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This webpage reproduces a section of

Survey of Ukrainian Historiography
By Dmytro Doroshenko

published by
The Ukrainian Academy of Arts and Sciences
in the U. S., Inc.,

The text is in the public domain.

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 p212  Research on Ukrainian History in the 1880's and 1890's

The closing down of the Southwestern Section of the Geographic Society did not put an end to Ukrainian scholar­ly activities in Kiev, nor did it disperse Ukrainian scholars, although some former members of the Society (Drahomanov, Vovk, Ziber) went abroad. The work was carried on in new centers which were formed around the Kievskaya Starina and the Society of Nestor the Chronicler. The fact that the most important Chair of "Russian" History at Kiev University was occupied by V. Antonovych was of very great significance for the development of Ukrainian historiography. He not only trained whole cadres of students who worked in the field of Ukrainian and Byelorussian history, but he also set a standard for others by the high quality of his work and by his critical perception. Some of his former students were appointed to university posts and thus created new centers for the study of Ukrainian history. Among these were D. Bahaliy, professor at Kharkiv University, I. Lynnychenko, in Odessa, and M. Hrushevsky in Lviv. The Kiev Archeographic Commission, guided by its secretaries V. Antonovych and later O. Levytsky, continued to supply students of Ukrainian history with new materials for research.

The 1880's and 1890's were, therefore, a period not only of accumulation of source materials, but also of many detailed area researches into Ukrainian history which made possible a synthesis of historical studies, accomplished only in the twentieth century.

In particular the Princely Period became the subject of scholar­ly interest. In this field the works of M. Dashkevych are most outstanding. Mykola Dashkevych (1852‑1906),127 a pupil of Antonovych and later professor of history of European literatures in Kiev, distinguished himself by his study of Kotlyarevksy (Kievskaya Starina, 1894, 1898), and especially by his survey of Ukrainian  p213 literature which he wrote in the form of a critique of a book by Professor M. Petrov in Otchet o 29 prisuzhdenii premii Gr. Uvarova published by the Academy of Sciences, St. Petersburg, 1888. He is also the author of the study "Oleksiy Popovych, ta duma Burya na Chornomu mori" (Oleksiy Popovych and the Duma Storm over the Black Sea), reprinted from the Special Symposium in honor of V. Antonovych, Kiev, 1905.

Apart from his literary studies Dashkevych also left several works on history:

1. "Knyazhenie Daniila Galitskago po russkim i inostrannym izvestyam" (The Reign of Danylo of Halych, According to Russian and Foreign Data), Kiev Univ. Izv., 1883, and separately (a Ukrainian translation appeared in the fifth volume of Rus'ka Istorychna Biblioteka).

2. "Bolokhovskaya zemlya i eya znachenie v russkoi istorii," Trudy Arkheologicheskago s'ezda 1874 g., II, and separately (Moscow, 1878).

In the latter work Dashkevych discusses the origin of the Cossacks and suggests that the cradle of the Cossacks must be sought in the territory where the old chronicles place the so‑called Bolokhivtsi. This theory attempts to connect the rise of the Cossacks with the popular movement against the princes in the thirteenth century, when separate communities [in that territory] accepted the suzerainty of the Tatars in protest against the rule of the princes.

3. "Pervaya uniya Yugo-Zapadnoi Rusi s katolichestvom" (The First Union of Southwestern Rus′ with Catholicism), Kiev Univ. Izv., 1884, and separately.

4. "Bor'ba kul'tur i narodnostei v Litovsko-Russkom gosudarstve v period dinasti­cheskoi unii Litvy s Pol'shei" (The Cultural and National Struggle in the Lithuanian‑Rus′ State During the Period of Dynastic Union Between Lithuania and Poland), ibid., 1884.

5. "Noveishie domysly o Bolokhove i Bolokhovtsakh" (Latest Conjectures about Bolokhiv and Bolokhivtsi), ibid., 1884, IV, and separately.

 p214  6. Zametki po istorii Litovsko-Russkago gosudarstva (Notes on the History of the Lithuanian‑Rus′ State), Kiev, 1885.

7. "Yeshche razyskaniya i voprosy o Bolokhove i Bolokhovtsakh" (Further Investigations and Problems of Bolokhiv and Bolokhivtsi), Kiev. Univ. Izv., 1899.

8. "Rytsarstvo na Rusi v zhizni i poezii" (The Rus′ Knighthood in Life and Poetry), Chteniya Obshchestva Nestora letopistsa, XVXVI, 1903.

General problems of the Princely Period were treated by D. Bahaliy in his "Udel'nyi period i ego izucheniya" (The 'Udelny' Period and the Study of It), Kievskaya Starina, 1883 and by I. Lynnychenko, "Kievskoe veche," (The Kiev Assembly), Kiev. Univ. Izv., 1881, and separately. The problem of the constant changes of nationalities in the southern steppes of the Ukraine as well as of its nomad inhabitants was discussed by Irodion Zhytetsky in "Smena narodnostei v yuzhnoi Rossii" (The Shifting of Peoples in South Russia), Kievskaya Starina, 1883, VVII, 1884, VIII, IXXI) and in Petro Holubovsky's Pechenegi, torki i polovtsy do nashestviya tatar, Istoriya yuzhnorusskikh stepei IX‑XIII vv. (The Pechenegs, Torki and Polovtsy Before the Tatar Invasion, a History of the South-Russian Steppes in the IX‑XIIIth Centuries), Kiev, 1884.

The history of separate areas and regions of the ancient Ukraine‑Rus′ and of Byelorussia was treated in a series of monographs by several authors. The history of the Siveria Land is the subject of two monographs which appeared in the same year: Istoriya Severskoi zemli do poloviny XIV stoletiya (The History of the Siveria Land up to the Middle of the Fourteenth Century), Kiev, 1882, by P. Holubovsky; and Istoriya Severskoi zemli do poloviny XIV stoletiya, Kiev, 1882, by D. Bahaliy. Written at a later date are the following works by Roman Zotov: O chernigovskikh knyaz'yakh po Lyubetskomu sinodiku i o chernigovskom knyazhestve v tatarskoe vremya (The Chernihiv Princes According to the Lubech Synodik and the Chernihiv Principality during the Tatar Rule), St. Petersburg, 1893; Petro Ivanov, Istoricheskiya sud'by Volynskoi zemli s drevneishikh vremen do kontsa XIV v. (Historical Fate of the Volynian Land from the  p215 Earliest Times to the End of the XIV Century), Odessa, 1895; and Oleksander Andriyashev, Ocherki istorii Volynskoi zemli do kontsa XIV v. (A Historical Survey of the Volynian Land to the End of the XIV Century), Kiev, 1887.

The following studies must also be mentioned:

Nikandr Molchanovsky, Ocherk izvestii o Podol'skoi zemle do 1434 g. (An Outline of Information About the Podolian Land to 1434), Kiev, 1885; A. Longinov, Chervenskie goroda (The Cherven Cities), Warsaw, 1885; [. . .] Mitrofan Dovnar-Zapol'sky, Ocherk istorii Krivichskoi i Dregovichskoi zemel' do kontsa XII stol. (An Outline of the History of the Krivichian and Drehovichian Lands to the End of the XIIth Century), Kiev. Univ. Izv., 1890‑1891, and separately; M. Hrushevsky, "Ocherk istorii Kievskoi zemli ot smerti Yaroslava do kontsa XIV v." (An Outline of the History of Kiev Lands from the Death of Yaroslav to the end of the XIVth Century), Kiev. Univ. Izv., and separately, Kiev, 1891; P. Holubovsky, Istoriya Smolenskoi zemli do nachala XV v. (The History of the Smolensk Land Up to the Beginning of the XV Century), Kiev, 1895; Vasyl' Lyaskoronsky, Istoriya Pereyaslavskoi zemli s drevneishikh vremen do poloviny XIII st. (The History of the Pereyaslav Land from the Earliest Times to the Middle of the XIII Century), Kiev, 1897; Vasyl' Danylevych, Ocherki istorii Polotskoi zemli do kontsa XIV v. (An Outline of the History of the Polotsk Land to the End ot XIV Century), Kiev, 1897; Oleksander Hrushevsky, Ocherki istorii Turovskago knyazhestva (An Outline of the History of the Turov Principality), Kiev, 1902, and Pinskoe Poles'e (The Pinsk Polesie), Kiev, 1901; V. Ploshchansky, Proshloe Kholmskoi Rusi po arkhivnym dokumentam XV‑XVIII v. (The Past of the Kholm Rus′ According to Archival Documents of the XV‑XVIII Centuries), vol. I‑II, Vilno, 1899, 1901.

Ivan Lynnychenko, pupil of Antonovych and professor at Odessa University, directed his attention to the history of Galicia. He is the author of several studies in this field:

1. "Arkhivy v Galitsii" (The Galician Archives), Kievskaya Starina, 1888, VIIX.

 p216  2. "Kriticheski obzor noveishei literatury po istorii Galitskoi Rusi" (A Critical Survey of the Recent Literature on the History of Galician Rus′), Zhurnal Min. Nar. Prosv., 1891, VII.

3. "Yuridicheskiya formy shlyakhetskago zemlevladeniya i sud'ba drevnerusskago boyarstva v Yugo-Zapadnoi Rusi v XIV‑XV st." (Legal Forms of Owner­ship of Land by Gentry and the Fate of the old Boyars in Southwestern Rus′ in the XIV‑XVth Centuries), Yuridi­cheskii Vestnik, 1892, VII‑VIII.

4. "Cherty iz istorii soslovii Yugo-Zapadnoi (Galitskoi) Rusi XIV‑XV v." (Highlights of the History of the Classes of Southwestern (Galician) Rus′ in the XIV‑XVth Centuries), Uchenyya Zapiski Mosk. Universiteta, 1894, and separately, (Ukrainian translation in Vol. VII of Rus'ka Istorychna Biblioteka).128

The works of Ivan Filevich, a professor at Warsaw University also deal with Galicia:

"Bor'ba Pol'shi i Litvy-Rusi za Galitsko-Vladimirskoe nasledie, Istori­cheskii ocherk" (The Struggle between Poland and Lithuania‑Rus′ for the Halych-Vladimir Legacy, a Historical Survey), St. Petersburg, 1890; and "Ocherk karpatskoi territorii i naseleniya" (A Survey of the Carpathian Territory and Population), Zhurn. Min. Nar. Prosv., 1895, IV‑V. Filevich is also the author of the pretentious but unscholar­ly Istoriya drevnei Rusi (History of the Ancient Rus′), vol. I, Territory and Population, Warsaw, 1896.

Many researchers found their field in the history of the Ukraine within the borders of the Lithuanian‑Rus′ State, and later of Poland. The greater part of the work on the history of the Grand Principality of Lithuania was done by a professor at Moscow University, Matviy Lyubavsky,129 who is the author of Oblastnoe delenie i mestnoe upravlenie Litovsko-Russkago gosudarstva (The Regional Divisions and Local Government of the Lithuanian- p217 Rus′ State), Moscow, 1893, K voprosu ob udel'nykh knyaz'yakh i mestnom upravlenii v Litovsko-Russkom gosudarstve (The Problem of the "Udelni" Princes and Local Government in the Lithuanian‑Rus′ State), St. Petersburg, 1894; Litovsko-russkii Seim (The Lithuanian‑Rus′ Diet), Moscow, 1901; Ocherki istorii Litovsko-Russkago gosudarstva do Lyublinskoi unii vklyuchitel'no (Historical Sketches of the Lithuanian Rus′ State Up to and Including the Lublin Union), Moscow, 1910, 2nd ed. 1915 [. . .]

In the works Seimy Litovsko-Russkago gosudarstva do Lyublinskoi unii 1569 g. (The Diets of the Lithuanian‑Rus′ State Up to the Lublin Union 1569), by Professor Mykola Maksymeyko of Kharkiv University, and Rada Velikago Knyazhestva Litovskago v svyazi s Boyarskoi Dumoi drevnei Rossii (The Council of the Grand Principality of Lithuania in Relation to the Boyar Duma of Ancient Russia), vols. I and II, parts III, Tomsk, 1903, 1904, 1912, by Professor I. Malynovsky of Tomsk University, the structure of government of that state is discussed. A general outline of the government of the Lithuanian‑Rus′ State is given in I. Lappo's Velikoe knyazhestvo litovskoe vo vremya ot zaklucheniya Lyublinskoi unii do smerti S. Batoriya (The Grand Principality of Lithuania from the Lublin Union to the Death of S. Batory), vol. I, St. Petersburg, 1901.130

The history of Lithuanian‑Rus′ law and the history of its classes was treated by professor Mykhaylo Vladimirsky-Budanov of Kiev University. [. . .] His works include Nemetskoe pravo v Litve i Pol'she (German Law in Lithuania and Poland), St.  p218 Petersburg, 1868, (a Ukrainian translation in vol. XXIII‑XXIV of Rus'ka Istorychna Biblioteka); "Naselenie Yugo-Zapadnoi Rossii vtoroi poloviny XIII v. do poloviny XV v." (The Population of South-West Russia from the Middle of the XIIIth to the Middle of the XVth Century), Arkiv Yugo-Zapadnoi Rossii, ser. VII, vol. I; Ocherki iz istorii litovsko-russkago prava (An Outline of the History of Lithuanian‑Rus′ Law), Kiev, 1882; "Pomest'ya litovsko-russkago gosudarstva" (Estates in the Lithuanian Rus′ State), Chteniya Nestora, vol. II, Kiev, 1889; Naselenie Yugo-Zapadnoi Rossii ot poloviny XV do 1569 g. (Population of Southwestern Russia from the Middle of the XVth Century to 1569), Kiev, 1899, ser. VII, vol. 2 of the Arkhiv; "Peredvizhenie yuzhno-russkago naseleniya v epokhu B. Khmelnitskago" (The Movement of the South-Russian Population in the Period of Bohdan Khmelnytsky) in Kievskaya Starina, 1888, and separately; "Cherty seimeinago prava Zapadnoi Rossii v polovine XVI v." (The Characteristics of the Family Laws in Western Russia in the Middle of the XVI Century), Chteniya Nestora, IV, 1890; "Formy krest'yanskago zemlevladeniya v Zapadnoi Rossii XVI v." (Forms of Peasant Landowner­ship in Western Russia up to the Middle of the XVI Century), Chteniya Nestora, VII, 1893; the two latter articles were translated into Ukrainian and appeared in vol. XXII of Rus'ka Istorychna Biblioteka; Ocherki iz istorii litovsko-russkago pravo (An outline of the History of Lithuanian‑Rus′ Law), Kiev, 1893; Komu prinadlezhit glavnaya rol' v dele zaseleniya Ukrainy v kontse XIV i nachale XVII v. (Who Played the Leading Role in the Colonization of the Ukraine at the End of the XIV and the Beginning of the XVII Century), Arkhiv, Ser. VII, vol. 3.131

Fedir Leontovych, a professor at Odessa University, and later  p219 at Warsaw University, worked in the same field: "Krest'yane Yugo-Zapadnoi Rossii po litovskomu pravu XV‑XVI vv." (The Peasantry of Southwestern Rus′ in Lithuanian Law of the XV and XVI Centuries), Kiev. Univ. Izv., Kiev, 1863, XXI, and separately; "Istoricheskie izsledovaniya o pravakh litovsko-russkikh evreev" (Historical Studies on the Rights of Lithuanian‑Rus′ Jews), Kiev. Univ. Izv., 1864, III‑IV, and separately: "Russkaya Pravda i Litovskii Statut" (Russkaya Pravda and the Lithuanian Statute), Kiev. Univ. Izv. 1865, IIIII, IV; "Ocherki istorii litovsko-russkago prava. Obrazovanie territorii Litovsko-Russkago gosudarstva" (Outlines of History of Lithuanian‑Rus′ Law. Formation of the Territory of the Lithuanian‑Rus′ State), Zhurn. Min. Nar. Prosv., St. Petersburg, 1894; "Istochniki litovsko-russkago prava" (The Sources of Lithuanian‑Rus′ Law), Varsh. Univ. Izv., 1894, I, and separately; "Soslovnyi tip territorial'no‑administrativnago sostava Litovskago gosudarstva i ego prichiny" (The Social Pattern of the Territorial and Administrative system of the Lithuanian State and Its Causes), Zhurn. Min. Nar. Prosv., 1895, VIVII; "Panskii dvor v Litovsko-Russkom gosudarstve" (The Household of the Nobility in the Lithuanian‑Rus′ State), Zhurn. Min. Nar. Prosv., 1896, II‑IV, VII, XXII, 1897, IV‑V; "Sel'skie promyshlenniki v Litovsko-Russkom gosudarstve" (Village Tradesmen in the Lithuanian‑Rus′ State), Varsh. Univ. Izv., 1897, IV‑VII; "Sel'skie remeslenniki v Litovsko-Russkom gosudarstve" (Village Craftsmen in the Lithuanian‑Rus′ State), Varsh. Univ. Izv., 1898, II‑III.

Arkadiy Verzilov, a pupil of Antonovych, is the author of "Ocherk torgovli Yuzhnoi Rusi s 1480‑1569" (An Outline of Trade of Southern Rus′ 1480‑1569), Zemskii Sbornik Chernigovskoi gubernii, 1898, I‑VI, and separately, Chernihiv, 1899.

The social and economic history of the Lithuanian‑Rus′ State was the subject of a study by Professor Mytrofan Dovnar-Zapol'sky (1867‑1934), of Kiev University, a pupil of Antonovych, who wrote:

 p220  Gosudarstvennoe khozyaistvo Velikago Knyazhestva Litovskago pri Yagellonakh (The Economic Policy of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania during the Reign of the Yagellony), Vol. I, Kiev, 1900; Iz istorii litovsko‑pol'skoi bor'by za Volyn' (dogovory 1366 g.) (The History of the Struggle between the Lithuanians and the Poles for Volynia — Agreements of 1366), Kiev, 1896; "Zapadno-russkaya sel'skaya obshchina v XVI veke" (The West-Russian Peasant Commune in the XVI Century). Zhurn. Min. Nar. Prosv., 1897, VII; "Krest'yanskaya reforma v Litovsko-Russkom gosudarstve v polovine XVI veka" (Agricultural Reform in the Lithuanian‑Rus′ State in the Middle of the XVI Century), ibid., 1905, III‑IV; "Ukrainskiya starostva v XVI veke" (Ukrainian Starostva (office of the county head) in the XVI Century), introduction to vol. 5, Ser. VIII of Arkhiv Yugo-Zapadnoi Rossii.

M. Dovnar-Zapol'sky also edited important collections of documents:

Dokumenty Moskovskago Arkhiva Ministersvta Yustitsii (Documents of the Moscow Archives of the Ministry of Justice) vol. I, Moscow, 1897; Akty Litovsko-Russkago gosudarstva (The Documents of the Lithuanian‑Rus′ State) vol. I, up to 1529, Moscow, 1899, (reprint from Chteniya of the Historical Society).132

The history of the peasantry in the Lithuanian‑Rus′ State is contained in I. Novytsky's (1844‑1890) Ocherk istorii krest'yanskago sosloviya v Yugo-Zapadnoi Rossii v XV‑XVIII v. (An Outline of the History of the Peasantry in South-West Russia in the XV‑XVIII Century), introductory study to the first volume of materials concerning the Ukrainian peasantry, published by the Kiev Archeographic Commission, Ser. VI, v. I; a Ukrainian translation of it appeared in vol. XXI of the Rus'ka Istorychna Biblioteka, [. . .]

 p221  The studies by O. Yefimenko are devoted to the problem of landowner­ship and land‑use: "Dvorishchnoe zemlevladenie v Yuzhnoi Rusi" (The Joint Land Owner­ship in Southern Rus′), Russkaya Mysl', 1892, 4‑5; also her "Arkhaicheskiya formy zemlevladeniya u germantsev i slavya" (The Ancient Forms of Land Use by the Teutons and the Slavs), Vestnik Evropy, 1896, 12; "Litovsko-russkie danniki i ikh dani" (The Lithuanian‑Rus′ Tribute-payers and Their Tributes), Zhurn. Min. Nar. Prosv., 1903, I. All these studies were reprinted in Yuzhnaya Rus′I, St. Petersburg, 1905.

In the last two decades of the nineteenth century considerable interest was shown in the study of the Old Ukrainian law which was usually referred to as "Russian." The monuments of the Kievan period, such as the Russkaya Pravda, had previously been analyzed by Russian scholars.133 Now the main attention was directed toward Lithuanian‑Rus′ law, its origins, theory and practice. Apart from general surveys like those by M. Vladimirsky-Budanov, N. Zagoskin, or M. Yasinsky, there appeared the following monographs on the history of Lithuanian‑Rus′ law:

F. Leontovych, Ocherki istorii litovsko-russkago prava (An Outline of the History of Lithuanian‑Rus′ Law), St. Petersburg, 1894.

S. Bershadsky, Litovskii Statut i pol'skiya konstitutsii (The Lithuanian Statute (Code) and Polish Constitutions), St. Petersburg, 1893.

Barshevsky, Kratkaya istoriya Litovskago Statuta (A Short History of the Lithuanian Statute), Kiev, 1882, (reprint from Kiev. Univ. Izv.VI).

M. Yasinsky, "Ustavnyya gramoty litovsko-russkago gosudarstva" (The Local Statutes of the Lithuanian‑Rus′ State), Kiev, 1889 (Reprint from Kiev. Univ. Izv.). [. . .]

 p222  M. Maksymeyko, Istochniki ugolovnykh zakonov Litovskago Statuta (Sources of the Criminal Code of the Lithuanian Statute), Kiev, 1894.

I. Malynovsky, Uchenie o prestuplenii po Litovskomu Statutu (A Study of Crime According to the Lithuanian Statute), Kiev, 1894.

F. Taranovsky, Obzor pamyatnikov magdeburgskago prava zapadno-russkikh gorodov litovskoi epokhi (A Survey of the Monuments of the Magdeburg Law of the Western Rus′ Cities in the Lithuanian Period), Warsaw, 1897.

I. Lappo, "Zemskii sud v Velikom kn. Litovskom pri kontse XVI v." (Land Courts in the Grand Principality of Lithuania at the End of the XVI Century), Zhurn. Min. Nar. Prosv., 1897, VI.

M. Yasinsky, Ocherki po istorii sudoustroistva v Litovsko-russkom gosudarstve, Glavnyi Litovskii Tribunal (An Outline of the History of the Judicial System in the Lithuanian‑Rus′ State, the Chief (Supreme) Lithuanian Tribunal), Kiev, 1901; Lutskii tribunal, kak vysshaya sudebnaya instantsya dlya Volynskago, Bratslavskago i Kievskago voevodstv v poslednei chetverti XVI v. (The Lutsk Tribunal as the Highest Court Authority for the Volynian, Bratslavan, and Kievan Voeyevodstva in the Last Quarter of the XVI Century), Chteniya Obshchestva Nestora Letopistsa, vol. XIV, Kiev, 1900.

Oleksandra Yefymenko, "Narodnyi sud v Yuzhnoi Rusi" (The People's Court in Southern Rus′), Russkaya Mysl', 1893, IX‑X.

The history of the Ukrainian Church and of the great religious strife in the XVI and XVII centuries which, in turn, had a deep influence on cultural and national life, was a favorite field for scholars, partly because Russian institutions of learning (which had the backing of the government) showed great concern for the struggle between the Orthodox and the Catholic Churches, and published studies and material in support of the official Russian point of view. The most representative of such tendentious scholar­ship is the work of a professor at St. Petersburg Theological  p223 Academy, Mikhail Koyalovich, 1828‑1891.134 The best example of a collection of materials compiled for the purpose of countering Polish and Catholic claims is Pamyatniki russkoi stariny v zapadnykh guberniyakh, izdavaemye s Vysochaishago soizvoleniya P. N. Batyushkovym (Monuments of Russian Antiquity in Western Provinces, Published with the Sanction of the Sovereign by P. N. Batyushkov). Books I‑IV of this publication (1868) were comprised of pictures of Volynia (Volodymyr-Volynsky, Lutsk, Ovruch, Ostroh); books V‑VI (1870‑1874) are prefaced with a study by V. Vasil'evsky, Ocherk istorii goroda Vil'ny (A Survey of the History of the City of Vilno); books VII‑VIII (1885) are entitled Kholmskaya Rus′ and contain materials mostly on the history of ecclesiastical life of the country (by Ya. Holovatsky, O. Levytsky, A. Longinov, I. Malyshevsky, M. Petrov, N. Strashkevych, and S. Sholkovych).

In addition to these officially sponsored histories of the Church, written in the spirit of Russian Orthodoxy and patriotism, the following works, besides those mentioned earlier (by V. Antonovych, S. Ternovsky, O. Levytsky), deserve to be enumerated:

Fylyp Ternovsky, "Pyotr Mogila, biografi­cheskii ocherk" (Petro Mohyla, a biographical sketch), Kievskaya Starina, 1882, VI.

I. Chystovych, Ocherk istorii zapadno-russkoi tserkvi (Sketch of Western Russian Church History), 2 vols., St. Petersburg, 1882‑1884. [. . .]

Studies by Mykola Petrov: Kievskaya Akademiya vo vtoroi polovine  p224 XVII v. (The Kiev Academy in the Second Half of the XVII Century), Kiev, 1895; and others.

Stepan Golubev, Pyotr Mogila i yego spodvizhniki (Petro Mohyla and His Champions), 2 vols., Kiev, 1883‑98; Istoriya Kievskoi Akademii (The History of the Kiev Academy), Kiev, I, 1886; "Ocherki iz istorii Kievskoi Dukhovnoi Akademii za XVIII st." (An Outline of the History of the Kiev Theological Academy in the XVIII Century), Kievskaya Starina, 1888, v. XXV; "Zapadno-russkaya Tserkov' v epokhu P. Mogily" (The West-Russian Church in the Time of P. Mohyla), Kievskaya Starina, 1898, I‑VI.

Konstantin Kharlampovych, "Ostrozhskaya shkola" (The School of Ostroh), Kievskaya Starina, 1897, V‑VI; Zapadno-russkiya pravoslavnyya shkoly v XVI i nachale XVII vv. (West-Russian Orthodox Schools in the XVI and the Beginning of the XVII Century), Kazan, 1898.

A. Papkov, Bratstva, Ocherk istorii zapadno-russkikh bratstv (The Brotherhoods, A Survey of the History of West-Russian Brotherhoods), Moscow, 1900.

A. Yakushevich, Revnitel' pravoslaviya, kn. K. I. Ostrozhsky (1461‑1530) i pravoslavnaya Litovskaya Rus′ v ego vremya (A Partisan of the Orthodox Faith, Prince K. I. Ostrozhsky (1461‑1530) and the Orthodox Lithuanian Rus′ during His Time), Smolensk, 1897.

D. Vyshnevsky, "Kievskaya Akademiya v pervoi polovine XVIII v." (The Kiev Academy in the First Half of the XVIII Century), Kiev, 1903.

Numerous articles by Reverend P. Orlovsky printed in the Kievskaya Starina. [. . .]

Two important works were devoted to the history of Kiev:

M. Petrov, Istoriko-topograficheskie ocherki drevnyago Kieva (Historical and Topographical Sketches of Ancient Kiev), Kiev, 1897; V. Ikonnikov, "Kiev 1654‑1855, istori­cheskii ocherk" (Kiev 1654‑1855, A Historical Sketch), Kievskaya Starina, 1904, and separately.

Kievskaya Starina gathered the richest material dealing with Cossack history. Apart from studies by Lazarevsky, it printed scores  p225 of articles, notes and other material on the Hetman State. For the early history of the Cossacks the article "K voprosu o kozachestve do Bogdana Khmelnitskago" (On the Problem of the Cossacks up to the Time of Bohdan Khmelnytsky), Chteniya Obshchestva Nestora Letopistsa, VIII, and separately, Kiev 1894, by I. Kamanin, is very important. In this article, which caused wide discussion,135 the author attempted to revive the old theory of the origin of the Cossacks, that they were at first composed of separate small communities with a prince at the head of each of them.

Andriy Storozhenko also wrote about the Cossacks before the time of Khmelnytsky: "Svod dannykh o Yane Oryshevskom, zaporozhskom getmane vremen korolya Stefana Batoriya" (Collection of Data about Yan Oryshevsky, Zaporozhian Hetman at the Time of King Stefan Batory), Kievskaya Starina, 1897, I; and "Knyaz' D. I. Vishnevetsky" (Prince D. I. Vyshnevetsky), ibid., 1897, III. A staunch friend of the Cossacks, the Catholic Bishop of Kiev, Joseph Vere­shchynsky, at the end of the XVI century propagated the idea of a Cossack crusade against the Turks and the Tatars, which was the subject of two studies by A. Storozhenko: "Kiev trista let nazad" (Kiev Three Hundred Years Ago), Kievskaya Starina, 1894, II; and "Starinnyi proekt zaseleniya Ukrainy" (An Old Scheme for Populating the Ukraine), ibid., 1895, III. Later Storozhenko wrote a monograph: Stefan Batorii i dneprovskie kozaki, Izsledovaniya, pamyatniki, dokumenty, zametki (Stefan Batory and the Dnieper Cossacks, Studies, Monuments, Documents, Notes), Kiev, 1904; which like all his other works, was strongly influenced by Polish historiography, with its preconceptions about the statesmanly and cultural mission of the Poles in the Ukraine in the second half of the XVI century. A.  p226 Storozhenko is also the author of "Rodion Dmitrashko, polkovnik pereyaslavskii" (Rodion Dmytrashko, the Pereyaslav Colonel), Kievskaya Starina, 1893, IV; "Serbin Vuk, polkovnik pereyaslavskii" (Serbyn Vuk, the Pereyaslav Colonel), ibid., 1894, I; and Ocherki Pereyaslavskoi stariny (Sketches of Pereyaslav Antiquity), Kiev, 1900, in which book the articles previously published in the Kievskaya Starina were reprinted.

The early history of the Cossacks is also treated in:

I. Novytsky, "Knyaz'ka Ruzhinskie" (The Princes Ruzhynski), Kievskaya Starina, 1882, IV.

F. Nykolaychyk, "Pervyya kozatskiyya dvizheniya v Rechi Pospolitoi" (The First Cossack Movements in the Rzecz Pospolita), Kievskaya Starina, 1884, III‑IV; "Novyi istochnik o kozatskom vozstanii 1625 g." (A New Source for the Cossack Rising in 1625), ibid., 1889, X; "Z druhoho kintsya, korotkyi ohlyad Siver­s'koyi Ukrayiny" (From Another Angle, a Short Survey of the Siverian Ukraine), Zorya, Lviv, 1886.

Ivan Kamanin (1859‑1921) specialized in the period of Sahaydachnyi and Khmelnytsky. A graduate of Kiev University, he was for a long time director of the Central Archives in Kiev and one of the best archivists in the country. Although interested too in the XVIII century, his main attention was focused on the time of Khmelnytsky. He edited and published a great deal of source material relating to that period and he was a close collaborator with Kievskaya Starina and Chteniya Obshchestva Nestora Letopistsa. His main works are:

1. "Novye istoricheskie materialy o B. Khmelnitskom" (New Historical Materials on B. Khmelnytsky), Kievskaya Starina, 1888, VII.

2. "Poslednie gody samoupravleniya Kieva po Magdeburgskomu pravu" (The Last Years of Kiev Self-Government According to the Magdeburg Laws), ibid., 1888, V, VIII‑IX, and separately.

3. "Mazepa i ego prekrasnaya Elena" (Mazepa and His Beauti­ful Helen), ibid., 1886, XI.

4. "Materialy dlya istorii kozatskago zemlevladeniya 1494‑ p227 1668" (Materials for the History of Cossack Landowner­ship, 1494‑1668), Chteniya Nestora, 1894, VIII.

5. "K voprosu o kozachestve do B. Khmelnitskago" (On the question of the Cossacks Before Bohdan Khmelnytsky), ibid.

6. "Statisticheskiya dannya o evreyakh v Yugo-Zapadnom krae vo vtoroi polovine XVIII v." (Statistical Data about the Jews in the Southwestern land in the Second Half of the XVIII Century), introductory study in Arkhiv Yugo‑Zap. Rossii, ser. V, vol. II, Kiev, 1889.

[. . .]

7. "Ocherk getmanstva P. Sagaidachnogo" (A Sketch of the Hetmanate of P. Sahaydachnyi), Chteniya NestoraXV, Kiev, 1901, and separately.

8. "Pisnya pro Sahaydachnoho i Doroshenka" (A Song About Sahaydachnyi and Doroshenko), Zapysky Ukrayin­s'koho Naukovoho TovarystvaIII, Kiev, 1909.

9. "Pokhozhdennya Bohdana Khmelny­ts'koho" (The Family Origin of Bohdan Khmelnytsky), ibid. XII, Kiev, 1913.

10. "Uchastie yuzhnorusskago naseleniya v vozstanii B. Khmelnitskago" (The Participation of the South-Russian Population in the Uprising of B. Khmelnytsky), a preface to Arkhiv, ser. III, vol. IV.

11. "Dokumenty epokhi B. Khmelnitskago, 1656‑57" (Documents of the Period of B. Khmelnytsky, 1656‑57), Sbornik Kievskoi Komissii, v. I, Kiev, 1911.

12. "Dogovory B. Khmelnitskago s Pol'shei, Shvetsiei i Rossiei" (Agreements between Khmelnytsky and Poland, Sweden, and Russia), ibid., v. II, Kiev, 1916.

The studies, O Bogdane Khmelnitskom (about Bohdan Khmelnytsky), Kharkiv, 1882, by P. Butsinsky;136 and Adam Kisel', voevoda kievskii (1580‑1653) (Adam Kysil', the Voyevoda of Kiev), Kiev, 1885, reprint from Kievskaya Starina by I. Novytsky, also refer to the time of Khmelnytsky, while the work of  p228 Vasyl' Vovk-Karachevsky, "Bor'ba kozachestva s Pol'shei vo vtoroi polovine XVII veka" (The Struggle of the Cossacks against Poland in the Second Half of the XVII Century), Kiev. Univ. Izv., 1898‑99, and separately, contains a survey of the Cossack wars against Poland.

Several articles by A. Vostokov137 in Kievskaya Starina are also devoted to the history of the Hetman state:

"Kozeletskaya rada" (The Assembly of Kozelets), 1887, II; "Nezhinskaya rada" (The Assembly of Nizhen), 1888, V; "Pervyya snosheniya B. Khmelnitskago s Moskvoi" (First Relations Between B. Khmelnytsky and Moscow), 1887, VIII; "Sud i kazn' Gr. Samoilovicha" (The Trial and Execution of H. Samoylovych), 1889, I; "Poltavskii polkovnik Ivan Chernyak" (The Poltava Colonel, Ivan Chernyak), 1889, IX; "Sud'ba Vygovskikh i polkovnika Ivana Nechaya" (The Fate of the Vyhovskis and Colonel Ivan Nechay), 1890, I; "Posol'tstvo Shaklovitogo k Getmanu Mazepe" (The Diplomatic Mission of Shaklovityi to the Hetman Mazepa), 1890, V. [. . .]

The diplomatic relations between the Ukraine and Muscovy in the second half of the XVII century receive ample treatment in the works of Vitalii Einhorn:

O snosheniyakh malorossiiskago dukhovenstva s moskovskim pravitel'stvom pri Aleksee Mikhailoviche (The Relations Between the Little Russian Clergy and the Moscow Government at the Time of Aleksei Mikhailovich), Moscow, 1894; "Diplomati­cheskaya snosheniya Moskovskago pravitel'stva s Pravoberezhnoi Ukrainoi v 1673 g." (Diplomatic Relations between the Moscow Government and the Right-Bank Ukraine in 1673), Zhurn. Min. Nar. Prosv.V; "Otstavka A. L. Ordyn-Nashchokina i ego otnoshenie k malorossiiskomu voprosu" (The Dismissal of A. L. Ordyn-Nashchokin and His Attitude to the  p229 Little Russian Problem), ibid., 1897, XI; "Moskva i Malorossiya v upravlenie A. Ordyn-Nashchokinym Malorossiiskim Prikazom" (Moscow and Little Russia at the Time of A. Ordyn-Nashchokin's Administration in the Little Russian Prikaz (Office)), Russkii Arkhiv, 1901, I; "Kievskii voevoda P. Sheremet'ev i nezhinskii magistrat 1666‑1669 g." (The Kiev Voyevoda P. Sheremet'ev and the Nizhen Magistrate 1666‑1669), Kievskaya Starina, 1891, XI; "P. Shmatkovsky, proto­pop glukhovskii i ego snosheniya s moskovskim pravitel'stvom 1658‑1673 g." (The Archpriest P. Shmatkovsky of Hlukhiv and His Relations with the Moscow Government in 1658‑1673), Kievskaya Starina, 1892, X; Snosheniya malorossiiskago dukhovenstva s moskovskim pravitel'stvom v tsarstvovanie Alekseya Mikhailovicha (The Relations Between the Lorrain Clergy and the Moscow Government during the Reign of Aleksei Mikhailovich), Moscow, 1899.

Nikandr Molchanovsky (1858‑1906), a pupil of Antonovych, wrote on the political history of the Hetman State in the second half of the XVII and the early XVIII century [. . .] He went to Budapest and Stockholm where he worked in the state archives and later published the results of his research on the diplomatic relations between the Ukraine and these countries in the middle of the XVII century in vol. VI of the third series of the Arkhiv Yugo-Zapadnoi Rossii. Molchanovsky was a steady contributor to the Kievskaya Starina, in which he published among others the following articles: "Angliiskoe izvestie o zaporozhtsakh 1736 g." (An English Report on the Zaporozhians in 1736), 1889, XI; "Donesenie venetsianskago posla Alberto Vimina o Bogdane Khmelnitskom i o kozakakh" (Report made by the Venetian envoy Alberto Vimina on Bohdan Khmelnytsky and the Cossacks), 1900, II; "Neskol'ko dannykh o smerti i nasledstve getman Mazepy" (Some Data about the Death and Legacy of Hetman Mazepa), 1903, I.

In 1897 a book entitled Hetman Mazepa by Fedir Umanets' (1841‑1901) appeared in St. Petersburg. Its author, a land­owner from the Hlukhiv region and an active member of the "Zemstvo" in Chernihiv Province was not a trained scholar, although he  p230 had previously written several articles on Polish-Ukrainian relations.138

In his book on Mazepa, Umanets' attempted to revise the traditional opinions of Mazepa, indicating in his introduction that "the long interval of time since Mazepa's day now makes possible a calm and objective appraisal of the great hetman and his work in the light of historical conditions." Using published materials and some new sources from the private collection of the Markovych and Doroshenko families, Umanets' concludes that Mazepa was a great statesman and a sincere Ukrainian patriot, and tries to rectify the malicious inventions and legends about this hetman, which were circulated as a result of hostile Russian and, partly, Ukrainian historiography. Umanets' opinions were regarded so dangerous that not one liberal Russian periodical offered to print his study for fear of censor­ship. The author, therefore, was obliged to print a small number of copies at his own expense, fearing that it might be confiscated. However, the book did appear and stirred up wide and favorable response. O. Lazarevsky corrected some statements of Umanets' about the social policy of Mazepa in his Zametki o Mazepe (Comments about Mazepa).

A study by the Kiev Professor Oleksander Kistyakovsky (1833‑1885) was specially devoted to the legal and judicial history of the Hetman State: Ocherk istoricheskikh svedenii o Svode zakonov deistvovavshem v Malorossii pod zaglaviem "Prava, po kotorym suditsya malorossiiskii narod" (A Survey of Historical Sources of the Code of Laws Obtaining in Little Russia Under the Title "Laws by Which the Little Russian People Are Tried"), printed at first in Kiev. Univ. Izv., 1875, VI‑XII, 1876, I‑XII, 1877, I‑XII, 1878, XIXII, and later (1879) separately. Kistyakovsky was an old contributor to Osnova, worked in the field of common law, and was a member of the "expedition" led by P. Chubynsky. From subsequent literature on the courts of the Hetman State,  p231 we must mention: articles by O. Lazarevsky, O. Levytsky (vide supra), and by D. Miller (vide infra). [. . .]

M. Vasylenko, I. Telychenko, V. Myakotin, I. Luchytsky, and O. Andriyevsky, aided by the rich archives in Kharkiv and Kiev, explored the social history of the Left-Bank Ukraine.

Mykola Vasylenko (1866‑1935), a graduate of Dorpat (Tartu) University, due to political circumstances did not become a lecturer at Kiev University. [. . .] He was a permanent contributor to Kievskaya Starina and later to the Kiev and Lviv Zapysky. During the period of the independent Ukrainian State in 1918, he was Minister of Education and a senator. Later he was elected President of the Ukrainian Academy of Sciences.139 Most of Vasylenko's works deal with the Hetman State in the eighteenth century:

1. General'noe sledstvie o maetnostyakh Gadyatskago pola (A General Investigation of the Estates of the Hadyach Regiment), Poltava, 1893.

2. "K istorii malorossiiskoi istoriografii i malorossiiskago obshchestvennago stroya" (The History of Little Russian Historiography and the Little Russian Social System), Kievskaya Starina, 1894, XI‑XII.

3. "General'noe sledstvie o maetnostyakh Kievskago polka 1729‑30 g." (A General Investigation of the Estates of the Kiev Regiment in 1729‑30), Chteniya NestoraVII.

4. "Materialy dlya istorii ekonomicheskago, yuridicheskago, i obshchestvennago byta Staroi Malorossii, t. 1. General'noe sledstvie o maestnostyakh Nezhinskago polka 1729‑30 g." (Materials for the Economic, Juridical and Social History of Old Little Russia, vol. 1. General Investigation of the Estates of the Nizhen Regiment in 1729‑30), Chernigovskii Zemskii Sbornik, and separately, Chernihiv, 1901; vol. 2, "Ekstrakt iz ukazov, instruktsii, uchrezhdenii i pr. 1756 g." (An Extract from the Decrees, Instructions, Denounces, Etc., of 1756), Chernihiv, 1902; vol. 3, "General'noe sledstvie o maetnostyakh Chernigovskago polka"  p232 (General Investigation of the Estates of the Chernihiv Regiment), Chernihiv, 1908.

5. "Pervye shagi po vvedeniyu polozhenii 19 fevralya v Chernigovskoi gubernii" (First Steps Toward Introduction of the February 19 Directions140 in the Chernihiv Province), Kievskaya Starina, 1901, and separately.

6. "O. M. Bodyansky i ego zaslugi po izucheniyu Malorossii" (O. M. Bodyansky and His Achievements in the Study of Little Russia), Kievskaya Starina, 1903, and separately.

7. "Teplov i yoho zapyska 'O neporyadkakh v Malorossii' " (Teplov and His Notes 'On the Disorders in Little Russia'), Zapysky Ukrayin­s'koho Naukovoho Tovarystva v Kyyivi, IX, 1911.

8. "Z istorii administratsiynoho ladu na Ukrayini za Chasiv Het'man­shchyny" (History of the Administrative System in the Ukraine at the Time of the Hetmanate), ZNTSH, vol. CVIII.

9. "Novi prychynky do istorii Het'man­shchyny XVII‑XVIII v." (New Light on the History of the Hetman State in the XVII‑XVIIIth Centuries), ibid., vol. CXVI.

In 1916 Vasylenko published his survey of Ukrainian history in the Lithuanian-Polish period up to the time of Khmelnytsky: Ocherki po istorii Zapadnoi Rusi i Ukrainy (An Outline of the History of Western Rus′ and the Ukraine). It contains a valuable bibliography.

Almost at the same time as Vasylenko, another scholar began to work in the field of social and economic history of the Hetman State. He was Venedykt Myakotin (1867‑1937) who for the most part used the Kiev Central Archives and the Kharkiv Historical Archives. His article "Prikreplenie krest'yan v Levoberezhnoi Malorossii" (Subjection of the Peasants to Serfdom in the Left-Bank Little Russia) Russkie Bogatstvo, 1894, II, in which he adopted the same attitude as O. Lazarevsky, prompted Vasylenko to write his K istorii malorusskoi istoriografii. Myakotin surveyed the available sources for study of the peasantry in the Left-Bank  p233 Ukraine in his "Dela po istorii krest'yanstva Levoberezhnoi Malorossii v XVIII v. v Kievskom Tsentral'nom Arkhive" (Sources for History of the Peasantry in the Left-Bank Little Russia in the Kiev Central Archives), Kievskaya Starina, 1891, II. Twenty years later Myakotin returned to the same theme in his Ocherki sotsial'noi istorii Malorossii, (Essays on the Social History of Little Russia), 1: "Vozstanie B. Khmelnitskago i ego posledstviya" (The Uprising of B. Khmelnytsky and Its Consequences), Russkoe Bogatstvo, 1912, VIII, IX, XXII — and 2: "Formy zemlevladeniya v Levoberezhnoi Malorossii XVII‑XVIII v." (Forms of Landowner­ship in the Left-Bank Little Russia in XVII‑XVIII Centuries), Russkoe Bogatstvo, 1913, IX‑XII and in later years.141

A professor at Kiev University, Ivan Luchytsky (1845‑1918) wrote the following works on the economic and social history of the Left-Bank Ukraine:

"Obshchinnoe zemlevladenie v Malorossii" (The Communal Use of Land in Little Russia), Ustoi, 1882, No. 7.

"Sledy obshchinnago zemlevladeniya v Levoberezhnoi Ukraine v XVIII veke" (Traces of Communal Use of Land in the Left-Bank Ukraine in the XVIII Century), Otechestvennyya Zapiski, 1882, No. XI.

"Malorossiiskaya sel'skaya obshchina i sel'skoe dukhovenstvo v XVIII veke" (The Little Russian Peasant Commune and the Village Clergy in the XVIII Century), Zemskii Obzor, 1883, No. 6.

Materialy dlya istorii zemlevladeniya v Poltavskoi gubernii v XVIII v. (Materials on History of Landowner­ship in the Poltava Province in the XVIII Century), Part I: Kozach'i vladeniya Zolotonoshskago uezda (Cossack Possessions in the District of Zolotonosha); Statisticheskiya tablitsy zemlevladeniya v Poltavskoi gubernii, sostavlennyya po "Opisi malorossiiskikh polkov" 1767 g. (Statistical Tables on the Possession of Land in the  p234 Poltava Province Compiled According to the "Listings of the Little Russian Regiments" in 1767), Kiev, 1883.

Sbornik materialov dlya istorii obshchiny i obshchestvennykh zemel' v Levoberezhnoi Ukraine u XVIII v. (A Collection of Materials on the History of the Commune and Communal Lands in the Left-Bank Ukraine in the XVIII Century), Kiev, 1884.

Syabry i syabrinnoie zemlevladenie v Malorossii (Communal Land­owners and Their Use of Land in Little Russia), St. Petersburg, 1889.142

Krest'yanskaya pozemel'naya sobstvennost' (Peasant Land Possessions), Kiev, 1896.

In his later works Luchytsky turned to the history of the abolition of serfdom in the Ukrainian lands in Austria and Russia: "Iz nedavnyago proshlago" (From the Recent Past), Kievskaya Starina, 1901, IV; "Krest'yanskaya reforma v vostochnoi Avstrii (v Bukovine)" (Peasant Reform in Easternº Austria (Bukovina)), ibid., 1901, III‑V.

The abolition of the autonomous system in the Left-Bank Ukraine and Ukrainian participation in the Commission set up by Catherine II in 1767, was the subject of a study by Ivan Telychenko: "Soslovnyya nuzhdy i zhelaniya malorossiyan v epokhu Ekaterininskoi komissii" (The Needs and Wishes of the Little Russians at the Time of Catherine's Commission), Kievskaya Starina, 1890, VIII‑XII, 1891, I‑II, and separately: "K istorii finansov v Malorossii i Slobodskoi Ukraine" (History of the Finances of Little Russia and the Slobidska Ukraine), ibid., 1888, III; "Protest slobodskoi starshiny protiv reform 1765 g." (The Protest of the Slobidsky Cossack Elders Against the Reform of 1765), ibid., 1888, IX‑X.

Oleksiy Andriyevsky (1845‑1902) specialized in the history of the Hetman State in the second half of the eighteenth century and published 10 fascicles of Istoricheskie materialy iz arkhiva Kievskago gubernskago pravleniya (Historical Materials from  p235 the Archives of the Kiev Provincial Government), Kiev, 1882‑1886; he was also the author of Materialy dlya istorii Yuzhnorusskago kraya XVIII stoletiya (1715‑1794), izvlechennye iz starykh del Kievsksago gubernskago arkhiv (Materials on the History of the South Russian Land in the XVIII Century (1715‑1794), Compiled from the Kiev Archives), published by the Odessa "Obshchestvo istorii i drevnostei," 1886; Materialy dlya istorii Zaporozh'ya (Materials on the History of Zaporozhe), ibid., 1893; Akty Voronezhskie (Voronizh Documents), Voronizh, 1887; "Poslednie kievskie sotniki" (The Last Kiev Sotniki), Kievskaya Starina, 1896, and separately; "Komissiya 1749 g. dlya razbora vzaimnykh pretenzii tatar i zaporozhtsev" (The 1749 Commission for Settling the Mutual Claims of the Tatars and the Zaporozhians), ibid., 1895.

Mykola Storozhenko, the brother of Andriy Storozhenko, was a member of the Kiev Archeographic Commission and editor of those volumes of the Arkhiv which were devoted to the gentry seymyky (assemblies) in the Right-Bank Ukraine. He also worked on the history of the Hetman State. Among his works are: "Il'ya Novitsky, okhochekomonnyi polkovnik" (Illya Novytsky, the Volunteer Colonel), Kievskaya Starina, 1885, VII, 1886, IX; "Reformy v Malorossii pri grafe P. Rumyantseve" (The Reforms in Little Russia at the Time of Count Rumyantsev), Kievskaya Starina, 1891, IIIIX; "A. F. Shafonsky," Kiev. Univ. Izv. 1886, X; "K istorii malorossiiskikh kozakov v kontse XVIII i nachale XIX v." (History of the Little Russian Cossacks at the End of the XVII and the Beginning of the XIX Century), Kievskaya Starina, 1897, IV, VI, X, XIXII.143

Andriy and Mykola Storozhenko also published Storozhenky, Famil'nyi arkhiv (The Family Archives of the Storozhenkos), Kiev, 1902‑1912, 8 vols., which abounds in material concerning  p236 the Hetman State in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries.144

The Slobidska Ukraine had a great student of its history in Dmytro Bahaliy (1857‑1932), a pupil of Antonovych, who became a professor at Kharkiv University in the early 1880's. Having begun his work with the Princely Period (vide supra) Bahaliy soon turned to the history of the Hetman State, making use of the Kharkiv archives, which had a rich store of materials.

He wrote: "General'naya opis' Malorossii" (A General Description of Little Russia), Kievskaya Starina, 1883, XI; "Zaiman­shchyna v Levoberezhnoi Ukraine v XVII i XVIII stol." (Taking Possession of Land in the Left-Bank Ukraine in the XVII and XVIII Centuries), ibid., 1883, XII; "O rabotakh kozakov na Ladozhskom kanale" (Labor of the Cossacks on the Ladoga Canal), ibid., 1884, IVXI; "Magdeburgskoe pravo v Levoberezhnoi Malorossii" (The Magdeburg Law in Left-Bank Little Russia), Zhurn. Min. Nar. Prosv., 1892, III, (a Ukrainian translation appeared in vol. XXIV of Rus'ka Istorychna Biblioteka).

Beginning with the 1880's the greater part of Bahaliy's works were devoted almost exclusively to the history of the Slobidska Ukraine and South Ukraine. By his works, D. Bahaliy actually created the scholar­ly history of the Slobidska Ukraine, the most important being:

"Ocherki iz istorii kolonizatsii stepnoi okrainy Moskovskago gosudarstva" (A Survey of the History of Colonization of the Steppe Borderlands of the Muscovite State), Chteniya obshchestva Istorii i Drevnostei, 1886, and separately, Moscow, 1887. [. . .]

"Kolonizatsiya Novorossiiskago kraya i ego pervye shagi po puti kul'tury" (Colonization of New‑Russia Land and Its First Steps on the Road to Culture), Kievskaya Starina, 1889, IV‑VII.145 [. . .]

"Materialy dlya istorii kolonizatsii i byta Khar'kovskoi i otchasti Kurskoi i Voronezhskoi gubernii" (Materials on the Colonization  p237 of the Province of Kharkiv and Partly on the Provinces of Kursk and Voronizh), Sbornik Khar'kovskago Ist.-filolog. obshchestva, I, 1886, II, 1890.

His articles on the economic and social system of the Slobidska Ukraine were published in Ukrainskaya Starina (Ukrainian Antiquity), Kharkiv, 1896; Ocherki iz russkoi istorii (Sketches from Russian History), Kharkiv, 1913; Opyt istorii Khar'kovskago Universiteta (A Survey of the History of Kharkiv University), Kharkiv, 1893‑1904, 2 vols.; Istoriya goroda Khar'kova (The History of the City of Kharkiv) written together with D. Miller, 2 vols., Kharkiv, 1905‑1906.

Bahaliy devoted special attention to Hryhoriy Skovoroda whose activity was connected with the Province of Kharkiv. He was the editor of Skovoroda's works, published in 1894 by the Historical and Philological Society of Kharkiv, for which he wrote a long introductory study on the life and work of this great Ukrainian philosopher. In addition to that, Bahaliy wrote an article for Kievskaya Starina, entitled "Ukrainskii filosof, G. S. Skovoroda" (The Ukrainian Philosopher, H. S. Skovoroda), 1895, I‑II.

Bahaliy's comprehensive survey of the history of the Slobidska Ukraine is in his Istoriya Slobids'koi Ukrayiny (History of the Slobidska Ukraine), illustrated, Kharkiv, 1918. [. . .]

The history of the Kievan Rus′ is treated by Bahaliy in his Russkaya istoriya, I, Knyazhevskaya Rus′ (A History of Russia, vol. I, Rus′ of the Princes), Moscow, 1914.146

With Bahaliy's assistance and participation, it was possible to establish in Kharkiv a new center of Ukrainian scholar­ship — the Istoriko-filologicheskoe Obshchestvo pri Khar'kovskom Universitete (The Historical and Philological Society at the University of Kharkiv) — which furthered the development of Ukrainian studies in history, archeology, ethnography, art, and philology. It was founded in 1876 with the active aid of the famous Ukrainian scholar Oleksander Potebnya. The Society began to publish  p238 its Sbornik (Symposium) [. . .] which contained much historiographical material. Apart from Bahaliy, among its contributors were M. Plokhynsky and D. Miller, pupils of Bahaliy and both distinguished archivists.

Mykhaylo Plokhynsky was the author of the following studies: "Materialy dlya istorii vnutrennei zhizni Levoberezhnoi Ukrainy" (Materials on the Social History of the Left-Bank Ukraine), SbornikIII; "Getman Mazepa v roli velikorusskago pomeshchika" (Hetman Mazepa in the Role of a Great Russian Landlord), ibid.IV; "O tsyganakh v Getmanshchine i Slobodskoi Ukraine" (The Gypsies in the Hetman State and the Slobidska Ukraine), Khar'kovskii Kalendar', Kharkiv, 1890; "Tsygane v Staroi Malorossii" (The Gypsies in Old Little Russia), Etnografi­cheskoe Obozrenie, 1890, VII.

Dmytro Miller is the author of the following most valuable studies: "Ocherki iz istorii i yuridicheskago byta Staroi Malorossii, Sudy zemskie, grodskie i podkomorskie v XVIII v." (Sketches on the History and Juridical System of the Old Little Russia, The Civil, Criminal, and Podkomorskie Courts), SbornikVIII, Kharkiv, 1896; "Prevrashchenie malorusskoi starshiny v dvoryanstvo" (Transformation of the Little Russian Cossack Elders into Nobility), Kievskaya Starina, 1897, I‑IV; "Pikineriya,"a ibid., 1899, XII.

Viktor Barvinsky, also a pupil of Bahaliy, was a member of the younger circle of Kharkiv scholars. He was the author of the monograph Krest'yane v Levoberezhnoi Ukraine v XVII‑XVIII v. (Peasants in the Left-Bank Ukraine in the XVII and XVIII Centuries), Kharkiv, 1909, which also appeared as an article in Sbornik Khar'kovskago Ist.‑filolog. obshchestva; as well as of several articles in the above Sbornik of Kharkiv, Kievskaya Starina and the Lviv ZNTSH; and of "Iz istorii kozachestva Levoberezhnoi Ukrainy" (From the History of the Cossacks in Left-Bank Ukraine), Zhurn. Min. Nar. Prosv., 1910, I.

The following works deal with the history of the Slobidsky Regiments: N. Gerbel, "Izyumskii Slobodskoi kozachii polk"  p239 (The Izyum Slobidsky Cossack Regiment), St. Petersburg, 1852; P. Golovinsky, O kozach'yikh slobodskikh polkakh (The Cossack Slobidsky Regiments), St. Petersburg, 1864; P. Golodolinsky, Istoriya Sumskogo polka (The History of the Sumy Regiment), Moscow, 1902; E. Al'bovsky, Khar'kovskie kozaki. Vtoraya polovina XVII st. (po arkhivnym istochnikam), 1 kn. 1 toma Istorii Khar'kovskago polka (The Kharkiv Cossacks in the Second Half of the XVII Century, Book I of vol. I, The History of the Kharkiv Regiment), St. Petersburg, 1914, and Istoriya Khar'kovskago Slobodskago kozach'yago polka, Pervaya polovina, XVIII st. (The History of the Kharkiv Cossack Regiment, The First Half of the XVIII Century), vol. I, Book II, St. Petersburg, 1915.

The history of the culture of the Slobidska Ukraine is covered by: H. Danylevsky, Ukrainskaya starina (Ukrainian Antiquity), Kharkiv, 1866; the articles by D. Bahaliy; A. Lebedev, Khar'kovskii kollegium, kak prosvetitel'nyi tsentr Slobodskoi Ukrainy do uchrezhdeniya v Khar'kove universiteta (The Kharkiv Collegium — a Center of Educational Life in the Slobidska Ukraine Before the Foundation of Kharkiv University), Moscow, 1886; M. Sumtsov, Slobozhane; Istorychno-etnohrafichna rozvidka (The Slobidsky people, a Historical and Ethnographical Study), Kharkiv, 1919.

Closely associated with Kharkiv was P. Yefymenko who, together with Bahaliy, labored to assemble the Historical Archives of the Historical and Philological Society, which contained important documents on the history of Left-Bank Ukraine and the Hetman State. Petro Yefymenko (1835‑1906) began writing by contributing to Osnova. In 1862 he was charged with "Ukrainian separatism" and deported to Archangel Province. After his return to the Ukraine he lived in Kharkiv and was connected with Kievskaya Starina. His articles relate mostly to the history of the Hetman State: "Arkhiv Malorossiiskoi kollegii pri Khar'kovskom universitete" (The Archives of the Little Russian Collegium at Kharkiv University), Kievskaya Starina, 1882, I; "Poslednii pisar' Voiska Zaporozhskago Globa" (The Last Secretary  p240 of the Zaporozhian Host, Hloba), ibid., 1882, VIII; "Ssyl'nye malorossiyane v Arkhangel'skoi gubernii, 1708‑1802" (The Deported Little Russians in the Archangel Province in 1708‑1802), ibid., 1882, IX; "Shpitali v Malorossii" (Hospitals in Little Russia), ibid., 1883, IV; "Ekonomicheskiya zametki o starine i materialy" (Notes and Materials on History of Economy), ibid., 1888, IV; [. . .] and a whole series of notes and short articles.

The works of P. Yefymenko's wife, Oleksandra Yefymenko (1848‑1918) are of wider interest. Of Russian descent, a native of Vologda, she married P. Yefymenko during his years of exile. Having come with him to Kharkiv, she devoted herself to the study of Ukrainian history. On the basis of archival documents from the Little Russian Collegium, O. Yefymenko made a special study of the community (kopni) courts: "Kopnye sudy v Levoberezhnoi Ukraine" (The "Kopni" Courts in the Left-Bank Ukraine), Kievskaya Starina, 1885, X; "Narodnyi sud v Zapadnoi Rusi" (The People's Court in Western Rus′), Russkaya Mysl', 1893, VIII‑IX. In her study "Yuzhno-russkiya bratstva" (The South Rus′ Brotherhoods), Slovo, 1880, X‑XII, Yefymenko attempted to find a link between the Ukrainian and other Slavic brotherhoods in the sixteenth century. Based on the work of the Polish historian J. Rolle, she wrote a most readable history of the Right-Bank Ukraine from the middle of the seventeenth to the end of the eighteenth century: "Ocherki istorii Pravoberezhnoi Ukrainy" (Sketches of History of the Right-Bank Ukraine), Kievskaya Starina, 1895, and separately. She also dealt with the history of the Right-Bank Ukraine in her "Iz istorii bor'by malorusskago naroda s Polyakami" (From the History of the Struggle of the Little Russian People Against the Poles), 1872; and in "Bedstviya evreev v Yuzhnoi Rusi v XVII st." (The Sufferings of the Jews in southern Rus′ in the XVII Century), Kievskaya Starina, 1890, VI. The following works are devoted to the history of the Hetman State: "Malorossiiskoe dvoryanstvo i ego sud'ba" (The Little Russian Nobility and Its Lot), Vestnik Evropy, 1891, IV; "Dvenadsat' punktov Vel'yaminova" (The Twelve Vel'yaminov  p241 Points), Kievskaya Starina, 1888, X (which also includes the Points found by O. Yefymenko in the Archive of the Little Russian Collegium) "Turbaevskaya katastrofa" (Turbay Catastrophe), ibid., 1891, III (a Ukrainian translation appeared in the XIX volume of the Rus'ka Istorychna Biblioteka). All the above articles were collected and published in Yuzhnaya Rus′ (The Southern Rus′), 2 vols., St. Petersburg, 1905. [. . .]

In 1896, when the editors of Kievskaya Starina announced a contest on the subject of a history of the Ukraine, O. Yefymenko wrote her survey. It was rejected by the Kievskaya Starina and did not appear until 1906 as Istoriya ukrainskago naroda (A History of the Ukrainian People), in the series Istoriya Evropy po stranam i narodam (History of European Countries and Peoples) published by Brockhaus and Efron, St. Petersburg. This is a popular study, written in the lively manner so characteristic of the author and devoting much space to the social history of the Ukraine.147 In 1907 Yefymenko published an even shorter Istoriya Ukrainy i eya naroda (A History of the Ukraine and Its People), St. Petersburg. Her last work was Pochatkovyi pidruchnyk ukrayins'ko-moskovs'koyi istoriyi dlya shkil narodnikh (A Elementary Manual of Ukrainian and Muscovite History for Public Schools), Kharkiv, 1919, which appeared after the death of the author in the stormy days at the end of 1918. In the words of D. Bahaliy, Oleksandra Yefymenko "working in the field of Ukrainian history has achieved fame for herself by her gifted studies which, because of their brilliance, attracted the attention of many readers, thus contributing to the dissemination of historical knowledge on a basis of scholar­ly, established facts.'

Apart from A. Skal'kovsky, the history of Zaporozhe did not attract historians for a long time. Some new light was established on the history of the New Sich by the studies of Hryhoriy Nadkhyn, a native of Katerynoslav, in his "Pamyat' o Zaporozh'i i poslednikh  p242 dnyakh Zaporozhskoi Sechi" (Recollections of Zaporozhe and the Last Days of the Zaporozhian Sich), Chteniya, 1876, No. 3; and in "Padenie Sechi i zaporozhskaya tserkov' v Novomoskovske" (The Fall of the Sich and the Zaporozhian Church in Novomoskovsk), Russkii Vestnik, 1873, No. 8. Nadkhyn sharply criticized the policy of the Russian government which led to the abolition of the Zaporozhe, emphasizing the latter's great services in colonization and in defense of the Ukrainian steppes.

Dmytro Evarnytsky (Yavornytsky), 1855‑1940, a native of Kharkiv and a graduate of Kharkiv University (1881), devoted himself specially to the history of the Zaporozhe [. . .] It was not until 1896‑1902 that Evarnytsky succeeded in becoming a lecturer at Moscow University where he gave courses on the history of the Ukraine and the Zaporozhe. In 1902 he was elected director of the Katerynoslav Museum, founded by O. Pohl. He settled in Katerynoslav and devoted himself to further research on Zaporozhian history. Evarnytsky travelled widely to consult all the archives of Russia that possessed documents concerning Zaporozhe, and he made numerous journeys into former Zaporozhian territory, collecting rich topographical, historical, and archeological material on Zaporozhian life in the eighteenth century. The results of his research were published in several scholar­ly journals and as separate books. Evarnytsky was also the author of a general survey of Zaporozhian history: Istoriya Zaporozhskikh kozakov (A History of the Zaporozhian Cossacks), vol. I, St. Petersburg, 1892, 2nd edition, St. Petersburg, 1900, vol. II [. . .] St. Petersburg, 1895, vol. III [. . .] St. Petersburg, 1897.

Evarnytsky lacked the scientific method and critical faculty to enable him to produce a truly modern historical work. His general survey of the Zaporozhian past (especially vol. I) is chiefly valuable for the material it contains. His article "Glavneishie momenty iz istorii zaporozhskago kozachestva" (Highlights of the History of the Zaporozhian Cossacks), Russkaya Mysl', 1897, I, which was originally an introductory lecture to the history of Zaporozhe, shows also an imperfect grasp of the Ukrainian historical process. Evarnytsky's main contribution  p243 to Ukrainian historiography lay in his accumulation and systematization of source material. His articles in this field were as follows: "Zhizn' zaporozhskikh kozakov po razskazu sovremennika-ochevidtsa" (The Life of the Zaporozhian Cossacks According to an Account by a Contemporary Eyewitness), Kievskaya Starina, 1883, XI; "Topografi­cheskii ocherk Zaporozh'ya" (A Topographical Outline of Zaporozhe), ibid., 1883, V‑VII; "Chislo i poryadok Zaporozhskikh Sechei" (The Number and Order of the Zaporozhian Siches), ibid., 1884, VVIII; "Ostrov Khortitsa na Dniepre" (The Island Khortytsya on the Dnieper), ibid., 1886, I; Zaporozh'e v ostatkakh stariny i predaniyakh malorusskago naroda (The Zaporozhe in Remaining Tales and Legends of the Little Russian People), 2 vols., St. Petersburg, 1888 (based on the author's travels in the South Ukraine, and with many illustrations); Sbornik materialov dlya istorii zaporozhskikh kozakov (Collection of Material Concerning Zaporozhian History), St. Petersburg, 1889; Ocherki po istorii zaporozhskikh kozakov (Sketches About the History of Zaporozhian Cossacks), St. Petersburg, 1889; Vol'nosti zaporozhskikh kozakov (The Liberties of the Zaporozhian Cossacks), St. Petersburg, 1890 (most valuable); Koshevoi ataman I. D. Sirko (The Koshevyi Chieftain I. D. Sirko), St. Petersburg, 1894 [. . .]; Po sledam zaporozhtsev (In the Footsteps of the Zaporozhians), St. Petersburg, 1898 (travel sketches); Iz ukrainskoi stariny (From Ukrainian Antiquity), St. Petersburg, 1899 (text in Russian and French with illustrations by S. Vasyl'kivsky and M. Samokysh); Istochniki dlya istorii zaporozhskikh kozakov (Sources for the History of the Zaporozhian Cossacks), 2 vols., Vladimir Gubernsky, 1903, archival material from 1681‑1788; "Getman Pyotr Sahaydachny" (The Hetman Petro Sahaydachnyi), Letopis' Ekaterinoslavksoi Uchenoi Arkhivnoi Komissii, v. X, Katerynoslav, 1913; Dve poezdki v Zaporozhskuyu Sech Yatsenka-Zelenskago, monakha poltavskago monastyra (Two Visits to the Zaporozhian Sich of Yatsenko-Zelensky, a Monk from a Poltava Monastery, in 1750‑1751) Katerynoslav, 1951; Ukrayins'ko‑rus'ke kozatstvo pered sudom  p244 istoriyi (The Ukrainian‑Rus′ Cossacks Before the Judgment of History), Katerynoslav, 1919.148

The following authors also contributed to the history of the Zaporozhe:

Lev Padalka: "Byla li na ostrove Tomakovke Zaporozhskaya Sech" (Was there ever a Zaporozhian Sich on the Island of Tomakovka?) Kievskaya Starina, 1893, IV, 1894, IV; "Po voprosu o sushschestvovanii Zaporozhskoi Sechi v pervye vremena kozachestva" (On the Question of the Existence of the Zaporozhian Sich in the First Period of the Cossack Movement), ibid., 1894, VVI; "Nad Velikim Lugom" (On the Great Meadow), ibid., 1897, VI.

Andriy Shymanov: "Predsmertnaya pozemel'naya bor'ba Zaporozh'ya" (The Last Land Battle of the Zaporozhe), Kievskaya Starina, 1883, XII.

Petro Ivanov: "K istorii zaporozhskikh kozakov posle unichtozheniya Sechi" (History of the Zaporozhian Cossacks after Destruction of the Sich), Zapiski Odesskago Obshchestva istorii i drevnosteiXXV.

Mykola Bilyashevsky:149 "Vzyatie i razorenie Zaporozhskoi Sechi v 1709 g." (The Taking and Destruction of the Zaporozhian Sich in 1709), Kievskaya Starina, 1896, V.

The previously mentioned articles by A. Storozhenko and O. Andriyevsky also belong to this category. Yakiv Novytsky and Vasyl' Bidnov (see infra) also wrote on the history of the Zaporozhe in the second half of the eighteenth century. [. . .]

The Haydamak movement of the eighteenth century was treated in the following studies, in addition to older works on that subject by A. Skal'kovsky, V. Antonovych, and T. Lebedyntsev:

Danylo Mordovets', Haydamachchyna (The Haydamak Movement), St. Petersburg, 1870, 2nd edition 1884 (of little value); Ya. Shulhyn, "Ocherk Kolievshchiny po izdannym i neizdannym  p245 dokumentam" (A Survey of the Koliyi Movement According to Published and Unpublished Materials), Kievskaya Starina, 1890, II‑VII, and separately (a Ukrainian translation appeared in vol. XX of the Rus'ka Istorychna Biblioteka). Yakiv Shulhyn (1851‑1909) was a contributor to Kievskaya Starina, a member of the Stara Hromada, and the author of the following studies: "Pavel Polubotok, polkovnik Chernigovskii" (Pavlo Polubotok, the Chernihiv Colonel), Kievskaya Starina, 1890, XII; "Neskol'ko slov o Pravoberezhnoi Ukraine v polovine XVIII v." (A Few Words about the Right-Bank Ukraine in the Middle of the XVIII Century), ibid., 1891, VII; "Ukrayina pislya 1654" (The Ukraine after 1654), ZNTSH, XXIX‑XXXI, (signed L. Ch.); [. . .] M. Kostomarov, "Materialy dlya istorii Koliivshchiny ili rezni 1768 g." (Materials Concerning the Koliyi Movement in 1768), Kievskaya Starina, 1882, VIII; T. Ryl'sky's "Razskaz sovremennika o priklyuchenyakh ego vo vremya Koliivshchiny" (A Contemporary's Account of Events at the Time of the Koliyi Movement), Kievskaya Starina, 1887, I; and the articles by Volodymyr Shcherbyna in Kievskaya Starina also dealt with the Haydamak Movement.

The first volumes of Kievskaya Starina printed some articles on that period of Zaporozhian history when the Cossacks, after the destruction of the Sich, migrated to Turkey, e.g., F. Kondratovych (Fedir Vovk), "Zadunaiskaya Sech po mestnym vospominaniyam i razskazam" (The Sich Beyond the Danube According to Local Lore and Story), Kievskaya Starina, 1883, I, and separately; "Russkiya kolonii v Dobrudzhe" (Russian Colonies in Dobrudzha), ibid., 1889, I‑III [. . .].

The Kuban has a literature of its own. To it belong: Ivan Popko: Chernomorskie kozaki v ikh grazhdanskom i voennom bytu (The Black Sea Cossacks, Their Social and Military Organization), St. Petersburg, 1858; Terskie kozaki s starodavnikh vremen (Cossacks of Terek from Earliest Times), St. Petersburg, 1880; Prokip Korolenko (1834‑1913), Chernomortsy, (The Black Sea Cossacks), St. Petersburg, 1874 (History of the Black Sea Cossacks from 1775 to 1842); Predki kubanskikh kozakov na  p246 Dnepre i na Dnestre (The Ancestors of the Kuban Cossacks on the Dnieper and the Dniester), Katerynodar, 1901; Koshevye atamany Chernomorskago kozach'yago voiska (The Koshovyi Chieftains of the Black Sea Cossack Host), St. Petersburg, 1902.

Fedir Shcherbyna (1849‑1936), a Kuban Cossack: "Istori­cheskii ocherk Kubanskago kozach'yago voiska" (Survey of the History of the Kuban Cossack Host), in the symposium Kubanskoe voisko (The Kuban Host), 1888; Istoriya kubanskago kozach'yago voiska (History of the Kuban Cossack Host), vol. I, Katerynodar, 1910, vol. 2, 1913. In the twenties Shcherbyna became a professor and rector at the Ukrainian Free University in Prague.

P. Dmytrenko, Sbornik materialov dlya istorii kubanskago kozach'yago voiska (Collection of Materials for the History of the Kuban Cossack Host), Katerynodar, 1896‑98.

Besides these general studies of the various periods of Ukrainian history, there were several studies of purely local interest. They include: M. Simashkevych, "Istoriko-geograficheskie i etnograficheskie ocherki Podolii" (Historical, geographical, and ethnographical sketches of Podolia), Podol'skiya Eparkhial'nyya Vedomosti, 1875‑76; numerous works by Mykola Teodorovych on the history of Volynia; Mytrofan Oleksandrovych, Osterskii uezd (Oster District), Kiev, 1881; Oleksander Khanenko's Gorod Pogar, istori­cheskii ocherk (A Historical Sketch of the Town of Pohar) in the Chernigovskiya Gubernskiya Vedomosti, 1871; Count Hryhoriy Myloradovych's several studies on the history of Chernihiv Province.


Literature on M. Dovnar-Zapol'sky:

A. Sakovich, "Profesar Mitrakhvan Daunar-Zapol'ski," Veda, 1952, No. 7 (12), New York; N. Palonskaya-Vasilenka, "Daunar-Zapol'ski," Zapisy Belaruskaha Instytutu Navuki y Mastatstva, vol. II, No. 1 (3), New York, 1953.

Literature on A. and M. Storozhenko:

O. Ohloblyn, Preface to "Z nevydanykh lystiv Vasylya Horlenka do Mykoly Storozhenka," UkrayinaVII, Paris, 1952.

 p247  Literature on N. Molchanovsky:

M. Hrushevsky, "Pamyati N. Molchanov­s'koho," ZNTSH, v. LXXXVII, Lviv, 1905; V. Domanytsky, "N. Molchanovsky," Literaturno-Naukovyi Vistnyk, 1907, I, and Ukrayina, 1907, I.

Literature on O. Kistyakovsky:

Articles by I. Luchytsky in Kievskaya Starina, 1885, II, and V. Naumenko, ibid., 1895.

Literature on M. Vasylenko:

S. Narizhnyi, M. P. Vasylenko i yoho naukova diyal'nist', Lviv, 1936; D. Dorošenko, "Mykola Vasylenko," Časopis Národniho Musea, 1937, Sv. I; N. P. (N. Polons'ka‑Vasylenko), "Mykola Prokopovych Vasylenko," Holos Derzhavnyka, VI, 1947, Munich; N. D. (N. Polons'ka‑Vasylenko), "M. P. Vasylenko i VUAN" UkrayinaV, Paris, 1951.

Literature on D. Bahaliy:

Yubileyni Zbirnyk VUAN na poshanu Akad. D. I. Bahaliya, vol. I, Kiev, 1927; D. D. (D. Doroshenko), "D. I. Bahalij," Zeitschrift für osteuropäische Geschichte, Band VI, Heft 2; O. Ohloblyn, "Pamyati Akad. D. I. Bahaliya (1857‑1932)," Ukrayina, Kiev, 1932, I‑II; R. Martel, "D. I. Bagalij," Le Monde Slave, 1932, II.

Literature on the Historical and Philological Society at the University of Kharkiv:

S. Narizhnyi, "Kharkivs'ke Istorychno-Filolohichne Tovarystvo," Pratsi Ukrayin­s'koho Istorychno-Filolohichnoho Tovarystva v Praz, vol. V, Prague, 1944, and separately.

Literature on D. Miller:

Vestnik Khar'kovskago Istoriko-Filologicheskago ObshchestvaV, Kharkiv, 1914; Articles: D. Bahaliy, "Pamyati D. P. Millera"; V. Barvinsky, "D. P. Miller"; M. Slabchenko, "D. P. Miller, kak istorik ukrainskago prava."

Literature on O. Yefymenko:

I. Dzhydzhora, "Z noviyshoyi ukrain­s'koyi istoriohrafiyi," ZNTSH, v. LXXI; D. Bahaliy, "O. Ya. Yefymenko," Zapysky  p248 Istorychno-Filolohichnoho Viddilu Ukrayin­s'koyi Akademiyi Nauk, vol. I, Kiev, 1919.

Literature on D. Evarnytsky (Yavornytsky):

D. Doroshenko, "D. I. Evarnytsky," Literaturno-Naukovyi Vistnyk, 1913, XII; A. Avchinnikov, Prof. D. I. Evarnitsky, Katerynoslav, 1913.

Literature on Ya. Shulhyn:

M. Hrushevsky, "Pamyati Ya. Shulhyna," ZNTSH, 1912, I; V. Shcherbyna, "Pamyati Ya. Shulhyna," Zapysky Ukr. Naukovoho Tovarystva u Kyyivi, vol. X, Kiev, 1912.

The Author's or the Editor's Notes:

127 He was later a full member of the Imperial Academy of Sciences in St. Petersburg.

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128 Still earlier the following work of M. Smirnov pertaining to the history of Galicia was published: Sud'ba Chervonoi ili Galitskoi Rusi do soedineniya eya s Pol'shei (Fate of the Red or Galician Rus′ Before Its Union with Poland), St. Petersburg, 1860; Ukrainian translation in Rus'ka Istorychna Biblioteka, v. V.

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129 A well-known Russian historian of Byelorussian origin. Later a full member of the Imperial Academy of Sciences.

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130 For more detailed information on I. Lappo's works, see L. Okinshevich, The Law of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania: Background and Bibliography, New York, 1958. The following monograph of I. Lappo is worth mentioning: Litovskii statut 1588 goda (The Lithuanian Statute of 1588), Kaunas, vol. I, parts I (1934) and II (1936), vol. II, 1935.

It is necessary to mention also works by Volodymyr Picheta (later professor and rector of the Byelorussian State University, a full member of the Byelorussian Academy of Sciences and of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR), especially his monograph Agrarnaya reforma Sigizmunda Avgusta v Litovsko-Russkom Gosudarstve (Agrarian Reform of Sigismund August in the Lithuanian‑Rus′ State), vols. III, Moscow, 1917.

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131 M. Vladimirsky-Budanov also compiled a well-known Khrestomatiya po istorii russkago prava (Selections of the History of Russian Law), 1874, and a few later editions.

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132 M. Dovnar-Zapol'sky wrote quite a few works on the history of Byelorussia, the Ukraine, and Russia, mostly dwelling on the nineteenth century. He also wrote on the subject of Byelorussian ethnography. His studies on the history of national economy of the Ukraine and Byelorussia are worth mentioning, in particular the Istoriya russkago narodnago khozyaistva (History of Russian National Economy), vol. I, Kiev, 1911; Narodnoe khozyaistvo Byelorusii 1861‑1914 (National Economy of Byelorussia), Minsk, 1926.

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133 Highly valuable studies by V. Sergeevich, professor of St. Petersburg University, and author of the well-known study Knyaz' i veche (The Prince and the Assembly), St. Petersburg, 1867, also treated this subject: Rus'ka Pravda (Rus′ Law), St. Petersburg, 1899; Lektsii i izsledovaniya po istorii russkago prava (Lectures and Studies on the History of Russian Law), St. Petersburg, 1883; Russkiya yuridicheskiya drevnosti (Russian Juridical Antiquities), two volumes, St. Petersburg, 1895‑96, and others.

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134 Litovskaya tserkovnaya uniya (Lithuanian Church Union), two volumes, 1859‑62; Lektsii o zapadno-russkikh bratstvakh (Lectures on Western‑Rus′ Brotherhoods), 1862; Lektsii po istorii Zapadnoi Rossii (Lectures on the History of Western Russia), 1864; Dokumenty, ob'yasnyayushchie istoriyu Zapadnoi Rossii i eya otnoshenie k Vostochnoi Rossii i Pol'she (Documents Explaining the History of Western Russia and its Relation to Eastern Russia and Poland), 1865; Dnevnik Lyublinskago Seima 1569 g. (The Diary of the Lublin Diet of 1569), 1869; Istoriya vozsoedineniya zapadno-russkikh uniatov starykh vremen (History of the Reuniting of the Western Russian Uniates of Old Times), 1873; Istoriya russkago samosoznaniya po istoricheskim pamyatnikam i nauchnym sochineniyam (History of Russian Self-awareness as a Nation on the Basis of Historical Monuments and Scholar­ly Studies), 1884.

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135 In connection with this work, M. Lyubavsky wrote the article "Nachal'naya istoriya malorusskago kozachestva" (Initial History of Little-Russian Cossacks), Zhurnal Ministerstva Narodnago Prosveshcheniya, 1896, VII, having raised the theory that the Cossacks originated from the remaining Tatar colonization of the Kievan lands at Vitovt's time. Lyubavsky's views were supported by A. Jablonowski in Zródła dziejowie, v. XXII, 1897, and also by V. Kostovsky, see ZNTSH, vol. VII.

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136 V. Antonovych wrote a critical review of this pretentious book, which did not bring anything new either in materials or in views to Khmelnytsky's movement. See Kievskaya Starina, 1883, book II.

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137 Aleksander Vostokov (1857‑1891), a Russian from Moscow Province, was employed by the Archives of the Ministry of Justice in Moscow and wrote his studies on the basis of documents and published them in Kievskaya Starina. His obituary, written by I. Kamanin, was in Kievskaya Starina, 1892, II.

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138 His study was later published: "Knyaz' Konstantin-Vasilii Ostrozhsky" (Prince Konstantyn-Vasyliy Ostrozhsky), Russkii Arkhiv, 1904, IV.

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139 The scholar­ly activities of M. Vasylenko in the twenties are described in the supplementary chapter of this book, compiled by O. Ohloblyn.

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140 The Peasants Reform of February 19, 1861, is referred to here, which abolished serfdom in Russia and in the Ukraine.

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141 A new publication of this work by Myakotin: Ocherki sotsial'noi istorii Ukrainy v XVII‑XVIII stol., I‑III, Prague, 1924‑1926, reviewed by D. I. Doroshenko in Na chuzhoi storone, issue XXIII, Prague, 1925.

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142 The same theme was treated in the work by M. Kovalevsky, "Obshchinnoe zemlevladenie v Malorossii v XVIII v." (The Communal Landowner­ship in Little Russia in the XVIII Century), Yuridi­cheskii Vestnik, 1885, I.

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143 Later M. Storozhenko published such works as: "Osada m. Krylova" (The Siege of the Town of Krylov), Zapysky Istorychno-Filolohichnoho Viddilu Ukrayin­s'koyi Akademiyi Nauk, issue I, Kiev, 1919; "Do biohrafii Kulisha: I, Kulish u Kyyivo-Pechers'kiy shkoli, IILysty Kulisha do M. V. Storozhenka" (On the Biography of Kulish: I, Kulish in Kiev-Pechersk School — II, Kulish's Letters to M. V. Storozhenko), ibid., issue II‑III, Kiev, 1922‑23.

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144 Volumes VII and VIII of Storozhenky, Famil'nyi arkhiv include "Malorossiiskii Rodoslovnik" (Little Russian Book of Genealogical Records), volumes I‑II, see supra.

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145 Second edition (in Ukrainian): Zalyudnennya Poludnevoyi Ukrayiny, Kharkiv, 1926.

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146 For the scholar­ly activities of D. Bahaliy in the twenties, see the supplementary chapter of this book.

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147 The second (Ukrainian) edition of O. Yefymenko's Istoriya Ukrayin­s'koho narodu was published in two volumes in Kharkiv, 1922, with a supplement by D. Bahaliy.

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148 About later scholar­ly activities of D. I. Evarnytsky, see the supplementary part of this book.

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149 The prominent Ukrainian archeologist, director of the Kiev Historical Museum, later a full member of the Ukrainian Academy of Sciences.

Thayer's Note:

a "Lancers".

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