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This webpage reproduces a section of


Survey of Ukrainian Historiography
By Dmytro Doroshenko

published by
The Ukrainian Academy of Arts and Sciences
in the U. S., Inc.,
1957

The text is in the public domain.

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and I believe it to be free of errors.
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 p286  First Decades of the Twentieth Century;
Scholar­ship in the Dnieper Ukraine

The relief afforded by the 1905 Revolution to cultural and scholar­ly work in the Ukraine made it possible to create purely Ukrainian scholar­ly institutions. In 1906 Kievskaya Starina began to publish articles in Ukrainian and a year later it transformed itself into the Ukrainian journal Ukrayina, which was published for one year only. The editors and contributors to the old Kievskaya Starina also undertook to found a Ukrainian scholar­ly institution in Kiev. Among them were V. Antonovych, P. Zhytetsky,  p287 V. Naumenko, and I. Luchytsky. They obtained permission from the government to found the Ukrayins'ke Naukove Tovarystvo (The Ukrainian Scientific Society) in 1907. M. Hrushevsky, who at that time transferred his activity from Lviv to Kiev, was elected its first president in 1908.193 The Society began to publish its Zapysky (Proceedings) and later also Symposia (Zbirnyky), edited by the medical, technical, and ethnographic sections. [. . .] The Society was able to attract not only former contributors to Kievskaya Starina, such as O. Levytsky, I. Kamanin, M. Vasylenko, M. Bilyashevsky, and M. Petrov, but also some Kievan scholars who had thus far remained aloof from Ukrainian life [. . .] and even several Russian scholars who were friendly to the Ukrainians (A. Shakhmatov and G. Il'insky). One of the prominent scholars contributing to the Zapysky194 was Professor Volodymyr Peretts, later a member of the Imperial Academy in St. Petersburg. His pupils also contributed their works to the publication. In 1914 the Society began to publish the historical periodical Ukrayina.

The outbreak of the First World War marked the beginning of the persecution of the Ukrainian Scientific Society. Its president, M. Hrushevsky, was arrested and deported. Some of its members [. . .] resigned. The new president, Naumenko, led the Society through the most difficult war years. The Ukrayina ceased publication at the end of 1914 because of very severe censor­ship. For example, the censor insisted it must be printed in Russian orthography. The Ukrayins'kyi Naukovyi Zbirnyk (The Ukrainian Scholar­ly Symposium) which replaced Ukrayina had to be printed in Moscow. Its first volume was published in 1915, the second in 1916. It contained the following works: vol. I, M. Hrushevsky, "Novi hipotezy z istoriyi starorus'koho prava" (New  p288 Hypotheses on the History of the Old Rus′ Law); S. Rozanov, "Kroynika 1636 roku" (The Chronicle of 1636); L. Dobrovol'sky, "Z Kyivs'koyi 'kozachchyny' 1855 roku" (The Kiev "Cossacks" in 1855); V. H. (V. Modzalevsky), "Lysty Mazepy do svoho starosty" (Mazepa's Letters to his Starosta); vol. II, M. Hrushevsky, "Noviysha literatura po istoriyi V. Knyazivstva Lytovs'koho," (New Literature Relating to the History of the Grand Principality of Lithuania); L. Orlenko (O. Levytsky), "Sprava Kseniyi Rozlach" (The Affair of Kseniya Rozlach); V. Naumenko, " 'Zhalovannaya hramota' poltavs'komu polkovnyku Ivanu Chernyaku 1718 r." (Zhalovannaya Hramota Given to the Poltava Colonel Ivan Chernyak in 1718); V. H. (Vadym Modzalevsky), "Z rodynnykh vidnosyn na Het'manshchyni v druhiy polovyni XVII stolittya" (Some Family Relations in the Hetman State in the Second Half of the XVII Century).

The Zbirnyk pamyaty Tarasa Shevchenka (1814‑1914) (Symposium Commemorating Taras Shevchenko, 1814‑1914), comprising most valuable documents and concerned with the history of the Brotherhood of Sts. Cyril and Methodius, was published in 1915.

After the 1917 Revolution the Ukrainian Scientific Society renewed the publishing of Ukrayina, and later in 1921 it issued Zbirnyk Sektsiyi Mystetstva (A Symposium of the Arts Section) which contained a series of important articles on the history of Ukrainian culture (V. Modzalevsky on the "lyudvisars'ky" and "konvysars'ky" art in the Ukraine in the Seventeenth and Eighteenth Centuries; as well as treatises by O. Hutsalo, F. Ernst, F. Shmit, D. Shcherbakivsky).

In 1922 the Ukrainian Scientific Society, following an order by the Soviet government, merged with the Ukrainian Academy of Sciences.

Toward the beginning of the twentieth century the so‑called Archival Commissions (Arkhivni komissiyi) were founded in Poltava, Katerynoslav, and Chernihiv (1895). Their task was the preservation of local archives and historical monuments and publication of studies and archival documents chiefly pertaining to  p289 local history. These commissions made significant contributions to Ukrainian historiography having brought to light and clarified the history of certain regions.

The Poltava Archival Commission published Trudy (Works), with the following contributors: I. Pavlovsky, L. Padalka, V. Shchepot'yev, Matviy Astryab, and others. [. . .]

In addition to those, the Poltava Commission published the following works: Aktovyya knigi Poltavskago gorodovogo uryada XVII v. (Books of Records of the Poltava City Government in the XVII Century), three issues, Poltava-Chernihiv, 1911‑1914; The Guide to the Kievskaya Starina, separate works by Padalka, Pavlovsky, and others.

Ivan Pavlovsky devoted himself chiefly to the study of Poltava's history. He is the author of articles on Poltava in Kievskaya Starina, 1902; Ocherk deyatel'nosti malorossiiskago general-gubernatora kn. A. B. Kurakina (1802‑1808), (A Survey of the Activity of the Governor-General of Little Russia, Prince A. B. Kurakin, in 1802‑1808), Poltava, 1914; Poltavtsy, ierarkhi, gosudarstvennye i obshchestvennye deyateli (The Poltavian Hierarchs, State and Public Officials); Kratkii biograficheskii slovar' uchenykh i pisatelei Poltavskoi gubernii s poloviny XVIII v. (A Short Biographical Book of Scholars and Writers of the Poltava Province from the Middle of the XVIII Century), Poltava, 1912; Pervoe dopolnenie k kratkomu biograficheskomu slovaryu (The First Supplement to the Short Biographical Dictionary), Poltava, 1913, (a second supplement appeared later), and other works on the history of Poltava.

Lev Padalka, a former contributor to Kievskaya Starina, published the following studies under the auspices of the Poltava Archival Commission: Rus′, Poltava, 1912; Proshloe Poltavskoi territorii i eya zaselenie: Izsledovaniya i materiyaly s kartami (The Past of the Poltava Territory and its Colonization: Studies and Materials accompanied by Maps), Poltava, 1914; Karta kozatskikh polkov na poltavskoi territorii (A Map of the Cossack Regiments in the Poltava Territory), Poltava, 1914; Karta Boplana o zaselenii Poltavskoi territorii vo vtoroi chetverti XVII v. (Beauplan's  p290 Map Showing the Colonization of the Poltava Territory in the Second Quarter of the XVII Century), Poltava, 1914; K istorii Poltavskoi eparkhii, istoricheskie i bytovye ocherki, zametki i perepiska po arkhivnym dannym (On History of the Poltava Diocese; Sketches on History and Customs, Notes and Correspondence Based on Archival Sources), Poltava, 1916.

The Chernihiv Archival Commission also published Trudy (Works). The chief contributors were: A. Verzilov, Petro Doroshenko (author of the treatise on the history of serfdom in the Left-Bank Ukraine, and on Metropolitan Dmytro of Rostov),195 V. Modzalevsky, and Petro Dobrovol'sky.

The most prominent of these was Vadym Modzalevsky (1882‑1920), a talented historian, genealogist, archivist, and historian of art. In 1911 he settled in Chernihiv and became director of the V. Tarnovsky Museum and at the same time the secretary to the Archival Commission. He devoted himself chiefly to the social history of the Hetman State, paying particular attention to the histories of old families. He published many works mostly based on a thorough study of archival materials. The following are worth mentioning: "Slukhi o naznachenii Kantakuzina Getmanom Malorossii v 1718 g." (Rumors about the Appointment of Kantakuzyn as the Little Russian Hetman in 1718), Kievskaya Starina, 1904, VI; "General'nyi sud'ya Ivan Charnysh i ego rod" (The Chief Justice Ivan Charnysh and His Family Origin), ibid., 1904, III‑V; "Poltavskaya intriga 1714 g." (The Poltava Intrigue of 1714), ibid., 1905, XI‑XII; "Zamitky do istoriyi rozdilu vil'nykh kozats'kykh gruntiv v XVII v." (Notes on the History of the Distribution of Free Cossack Lands in the XVII Century), ZNTSHCXII; "Materialy dlya istorii Poltavskago polka," (Materials for the History of the Poltava Regiment), Trudy Poltavskoi Uchenoi Arkhivnoi Komissii, vol. I‑II; "Roman Rakushka, odin iz deyatelei Ruiny" (Roman Rakushka, a Statesman in the Period of the Ruin), Trudy Chernigovskoi Uchenoi Arkh. Komissii, vol. X, and separately, Chernihiv, 1913 (later the same  p291 article in an expanded form appeared under the title "Pershyi viys'koyi pidskarbiy Roman Rakushka" in Zapysky Istorychno-Filolohichnoho Viddilu Ukr. Akademiyi Nauk, vols. I, II‑III, 1919, 1922‑1923); "Sud'ba malorossiiskikh pushkarei" (The Fate of the Little Russian Gunsmiths), Trudy Chernig. Uch. Arkh. Kom., v. XI, and separately, Chernihiv, 1915; "Materialy i zametki" (Materials and Notes), ibid., and separately, Chernihiv, 1915.

Modzalevsky's major work, Malorossiiskii rodoslovnik (Little Russian Genealogical Dictionary) began appearing in 1908 financed by Andriy and Mykola Storozhenko. The last (IV) volume, [. . .] was published in Kiev in 1914 and contained accounts of families from P–S.196 Modzalevsky collaborated with V. Lukomsky in Malorossiiskii gerbovnik, s risunkami Egoraº Narbuta (The Little Russian Book of Heraldry Illustrated by Yuriy Narbut), St. Petersburg, 1914, which is the main source for the study of Ukrainian heraldry. [. . .] Modzalevsky was the general editor of the following works: Dnevnyk Yakova Markovycha, t. IV, 1735‑1740 (The Diary of Yakiv Markovych, vol. IV, 1735‑1740), Kiev, 1913; Aktovyya knigi Poltavskago gorodovogo uryada (The Books of Records of the Poltava City Government), Poltava-Chernihiv, 1911‑1914; Aktovaya kniga Starodubskago gorodovogo uryada 1693, Chernihiv, 1914197 [. . .]

Modzalevsky spent the last years of his life in Kiev, organizing the Central Ukrainian Archives (1918).

The Katerynoslav Archival Commission founded in 1905, published the Letopis'. The research conducted by the Commission was devoted primarily to the history of the Zaporozhe, the colonization of the Zaporozhian lands after the fall of the Sich, and their administrative, ecclesiastical, and cultural development. Among its chief contributors were: V. Bidnov, Oleksander Bohumil, D. Doroshenko, D. Evarnytsky (Yavornytsky), Ya. Novytsky, Volodymyr Picheta and Antin Synyavsky.

 p292  Vasyl' Bidnov (1874‑1935), born in the Kherson region and a graduate of the Theological Academy in Kiev, studied the history of the Zaporozhe on the basis of the Katerynoslav Archives. His main works are: "Materialy po istorii tserkovnago ustroistva na Zaporozh'i" (Materials Concerning the Church System of the Zaporozhe), Letopis' Ekater. Uch. Arkh. Kom., vol. IV, Katerynoslav, 1907; "Materialy po istorii kolonizatsii byvshikh zaporozhskikh vladenii" (Materials Concerning the History of Colonization of the Former Zaporozhian Lands), ibid.X, Katerynoslav, 1916; "Zaporozhskii zimovnik" (Zaporozhian Winter Camp), Katerynoslav, 1915; "Materiyaly do istoriyi Zadunays'koyi Sichy" (Materials Concerning the History of the Sich Beyond the Danube), Ukrayina, 1914, III; Shcho chytaty po istoriyi Ukrayiny (What to Read on the History of the Ukraine), Kamyanets-Podilsk, 1919. In 1918 Bidnov became professor of Church History at the university in Kamyanets-Podilsk and later at the Ukrainian Free University in Prague.198

Yakiv Novytsky (1847‑1925), born in the Katerynoslav Province, devoted himself chiefly to the study of the topography and life of the Zaporozhe. He collected many historical songs which were published partly in the Sbornik (Symposium) of the Historical and Philological Society of Kharkiv ("Malorusskiya pesni"), vol. VI, Kharkiv, 1894, and partly in the Letopis' of the Katerynoslav Archival Commission. He is also the author of "Istoriya goroda Aleksandrovska" (The History of the Town of Aleksandrovsk), vol. III of the Letopis', Katerynoslav, 1907; and Opisanie granits i gorodov byvshei Azovskoi gubernii (Description of the Boundaries and the Cities of the Former Azov Province), Aleksandrovsk, 1910.

Among other institutions of learning in the Ukraine the following should be mentioned:

Obshchestvo izsledovatelei Volyni (The Society for Studies of Volynia) in Zhytomyr, and Volynskoe Tserkovno-Arkheologicheskoe  p293 Obshchestvo (Volynian Ecclesiastic-Archeological Society) which published Volynskii istoriko-arkheologicheskii sbornik (Volynian Historical and Archeological Symposium), Zhytomyr, vol. I, 1896, vol. II, 1900. A collaborator with these societies, O. Fotynsky, is the author of Iz semeinoi khroniki dvoryan Zagorovskikh vo vtoroi polovine XVI v. (The Family Chronicle of the Nobles Zahorovskys in the Middle of the XVI Century), Zhytomyr, 1900.

The Obshchestvo lyubitelei izucheniya Kubanskoi Oblasti (Society of Amateurs to Study the Kuban Region) was active in Katerynodar, and the Tserkovnoe Istoriko-Arkheologicheskoe Obshchestvo (The Ecclesiastical Historical-Archeological Society) in Kamyanets-Podilsk. The most prominent scholar of the latter, the Rev. Yevtym (Yukhym) Sitsynsky (1859‑1937), born in Podolia, was graduated from the Kiev Theological Academy, and participated in V. Antonovych's archeological excavations in Podolia. His most important works are: Bakota — drevnaya stolitsa Poniz'ya (Bakota — the Old Capital of Poniz'ya), Kamyanets-Podilsk, 1889; Materialy dlya istorii monastyrei Podol'skoy eparkhii (Materials Concerning the History of the Monasteries in the Podolian Diocese), Kamyanets-Podilsk, 1891; "Semeinaya zhizn' v Podolii v pervoi polovine proshlago veka" (Family Life in Podolia in the First Half of the Last Century), Kievskaya Starina, 1891, IV; Gorod Kamenets-Podol'skii, Istoricheskoe opisanie (The Town of Kamyanets-Podilsk — A Historical Description), Kiev, 1895; and his magnum opus, Istoricheskaya svedeniya o prikhodakh i tserkvakh Podol'skoi eparkhii (Historical Data Concerning the Parishes and the Churches of the Podolia Diocese) in 7 vols., Kamyanets-Podilsk, 1895‑1911. [. . .] At the beginning of 1919 Sitsynsky was appointed a Privat-dozent at the university in Kamyanets-Podilsk where he specialized in Podolian history.

The great upsurge in the Ukrainian national movement during the first decade of the twentieth century manifested itself, among other things, in an intensified interest in the Ukrainian history and the demand for a comprehensive study of the Ukrainian past. The Ukrainian reading public also increased rapidly and even  p294 the obsolete history of the Ukraine by Bantysh-Kamensky, republished in Kiev in 1903, found a ready market.

The relaxation of censor­ship controls made possible the publication both in Russian and in Ukrainian of histories of the Ukraine, which regarded Ukrainian history as an unbroken development. The first of these studies was by M. Hrushevsky, Ocherk istorii ukrainskago naroda (An Outline of the History of the Ukrainian People). It was followed by O. Yefymenko's Istoriya ukrainskago naroda and Istoriya Ukrainy i eya naroda (The History of the Ukraine and Its People), which, although placing less emphasis on the national aspect of history, were popular because of their easy narrative style. Yefymenko's both books were well illustrated. Still another richly illustrated history of the Ukraine, Istoriya Ukrayiny-Rusy (History of the Ukraine‑Rus′) by Mykola Arkas, was published in 1908 in St. Petersburg. Its author was not a historian by profession, but with the scholar­ly assistance of Vasyl' Domanytsky he succeeded in giving a vivid account of the Ukrainian history. His book sold a great number of copies throughout the country, planting everywhere the seeds of national consciousness. A second edition was published in 1912 (after the author's death in 1909) and the third edition — in 1922, in Berlin.199 Ilyustrovana istoriya Ukrayiny (The Illustrated History of the Ukraine) by Hrushevsky, containing reproductions of photographs and old portraits, was published in 1911.

The recently granted freedom to use the Ukrainian language in publications, the possibility of maintaining closer contacts with Galicia and its Ukrainian scientific centre in Lviv, the creation of the Ukrainian Scientific Society in Kiev — all these aided in the normal development of Ukrainian historiography in the Ukraine. Ukrainian history became here and there the subject of university lectures. Professor Oleksander Hrushevsky offered a course of lectures on Ukrainian history at Odessa University (in Ukrainian), and later at St. Petersburg; O. Yefymenko lectured at the Higher Courses for Women in St. Petersburg. [. . .]

At the same time, however, there was a shortage of younger  p295 scholars in the field of Ukrainian history. While the old scholars were decreasing in numbers, very few younger ones were devoting themselves to Ukrainian history. This was chiefly due to the fact that in all the universities in the Ukraine, and especially in Kiev, the greatest emphasis was placed on Russian history, taught in the staunch, Muscovite spirit. Therefore numerous publications and discoveries of new historical material far outnumbered original and critical studies by local researchers. However, there were some works published in the pre‑revolutionary period which deserve to be mentioned:

The history of the Kievan Rus′ was the subject of works by Mikhail Prisyolkov, of the University of St. Petersburg: "Mitropolit Ilarion, kak borets za nezavisimuyu russkuyu Tserkov' " (Metropolitan Ilarion — a Fighter for an Independent Russian Church), Sbornik statei, posvyashchyonnykh S. F. Platonovu, St. Petersburg, 1911; Ocherki po tserkovno-politicheskoi istorii Kievskoi Rusi X‑XII vv. (Sketches on the Ecclesiastical and Political History of the Kievan Rus′ in the X‑XII Centuries), St. Petersburg, 1913.

Pavlo Klepatsky200 was the author of Ocherki po istorii Kievskoi zemli, t. I, Litovskii period (Sketches on the History of the Kiev Lands, vol. I, The Lithuanian Period), Odessa, 1912.

Volodymyr Parkhomenko wrote Drevne-russkaya knyagina Ol'ga (vopros o kreshchenii eya) (The Old Rus′ Grand Duchess Olga — Problem of Her Baptism), Kiev, 1911; "K istorii nachal'nago khristianstva na Rusi" (The History of Early Christendom in Rus′), Izv. otd. russ. yaz. i slov., 1914; Nachalo Khristianstsva na Rusi, Ocherki iz istorii Rusi IX‑X v. (The Beginning of Christianity in Rus′ — Sketches on the History of the Rus′ in the IX‑X Centuries), Poltava, 1913; Ocherk istorii Pereyaslavsko-Borispol'skoi eparkhii (1733‑85) v svyazi s obshchim khodom malorossiiskoi zhizni togo vremeni (A Sketch of the History of  p296 the Pereyaslav-Borispol Diocese, 1733‑85, in Connection with the General Course of the Little Russian Life of That Period), Poltava, 1910.

The following authors contributed to the history of the Church (XVII‑XVIII Centuries) in the Ukraine:

Platon Zhukovych, Seimovaya bor'ba pravoslavnago zapadno-russkago dvoryanstsva s tserkovnoi uniei (s 1609 g.) (The Parliamentary Struggle of the Orthodox West Rus′ Nobility Against the Church Union (from 1609)), in 6 fascicles, St. Petersburg, 1901‑1910. This work gives a survey of the religious struggle of the Orthodox Ukrainians and Byelorussians from the end of the sixteenth century up to the death of Zhygymont III, and, in the words of M. Hrushevsky, "it is a most valuable contribution, characterized by a wealth of material and a sharp and careful analysis of the events. It has therefore become an important reference work and has increased our knowledge of the period." [. . .] Zhukovych wrote also the following studies: "Protestatsiya mitropolita Iova Boretskago i drugikh zapadno-russkikh ierarkhov 28 aprelya 1621 g." (The Protest of the Metropolitan Iov Boretsky and other Western Rus′ Hierarchs on April 28th, 1621) Sbornik statei po slavyanovedeniyu, vol. III, St. Petersburg, 1907; and "Materialy dlya istorii kievskago i l'vovskago soborov 1629 g." (Materials Concerning the Sobors in Kiev and Lviv in 1629), Zapiski Akad. Nauk po ist.‑fil. otd., vol. VIII, and separately, St. Petersburg, 1911.

Rev. Fedir Titov: Russkaya pravoslavnaya Tserkov' v pol'sko‑litovskom gosudarstve v XVII‑XVIII vv. (1654‑1795) (The Russian Orthodox Church in the Polish-Lithuanian State in the XVII‑XVIII Centuries (1654‑1795)), vols. I‑III, Kiev, 1905‑1916.201

 p297  There were also several monographs on the history of church relations published at that time:

V. Bidnov (vide supra), Pravoslavnaya Tserkov' v Pol'she i Litve (The Orthodox Church in Poland and Lithuania), Katerynoslav, 1908.

Konstantyn Kharlampovych, Malorossiiskoe vliyanie na velikorusskuyu tserkovnuyu zhizn' (Little Russian Influence on Great Russian Ecclesiastical Life), Kazan, 1914.

A few other monographs were published on Ukrainian and Byelorussian hierarchs. These works were written by alumni of Kiev Theological Academy and were printed mostly in Trudy.

Volodymyr Chekhivsky, a monograph on Metropolitan Hawriil Banulesko-Bodoni, Kiev, 1909.

V. Ivanytsky, a monograph on Viktor Sadkovsky — the Bishop of Pereyaslav.

I. Rybolovsky, Varlaam Vanatovich, arkhiepiskop kievskii, galitskii i Malyya Rusi (Varlaam Vanatovich, the Archbishop of Kiev, Halych and Little Russia), Kiev, 1908.

Rev. Mykola Shpachynsky, Kievskii Mitropolit Arsenii Mogilyansky (The Metropolitan of Kiev, Arseniy Mohylyansky), Kiev, 1907.

S. Kurhanovych, Dionisii Zhabokritsky, episkop Lutskii i Ostrozhskii (Dionizy Zhabokritsky, the Bishop of Lutsk and Ostroh), Kiev, 1914.

A. Osinsky, Meletii Smotritsky, arkhiepiskop Polotskii (Meletiy Smotrytsky, the Archbishop of Polotsk), Kiev, 1912.

Works by Pylyp Klymenko were devoted to the history of the guilds in the Ukraine: Zapadno-russkie tsekhi v XVI‑XVIII vv. (The West Rus′ Guilds in the XVI‑XVIII Centuries), Kiev, 1911; he is also the author of Iz istorii finansovago stroya goroda Dubno (konets XVII–nachalo XVIII v.) (The Financial History of the Town of Dubno — End of the XVII to the Beginning of the XVIII Century), Kiev, 1914.202

 p298  The history of the Hetman State in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries is treated in the work of Ivan Rosenfel'd: Prisoedinenie Malorossii k Rossii 1654‑1793 gg.; istoriko-yuridicheskii ocherk (The Annexation of Little Russia to Russia, 1654‑1703, a Historical and Legal Study), Petrograd, 1915. The author reviews scholar­ly works on the Pereyaslav Treaty and expresses the opinion that the Treaty called for an incomplete incorporation of the Ukraine into Russia.203

Mykhaylo Slabchenko, born in 1882 in Odessa, graduate of Odessa University, specialized in the history of the Hetman State. In his monograph Malorusskii polk v administrativnom otnoshenii (The Little Russian Regiment in Its Administrative Aspect), Odessa, 1909, Slabchenko considered the relations between Moscow and the Ukraine after 1654 and concluded that the Ukraine became the vassal of Moscow as a result of the Pereyaslav Treaty. Later, after studying the emergence of the land­owning class from among the Cossack elders, Slabchenko explained the character of the Cossack regiments as military and administrative units. Slabchenko's conclusions were criticized by another specialist in the field, Mykola Vasylenko, who in his article "Z istoriyi ustroyu Het'manshchyny" (Concerning the History of the Structure of the Hetman State), ZNTSHCVIII, declared that Slabchenko's conclusions that "the Hetman Ukraine was a democratic republic, based on democratic institutions," are not well founded. Vasylenko also disagreed with Slabchenko as to the role of the Ukrainian nobility in the Left-Bank Ukraine, the staff companions (bunchukovi tovaryshi), and the regimental courts. In the discussion between these two scholars, both expressed their views in "Shche do istoriyi ustroyu Het'manshchyny XVII‑XVIII st." (More About the Structure of the Hetman State in the XVII‑XVIII Centuries), ZNTSHCXVI, in which Vasylenko continued to maintain that Slabchenko's book, in spite of its brilliance, was not completely scholar­ly.

Slabchenko's second work is Opyty po istorii prava Malorossii XVII i XVIII v. (Studies of the History of Little Russian Law  p299 in the XVII and XVIII Centuries), Odessa, 1911, consisting of special studies of legal procedure. [. . .] This work was also criticized by Vasylenko who charged that its conclusions were hasty and its sources too limited.204

Yuriy Maksymovych, the pupil of Dovnar-Zapol'sky, [. . .] was the author of: Malorossiya v upravlenie Grafa P. Rumyantseva-Zadunaiskago (Little Russia Under the Rule of Count P. Rumyantsev-Zadunaysky), Nizhen, 1913; Voinskiya ekzertsitsii v Malorossii vo vtoroi polovine XVIII v. (Military Exercises in Little Russia in the Second half of the XVIII Century), Nizhen, 1913; Vybory i nakazy v Malorossii v Zakonodatel'nuyu komissiyu 1767 g., Chast' I, Vybory i sostavlenie nakazov (Elections and Mandates in Little Russia to the Legislative Commission in 1767, Part I, Elections and Composition of Mandates), Nizhen, 1917.

Yet undoubtedly the most significant work in the field of modern Ukrainian historiography during the first two decades of the present century was that of Vyacheslav Lypynsky. It may be said without exaggeration that, apart from Hrushevsky's works, Lypynsky's studies represent the greatest achievement in modern Ukrainian historiography.

Vyacheslav Lypynsky (1882‑1931), born in Volynia, came from old gentry stock, which had become entirely Polonized. He was educated at the Gymnasium in Kiev where he already came to regard himself as a Ukrainian. As a student he took an active part in Ukrainian national life. He studied at Kraków and Geneva universities. In 1909 in Kraków he published a book, Szlachta ukraińska i jej udział w życiu narodu ukraińskiego (Ukrainian Gentry and Its Participation in the Life of the Ukrainian People), in which, recalling the close relation between the Ukrainian Polonized gentry in the Right-Bank Ukraine and the Ukrainian people, he suggested that this gentry was bound to reunite itself with the people by becoming its leaders. Lypynsky himself headed a group of "Ukrainians of Polish culture" and propagated his ideas in the journal Przegląd krajowy,  p300 published in 1909 in Kiev. From the very beginning of his activity Lypynsky believed in the reestablishment of Ukrainian statehood, and later he became the spiritual father of the Union for the Liberation of the Ukraine (Soyuz Vyzvolennya Ukrayiny) which aimed to rebuild an independent Ukrainian state. When, for a short duration at least, his dreams were fulfilled in 1918, he became the Ukrainian envoy to Vienna. After that time he lived in emigration,205 and published his Lysty do brativ-Khliborobiv (Letters to Brother Agrarians) printed in Khliborobs'ka Ukrayina, and separately, Vienna, 1926.206 There he developed his idea of the Ukrainian toilers monarchy in the traditional form of the Hetmanate.207

In 1912 Lypynsky edited in Kraków a large work, Z dziejów Ukrainy (Fragments from Ukrainian History), dedicated to the memory of V. Antonovych and his circle who earlier, in the middle of the nineteenth century, had left the Polish camp and reaffirmed their Ukrainian nationality. The book comprises several studies by Lypynsky, the longest, a monograph on Stanislaus Michael Krychevsky, the famous supporter of Khmelnytsky. In it he analyzes the part played by the Ukrainian gentry and nobility in Khmelnytsky's rebellion. This class came to play a prominent part in the foreign policy and diplomacy of the Great Hetman and helped him build a state, adding broad range to his policy. After Khmelnytsky's death, however, the gentry failed to preserve the Ukrainian State and preferred their interests to the public good. In this monograph [. . .] Lypynsky surveyed the entire history of the Ukrainian gentry during the period of Khmelnytsky and the latter's policy. "This work," wrote I. Krypyakevych, "is the first of its kind, but it is a work of utmost significance, based on rich material, with broad historical significance. In the future no student of the Khmelnytsky  p301 period will be able to dispense with it, and many of Lypynsky's views will become the basis of modern Ukrainian historiography."208

In addition to Lypynsky's long monograph, Z dziejów Ukrainy contained Hrushevsky's "Ukrayins'ka shlyakhta na perelomi XVI‑XVII v." (Ukrainian Gentry at the Turn of the XVI‑XVII Centuries); and "Shveds'ko‑ukrayins'kyi soyuz 1708 r." (The Swedish-Ukrainian Alliance in 1708); Lypynsky's "Vidhomyny mynuvshyny" (Echoes of the Past); and "Dvi khvylny z istoriyi porevolyutsiynoyi Ukrayiny" (Two Moments from the History of the Post-Revolutionary Ukraine), relating to Khmelnytsky's occupation of the Pinsk region and the Treaty of Hadyach; and others.

Continuing his study of the history of Ukraine in the seventeenth century, Lypynsky wrote the following articles based on the unpublished documents: "Heneral artyleriyi Velykoho Knyazivstva Rus'koho" (A General of Artillery of the Grand Duchy of Rus′), based on the Nemyrych archives, ZNTSHLXXXVII, and "Ariyansky soymyk u Kyselnyi na Volyni v mayu 1638 r." (The Arian Assembly in the village of Kyselyn in Volynia in May, 1638), ibid.LXXXXVI.

In emigration Lypynsky began to republish his earlier works in Ukrainian, rewriting and completing them. In 1920209 there appeared in Vienna the third volume of his Istorychni studiyi ta monohrafiyi (Historical Studies and Monographs), entitled Ukrayina na perelomi, 1657‑59. Zamitky do istoriyi ukrayins'koho derzhavnoho budivnytstva v XVII stolitti (The Ukraine at the Turning Point, 1657‑59, Notes on the History of the Building of the Ukrainian State in the XVII Century).210 In this work, which is a new version of his earlier Dwie chwile z dziejów porewolucyjnej Ukrainy (Two Moments for the History of Post-Revolutionary Ukraine), Lypynsky analyzes in particular the diplomatic activity  p302 of the Ukrainian government in 1656‑57, the participation of the Ukrainian gentry in the building of the Hetman State, and the voluntary accession to this State of the Pinsk region. At the same time he evaluated the policies of Khmelnytsky, from the autonomy envisaged in his early plans to the eventual creation of an independent state. Lypynsky offers a brilliant analysis of the Treaty of Pereyaslav (1654) which he regards as just "another alliance directed this time against Poland, concluded for the sake of the liberation of the Ukraine from Polish rule, being in the same category as Khmelnytsky's earlier treaties with the Crimea and Turkey," (p29). The treaty was, therefore, "a military alliance against Poland and the Tatars, secured in the form of a protectorate," (p30), "a complete and legal emancipation from the Polish Rzecz Pospolita, and this emancipation was what the Ukrainian signatories and the neighboring rulers had in mind when concluding the Pereyaslav Treaty," (p33). Lypynsky stressed the importance of the assembly in Chyhyryn in October, 1656, the institution of the Khmelnytsky dynasty, and of the statutory changes in the Cossack Host made under the influence of the gentry which, he believed, had a stabilizing effect on the Cossacks and helped to win them from the idea of autonomy to the idea of an independent state.

Lypynsky's work is entirely permeated with the spirit of national consciousness and with an awareness of Ukrainian national state aspirations, and contains what Ukrainian historiography had previously lacked so lamentably (from Kostomarov and Antonovych onward), having developed under the influence of three factors: the ideology of Russian statehood, that of Polish statehood, and the Ukrainian cultural-democratic, but stateless ideology. Lypynsky believed the prime task of Ukrainian historiography to be the resurrection of historical tradition and the continuation of those clear political ideas which had guided the Ukrainian ancestors in the periods of Khmelnytsky and Mazepa. "Only when we rid ourselves of the notion, forced on us in a time of decay — that we are incapable of forming a state, that we are an inferior people who can only rebel and are forever victimized — only  p303 when we realize the broad sweep of our history, the extensive plans and conceptions of statehood of our forefathers, shall we be able to appraise the actions of these ancestors and to evaluate truthfully the facts of our history," (p17).

Reviewing Lypynsky's Ukrayina na perelomi, S. Tomashivsky wrote that "this most valuable book on the one hand, introduces the reader into the very laboratory of state-making, which the Ukrainian people had first developed after the period of the Princes, and on the other hand, it clearly shows the reasons for the eventual ruin of their plans."211 Lypynsky's works reflect most clearly the Ukrainian Revolution and Ukrainian statehood in 1917‑20. They will continue to be a source of inspiration to future generations of Ukrainians. [. . .]212

Bibliography

Literature on V. Modzalevsky:

"Vadym Modzalevsky," Khliborobs'ka Ukrayina, v. II, Vienna, 1920‑21; F. Ernst, "Vadym L'vovych Modzalevsky," Zbirnyk Sektsii Mystetsv Ukrayins'koho Naukovoho Tovarystva v Kyyivi, I, Kiev, 1921; O. Ohloblyn, "Vadym Modzalevsky (1882‑1920)," Nashi Dni, L'viv, 1943, X; B. Yasenchyk, "Vadym Modzalevsky, ukrayins'kyi rodoznavets'," Rid ta Znameno, 1947, No. 2.

Literature on V. Bidnov:

D. D. (Doroshenko), "V. Bidnov," Zeitschrift für osteuropäische Geschichte, v. IX, issue 3, 1935; D. Doroshenko, "Zhyttya y hromads'ka diyal'nist' Prof. V. O. Bidnova," Pamyati Prof. Vasylya Bidnova (a symposium) Prague, 1936.

Literature on V. Lypynsky:

M. Zabarevsky (D. Doroshenko), Vyacheslav Lypynsky i yoho dumky pro ukrains'ku natsiyu ta derzhavu, Vienna, 1925, reprinted  p304 in Augsburg, 1946; D. Dorošenko , "V. Lypynskyj," Abhandlungen des Ukrainischen Wissenschaftlichen Institutes, vol. III, Berlin, 1931; D. Doroshenko, "V. Lypynsky yak istoryk," V. Lypynsky yak polityk i ideoloh (a symposium), Uzhhorod, 1931; D. Dorošenko, "Vjačeslav Lypyns'kyj. Načrtek z nověiší ukrajinské historiografi," Časopis Národniho Musea, Prague, 1932, issue 1‑2; D. Doroshenko, "Z pered trydtsyaty lit," Z mynuloho (a symposium), vol. I, Warsaw, 1938; B. Krupnytsky, "Trends in Modern Ukrainian Historiography," The Ukrainian Quarterly, vol. VI, No. 4, 1950; Ya. Pelensky, "Vyacheslav Lypynsky," Zbirnyk "Ukrayins'koyi Literaturnoyi Hazety" 1956, Munich, 1957.


The Author's or the Editor's Notes:

193 Beginning with 1913 D. I. Doroshenko was the secretary of the Society. See D. Doroshenko, Moyi spomyny pro davnye mynule, 1901‑1914 (My Recollections of the Past, 1901‑1914), Winnipeg, 1949, p15 ff.

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194 The following authors published their works pertaining to Ukrainian historiography in Zapysky: B. Buchynsky, M. Vasylenko, M. Hrushevsky, O. Hrushevsky, B. Hrinchenko, L. Dobrovol'sky, V. Danylevych, O. Levytsky, V. Modzalevsky, H. Pavlutsky, M. Stadnyk, A. Shakhmatov, V. Shcherbyna.

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195 See: D. Doroshenko, "Pamyaty P. Ya. Doroshenka (1858‑1919)," Stara Ukrayina, Lviv, 1924, VII‑VIII.

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196 The last, v. V, has not been published, being left in manuscript form.

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197 V. Modzalevsky's monograph on the glass-works in the Chernihiv Province in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries was published after his death by the Ukrainian Academy of Sciences: V. Modzalevsky, Huty na Chernihivshchini, Kiev, 1926.

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198 For Bidnov's scholar­ly activities in emigration, see the supplementary chapter of this work.

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199 There were also later publications: Istoriya Ukrayiny, Buenos Aires, 1947.

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200 For more about P. Klepatsky, see the supplementary chapter of this book.

Alexander Presnyakov, later a professor of St. Petersburg University, wrote the monograph Knyazhoe pravo v drevnei Rusi (The Princely Law in Ancient Rus′), St. Petersburg, 1909.

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201 Rev. F. Titov wrote also the following works: Tipografiya Kievo-Pecherskoi Lavry, Istoricheskii ocherk (The Printing-House of the Kiev-Pechersk Monastery, Historical Outline), vol. I, Kiev, 1918); and Prilozheniya k I tomu (Supplement to vol. I), Kiev, 1918; Stara vyshcha osvita v kyyivs'kiy Ukrayini (Ancient High Education in Kievan Ukraine), Kiev, 1924; Materiyaly do istoriyi knyzhnoyi spravy na Ukrayini (Material for the History of Book Production in the Ukraine), Kiev, 1924.

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202 For later studies of P. Klymenko, see the supplementary chapter.

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203 See: UkrayinaII, Paris, 1949, p129.

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204 For further scholar­ly activities of M. Slabchenko, see the supplementary chapter.

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205 In 1926 Lypynsky became a professor of the Ukrainian Scientific Institute in Berlin; however, due to poor health, he left for Austria where he died in 1931.

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206 Reprinted in New York in 1954.

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207 In emigration, Lypynsky published once more an expansive work of historio-philosophical character: Relihiya i Tserkva v istoriyi Ukrayiny, Philadelphia, 1925; the second printing Lviv, 1933.

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208 ZNTSH, v. CXV. See also a review by D. Doroshenko in Ukrainskaya Zhizn', 1912, X, Moscow.

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209 Actually, the book was published in 1921.

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210 Reprinted in New York, 1954. English translation of chapter III, dealing with the Pereyaslav Treaty of 1654, in The Annals of the Ukrainian Academy of Arts and Sciences in the U. S., vol. III, No. 2 (8), 1954.

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211 S. Tomashivsky, "Istoriya i polityka," Khliborobs'ka Ukrayina, III, Vienna 1921, p169. See also a review by D. Doroshenko in Knyzhka, Stanyslaviv, 1921, No. 4.

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212 The last three pages of D. I. Doroshenko's Ohlyad Ukrayins'koyi istoriohrafiyi, dwelling on the developments in Ukrainian historical science in 1917‑1922, are included in the supplementary chapter.


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