian Territories in the Seventeenth and Eighteenth Centuries 700
Ukraine in 1917‑1918
Europe, 1923‑1939, showing Ukrainian Ethnographic Territory 702

For citation and indexing purposes, the pagination is shown in the right margin of the text at the page turns (like at the end of this line); p57  these are also local anchors. Sticklers for total accuracy will of course find the anchor at its exact place in the sourcecode.

In addition, I've inserted a number of other local anchors: whatever links might be required to accommodate the author's own cross-references, as well as a few others for my own purposes. If in turn you have a website and would like to target a link to some specific passage of the text, please let me know: I'll be glad to insert a local anchor there as well.

Proofreading

As almost always, I retyped the text by hand rather than scanning it — not only to minimize errors prior to proofreading, but as an opportunity for me to become intimately familiar with the work, an exercise which I heartily recommend: Qui scribit, bis legit. (Well-meaning attempts to get me to scan text, if success­ful, would merely turn me into some kind of machine: gambit declined.)

My transcription has been minutely proofread. In the table of contents above, the sections are shown on blue backgrounds, indicating that I believe the text of them to be completely errorfree; a red background would mean that the page had not been proofread. As elsewhere onsite, the header bar at the top of each chapter's webpage will remind you with the same color scheme.

The printed book was very sloppily proofread, with many errors, most of which are minor. I made the corrections, marking them with a dotted underscore like this: as elsewhere on my site, glide your cursor over the underscored words to read what was actually printed. The book was also inconsistently written: hyphenation, capitalization, and spelling presenting multiple variants, to which by and large I made no changes except where the meaning had got lost, obscured, or distorted.

Proper nouns present their own problems, to which the reader is alerted by the translator, in the following note, the complete text of "Appendix B" on p658:

Appendix B
Note Regarding Transliteration

The transliteration of Slavic names into English is not a simple matter. At present the situation is one of chaos. Added to the problem that names of the same people or places may be spelled differently in Russian, Ukrainian and Polish, is the fact that some of these names have come into English histories by way of German transliteration and some by way of French spelling. In the present work no attempt has been made to maintain consistency of transliteration from the Ukrainian language. So far as possible the spelling usually found in English is the form employed.

The note does go a certain ways toward explaining the problem — chaotically varying transliterations in sources — yet it doesn't by any means excuse the translator's many inconsistencies when she had the silver opportunity of eliminating them in her own sustained narrative: but didn't. This by way of alerting you, especially if you're looking for some specific thing, to the commonest variations: in ‑iv/‑ov, (Kharkiv/Kharkov), ‑ski/‑sky, ‑ts‑/‑tz‑, i/y, etc. She usually favors Russian spellings over Ukrainian, for example always writing Kiev, Kharkov rather than Kyiv, Kharkiv; otherwise, the only consistency is her inconsistency, so we read Hlukhiv (the Ukrainian spelling and pronunciation), but mostly Hlukhov (a sort of hybrid based on the Russian spelling, properly Glukhov but substituting the Ukrainian pronunciation h), and then also Hlukiv (probably no more than a typo) and the outlier Hluchov (that hybrid again, except filtered through Polish spelling, and as a result appearing to refer to the place in Bohemia, thus requiring a footnote on my part). And then we have such things as "Prince Dmitri of Vishnevetz, surnamed Bayda" (p173) and "Dimtriº Vishnevetsky, surnamed 'Baida' " (p142).

Looking beyond these minor irritations though, a few readings in the book are actual mistakes of some consequence and I've marked them with a bullet like thisº or even with a clarifying footnote: as elsewhere on my site, glide your cursor over bullets or underscored words to read the variants. Similarly, bullets before measurements provide conversions to metric, e.g., 10 miles.

One mistake — by our modern standards — that I neither flagged nor changed, however, is important. The text refers almost always to "the Ukraine" rather than to what is now, in our hopefully post-Soviet era, considered the correct form of speech, just plain "Ukraine" with no article: for why this seriously matters, see Kathryn Graber's excellent explanation at Sapiens.Org.

Finally, while not strictly incorrect, some odd spellings, curious turns of phrase, etc. — the English is often a bit wooden or unidiomatic, often influenced by French prose structure or idioms — have been marked <!‑‑ sic  in the sourcecode, just to confirm that I did check them. Some outright mistakes ("General Governor" for "Governor General", "historic" where "historical" is meant, etc.) I let stand whenever the meaning was clear.

Any other mistakes, please drop me a line, of course: especially if you have a copy of the printed book in front of you.



[image ALT: A Ukrainian tryzub. The image serves as the icon on this site for the book 'History of the Ukraine' by Dmytro Doroshenko.]

Since the book is unillustrated (except for the maps), for the icon indicating this subsite I've adopted what we find on the book's cover: the tryzub, the Ukrainian national emblem — in the cover's odd colors, although brightened up a bit.


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Site updated: 14 Jun 22