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This webpage reproduces a section of


Ukrainian Historiography
By Oleksander Ohloblyn

published by
The Ukrainian Academy of Arts and Sciences
in the U. S., Inc.,
1957

The text is in the public domain.

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 p307  Ukrainian Historiography in the Dnieper Ukraine

Restoration of Ukrainian statehood in 1917 opened new prospects for the development of Ukrainian historiography. The scientific research of the Ukraine's past became a matter of national urgency. The tempo of historical studies quickened, particularly of problems of Ukrainian statehood in the past. The spotlight was turned on the history of the Ukrainian Cossack-Hetman State of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. Out of this period comes a major work of Ukrainian historiography, Vyacheslav Lypynsky's Ukrayina na perelomi (The Ukraine at the Turning Point). Ukrainian historical publications began to spread: Zapysky Ukrayin­s'koho Naukovoho Tovarystva u Kyyevi (Proceedings of the Ukrainian Scientific Society in Kiev) and Ukrayina (Theº Ukraine) renewed publication, and a new historical periodical, Nashe Mynule (Our Past) made its appearance in Kiev (1918‑1919). In addition, there was a whole series of other publications, both in the capital and in the provinces, particularly in Kharkiv. The establishment of the Ukrainian Academy of Sciences in Kiev (November 14, 1918), of Ukrainian State Universities (in Kiev and Kamyanets-Podilsk) and a Department of History and Philology in Poltava, of Chairs of the History of the Ukraine and Ukrainian Law in the existing universities (Kiev, Kharkiv and Odessa), the establishment of the National Archives, the National Library and the National Museum — all this held out a bright future for Ukrainian historical science.

The Ukraine's occupation by Soviet Moscow, however, and partition of Ukrainian territory among neighboring states, changed conditions much to the detriment of Ukrainian science. A number of Ukrainian historians were forced to flee abroad, and those who stayed home under alien rule were gradually deprived of the opportunity to engage in free, scholar­ly research. Even under such unfavorable conditions, nevertheless, Ukrainian historical research went on, and even broadened in scope. The traditional  p308 schema of the Ukrainian historical process, formulated and scientifically validated by M. Hrushevsky, was accepted and developed further when imbued with a new ideological (national) content and spirit; Ukrainian historians abroad, in Galicia and even in the Soviet-occupied homeland continued research begun during the period of the Third Ukrainian State (1917‑1920) and carried it to new heights.

Ukrainian historical research developed most extensively in the Dnieper (Eastern) Ukraine. Old traditions of scientific research, activities of numerous learned societies and institutions, particularly of the Ukrainian Academy of Sciences, the actual presence of prominent scholars of the older and younger generations, the wealth of archival material which became accessible to scholars after 1917, and finally, what is probably most significant, a broad national arena of historical thought and devotion; all this provided favorable conditions for the development of Ukrainian historiography in the nineteen-twenties.

In the field of Ukrainian history, scientific research went on in the old university centers (Kiev, Kharkiv and Odessa), as well as in provincial centers (Nizhen, Katerynoslav-Dnipropetrovsk, Poltava, Chernihiv and others), in which historical studies were tied organizationally with pedagogical institutes (in the nineteen-twenties they were called Institutes of Public Education),213 with archives, museums, national historical and cultural monuments, and local geographic societies, etc. In the larger university centers the work was of general significance to the whole Ukraine; in smaller centers it was local in scope. Both, however, working in ideo-scientific and frequently in organizational contact with each other (particularly in the area of publications), joined forces in contributing to a great upsurge of Ukrainian historiography in the nineteen-twenties.

The main center of Ukrainian historical studies in the 1920's was Kiev, particularly the All‑Ukrainian Academy of Sciences  p309 (VUAN)214 with its numerous historical institutions. The work of scientific research went on in several ideological-scientific centers.

Mykhaylo Hrushevsky, 1866‑1934 (see supra), headed the historical center which was the most active. Hrushevsky returned from abroad in 1924 to continue his work in the Ukrainian Academy of Sciences. He renewed the activities of the Historical Section of the Ukrainian Scientific Society which was merged with VUAN. Many commissions, chiefly historical, were established within the Section. The commissions were: Ancient Ukrainian History, History of the Cossack Period, Modern History of the Ukraine, Ukrainian Historiography and a whole series of commissions for regional studies of Ukrainian history, such as the Commission for Kiev and the Right-Bank Ukraine, the Commission for the Left-Bank Ukraine, the Commission for the Southern Ukraine, the commission for the Western Ukraine, and others. In addition, M. Hrushevsky headed one of the two Academic Chairs of the History of the Ukrainian People, headed the Historical and Archeographic Commission of VUAN and devoted much time to the Historical-Geographic Commission headed by his brother, Oleksander Hrushevsky.

M. Hrushevsky's establishment in Kiev of a Scientific Research Chair of Ukrainian history was of major importance, This institution, which gathered around it several well-known Ukrainian historians, was primarily concerned with educating new ranks of Ukrainian historians. During the period of its existence (1924‑1930) the Chair prepared a series of candidates for independent scientific research and published three volumes of Studiyi z istoriyi Ukrayiny (Studies in the History of the Ukraine), Kiev, 1926‑1930, and several monographs, chiefly of seventeenth to nineteenth-century Ukrainian history, which came out in other VUAN publications.

Probably of greatest importance was the broad scientific-historical undertaking of publications, organized by M. Hrushevsky within the framework of the Government Publishing House of  p310 the Ukraine and VUAN in Kiev. The magazine of history Ukrayina which was re‑established at that time (1924‑1930) united a majority of Ukrainian historians and played a leading part not only as far as the Dnieper Ukraine was concerned, but also for all Ukrainian historical science and even for all Ukrainian studies regardless of political boundaries. This magazine published many scholar­ly articles, monographs, materials, and chronicles, and maintained a large department of review and bibliography, with the active participation of M. Hrushevsky.

In addition, a whole series of other periodical and non‑periodical publications appeared under Hrushevsky's editor­ship, all of them important for Ukrainian historiography, in particular: Naukovyi Zbirnyk Istorychnoyi Sektsiyi VUAN (Scientific Collection of the VUAN Historical Section), 6 vols., Kiev, 1924‑1929; Za Sto Lit (Over a Period of a Century), 6 vols., Kiev, 1927‑1930; Zapysky Istorychno-Filolohichnoho Viddilu VUAN (Proceedings of the Historical-Philological Department of VUAN); works of the Historical Section; collections: Kyyiv ta yoho okolytsya (Kiev and its Environs), Kiev, 1926; Chernihiv ta Pivnichne Livoberezhzhya (Chernihiv and the Northern Left-Bank), Kiev, 1928;215 Kyyivs'ki zbirnyky istoriyi, arkheolohiyi, pobutu i mystestva (Kiev Collections of History, Archeology, Customs and Arts), vol. I, Kiev, 1931;216 Ukrayins'kyi Arkhiv (Ukrainian Archive), 4 vols., starting with 1929;217 Ukrayins'kyi  p311 Arkheohrafichnyi Zbirnyk (Ukrainian Archeographic Collection), 3 vols., Kiev, 1926‑1930; Istorychno-Heohrafichnyi Zbirnyk (History and Geography Collection), edited by O. Hrushevsky, 4 vols., Kiev 1927‑1931, and others. The following works were reprinted: Volume I of The Chronicle of S. Velychko, Kiev, 1926; the historical, ethnographical and journalistic articles of M. Kostomarov (in three volumes);218 research articles by I. Dzhydzhora from ZNTSH: Ukrayina v pershiy polovyni XVIII viku (The Ukraine in the First Half of the XVIII Century), Kiev, 1930.219 Publication of Tvory (The Works) of V. Antonovych was started (only the first volume has come out in Kiev in 1932). On the occasion of M. Hrushevsky's sixtieth birthday and the fortieth year of his scientific and literary work, VUAN published Yuvileynyi zbirnyk, prysvyachenyi Akad. M. S. Hrushev­s'komu (Jubilee Collection Dedicated to Academician M. S. Hrushevsky) in three volumes, Kiev, 1928‑1929 (volume III contains a bibliography of Hrushevsky's works for the 1905‑1928 period).

Along with this work of scientific organization and publication, M. Hrushevsky conducted great scientific-research work in the field of Ukrainian history, Ukrainian historiography, history of Ukrainian literature and folklore. He continued his major work Istoriya Ukrayiny-Rusy (History of Ukraine‑Rus′), bringing out its ninth volume, dealing with the history of the Khmelnytsky period between 1651 and 1657 (the first half-volume, Kiev 1928, the second, Kiev 1931). The last (tenth) volume of Istoriya Ukrayini‑Rusy pertaining to the years 1657 and 1658 came out  p312 after Hrushevsky's death, edited by his daughter K. Hrushevska (Kiev, 1937).

Hrushevsky also continued his other major work which he had started abroad, Istoriya Ukrayin­s'koyi Literatury (History of Ukrainian Literature). Volumes one through five were published in Lviv and Kiev between 1923 and 1927. Subsequent volumes were not published.

In connection with his research on the Khmelnytsky period, Hrushevsky published several documentary studies in publications of the Ukrainian and Russian Academies of Sciences and in other publications, in particular: "K istorii Pereyaslavskoi Rady 1654 goda" (On the History of the Pereyaslav Council of 1654) in Izvestiya Akademii Nauk SSSR (News of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR), 1929.

Also of considerable importance to Ukrainian historical science were numerous articles by M. Hrushevsky on the subject of Ukrainian historiography (with reference to individual historical works or to prominent individual historians) of the Cossack-Hetman period, as well as of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. Particularly deserving of mention are his sketches about M. Maksymovych, M. Kostomarov, P. Kulish, O. Lazarevsky, V. Antonovych and M. Drahomanov published in Ukrayina; and the publications from the last period of his life focused on Ukrainian historiography of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, especially: "Samovidets 'Ruiny' i ego pozdneishie otrazheniya" (Samovydets' Ruyiny and Later Repercussions) in Trudy Instituta Slavyanovedeniya Akademii Nauk SSSR (Works of the Institute of Slavic Studies of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR), v. I, 1932; and "Ob ukrainskoi istoriografii XVIII veka. Neskol'ko soobrazhenii" (On Ukrainian Historiography of the XVIII Century. A Few Considerations) in Izvestiya Akademii Nauk SSSR, 1934, VII series, No. 3.

Hrushevsky gathered around the Historical Section of VUAN and its periodicals many Ukrainian historians, both from and outside of Kiev, and even those who lived beyond the Ukrainian SSR (particularly in Galicia). Several generations of scholars  p313 gathered around his Scientific-Research Chair, among them V. Antonovych's disciples — O. Hrushevsky, V. Danylevych, V. Shcherbyna; M. Dovnar-Zapol'sky's disciples — P. Klymenko, O. Hermayze; new Kievan disciples of Hrushevsky and of his brother O. Hrushevsky, who worked as candidates of the scientific-research chair — O. Baranovych, M. Tkachenko, S. Shamray, S. Hlushko, V. Yurkevych and others.

Oleksander Hrushevsky (born 1877), assistant-professor at the universities of Odessa and St. Petersburg, subsequently professor of Kiev University, carried on studies of the social-economic history of the Ukraine and particularly of the Lithuanian and Cossack-Hetman period. His monograph Goroda Velikago Knyazhestva Litovskago v XIV‑XVI v. v., Starina i bor'ba za starinu (Cities of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania in the XIV‑XVI Centuries, Antiquity and the Struggle for Its Form of Life) was published in Kiev in 1918. Among his numerous research works and articles published in the 1920's we must note "Universaly ta hramoty livoberezhnym ratusham u XVII v." (Seventeenth Century Universals (Proclamations) and Decrees Issued to City Halls of the Left-Bank) in Yuvileynyi zbirnyk, prysvyachenyi Akad. M. S. Hrushev­s'komu, vol. I, Kiev, 1928.

Volodymyr Shcherbyna (1850‑1936) continued his research in the history of Kiev, mainly of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. He published a collection of articles, Novy studiyi z istoriyi Kyyeva (New Studies of the History of Kiev), Kiev, 1926, and a collection of decrees pursuant to Magdeburg privileges of the City of Kiev in Ukrayins'kyi Arkheohrafichnyi Zbirnyk (Ukrainian Archeographic Collection), vol. I, Kiev, 1926. Other noteworthy published works of his are: "Do pytannya pro statti B. Khmelny­ts'koho v redaktsiyi 1659 r." (The Problem of B. Khmelnytsky's Articles in the 1659 Edition) in Yuvileynyi zbirnyk . . ., vol. I, Kiev 1928; and "Doba Kozachchyny v livoberezhniy Ukrayini" (The Cossack Period in the Left-Bank Ukraine) in ZNTSH, vol. C, Lviv, 1930.

Pylyp Klymenko (born 1880), professor of Kamyanets-Podilsk University, worked on the social-economic history of the Ukraine  p314 in the seventeenth through the nineteenth centuries, and, particularly, he continued research in the history of guilds in the Right-Bank Ukraine. He published a monograph, Tsekhy na Ukrayini (Guilds in the Ukraine), Kiev, 1929;220 and a series of researches and articles, especially: "Misto i terytoriya na Ukrayini za Het'man­shchyny" (Cities and Territories in the Ukraine during the Hetman Period) in Zapysky Istorychno-Filolohichnoho Viddilu VUAN (Proceedings of the Historical-Philological Department of VUAN), vols. VII‑VIII, Kiev, 1926; "Do istoriyi m. Nizhena" (History of the City of Nizhen), ibid., vol. XV, Kiev, 1927; "Promyslovist' i torhivlya v Podil's'kiy huberniyi na pochatku XIX st." (Industry and Commerce in the Podolia Province in the Early XIX Century) in Yuvileynyi zbirnyk VUAN na poshanu Akad. D. Bahaliya (Jubilee Symposium Dedicated to Academician D. Bahaliy), Kiev, 1927.

Osyp Hermayze (born in Kiev, 1892), a graduate of Kiev University and later professor at Kiev University (INO), focused his attention on scientific research in the Ukrainian national-revolutionary movement of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries and the social-political history of the Ukraine of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. His Narysy z istoriyi revolyutsiynoho rukhu na Ukrayini (Sketches from the History of the Revolutionary Movement in the Ukraine), vol. I, Kiev, 1926, was the first, and thus far the only, monographic study of the Revolutionary Ukrainian Party (RUP). He also published documentary materials, such as: Nelehal'ni vidozvy z nahody Shevchenkovykh rokovyn (Clandestine Proclamations on the Occasions of the Shevchenko Anniversaries), Kiev, 1925; and "Materiyaly do istoriyi Ukrayin­s'koho rukhu za svitovoyi viyny" (Materials on the History of the Ukrainian Movement During the World War) in Ukrayins'kyi Arkheohrafichnyi Zbirnyk, vol. I, Kiev, 1926; and others.

Hermayze also studied and wrote about the history of Decembrism in the Ukraine, particularly "Rukh dekabrytsiv i ukrayinstvo"  p315 (The Decembrist Movement and Ukrainianism) in Ukrayina, vol. VI, Kiev, 1925.

Hermayze's research in the history of the Koliyi Movement of 1768 is of a documentary character, especially his separate extensive study "Koliyiv­shchyna v svitli novo­znaydenykh materiyaliv" (The Koliyi Movement in the Light of Newly-discovered Materials) in Ukrayina, vols. I‑II, Kiev, 1924. He was the editor of the so‑called "Kodnya Knyha sudovykh aktiv" (Kodens'ka Book of Judicial Cases), records of the Polish invasion and trial of participants in the Koliyi Movement, published in Ukrayins'kyi Arkhiv (Ukrainian Archive), vol. II, Kiev, 1931.221

Hermayze's study "Ukrayina ta Din u XVII st." (The Ukraine and the Don in the VII century) in Zapysky Kyyiv­s'koho Instytutu Narodnoyi Osvity (Proceedings of Kiev Institute of Public Education), vol. III, Kiev, 1928, offers a detailed account of Ukrainian‑Don relations during that period.

Noteworthy among other numerous writings of Hermayze are his historiographic articles, particularly "M. Drahomanov i ukrayins'ka istoriohrafiya" (M. Drahomanov and Ukrainian Historiography) in Ukrayina, vols. II‑III, 1926; and his reviews of contemporary Ukrainian historiography.

In 1929 Hermayze was arrested for implication in the affairs of "Spilka Vyzvolennya Ukrayiny" (The Union for Liberation of the Ukraine) and deported. This interrupted his work in the field of Ukrainian historiography in which he had engaged on such a broad scale in the nineteen-twenties.

Among Hrushevsky's disciples and younger associates, the following achieved prominence:

Oleksa Baranovych, who studied the social-economic history of the Right-Bank Ukraine from the sixteenth through the eighteenth centuries. He published the monograph Zalyudnennya Ukrayiny pered Khmelnychchynoyu. Volyns'ke voyevodstvo (Population  p316 of the Ukraine Before the Khmelnytsky Period. Province of Volynia), Kiev, 1913; and a series of documentary studies, notably: "Narysy magna­ts'koho hospodarstva na pivdni Volyni" (Sketches of the Magnate Economy in Southern Volynia) in Studiyi z istoriyi Ukrainy (Studies from the History of the Ukraine), vol. I, Kiev, 1926 and vol. III, Kiev, 1930; "Pans'ke hospodarstvo v klyuchi Volodars'kim za chasiv Koliyiv­shchyny" (Landlord Economy in the Volodarsky Estates During the Koliyi Movement) in Yuvileynyi zbirnyk, prysvyachenyi Akad. M. S. Hrushev­s'komu, vol. I, Kiev, 1928; and others.222

Mykola Tkachenko worked in the field of the social-economic history of the Left-Bank Ukraine in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, studying the history of peasants in particular. He published "Narysy z istoriyi selyan na Livoberezhniy Ukrayini v XVII‑XVIII v.v." (Sketches from the History of Peasants in the Left-Bank Ukraine During the XVII‑XVII Centuries) in Zapysky Istorychno-Filolohichnoho Viddilu VUAN, vol. XXVI, Kiev, 1931 and separately printed; and a series of studies and articles.223

Serhiy Shamray worked on the social-economic history of the Ukraine, mainly of the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. He published a monograph, "Kyyivs'ka kozachchyna 1855 roku. Do istoriyi selyans'kykh rukhiv na Kyyiv­shchyni" (Kiev Cossacks in 1855. On the History of Peasant Movements in Kiev Province)  p317 in Zapysky Ist.‑Fil. Vid. VUAN, vol. XX, Kiev, 1928, and separately, and a series of studies and articles.

Viktor Yurkevych worked on Ukrainian history of the mid‑seventeenth century and published a monograph, Ukrayins'ka emihratsiya na Skhid i zaselennya Slobid­shchyny za B. Khmelny­ts'koho (Ukrainian Migration Eastward and Settlement of Slobidska Province During the Khmelnytsky Period), Kiev, 1931.224

Fedir Savchenko studied the history of social and cultural movements in the Ukraine of the nineteenth century and, in addition to several studies and articles, published a monograph, Zaborona ukrayinstva 1876 r. Do istoriyi hromads'kykh rukhiv na Ukrayini 1860‑1870‑kh r. r. (Prohibition of Ukrainian Movement in 1876. On the History of Social Movements in the Ukraine in the eighteen-sixties and seventies), Kiev, 1930.225

Prokip Nechyporenko worked on the specific problem of the history of the Hetman period of the first half and middle of the eighteenth century. He published the following studies: "Do kharakterystyky podatkovoyi polityky uryadu Yelizavety" (Characteristics of the Taxation Policy of Elizabeth's Government) in Naukovyi Zbirnyk Istorychnoyi Sektsiyi za rik 1927 (Scientific Collection of the Historical Section for the Year 1927), Kiev, 1927; "Pro portisyi ta ratsiyi na Het'man­shchyni 1725‑1750 r. r." (On Allotments and Rations in the Hetman Area Between 1725 and 1750) in Zapysky Ist.‑Fil. Vid. VUAN, vol. 20, Kiev 1928; and an article on "National Structures" in Baturyn during the Hetman­ship of K. Rozumovsky, in Studiyi z istoriyi Ukrayiny, v. II, Kiev, 1929.

Mykhaylo Karachkivsky worked on the social-economic history of the Right-Bank Ukraine, particularly the guilds, and published several studies and articles: "Statystychnyi i topohrafichnyi opys Podil'­s'koyi huberniyi 1819 r." (Statistical and topographical description of Podolia Province in 1819) in Studiyi z istoriyi  p318 Ukrayiny (Studies from the History of Ukraine), vol. II, Kiev, 1929; and others.226

Other scholars, without being formal members, were also associated with publications of the Historical Section. The following, in particular, published their works through the Section:

Oleksander Andriyashev (1863‑1932), an historian-archivist (see supra), disciple of Antonovych, published some studies on the history of the colonization of the Ukraine up to the sixteenth century: "Narys istoriyi kolonizatsiyi Kyyiv­s'koyi zemli do kintsya XV v." (An Outline of the History of the Colonization of Kiev Region up to the End of the XV Century), Kyyiv ta yoho okolytsya, Kiev, 1926; "Narys istoriyi kolonizatsiyi Siver­s'koyi zemli do pochatku XVI v." (An Outline of History of the Colonization of Siverian Lands up to the Beginning of the XVI Century), Zapysky Ist.‑Fil. Vid. VUAN, v. XX, Kiev, 1928; "Narys istoriyi kolonizatsiyi Pereyaslav­s'koyi zemli do pochatku XVI v." (An Outline of History of the Colonization of Pereyaslav Lands up to the Beginning of the XVI Century), ibid., vol. XXVI, 1931; "Litopysne Bolokhovo i Bolokhivs'ki knyazi" (Bolokhovo as Mentioned in a Chronicle and the Bolokhovo Princes), Naukovyi Zbirnyk Istorychnoyi Sektsiyi 1929 r., Kiev, 1929.

Hnat Zhytetsky (1866‑1929) is the author of a series of studies and articles on the history of Ukrainian national thought and trends in the second half of the nineteenth century: "Kievskaya Starina za chasiv Lebedinstva" (Kievskaya Starina During the Times of Lebedintsev) in Ukrayina, vol. IV, 1925; "Pivdenno-Zakhidniy Viddil Rosiy­s'koho Heohrafichnoho Tovarystva v Kyyevi" (Southwestern Section of the Russian Geographic Society in Kiev) in Ukrayina, Nos. I‑II, 1927; "Kievskaya Starina 40 rokiv tomu" (Kievskaya Starina Forty Years Ago) in Za Sto Lit, vol. III, Kiev, 1928; Kyyivs'ka Hromada za 60‑kh rokiv (The Kiev Hromada in the Sixties), Kiev, 1928; and others.

 p319  Volodymyr Miyakovsky, historian of literature and social ideas, archivist, director of the Antonovych Central Historical Archive in Kiev, author of numerous documentary studies on the history of Ukrainian liberation ideas and movement of the nineteenth century, particularly: Revolyutsiyni vidozvy do ukrayin­s'koho narodu v 1850‑70 r. r. (Revolutionary Appeals to the Ukrainian People in the 1850‑1870 Period), Kiev, 1920; "Z novykh materiyaliv do istoriyi Kyrylo-Metodiyiv­s'koho bratstva" (New Material on the History of the Sts. Cyril and Methodius Brotherhood) in Ukrayina, I‑II, 1924; "Novi storinky z avtobiohrafiyi V. B. Antonovycha" (New Pages from the Autobiography of V. B. Antonovych), Ukrayina, I‑II, Kiev, 1924; "Lyudy sorokovykh rokiv (Kyrylo-Metodiyivstsi v yikh lystuvanni)" (Men of the Forties — Members of the Sts. Cyril and Methodius Brotherhood in Their Correspondence) in Za Sto lit, III, Kiev, 1928; and others.

Mykhaylo Kornylovych author of a study, "Bibikovs'ki inventari" (The Bibikov Inventories) in Ukrayins'kyi Arkheohrafichnyi Zbirnyk, vol. I, Kiev, 1926, and of a series of articles in Ukrayina, in particular "Zapovit Oleksandra II i okrayinna polityka" (The Testament of Alexander II and Frontier Policy), in Ukrayina, vol. I‑II, 1924.

Studies of Academician Kost' Kharlampovych (1870‑1932, see supra) of the history of the Nizhen Greek Brotherhood, from its archival material, are also noteworthy. Only part of his extensive monograph was published: "Narysy z istoriyi hre­ts'koyi koloniyi XVII‑XVIII st. v Nizhyni" (Sketches from the History of the Greek Colony in Nizhen in the XVII and XVIII Centuries) in Zapysky Ist.‑Fil. Vid. VUAN, vol. XXIV, Kiev, 1929.

Vasyl' Lyaskoronsky (1858‑1928), historian, archeologist and numismatist, disciple of Antonovych, and former professor at the Nizhen Historical-Philological Institute (see supra), published some studies and articles, in particular: "Titmarovi povidomlennya pro Rus'ki spravy z pochatku XI stolittya" (Titmar's Reports on Affairs in Rus′ of the Early XI Century) in Yuvileynyi zbirnyk . . . Hrushev­s'koho, vol. I, Kiev, 1928.

 p320  Leonid Dobrovol'sky, 1867‑1929, (see supra), author of some studies on the history of Kiev and Kiev Region.

Kateryna Lazarevska, daughter of O. Lazarevsky (see supra) worked in the Archeographic Commission. She was a historian-archeographer, editor of several major publications of the Commission (see supra) and studied the history of Kiev guilds; a study on this subject appeared in the symposium Kyyiv ta yoho okolytsya (Kiev and its Environs).

Veniamin Kordt, formerly associate professor at Kiev University, continued his studies of Ukrainian cartography (see supra) and foreign sources of Ukrainian history. He published: Chuzhozemni podorozhi po Skhidniy Evropi do 1700 roku (Travels of Foreigners in Eastern Europe Before 1700), Kiev, 1926; Materiyaly do istoriyi kartohrafiyi Ukrayiny (Material on the History of Cartography of the Ukraine), No. 1, Kiev, 1931; and "Materiyaly z Stokhol'm­s'koho derzhavnoho arkhivu do istoriyi Ukrayiny druhoyi polovyny XVII-pochadku XVIII st." (Material from the Stockholm State Archive on the history of the Ukraine of the Second Half of the XVII and early XVIII Centuries) collected by N. Molchanovsky in Ukrayins'kyi Arkheohrafichnyi Zbirnyk, III, Kiev, 1930.

The VUAN Chair of the History of the Ukrainian People was another historical center in Kiev in the twenties and early thirties. It was occupied by Academician Dmytro Bahaliy who divided his considerable scientific and organizing work between Kharkiv and Kiev. In VUAN in Kiev, during Bahaliy's presidency, there was a Commission on the Social-Economic History of the Ukraine of the Seventeenth Through the Nineteenth Centuries, among whose members were many historians from Kiev and from other cities. Permanent members, in addition to Academician Bahaliy (see infra), were O. Ohloblyn (director of the Commission) and N. Polons'ka‑Vasylenko (scholar­ly secretary of the Commission), who were also members of the D. I. Bahaliy Kharkiv Scientific-Research Institute of the History of Ukrainian Culture. The Commission published two volumes of its Works, only one of which, Narysy sotsiyal'no-ekonomichnoyi istoriyi Ukrayiny  p321 (Outlines of the Social-Economic History of the Ukraine), Kiev, 1932, was released for distribution; it prepared for publication a collection of the works of Academician Bahaliy (see infra) and several monographs devoted mainly to the social-economic history of the Ukraine in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries (a history of manufacturing and a history of labor), as well as the history of the Polish insurrection of 1831 in the Ukraine.227 In addition, works of Bahaliy's Kiev associates were published in other VUAN publications: Zapysky Ist.‑Fil. Vid. VUAN, Yuvileynyi Zbirnyk na poshanu Akad. D. I. Bahaliya (Jubilee Symposium Dedicated to Academician D. I. Bahaliy), Kiev, 1927; and others.

Oleksander Ohloblyn (born in 1899 in Kiev), graduate of Kiev University and professor at Kiev University (1921‑1943) and at the Ukrainian Free University in Prague and Munich, (since 1944) concentrated most of his attention on research in the economic history of the Ukraine during the sixteenth through the nineteenth centuries (the history of industry, commerce and transit), to the political history of the Ukraine during the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries (the Khmelnytsky period, the Mazepa period and the Ukrainian national-liberation movement of the second half of the eighteenth century), and to Ukrainian historiography (particularly the Samovydets' Chronicle and Istoriya Rusov).

Among his works published thus far, the following are the most important: Ocherki istorii ukrainskoi fabriki. Manufaktura v Getmanshchine (Outline of the History of Ukrainian Industry, Manufacturing in the Hetman State), Kiev, 1925;228 Ocherki istorii ukrainskoi fabriki. Predkapitalisti­cheskaya fabrika (Outline of the History of Ukrainian Industry. Pre‑Capitalist Industry),  p322 Kiev, 1925;229 Tranzytnyi torh Ukrayiny v pershiy polovyni 19 st. (Ukrainian Transit Trade in the First Half of the Nineteenth Century), Kiev, 1927; Eskizy z istoriyi povstannya Petra Ivanenka (Petryka) (Sketches from the History of Petro Ivanenko's (Petryk's) Rebellion), Kiev, 1929; Narysy z istoriyi kapitalizmu na Ukrayini, t. I. Ukrayina v superekakh mizhnarodnoyi ekonomiky i polityky za pershoyi polovyny XIX stolittya (Outline of the History of Capitalism in the Ukraine, vol. I, The Ukraine in Controversies of International Economics and Policy in the First Half of the Nineteenth Century), Kharkiv-Kiev, 1931; Moskovs'ka teoriya III Rymu v XVI‑XVII st. (Moscow's Theory of the Third Rome in the XVI and XVII Centuries), Munich, 1951; Ukrayins'ko‑moskovs'ka uhoda 1654 r. (Ukrainian-Muscovite Treaty of 1654), New York-Toronto, 1954, published in English under the title Treaty of Pereyaslav 1654, Toronto‑New York, 1954.

The following works on separate problems of economic history should be noted: "Rabochie na Topal'skoi manufakture v 1771 godu" (Labor in the Topal' Factory in 1771) in Arkhiv istorii truda v Rossii (Archive of the History of Labor in Russia), Nos. VI‑VII, Petrograd, 1923; "Arkhiv Kyyivo-Mezhyhir­s'koyi fabryky" (Archive of the Kiev-Mezhyhir'ya Plant) in Zapysky Istorychno-Filolohichnoho Viddilu VUAN, IX, Kiev, 1926; "Do istoriyi budny­ts'koyi promyslovosti Ukrayiny za chasiv Khmelnychchyny" (History of the Industry in Potassium in the Ukraine During the Khmelnytsky Period), ibid.X, Kiev, 1927; "Fabrychno-zavods'ki arkhivy Ukrayiny za kripa­ts'koyi doby" (Industrial-Plant Archives of the Ukraine During Serfdom) in Arkhivna Sprava (Archival Matters), VII, Kharkiv, 1928 and separately; "Arkhiv Bakhmuts'kykh i Tors'kykh solyanykh zavodiv XVIII st." (Archives of Bakhmut and Tor Salt Plants, XVIII Century), ibid., IX‑X, Kharkiv, 1929; "Bavovnyana  p323 promyslovist' na Ukrayini v XVIII‑XIX st." (The Cotton Industry in the Ukraine during the XVIII and XIX centuries) in Chervonyi Shlyakh (The Red Path), 1929, III, Kharkiv; "Arkhiv Shosten­s'koho porokhovoho zavodu" (Archive of the Shostensky Gunpowder Plant) in Arkhivna Sprava, XII, Kharkiv, 1930; "Do istoriyi portselyano-fayansovoyi promyslosty na Ukrayini" (History of the Porcelain-Faience Industry in Ukraine) in Narysy z sotsiyal'no-ekonomichnoyi istoriyi Ukrayiny (Outline of Social-Economic History of the Ukraine) as part of Pratsi Komisiyi Sotsiyal'no‑Ekonomichnoyi Istoriyi Ukrayiny (Works of the Social-Economic History Commission of the Ukraine), VUAN, vol. I, Kiev, 1932; "Do istoriyi metalurhiynoyi promyslovosty na Pravoberezhniy Ukrayini" (History of the Metallurgical Industry in the Right-Bank Ukraine) in Arkhiv Radyan­s'koyi Ukrayiny (Archive of the Soviet Ukraine), 1932, I‑II, Kharkiv; "K istorii metallurgii na Pravoberezhnoi Ukraine v pervoi polovine XIX st." (History of Metallurgy in the Right-Bank Ukraine in the First Half of the XIX Century) in Trudy Istori­cheskogo Fakul'teta Kievskogo Gosudarstvennovo Universiteta im. T. G. Shevchenka (Works of the Faculty of History of T. H. Shevchenko Kiev State University), vol. I, 1939 (1940); "Khmelnychchyna i zalizorudna promyslovist' Pravoberezhnoyi Ukrayiny" (The Khmelnytsky Period and the Iron‑ore Industry of the Right-Bank Ukraine) in ZNTSH, vol. CLVI, Munich, 1948; and others.

The following studies were on the subject of Ukrainian political history: "Sprava Darahanenka (1728‑1729 r. r.)" (The Darahanenko Case, 1728‑1729) in Zapysky Ist.‑Fil. Vid. VUAN, X, Kiev, 1927; "Do istoriyi Ruyiny" (On History of the Ruin), ibid.XVI, Kiev, 1928; "Do istoriyi ukrayin­s'koyi politychnoyi dumky na pochadku XVIII v." (On the History of Ukrainian Political Thought in the Early XVII Century), ibid.XIX, Kiev, 1928; "Borot'ba starshyns'kykh uhrupovan' na Het'man­shchyni v kintsi XVII st. i vystup Petryka" (Struggle among Officer Groups in the Hetman State at the End of the XVII Century and the Rise of Petryk) in Zapysky Istorychnoho ta Filolohichnoho Fakulteta  p324 L'viv­s'koho Derzhavnoho Universitetu im. Ivana Franka (Proceedings of the Faculties of History and Philology of the Ivan Franko Lviv State University), I, Lviv, 1940; Novi materiyaly do istoriyi povstannya Petra Ivanenka (Petryka) (New Material on the History of the Petro Ivanenko (Petryk) Rebellion), Augsburg, 1949; Khanenky (storinka z istoriyi ukrayin­s'koho avtonomizmu 18‑ho stolittya) (The Khanenkos, a Page from the History of Ukrainian Trends Toward Autonomy of the Eighteenth Century), Kiel, 1949; "Vasyl' Kapnist (1756‑1823)": in Literaturno-Naukovyi Zbirnyk UVAN u SShA (Literary-Scientific Symposium of the Ukrainian Academy of Arts and Sciences in the U. S.), v. I, New York, 1952, and in "Zbirnyk Ukrayin­s'koyi Literaturnoyi Hazety," 1956, Munich, 1957; and others.

O. Ohloblyn devoted the following studies to specific problems of Ukrainian historiography: "Do pytannya pro avtora Litopysu Samovydstya" (On the Question of the Author­ship of the Samovydets' Chronicle) in Zapysky Ist.‑Fil. Vid. VUAN, VII‑VIII, Kiev, 1926; "Annales de la Petite Russie by Scherer and Istoriya Rusov" in Naukovyi Zbirnyk Ukrayin­s'koho Vil'noho Universytetu v Myunkheni (Scientific Symposium of the Ukrainian Free University in Munich), vol. V, Munich, 1948; "Do pytannya pro avtora 'Istoriyi Rusov' " (On the Question of the Author­ship of 'Istoriya Rusov') in Ukrayina, No. 2, Paris, 1949; "Hryhory Pokas ta yoho 'Opisanie o Maloi Rossiyi' " (Hryhoriy Pokas and his 'Description of Little Russia') in Naukovyi Zbirnyk UVAN u SShA, I, New York, 1952; "The Ethical and Political Principles of 'Istoriya Russov' " in The Annals of the Ukrainian Academy of Arts and Sciences in the U. S., vol. II, No. 4 (6), New York, 1952; "Where was 'Istoriya Rusov' Written?" in The Annals . . ., vol. III, No. 2 (8), New York, 1953; and others.230

 p325  A Seminar in the History of the Ukrainian Economy (with an archival seminar) was active under the director­ship of O. Ohloblyn in Kiev in the twenties as a scientific center for research in the economic-social history of the Ukraine. Its attention was centered on the history of industry and industrial labor (especially in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries), on the history of the landlord economy and of the cities in the Right-Bank Ukraine during the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, and on the history of Ukrainian economics ideas. Working in the seminar were:

Kost' Antypovych on the history of cities. Published study: "Kyyivs'ka mis'ka pechatka" (The City Seal of Kiev) in Yuvileynyi zbirnyk VUAN na poshanu akad. Bahaliya, Kiev, 1927; and several articles.

Dmytro Bovanenko on the history of economic ideas. Published studies: on Mykola Ziber in Yuvileynyi Zbirnyk VUAN na poshanu akad. Bahaliya and in Naukovi Zapysky Kyyiv­s'koho Instytutu Narodnyoho Hospodarstva (Scientific Proceedings of the Kiev Institute of National Economics), IX, Kiev, 1928; and on Serhiy Podolynsky in Prapor Marksyzmu (The Banner of Marxism), No. 2 (3), Kharkiv, 1928; and several articles.231

Andriy Virnychenko on the institution of so‑called "free farmers" of Kiev Province in the first half of the nineteenth century (a study on this subject was published in Zapysky Ist.‑Fil. Viddilu VUAN, XXI‑XXII, Kiev, 1929).

Vasyl' Kaminsky on the history of the labor and the revolutionary movement; published the article "Do istoriyi reformy 1861 r. na Podilli" (On the History of the 1861 Reform in Podolia) in Studiyi z istoriyi Ukrayiny (Studies from the History of Ukraine), II, Kiev, 1929.

Ivan Kravchenko on the economic organization of the large land­owners' estates in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries,  p326 labor in sugar refineries and their organization in Smila, Kiev Province. Published study: "Yampil's'kyi mayetok naprykintsi XVIII ta v pershiy chverti XIX st." (The Yampil Estate at the End of the XVIII Century and in the First Quarter of the XIX Century) in Studiyi z istoriyi Ukrayiny (Studies from the History of the Ukraine), II, Kiev, 1929.232

Kindrat Kushnirchuk on the history of industry in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries.

Semen Pidhaynyi on the history of labor in the seventeenth and 18th centuries;233 and others.

A greater part of the seminar's works remained unpublished.

Natalya Polons'ka‑Vasylenko (Morhun, nee Menshova, born 1884 in Kharkiv), graduate of Kiev University, professor of Kiev University and later of the Ukrainian Free University in Prague and Munich, used her scholar­ly activities mainly for research in the history of Zaporozhe and the Southern Ukraine. She wrote a series of studies and articles, published mostly in VUAN publications. The most important among them are: "Z istoriyi ostannikh chasiv Zaporizhzhya" (the Last Days of Zaporozhe) in Zapysky Ist.‑Fil. Vid. VUAN, IX, Kiev, 1926; "Manifest 3 serpnya 1775 r. v svitli tohochasnykh idey" (Manifesto of August 3, 1995, in the Light of the Ideas of the Period), ibid., XII, 1927; "Istoryky Zaporizhzhya XVIII st." (Historians of Zaporozhe of the XVIII Century) in Yuvileynyi Zbirnyk VUAN na poshanu akad. Bahaliya, Kiev, 1927; "Pivdenna Ukrayina r. 1787" (The Southern Ukraine in 1787), Zapysky Ist.‑Fil. Vid. VUAN, XXIV, Kiev, 1929; "Mayno Zaporoz'koyi starshyny, yak dzerelo dlya sotsiyal'no-ekonomichnoyi istoriyi Ukrayiny"  p327 (Property of Zaporozhian Officers as a Source of Ukrainian Social-Economic History), Narysy z sotsiyal'no-ekonomichnoyi istoriyi Ukrayiny, I, Kiev, 1932; "Do istoriohrafiyi Zaporizhzhya XVIII st." (Historiography of Zaporozhe of the XVIII Cen) in Zapysky Istorychnoho ta Filolohichnoho Fakul'tetiv L'viv­s'koho Derzhavnoho Universitetu im. Ivana Franka (Proceedings of the Faculties of History and Philology of the Ivan Franko Lviv State University), vol. I, 1940; "Zaselenie Yuzhnoi Ukrainy v seredine XVIII st." (Settlement of Southern Ukraine in the Mid‑XVIII Century) in Istorik-Marksist (The Marxist-Historian), V, Moscow, 1941; "Do istoriyi povstannya na Zaporizhzhi 1768 roku" (On the History of the Insurrection in Zaporozhe in 1768) in Naukovyi Zbirnyk (Scientific Symposium), Ukrainian Academy of Arts and Sciences in the U. S., I, New York, 1952; and others. An extensive monograph by N. Polons'ka‑Vasylenko, The Settlement of the Southern Ukraine (1750‑1775), was published by Ukrainian Academy of Arts and Sciences in the U. S., as a special issue of the Annals of the Academy, Vol. IV‑V, Nos 14‑15, New York, 1955.

In addition, N. Polons'ka‑Vasylenko worked in the field of ancient Ukrainian history: "K voprosu o khristianstve na Rusi do Vladimira" (The Question of Christianity in Rus′ Before Volodymyr) in Zhurnal Ministerstva Narodnago Prosveshcheniya (Journal of the Ministry of Public Education), IX, 1917; Kyyiv chasiv Volodymyra ta Yaroslava (Kiev in the Times of Volodymyr and Yaroslav), Prague, 1944, and others; on the economic history of the Ukraine, especially "Materiyaly do istoriyi hirnychoyi promyslovosti Donbasu" (Material on the History of the Donets Basin Mining Industry) in Pratsi Komisiyi Sotsiyal'no‑Ekonomichnoyi Istoriyi Ukrayiny (Works of the Commission of Social-Economic History of Ukraine), I, Kiev, 1932; the following monographs as yet unpublished: "Istoriya Kyyivo-Mezhuhir­s'koyi Fayansovoyi Fabryky" (History of the Kiev-Mezhyhir'ya Faience Factory); "Robitnyststvo na Kyyivo-Mezhyhirs'kiy Fayansoviy Fabrytsi" (Workers at the Kiev-Mezhyhir'ya Faience Factory). N. Polons'ka‑Vasylenko also worked on the history of Ukrainian  p328 culture, notably: Kultur'no‑istoricheskii atlas po russkoi istorii (Cultural-Historical Atlas of Russian History), vol. I‑III, Kiev, 1913‑1914; on the development of social ideas in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, and on the history of the Ukrainian Church. She studied certain problems of Russian history, e.g.Ideya III Rymu v XVIII‑XIX st. (The Third Rome Idea in the XVIII‑XIX Centuries), Munich, 1952.

The work of some local researchers in the history of old industrial enterprises was closely related to the activities of the VUAN Commission of Social-Economic History of the Ukraine.

Vadym Fesenko, a historian-archivist, worked in Luhans'ke (Voroshylovhrad) studying the history of the old Luhans'ke Iron Foundry and its operations, on the basis of foundry files. He published several studies of the history of the City of Luhans'ke and its foundry, notably: "Arkhiv Luhan­s'koho lyvarnoho zavodu (1795‑1887)" (Files of the Luhans'ke Iron Foundry, 1795‑1887) in Zapysky Ist.‑Fil. Vid. VUAN, XXI‑XXII; Persha domna Luhan­s'koho lyvarnoho zavodu (The First Furnace of the Luhans'ke Iron Foundry), Luhans'ke, 1930; "Pochatok metalurhiynoyi promyslovosti na Ukrayini," (Beginnings of the Metallurgic Industry in the Ukraine) in Pratsi Komisiyi Sotsiyal'no-ekonomichnoyi istoriyi Ukrayiny, I, Kiev, 1932; and others.234

Several historians in Kiev collaborated with Academician Bahaliy's research center without formal member­ship in it, being close to it by virtue of their common interests.

Viktor Romanovsky (born 1890 in Hlukhiv County), a historian-archivist, graduate of the Kiev University and subsequently director of the Kiev Central Archive of Ancient Documents, studied the history of the Hetman State of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, and the history of printing in the Ukraine. His main interest was archeography and old documents. In addition to a work on the economic status of the serfs of Lubetsky County (Chernihiv Province) owned by monasteries and pursuant to the Rumyantsevsky Opys, which appeared before 1917, he published:  p329 "Ivan Fedorov i drukars'ka sprava na Volyni v XVI st." (Ivan Fedorov and Printing in Volynia in the XVI Century), as part of the series "350 rokiv Ukrayin­s'koho druku" (350 Years of Ukrainian Printing) in Bibliolohichni Visti (Bibliological News), No. 1‑3, Kiev, 1924; "Khto buv 'Samovydets' " (Who was "Samovydets' ") in Ukrayina, 5, Kiev, 1925; Ukrayins'ka Knyha XVI‑XVIII st. (Ukrainian Books of the XVI‑XVIII Centuries), Kiev, 1926; Narysy z arkhivoznavstva (Outlines from Archival Science), Kharkiv, 1927; "Do istoriyi byudzhetovoho prava Het'man­shchyny za K. Rozumov­s'koho" (History of Budget Laws of the Hetmanate During the Rule of K. Rozumovsky) in Yuvileynyi Zbirnyk VUAN na poshanu akad. Hrushev­s'kohoI, Kiev, 1928; "Dokumenty do istoriyi skarbu davn'oyi Het'man­shchyny — pro prybutky z orend v 1678 rotsi" (Documents on the History of the Treasury of the Old Hetmanate — Income from Leases in 1678) in Ukrayins'kyi Arkheohrafichnyi Zbirnyk (Ukrainian Archeographic Symposium), III, Kiev, 1930; "Viyna 1735‑1739 rokiv ta yiyi naslidky dlya Ukrayiny" (The War of the Years 1735‑1739 and its Consequences in the Ukraine) in Pratsi Komisiyi Sotsiyal'no‑Ekonomichnoyi istoriyi UkrayinyI, Kiev, 1932; and others. Romanovsky was the editor of "Perepysni knyhy 1666 roku" (Census Records for 1666) in Ukrayins'kyi Arkhiv (Ukrainian Archive), III, Kiev, 1931; and he prepared for publication an edition of the Magdeburg Decrees for the cities of the Left-Bank Ukraine in the sixteenth-eighteenth centuries (edited by Academician M. Vasylenko).235

Vasyl' Bazylevych (1889‑1942), graduate of Kiev University, published his first works prior to 1917. He studied the history of the city of Kiev and its monuments and the history of the Decembrist movement in the Ukraine. He published several studies and articles and the book Dekabrysty na Ukrayini (Decembrists in the Ukraine), Kiev, 1926.

Mykola Tyshchenko, graduate of Kiev University and historian- p330 archivist, was mainly interested in the economic history of the Ukraine of the eighteenth century. He published a series of documentary studies, particularly: "Hural'ne pravo ta pravo shynkuvaty horilkoyu na Livoberezhniy Ukrayini do kintsya XVIII st." (Distillery Laws and the Right to Dispense Liquor in the Left-Bank Ukraine up to the End of the XVIII century) in Pratsi Komisiyi dlya vyuchuvannya istoriyi zakhidno-rus'koho ta ukrayin­s'koho prava (Works of the Commission for the Study of the History of Western‑Rus′ and Ukrainian Law), vol. III, Kiev, 1927; Sukonna fabryka Kyyiv­s'koho Prikaza Obshchestvennoho Prizreniya" (The Woolen Mill of the Kiev Department of Social Welfare) in Istorychno-Heohrafichnyi Zbirnyk (Historical-geographic Symposium), I, Kiev, 1927; "Shovkivnytstvo v Kyyivi ta na Kyyiv­shchyni v XVIII ta pershyi poloviny XIX st." (The Silk Industry in Kiev and the Kiev Region in the XVIII and the First Half of the XIX Centuries), ibid.II, 1928; "Narysy istoriyi torhovli Livoberezhnoyi Ukrayiny z Krymom u XVIII st." (Outline of the History of Commerce Between the Left-Bank Ukraine and Crimea in the XVIII Century), ibid.; "Narysy istoriyi zovnishn'oyi torhovli Starodub­shchyny v XVIII st." (Outline of the History of Foreign Commerce of the Starodub Region in the XVIII Century) in Zapysky Ist.‑Fil. Viddilu VUAN, XXVI, Kiev, 1931.

The third historical center in Kiev in the nineteen-twenties and early thirties was the VUAN Chair of History of Ukrainian Law, headed by Academician M. P. Vasylenko, and, connected with it, the Commission for the Study of the History of Western‑Rus′ and Ukrainian Law. M. P. Vasylenko since 1920 has been also Chairman of the Nestor-Chronicler Historical Society (merged with VUAN in 1924),236 and in this connection his work, as well as that of his associates and students, was not confined to strictly legal problems, but ventured into other fields of historical research that acquired a quality of broad historiographic significance.

Mykola Vasylenko (1866‑1935) represented the older generation  p331 of Ukrainian historians,237 and in the nineteen-twenties he worked mainly in the field of the Cossack-Hetman State of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries and in the history of Ukrainian law. He published a series of studies and documentary materials, particularly: "Pavlo Polubotok" in UkrayinaVI, Kiev, 1925; "Pamyatnyk ukrayin­s'koyi pravnychoyi literatury XVII stolittya" (A Monument of Ukrainian Legal Literature of the XVII Century) in ZNTSH, vols. CXXXVIII‑CXL; "Terytoriya Ukrayiny XVII stolittya" (Ukrainian Territory in the XVII Century) in Yuvileynyi Zbirnyk VUAN na poshanu D. I. Bahaliya, Kiev, 1927; "Pravne polozhennya Chernihiv­shchyny za pol'­s'koyi doby" (Legal Position of Chernihiv Province During the Polish Period) in Chernihiv i Pivnichne Livoberezhzhya (Chernihiv and the Northern Left-Bank), Kiev, 1928; " 'Prava, po kotorym suditsya Malorossiiskii narod', yak dzherelo derzhavnoho prava Ukrayiny XVIII st." (Laws by which the Little-Russian People Are Tried as a Source of State Law of the XVIII Century Ukraine) in Yuvileynyi Zbirnyk VUAN na poshanu akad. Hrushev­s'kohoI, Kiev, 1928; "Konstitutsiya Filippa Orlika" (Constitution of Pylyp Orlyk) in Ucheniye Zapiski Instituta Istorii RANIION (Scholar­ly Proceedings of the RANIION Institute of History), vol. IV, Moscow, 1929; "Zbirka materiyaliv do istoriyi Livoberezhnoyi Ukrayiny ta ukrayin­s'koho prava XVII‑XVIII v. v." (Collection of Materials on the History of the Left-Bank Ukraine and of Ukrainian Law of the XVII and XVIII Centuries) in Ukrayins'kyi Arkheohrafichnyi Zbirnyk, I, Kiev, 1926; Materiyaly do istoriyi ukrayin­s'koho prava (Materials on the History of Ukrainian Law), vol. I, Kiev, 1928; and others.238

On the subject of nineteenth-century history Vasylenko published: "Kreminets'kyi Litsey i Universytet sv. Volodymyra" (Kremenets Lyceum and St. Volodymyr University) in Zapysky  p332 Sotsiyal'no‑Ekonomichnoho Viddilu VUAN (Proceedings of the Social-Economic Department of VUAN), vol. I, Kiev, 1923; "Yak skasovano Lytov­s'koho Statuta" (How the Lithuanian Statute was Repealed), ibid., vols. IIIII, 1924‑1925.

In addition, Vasylenko wrote biographical-historical sketches dedicated to I. Kamanin and to O. Levitsky, ibid., vol. I, 1923, and to O. Lazarevsky, Ukrayina, IV, 1927.

Academician Vasylenko centered his main attention, however, on the Commission of the History of Western‑Rus′ and Ukrainian Law, which was the chief center of Ukrainian legal history in the twenties, its influence reaching beyond the borders of the Ukrainian SSR. The Commission united older historians of law in addition to Vasylenko, Academician Onikiy Malynovsky (see supra), Academician M. Slabchenko, Professor Mykola Maksymenko (see supra), as well as younger disciples and associates of Vasylenko (L. Okinshevich, I. Cherkasky, S. Borysenok, V. Novytsky, I. Balinsky, S. Ivanytsky-Vasylenko, Valentin Otamanovsky, P. Sosenko, Vasyl' Hryshko and others). Working in the Commission were historians from Kiev (V. Romanovsky, see supra, M. Tyshchenko), as well as from outside Kiev (V. Barvinsky from Kharkiv, I. Krypyakevych from Lviv). The Commission published its Pratsi (Works) of which seven volumes came out in Kiev between 1925 and 1930.239

Lev Okinshevich (born 1898), studied under Academician Vasylenko, was subsequently professor of the Ukrainian Free University in Prague and Munich, and devoted his scientific activity mainly to the history of the government in the Cossack-Hetman Ukraine of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. His published monographs are: "Heneral'na starshyna na Livoberezhniy Ukrayini XVII‑XVIII vv." (High Officer Ranks in the Left-Bank Ukraine in the XVII and XVIII Centuries) in Pratsi Komisiyi dlya vyuchuvannya istoriyi zakhidno-rus'koho ta ukrayin­s'koho prava (Works of the Commission for Study of the History of Western‑Rus′ and Ukrainian Law) vol. II, Kiev,  p333 1926, and separately; "Heneral'na Rada na Ukrayini-Het'manshchyni XVII‑XVIII st." (General Assembly in the Hetman-Ukraine in the XVII and XVIII Centuries), ibid., vol. VI, Kiev, 1929, also in separate publications; "Tsentral'ni ustanovy Ukrayini-Het'manshchyni XVII‑XVIII st., Ch. II Rada Starshyny"240 (Central Institutions of the Hetman-Ukraine in the XVII and XVIII Centuries, Part II, Officer Council), ibid., vol. VIII, Kiev, 1930, and separately.241 In addition, Okinshevich's monograph, "Znachne viys'kove tovarystvo v Ukrayini-Het'manshchyni XVII‑XVIII st." (Nobility in the Hetman-Ukraine in the XVII and XVIII Centuries), was published after he went abroad as an emigre, in ZNTSH, vol. CLVII, Munich, 1948.

In Pratsi komisiyi dlya vyuchuvannya istoriyi zakhidno-rus'koho ta ukrayin­s'koho prava Okinshevich published a series of documentary materials dedicated to certain problems of constitutional law and government in the Cossack-Hetman Ukraine in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. His university lectures were published: Lektsii z istoriyi ukrayin­s'koho prava. Pravo derzhavne. Doba stanovoho suspil'stva (Lectures on the History of Ukrainian Law and Constitutional Law — A Period of Class Society), Munich, 1947; also a series of historiographic reviews and articles, among them the article "Nauka istoriyi ukrayin­s'koho prava. Pravo derzhavne" (The Science of the History of Ukrainian Law — Constitutional Law) in Ukrayina, I‑II, 1927; and others.

Among Okinshevich's publications on special problems of Ukrainian historiography, the following are noteworthy: "Diyariush Ivana Bykhovtsya" (The Diary of Ivan Bykhovets') in Studiyi z Krymu (Studies from the Crimea), VUAN, Kiev, 1930; "Do pytannya pro avtora Litopysu Samovydtsya" (On the Question of the Author­ship of the Samovydets' Chronicle), in Pratsi Komisiyi Sotsiyal'no-ekonomichnoyi istoriyi Ukrayiny  p334 (Works of the Commission of the Social-Economic History of Ukraine), VUAN, I, Kiev, 1932.

Okinshevich was, and still is, interested in the history of Byelorussia and of Byelorussian constitutional law. He collected and published parts of documentary materials on the repercussions of the Khmelnytsky period in Byelorussia in connection with the problem of the Byelorussian Cossacks in the mid‑seventeenth century: "Kazatstva na Belarusi" (Cossacks in Byelorussia) in Polymya (Flames), I, Minsk, 1927. He also published a scientific-bibliographical study: The Law of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania — Background and Bibliography, New York, 1953, mimeographed.

Irynarkh Cherkasky worked on the subject of "Kopni" (communal) courts in the Ukraine in the sixteenth through the eighteenth centuries, and on the judiciary of the K. Rozumovsky Hetmanate. He published a monograph "Hromads'kyi (Kopnyi) sud na Ukrayini-Rusi XVI‑XVIII st." (Community Kopni Court in Ukraine‑Rus′ in the XVI‑XVIII Centuries) in Pratsi Komisiyi dlya vyuchuvannya istoriyi zakhidno-rus'koho ta ukrayin­s'koho prava, vols. IV, V, Kiev, 1928, and separately; and several studies, particularly: "Slidy dominiyal'noho (pan­s'koho) sudu na Livoberezhniy Ukrayini naprykintsi XVII i pochatku XVIII v." (Traces of Manor Courts in the Left-Bank Ukraine in the Latter Part of the XVII and Early Part of the XVIII Centuries), ibid., III, 1926; "Sudovi reformy Het'mana K. Rozumov­s'koho" (Court Reform of Hetman K. Rozumovsky) in Yuvileynyi Zbirnyk VUAN na poshanu akad. Bahaliya, Kiev, 1927; and "Chy vplyvav H. Teplov na Het'mana Rozumov­s'koho" (Did H. Teplov Exert Any Influence on Hetman Rozumovsky?) in Yuvileynyi Zbirnyk VUAN na poshanu akad. Hrushev­s'koho, Kiev, 1928.

Stepan Borysenok worked on the history of the law of the Lithuanian‑Rus′ State, and particularly on the Lithuanian Statute. He wrote studies and articles: "Utvorennya profesiynoyi advokatury v Lytovs'ko‑Rus'kiy derzhavi" (Emergence of Professional Attorneys in the Lithuanian‑Rus′ State) in Pratsi Komisiyi dlya  p335 vyuchuvannya istoriyi zakhidno-rus'koho ta ukrayin­s'koho prava, vol. III, Kiev, 1926; "Natsyyanal'my kharaktar Litouskaha Statutu" (The National Character of the Lithuanian Statute) in Polymya (Flames), VI‑VII, Minsk, 1927; "Khvedar Eulasheuski, belaruski praktyk-yurysta XVI veku" (Khvedar Eulasheuski, Sixteenth-Century Byelorussian Lawyer), ibid., V, 1928; "Zvychayeve pravo Lytovs'ko‑Rus'koyi Derzhavy na pochatku XVI st." (Common Law of the Lithuanian‑Rus′ State in the Early XVI Century) in Pratsi Komisiyi dlya vyuchuvannya zvychaeyevoho prava Ukrayiny (Works of the Research Commission on Ukrainian Common Law), v. III, Kiev, 1927; "Metodolohichni pytannya v nautsi istoriyi Lytovs'ko-Rus'koho prava" ("Methodological Problems in the Study of the History of Lithuanian‑Rus′ Law) in Pratsi Komisiyi dlya vyuchuvannya istoriyi zakhidno-rus'koho ta ukrayin­s'koho prava, v. VI, Kiev, 1929; "Spysky Lytov­s'koho Statutu 1529 r." (Codifications of the Lithuanian Statute of 1529), ibid.; and others.

Viktor Novytsky worked on ancient Ukrainian history: "Davne Lukomor'ya" (Old Lukomor'ya) in Zapysky Ist.‑Fil. Vid. VUAN, XXIV, Kiev, 1929; and on historiography: "Derzhavne mynule Ukrayiny, yak predmet nauky" (Past Statehood of the Ukraine, As a Subject of Study) in Ukrayina, No. 36, 1929; "Istorichna pratsya Prof. O. Ye. Presnyakova i rozmezhuvannya velykoru­s'koyi ta ukrayin­s'koyi istoriohrafiyi" (The Historical Research of Professor O. Ye. Presnyakov and the Separation of Great-Russian and Ukrainian Historiography) in Ukrayina, No. 2 (40), 1930.

Ivan Balinsky (1879‑1927) worked on the history of feudalism in the Ukraine. He published the introductory part of an extensive work: "Narysy z istoriyi feodalizmu ta feodal'noho prava v Pol'shchi, Lytvi i na Ukrayini" (Outline of the History of Feudalism and Feudal Law in Poland, Lithuania and Ukraine) in Pratsi Komisiyi dlya vyuchuvannya istoriyi zakhidno-rus'koho ta ukrayin­s'koho prava, v. II, Kiev, 1926.

Serhiy Ivanytsky-Vasylenko did research in Magdeburg Law in the Lithuanian‑Rus′ State and wrote: "Zakony pro opiku nad  p336 nedolitkamy v dzherelakh Magdeburz'koho prava Zakhidnoyi Rusi i Ukrayiny" (Laws on the Custody of Minors in Sources of Magdeburg Law of Western Rus′ and the Ukraine), in Pratsi Komisiyi dlya vyuchuvannya istoriyi zakhidno-rus'koho ta ukrayin­s'koho prava, v. I, Kiev, 1925; and others. He worked on land tenure of the nobility in the Left-Bank Ukraine in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries: "Derzhavs'ke zemlevolodinnya pol'­s'koyi shlyakhty na Het'man­shchyni" (Lease on Land Tenure of the Polish Nobility in the Hetmanate), ibid., v. I, Kiev, 1925.

The fourth scientific center of historical research in Kiev in the nineteen-twenties was the Research Commission on the Ukrainian National Economy (a subsidiary of the Social-Economic Department of VUAN), headed by Academician Konstantyn Voblyi (1876‑1947). He was an economist-historian, a professor of political economics in Kiev University who worked in the twenties on the history of the sugar industry in the Ukraine (and Russia). He published an extensive monograph, Narysy z istoriyi rosiys'ko‑ukrayins'koyi tsukro-buryakovoyi promyslovosti (Outline of the History of the Russian-Ukrainian Sugar-beet Industry), vols. I, (in two parts),242 II and III, Kiev, 1928‑1930.243 Voblyi headed scientific research in the area of history of the Ukrainian national economy (mainly of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries), which was conducted in two institutions of the Social-Economic Department the Commission on the Ukrainian National Economy, composed of older scholars, and a Seminar for Research in Ukrainian National Economy in which Academician Voblyi's students were active. Both institutions published their Pratsi (Works).

Members of the Commission:

Andriy Yaroshevych, economist, professor at the Kiev Institute of National Economy, published a monograph: "Kapitalistychna Orenda na Ukrayini za pol'­s'koyi doby" (Capitalist Leasehold in  p337 the Ukraine During the Polish Period) in Zapysky Sotsiyal'no‑Ekonomichnoho Viddilu VUAN (Proceedings of the Social-Economic Department of VUAN), V‑VI, Kiev, 1927; and he prepared a monograph for publication: "Istoriya potashovoyi promyslovosty Ukrayiny" (History of the Potassium Industry of the Ukraine) which was not published.

Yevhen Stashevsky, historian-economist, former professor at Kiev University and Kamyanets-Podilsk University, did research in agriculture and agricultural markets of the Ukraine (mainly Right-Bank) during the first half of the nineteenth century. His study was: "Sil's'ko-hospodars'kyi rynok Pravoberezhnoyi Ukrayiny za peredreformenoyi doby" (Agricultural Market of the Right-Bank Ukraine Before the Reform) in Pratsi Komisiyi dlya vyuchuvannya narodnyoho hospodarstva Ukrayiny (Works of the Research Commission on the Ukrainian National Economy), v. 2, Kiev, 1929.

Petro Fomin, a Kharkiv economist, had close contacts with the Commission on the Ukrainian National Economy and with Academician Voblyi's Kiev Economic-Historical Center. In the twenties Fomin published vol. II of his monograph, Gornaya i gornozavodskaya promyshlennost' Yuga Rossii (The Mining and Metallurgical Industry of Southern Russia), the first volume of which was published in Kharkiv in 1915.

Also in close contact with Academician Voblyi's center was the Russian economist and historian Konstantin Pazhitnov who worked in Kiev in the twenties. In that period he published Ocherki po istorii rabochego klassa na Ukraine (Outline of the History of the Ukrainian Working Class), Kharkiv, 1927.

Among the student members of Academician Voblyi's seminar, problems of the history of the Ukrainian economy were studied mainly by O. Plevako and S. Pidhayets'.

Oleksander Plevako did research in the history of the Ukrainian sugar industry of the first half of the nineteenth century and published the following studies: "Do materiyaliv z istoriyi tsukro-buryakovoyi promyslovosty Ukrayiny" (Material from the History of the Sugar-beet Industry of the Ukraine) in Ukrayina,  p338 V, 1925; "Z materiyaliv do istoriyi tsukrovoyi promyslovosty na Ukrayini" (From Materials on the History of the Sugar Industry in the Ukraine) in Yuvileynyi Zbirnyk VUAN na poshanu akad. D. I. Bahaliya, Kiev, 1927; and one on the sugar industry of Ukraine according to data for 1848 and 1849, in Pratsi Seminaru dlya vyuchuvannya narodnyoho hospodarstva Ukrayiny (Works of the Research Seminar on the Ukrainian National Economy), v. II, Kiev, 1927.

Solomon Pidhayets' worked on the history of the Ukrainian grain trade in the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries. He wrote a monograph: "Khlibnyi vyviz z chornomors'ko‑ozivs'kykh portiv do 60‑kh rokiv XIX veku" (Grain Exports from Black Sea and Azov Sea Ports up to the Sixties of the XIX Century) in Works of the Research Seminar (see supra), v. III, Kiev, 1929, and separately.

Enumeration of the above scholar­ly centers does not by any means exhaust the scientific work in the field of Ukrainian history in the nineteen-twenties in Kiev. Certain problems of Ukrainian history were also studied by the VUAN Commission of Social Trends (Chairman — Academician Serhiy Yefremov) which did research in the history of Ukrainian national thought and movements, mainly during the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. The following institutions also worked in the field of Ukrainian history: the All‑Ukrainian Archeologic Committee (VUAK) connected with VUAN, the Chair of Ukrainian History of Kiev University (at that time the Institute of Public Education), Archives (the Central Archive of Ancient Documents and the V. B. Antonovych Central Historical Archive), the All‑Ukrainian Historical Museum in Kiev, the Lavra Museum, State Historical-Cultural Monuments, etc. Most of the publications issued by these institutions also contained historical studies (chiefly on the history of culture). Historians who collaborated with these institutions also published their works in various publications of VUAN's Historical-Philological Department.

Another scientific-historical center of general Ukrainian importance in the twenties and early thirties was Kharkiv. Research  p339 in Ukrainian history was primarily conducted in the Scientific-Research Chair of the History of Ukrainian Culture (Chairman — Academician Bahaliy) which was subsequently transformed into the Scientific Research Institute on the History of Ukrainian Culture. Other important centers of research work in Kharkiv were: the Central Historical Archive (subsequently the Kharkiv Central Archive of Ancient Documents), the Regional Archive, the museum of Slobidska Ukraine, the Historical Section of the Kharkiv Scientific Society, the Chair of Ukrainian History of Kharkiv University (in the twenties — the Institute of Public Education). Finally, problems of Ukrainian history, especially of modern history of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, were also studied by the Historical Section of the Institute of Marxism-Leninism.

The Bahaliy Scientific Research Institute had among its members not only a majority of Kharkiv historians, students and associates of Academician Bahaliy, but also many historians from Kiev (O. Ohloblyn, N. Polons'ka‑Vasylenko, V. Romanovsky), from Odessa (M. Slabchenko), from Poltava (M. Hnip), from Nizhen (M. Petrovsky, A. Yershov) and from other Ukrainian cities.244 The Institute's associates worked on subjects of general Ukrainian national interest, as well as on problems of the history of Slobidska Ukraine. The Institute (earlier the Chair) published its Zbirnyk (Collection), subsequently Naukovyi Zapysky (Scientific Proceedings), of which ten volumes were published. In addition, works of the Institute's associates came out in publications of VUAN, of the Central Archive, and of local (outside Kharkiv) scientific-academic institutions and societies.

Dmytro Bahaliy (1857‑1932) carried on research work in the field of Ukrainian history, history of Ukrainian culture and historiography for many years (see supra). During this period of the twenties, Bahaliy was mainly interested in general, synthetic problems of Ukrainian history, as though he were summing up  p340 his prior scientific activities. He paid particular attention to social-economic processes. His major work of that period, Narys istoriyi Ukrayiny na sotsiyal'no-ekonomichnomu grunti (Outline of Ukrainian History Against the Social-Economic Background), v. I, Kharkiv, 1928,245 is particularly endowed with those characteristics.

Other noteworthy works of D. I. Bahaliy of this period are: Narys ukrayins'koyi istoriohrafiyi (Outline of Ukrainian Historiography), I‑II, Kiev, 1923‑1925; Dekabrysty na Ukrayini (Decembrists in the Ukraine), Kharkiv, 1926; Ukrayins'kyi mandrovanyi filosof H. S. Skovoroda (The Ukrainian Wandering Philosopher H. S. Skovoroda), Kharkiv, 1926; Materiyaly dlya biohrafiyi V. B. Antonovycha (Materials for a Biography of V. B. Antonovych), Kiev, 1929; and others.

In 1927 VUAN celebrated the seventieth birthday and fifty years of scholar­ly activity of D. I. Bahaliy.246 In connection with this jubilee, the Government of the Ukrainian SSR approved publication of a collection of his main works at government expense. In the course of the following years, Bahaliy prepared four volumes of this collection for publication. They were: Istoriya Slobid­s'koyi Ukrayiny (History of the Slobidska Ukraine) much enlarged and supplemented by the author and his associates, particularly by Professor V. Barvinsky and M. Horban', in the first 1918 edition of this work: Istoriya Poludevoyi Ukrayiny (History of the Southern Ukraine). This was a new edition of Bahaliy's Zaselennya Pivdennoyi Ukrayiny (Settlement of the Southern Ukraine) of 1920 (Kharkiv), with extensive additions by Prof. N. Polons'ka‑Vasylenko; Istoriya Ukrayiny (History of the Ukraine), vol. I, (a reworked and supplemented edition of Bahaliy's Narys istoriyi Ukrayiny na sotsiyal'no-ekonomichnomu  p341 grunti (Outline of the History of the Ukraine Against the Social-Economic Background), without the historiographic part; and Ukrayins'ka istoriohrafiya XIX‑XX st. (Ukrainian Historiography of the XIX and XX Centuries), a much extended historiographic part of Outline of the History of the Ukraine Against the Social-Economic Background. These works were to be published by VUAN in 1931 and 1932 but the project never materialized.

Academician Bahaliy's students and associates active in Kharkiv were:

Viktor Barvinsky (see supra), professor of Kharkiv University, who studied the history of Left-Bank Ukrainian industry and the government finances of the Hetmanate, published the studies: "Zamitky do istoriyi manufaktury v Livoberezhniy Ukrayini XVIII st." (Notes on the History of Manufacturing in the Left-Bank Ukraine of the XVIII Century) in Naukovyi Zbirnyk Kharkiv­s'koyi Naukovo-Doslidchoyi Katedry Istoriyi Ukrayins'koy kulturyi (Scientific Symposium of the Kharkiv Scientific-Research Chair of the History of Ukrainian Culture), II‑III, Kharkiv, 1926; "Do pytannya pro induktu ta evektu v Het'man­shchyni" (The Problem of Import and Export Duties in the Hetmanate), ibid.VI, Kharkiv, 1927; and others.

Natalya Mirza-Avak'yants (nee Dvoryanska), professor at Kharkiv Institute of Public Education and subsequently (in the thirties) of Kiev University, worked on the history of the judiciary in the Hetmanate of the second half of the seventeenth century, and on twentieth-century peasant movements in the Ukraine. She published a monograph: Selyans'ki rozrukhy na Ukrayini 1905‑1907 r.r. (Peasant Riots in the Ukraine in the years 1905‑1907), Kharkiv, 1925; and a series of studies and articles, particularly: "Z pobutu ukrayins'koyi starshyny kintsya XVII viku" (Customs of Ukrainian Officers in the Late XVII Century) in Zapysky Ukrayin­s'koho Naukovoho Tovarystva Dosliduvannya i Okhorony Pamyatok Starovny ta Mystetstva na Poltav­shchyni (Proceedings of the Ukrainian Scientific Society for Research and Conservation of Monuments of Antiquity and Art in Poltava  p342 Province), v. I, Poltava, 1919;247 "Selyans'ki rukhy 1902 r. na Poltav­shchyni" (Peasant Movements of 1902 in Poltava Province) in Chervonyi Shlyakh (The Red Path), Kharkiv, 1924, VII‑X; "Narysy z istoriyi sudu na Livoberezhzhi druhoyi polovyny XVII st." (Outline of the History of Left-Bank Courts of the Second Half of the XVII Century) in Naukovyi Zbirnyk Kharkiv­s'koyi Naukovo-Doslidchoyi Katedry, II‑III, Kharkiv, 1926; and others.248 She also wrote the popular-scientific outline Istoriya Ukrayiny v zv'yazku z istoriyeyu Zakhidnoyi Evropy (History of the Ukraine in Relation to the History of Western Europe), Kiev, 1928.

The following younger students of D. I. Bahaliy did not begin their scientific activities until the twenties.

Mykola Horban' worked mainly on the social-political history of the Ukraine (Left-Bank, Right-Bank and Slobidska) of the eighteenth century and on Ukrainian historiography of the eighteenth century. He published a series of studies, notably: Narysy z ukrayins'koyi istoriohrafiyi (Outline of Ukrainian Historiography), No. 1; Novyi Spisok litopysu "Kratkoe opisanie Malorossii" (New Text of the Chronicle: Brief Description of Little Russia), Kharkiv 1923; "Kilka uvah do pytannya pro avtora Istoriyi Rusov" (Some Notes on the Question of the Author­ship of Istoriya Rusov) in Chervonyi Shlyakh (Red Path), VI‑VII, 1923; " 'Zapiski o Maloi Rossii,' O. Shafon­s'koho" ("Notes on Little Russia" by O. Shafonsky) in Naukovyi Zbirnyk Istorychnoyi Sektsiyi VUAN za rik 1926 (Scientific Symposium of the Historical Section of VUAN for the Year 1926), Kiev, 1926; "Haydamachchyna 1750 r." (The Haydamak Movement of 1750) in Naukovyi Zbirnyk Kharkiv­s'koyi Naukovo-Doslidchoyi Katedry Istoriyi Ukrayin­s'koyi Kul'tury (Scientific Symposium of the Scientific-Research Chair of the History of Ukrainian Culture), II‑III, Kharkiv, 1926; "Lyst Petra Myrovycha do bat'ka‑mazepyntsya"  p343 (Letter of Petro Myrovych to his Father, Follower of Mazepa) in Ukrayina, V, 1927; "Hlukhivs'ki sutychky 1750 roku" (The Hlukhiv Skirmishes of 1750) in Ukrayina, III, 1928; and others.

Horban' also wrote a monograph on the repercussions of the Haydamak movement in the Hetmanate and the Slobidska Ukraine, but they were not published. His other major work, about the first Little Russian Collegium (1722‑1727), was not finished and only a small part of documentary material collected by him was utilized by the author in other publications of his.249

Ol'ha Bahaliy-Tatarinova (1888‑1942), daughter of D. O. Bahaliy, was engaged in research on the history of military settlements and the Decembrist movement in Ukraine. She published several studies on these subjects which came out in Naukovi Zapysky Kharkivs'kyoi Katedry (Scientific Proceedings of the Kharkiv Chair) in the Symposium "Dekabristy na Ukrayini" (Decembrists in Ukraine), III, Kiev, 1926, 1930, in Arkhivna Sprava (Archive Affairs) and in other publications.

Antin Kozachenko worked on the economy of large estates in the Left-Bank Ukraine in the first half of the nineteenth century, e.g., the Princes Repnin's estate, based on material from the Yahotyn estate archive; and he published several studies.250

Dmytro Solovey, historian and statistician, worked on the history of commerce in Slobidska Province in the nineteenth century. He also wrote a study: "Zahal'nyi istorychnyi ohlyad vivcharstva Poltav­shchyny" (a General Historical Outline of Sheep-breeding in Poltava Province) in "Naukovyi Zapysky Naukovo-Doslidchoyi Katedry Istoriyi Ukrayin­s'koyi Kul'tury (Scientific Proceedings of the Scientific-Research Chair of the History of Ukrainian Culture), VI, Kharkiv, 1927.251

 p344  Oleksa Nazarets' studied the history of labor and of the labor movement in the Left-Bank Ukraine during the nineteenth century. He published a study: "Iz pervopochyniv robitnychoho rukhu na Ukrayini (Livoberezhzhya)" (About the First Steps of the Labor Movement in the Ukraine, Left-Bank) in Chervonyi Shlyakh, 1929, XII.

Vasyl' Dubrovsky (born in Chernihiv in 1897), graduate of Nizhen Historical-Philological Institute and associate scholar of the Bahaliy Institute, worked mainly on the history of the Left-Bank Ukraine of the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries (history of the peasants and peasant movements, history of industry and commerce, etc.), as well as on the history of Ukrainian-Crimean and Ukrainian-Turkish relations in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. He published the following studies: Selyans'ki rukhi na Ukrayini pislya 1861 r. Chernihivs'ka hub. (1861‑1866) (Peasant Movements in the Ukraine after 1861, Chernihiv Province, 1861‑1866), v. I, Kharkiv, 1928; Persha fabryka na Ukrayini (The First Factory in the Ukraine), Kharkiv, 1930; "Selyans'ki vtechi na Livoberezhniy Ukrayini naprykintsi XVIII st. (1782‑1791)" (Escape of Peasants in the Left-Bank Ukraine at the Close of the XVIII Century, 1782‑1791) in Chernihiv i Pivnichne Livoberezhzhya (Chernihiv and the Northern Left-Bank), Kiev, 1928; "Pro Hilyans'kyi pokhid 1725 r." (On the Hilyansky March of 1725) in Yuvileynyi Zbirnyk VUAN na poshanu akad. Hrushev­s'koho, vol. I, Kiev, 1928; "Do pytannya pro mizhnarodnyu torhivlyu Ukrayiny v pershiy polovyni XVIII st." (On the Problem of International Trade with the Ukraine in the First Half of the XVIII Century) in Zapysky Ist.‑Fil. Vid. VUAN, XXXVII, Kiev, 1931; Ukrayina i Krym v istorychnykh vzayemynakh (Historical Relations Between the Ukraine and the Crimea), Geneva, 1946; and others. V. Dubrovsky did not finish his extensive work on the history of D. Apostol's Hetmanate due to his arrest and deportation in 1933.252

The Kharkiv historical center ceased its activities on orders of Soviet authorities in the early thirties. The Bahaliy Institute  p345 was liquidated and many of its members were either deported or deprived of opportunities to continue scientific research. Historical studies were resumed in Kharkiv only in the late thirties (by I. Boyko and S. Korolivsky, graduates of the Bahaliy Institute), but on a much narrower scale and, what is most significant, under circumstances quite unfavorable to Ukrainian historiography and to free historical research in general.

Another, and quite separate historical center in Kharkiv in the twenties and early thirties, was the Historical Section of the Institute of Marxism-Leninism, in the thirties called "Vseukrayins'ka Asotsiyatsiya Markso-Lenins'kykh instytutiv" (The All‑Ukrainian Association of Institutes of Marxism-Leninism), abbreviated to VUAMLIN. Heading the Section, and for a certain time also the entire Institute, was M. Yavorsky. The Section was connected with the Ukrainian Society of Historian-Marxists (established in 1928). The Institute of Marxism-Leninism was the central ideological institution of the Communist Party in the Ukraine, and hence it was particularly favored by the Soviet authorities. The Institute's official publication was Prapor Marksyzmu (The Banner of Marxism) and that of the Historian-Marxists society Istoryk‑bil'shovyk (The Historian-Bolshevik), of which only one issue came out — No. I, in 1934. In addition, works of the Institute's associates were published in the official journal of the Central Committee of the Communist Party (bolshevik) of the Ukraine: Letopis' Revolyutsii (Chronicle of the Revolution), 1922‑1927, (changed to the Ukrainian Litopys Revolyutsiyi between 1928 and 1933); and in other party publications.

Matviy Yavorsky (born in Galicia in 1885), lawyer, graduate of Lviv and Vienna Universities, subsequently (1929‑1930) full member of VUAN, was in the twenties the official leader of Communist historiography in the Ukraine. In addition to numerous popular outlines of Ukrainian history and of the history of revolutionary movements in the Ukraine, completely worthless from the scholar­ly viewpoint — such as Istoriya revolyutsionnogo dvizheniya na Ukraine (History of the Revolutionary  p346 Movement in the Ukraine), Kharkiv, 1922; Revolyutsiya na Ukrayini v yiyi holovnishykh etapakh (The Main Stages of the Revolution in the Ukraine), Kharkiv, 1923;253 Korotka istoriya Ukrayiny (A Short History of the Ukraine), Kharkiv, 1923; Ukrayina v epokhu kapitalizmu (The Ukraine in the Era of Capitalism), I‑III, Kharkiv-Poltava, 1924‑1925; Istoriya Ukrayiny v styslomu narysi (History of the Ukraine in Brief Outline), Kharkiv, 1928, etc.; and other publications, chiefly of a critical and polemic nature — Yavorsky also wrote several scientific works on the revolutionary movement in the Ukraine in the nineteenth century, particularly the monograph Narysy z istoriyi revolyutsiynoyi borot'by na Ukrayini (Outline of the History of the Revolutionary Struggle in the Ukraine), vol. I, Kharkiv, 1927 and vol. II, Part I, Kharkiv, 1928; and a study, "Ems'kyi akt 1876 r." (The Ems Act of 1876) in Prapor Marksyzmu (The Banner of Marxism), 1927, I.254

Yavorsky's students and associates were:

Zynoviy Hurevych, worked on the history of the Brotherhood of Sts. Cyril and Methodius in the 1845‑1847 period: the monograph, Moloda Ukrayina (Young Ukraine), Kharkiv, 1928.

Mykhaylo Svidzinsky worked on Ukrainian history of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. Studies and articles: "Do istoriyi kozachchyny 1812 roku" (On Cossack History of 1812) in Naukovyi Zbirnyk naukovo-doslidchoyi katedry istoriyi ukrayins'koyi kul'tury (Scientific Symposium of the Scientific‑Research Chair of the History of Ukrainian Culture), V, Kharkiv, 1927; "Zems'ka militsiya na Ukrayini 1806‑1808 rokiv" (Land Militia in the Ukraine in the Years 1806‑1808) in Prapor Marksyzmu, I, 1927, and II, 1928; "Selyans'ki spilky na Ukrayini v revolyutsiyi 1905 roku" (Peasant Unions in the Ukraine during the 1905 Revolution) in Litopys Revolyutsiyi, VI, 1928; and others.

 p347  Trokhym Skubytsky worked on the history of labor and the labor movement in the Ukraine.

The Historical Section of the Institute of Marxism-Leninism also had close ties with Communist historians who worked in the Central Bureau of Archives of the Ukrainian SSR,255 particularly with:

Mykhaylo Rubach, who was mainly interested in Ukrainian history of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, wrote studies and articles: "Ot narodnichestva i narodovol'chestva k marksizmu v Khar'kove" (From Populism and the "Narodnaya Volya" Movement to Marxism in Kharkiv) in Letopis' Revolyutsiyi, I, 1924; "K istorii grazhdanskoi voiny na Ukraine" (On the History of the Civil War in the Ukraine), ibid., III‑IV, 1924; "K istorii konflikta mezhdu Sovnarkomom i Tsentral'noi Radoi" (On the History of the Conflict between Sovnarkom and Central Rada), ibid., IVI, 1926; "Agrarnaya revolyutsiya na Ukraine v 1917 godu" (Agrarian Revolution in the Ukraine in 1917), ibid., V‑VI, 1927 and I, 1928; "Federalisticheskie teorii v istorii Rossii" (Federalist Theories in Russian History), about M. Kostomarov, in Russkaya istori­cheskaya literatura v klassovom osveshchenii (Russian Historical Literature in Class Aspect), vol. II, Moscow, 1930; "Iz istorii krest'yanskikh vosstanii nakanune oktyabrya 1917 goda" (From the History of the Peasant Uprising on the Eve of October, 1917) in Istorik-Marksist, 1934, III; and others.

Mykola Ryedin worked on the history of the 1917‑1918 revolution: Do istoriyi vseukrayin­s'koho zaliznychnoho strayku 1918 r." (On the History of the All‑Ukrainian Railroad Strike of 1918) in Litopys Revolyutsiyi, V, 1928; and others.

Ruvim Shpunt worked on the history of the 1905‑1907 revolution. He wrote the study: "Do metodolohiyi vyvchennya selyans'kykh  p348 rukhiv v revolyutsiyi 1905‑1907 rokiv" (On Methodology of Study of Peasant Movements in the 1905‑1907 Revolution) in Prapor Marksyzmu, III‑IV, 1928; and others.

With few exceptions, such as publication of archival material, a majority of these works was not on the level of scholar­ly research.

The Odessa historical center, headed by M. Slabchenko, embarked upon wide activities in the twenties.

Mykhaylo Slabchenko (born in 1882 in Odessa), graduate of Odessa ("Novorosiysky") University and of the St. Petersburg Military-Juridical Academy, professor at Odessa University (subsequently Institute of Public Education) occupying the Chair of Ukrainian History (1919‑1929), full member of the Ukrainian Academy of Sciences (since 1929), began his scholar­ly career prior to 1917 (see supra). His first major works — Malorusskii polk v administrativnom otnoshenii (The Little Russian Regiment in Its Administrative Aspect), Odessa, 1909; and Opyty po istorii prava Malorossii XVII‑XVIII st." (Study of the Legal History of Little Russia of the XVII and XVIII Centuries), Odessa, 1911 — indicated the author's special interest in problems of Ukrainian legal history of the Cossack-Hetman State period. Slabchenko's subsequent studies and works pursued the same direction: Protokol otpusknykh pisem za getmana Apostola 1728 goda (Record of Grants of Release by Hetman Apostol of 1728), Odessa, 1913; Tsentral'nyya uchrezhdeniya Ukrayiny XVII‑XVIII st. (Central Institutions of the Ukraine in the XVII and XVIII Centuries), Odessa, 1918; Pro sudivnytstvo na Ukrayini (On the judiciary in the Ukraine), Kharkiv, 1920; and others. Slabchenko paid particular attention to problems of a historical-legal nature in all subsequent works.

In the early twenties, Slabchenko devoted his interest to history of Ukrainian economics. The object of his research was to provide an outline of Ukrainian economic history from the Khmelnytsky period to World War I. These first two volumes of Slabchenko's Organizatsiya khozyaistva Ukrayiny ot Khmelnichchiny do mirovoi voiny (Organization of the Ukrainian  p349 Economy from Khmelnytsky to the World War) appeared in Odessa in 1922 (in Russian). The works Khozyaistvo Getmanshchiny v XVII‑XVIII stolet'yakh (Economy of the Hetmanate in the XVII and XVIII Centuries) — vol. I, Zemlevladenie i formy sel'kogo khozyaistva (Land Tenure and Forms of Peasant Economics)256 and vol. II, Sud'by fabriki i promyshlennosti (Fate of Factories and Industry) — were devoted to agriculture and forms of land tenure and industry in the Ukraine during the Hetmanate of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. The third volume of this work appeared in Odessa in 1923, as Ocherki torgovli i torgovogo kapitalizma (Outline of Commerce and Commercial Capitalism) in the Hetmanate, and the fourth volume (in Ukrainian) appeared in Odessa in 1925, devoted to "State Economy" in the Hetmanate. These four volumes contain a history of the national and state economy of the Ukraine in the Hetmanate of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries.

Slabchenko devoted his subsequent research to the social-economic history of Zaporozhe. His "Sotsiyal'no‑pravova orhanizatsiya Sichi Zaporoz'koyi" (Social-legal Organization of the Zaporozhian Host) in Pratsi Komisiyi dlya vyuchuvannya istoriyi zakhidno-rus'koho ta ukrayin­s'koho prava, VUAN, III, Kiev, 1927, and separately; and "Palankova orhanizatsiya Zaporoz'kykh Vol'nostiv" (Organization of the Fortified Zaporozhian Free Settlements), ibid.VI, Kiev, 1929, and separately, represent detailed research, based on archival sources (the author utilized the archives of the Zaporozhian Host) of the social-economic history of Zaporozhe in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries — the first such works in Ukrainian historiography.

Slabchenko's special studies of the history of Ukrainian law and economics were closely related in the twenties to his extensive research in Ukrainian history, both modern — the main work was Materiyaly do ekonomichno-sotsiyal'noyi istoriyi Ukrayiny XIX st. (Material on the Economic and Social History of the  p350 Ukraine in the XIX Century), vols. I, and II, Odessa, 1925 and 1927 — and earlier times, e.g.Feodalism na Ukrayini (Feudalism in the Ukraine), Odessa, 1929, mimeographed. His Materiyaly, in particular, was the first scientific attempt at an outline of nineteenth-century Ukrainian history and one of the first attempts to create a scheme of the Ukrainian historical process of the nineteenth century.257

Among Slabchenko's numerous works published in the twenties, the following should be noted: "Eskizy z istoriyi 'Prav, po kotorym suditsya Malorossiiskii narod' " (Sketches from the History of "Laws by Which the Little-Russian People are Tried") in Yuvileynyi Zbirnyk VUAN na poshanu akad. D. Bahaliya, Kiev, 1928; Borot'ba za systemy zemlevolodinnya i formy hospodarstva v Ukrayini XIX‑XX stolittya (Struggle for the Systems of Land Tenure and Forms of Economy in XIX and XX Centuries in the Ukraine), Odessa, 1927; and others.258

M. Slabchenko was the founder and director of the new Odessa Ukrainian historical center which followed Kiev and Kharkiv in order of importance in the twenties. In addition to his University Chair and Seminar, Slabchenko headed the Odessa Scientific Research Chair of Ukrainian History and developed the extensive work program of the Social-Historical Section of the Odessa Scientific Society, which published three issues of its Zapysky (Proceedings), Odessa, 1927‑1928.259 The following of Slabchenko's students achieved prominence through their scientific works:

Oleksander Varneke, author of several studies of the history of Ukrainian economics and economic ideas of the nineteenth  p351 century, particularly: "Zaliznychne budivnytstvo na Ukrayini v 1860‑kh rokach" (Railroad Construction in the Ukraine in the Eighteen-Sixties) in Zapysky Ode­s'koho Naukovoho Tovarystva pry VUAN. Sektsiya Sotsiyal'no‑istorychna (Proceedings of the Odessa Scientific Society, VUAN Branch, Social-Historical Section), No. 1, Odessa, 1927.

I. M. Brover, author of the two‑volume work Ukrayina na perelomi do promyshlovoho kapitalismu (The Ukraine at the Turning Point on the Road to Industrial Capitalism), Odessa, 1931.

Taras Slabchenko, son of M. Slabchenko, author of several studies of the economic and cultural history of the Ukraine in the nineteenth century, particularly, "Do istoriyi agrarnykh kryz na Ukrayini v XIX st." (On the History of Agrarian Crises in the Ukraine of the XIX Century) in Zapysky Ode­s'koho Naukovoho Tovarystva pry VUAN. Sektsiya Sotsiyal'no-istorychna, No. II, Odessa, 1928.

Oleksander Pohrebynsky, monograph: Stolypins'ka reforma na Ukrayini (The Stolypin Reform in the Ukraine); the study: "Agrarna sprava na Ukrayini v svitli II Derzhavnoyi Dumy" (The Agrarian Problem in the Ukraine in the Light of the Second Duma) in Zapysky Ode­s'koho Naukovoho Tovarystva pry VUAN. Sektsya Sotsiyal'no‑istorychna,260 No. II, Odessa, 1928; and others.

Semen Kovbasyuk, who worked on the history of military settlements in Southern Ukraine and on twentieth-century Ukrainian history.261

 p352  M. Slabchenko's arrest late in 1929 (in connection with the trial of members of SVU (The Union for Liberation of the Ukraine)) and his exile interrupted his scientific-academic activities and destroyed the Odessa historical center which he had created. Historical research work in Odessa ceased for a long time — a great loss to Ukrainian historiography in general.

The following also worked on Ukrainian history in Odessa in the twenties:

Yevhen Zahorovsky, professor at Odessa University (I. N. O.), whose research was in the history of the Southern Ukraine of the second half of the eighteenth century.262

Oleksander Ryabinin-Sklyarevsky, historian-archivist, author of the study "Kyyivs'ka Hromada 70‑kh rokiv" (The Kiev Hromada of the Seventies) in Ukrayina, I‑II, 1927; "Z zhyttya Zadunays'koy Sichi" (From the Life of the Trans-Danubian Sich), ibid.IX, 1929; and others.

Fedir Petrun' who worked on the historical geography of the Southern Ukraine during the Lithuanian period.

Saul Borovoy, author of the study: "Evrei v Zaporozhskoi Sechi" (Jews in the Zaporozhian Sich) in Istori­cheskii Sbornik, Trudy Istori­cheskoi Komissii Akademii Nauk SSSR (Historical Symposium, Works of the Historical Commission of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR), I, 1934; and others.

Among provincial historical centers of the twenties Nizhen achieved the greatest prominence. The traditions of the Nizhen Historical-Philological Institute (formerly the Prince Bezborod'ko Lyceum) which became the Institute of Public Education (I. N. O.) in 1920, the existence of a Scientific-Research  p353 Chair, publication of Zapysky Nizhyn­s'koho I. N. O. (Proceedings of the Nizhen I. N. O.) (a total of twelve volumes came out in Nizhen between 1920 and 1932),263 close research ties with the Historical Section of VUAN and with the Bahaliy Kharkiv Institute, and especially the work of Professor M. Petrovsky — these contributed to the development of the Nizhen historical center.

Mykola Petrovsky (1894‑1951), born in Chernihiv Province, graduate of Nizhen Historical-Philological Institute, professor of the Nizhen I. N. O. and later (in the forties) at Kiev University, and corresponding member of the Ukrainian Academy of Sciences, devoted his scientific studies to the history of the Khmelnytsky period and the Ruin in the second half of the seventeenth century and to the historiography of the Cossack-Hetman period. His major work was: Narysy z istoriyi Ukrayiny, t. I. Doslidy nad Litopysom Samovydtsya (Outline of Ukrainian History, Vol. I. Research of the Samovydets' Chronicle), Kharkiv 1930. It is not only a detailed monograph on this notable monument of Cossack historiography, but also a documentary research of many important subjects of Ukrainian history of the second half of the seventeenth century.264

Another major work by Petrovsky, Vyzvol'na viyna ukrayin­s'koho narodu proty hnitu shlyakhe­ts'koyi Pol'shchi i pryyednannya Ukrayiny do Rosiyi, 1648‑1654 r.r. (The Ukrainian Peoples' War of Liberation Against Oppression by the Polish Nobles and the Unification of the Ukraine with Russia, 1648‑1654), Kiev, 1940, is based on documentary sources and, notwithstanding some tendenciousness in commenting on historical events (particularly Ukrainian-Muscovite relations of that period), dictated by demands of official Soviet ideology and censor­ship, it has a certain documentary value in the historiography of the Khmelnytsky period.

Numerous documentary studies by Petrovsky, devoted to separate  p354 problems of Ukrainian history, Ukrainian historiography of the seventeenth century and to individual leaders of the "Ruin" period, have an incomparably higher scientific value. They were published in the twenties and early thirties, in particular: "Try Popovychi" (Three Clergymen's Sons) in Zapysky Nizhyn­s'koho I. N. O. (Proceedings of the Nizhen I. N. O.), vol. VII, Nizhen, 1927; "Do ukrayins'koyi prosopohrafiyi XVII v." (On Ukrainian Prosopography of the Seventeenth Century) in Naukovyi Zbirnyk Istorychnoi Sektsiyi VUAN za rik 1927 (Scientific Symposium of the VUAN Historical Section for the Year 1927), Kiev, 1927; "Nadannya m. Nizhynu mahderbur­s'koho prava 1625 r." (Grant of Magdeburg Law to the City of Nizhen in 1625) in Chernihiv i Pivnichne Livoberezhzhya (Chernihiv and the Northern Left-Bank), Kiev, 1928; "Z lehend Khmelnychchyny" (Legends of the Khmelnytsky Period) in Yuvileyni Zbirnyk VUAN na poshanu akad. Hrushev­s'koho, I, Kiev, 1928; "Do istoriyi Ruyiny" (On the History of the Ruin) in Zapysky Nizhyn­s'koho I. N. O., v. VIII, Nizhen, 1928; "Psevdo-diyariush Samiyla Zorky" (Pseudo-Diary of Samiylo Zorka) in Zapysky Istorychno-Filolohichnoho Viddilu VUAN (Proceedings of the Historical-Philological Department of VUAN), XVII, Kiev, 1928; 'Do istoriyi polkovoho ustroyu Het'manshchyny. Prychynok do pytannya pro Statti Bohdana Khmelny­ts'koho v redaktsiyi 1659 roku" (On the History of the Regimental Order of the Hetmanate; On the Problem of Articles of Bohdan Khmelnytsky in the 1659 Edition) in Zapysky Nizhyn­s'koho I. N. O., IX, Nizhen, 1929; "Ukrayins'ki diyachi XVII v. Tymish Tsytsyura" (Ukrainian Leaders of the XVII Century, Tymish Tsytsyura) in Zapysky Istorychno-Filolohichnoho Viddilu VUAN, XXIV, and separately; "Epizod z ukrayins'ko-kryms'kykh vidnosyn kintsya XVII v." (An Episode from Ukrainian-Crimean Relations of the Late XVII Century) in Naukovyi Zbirnyk Istorychnoyi Sektsiyi VUAN za 1929 rik (Scientific Symposium of the VUAN Historical Section for the Year 1929), Kiev, 1929; "Z ostannikh lit P. Doroshenka" (The Last Years of P. Doroshenko) in ZNTSH, vol. C, Lviv, 1930; "Do biohrafiyi Ivana Bohuna" (On the Biography  p355 of Ivan Bohun) in Zapysky Nizhyn­s'koho I. N. O., X, Nizhen, 1930; "Do istoriyi derzhavnoho ustroyu Ukrayiny v XVII v." (On the History of the State Structure of the Ukraine in the XVII Century), ibid., XI, 1951; "Z istoriyi klasovoyi borot'by na Ukrayini v XVII st. (Zmova Detsyka)" (From the History of the Class Struggle in the Ukraine in the XVII Century — Detsyk's Plot), ibid., XII, 1932; and others.

Petrovsky's numerous publications of the forties, written in the spirit of Soviet historical propaganda, are beyond the scope of Ukrainian historiography and, in general, have no scientific value.

Anatol' Yershov worked in close connection with the Nizhen historical center. He devoted his main attention to research of Ukrainian historiography of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries and to the economic history of the Left-Bank Ukraine of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. In particular, he published the following historiographic studies: " 'Letopisnoe povestvovanie' O. Rigelmana i 'Kratkaya letopis' Malyya Rossii' vydana V. Rubanom" ("Narrative Chronicle" by O. Rigelman and "A Short Chronicle of Little Russia" published by V. Ruban) in Zapysky Nizhyn­s'koho I. N. O., VII; "Pro dzherela, chas skladannya i avtora 'Povesti prostrannoi' " (On Sources, Time of Composition and Author of "Povest' Prostrannaya") in Zapysky Istorychno-Filolohichnoho Viddilu VUAN, XI, Kiev, 1927; "Storinka z ukrayin­s'koho dzhereloznavstva" (A Page from Science of Ukrainian Sources) in Yuvileynyi Zbirnyk VUAN na poshanu akad. Bahaliya, Kiev, 1927; "Do pytannya pro chas napysannya 'Istoriyi Rusov', a pochasty i pro avtora yiyi" (On the Question of the Time of the Writing of "Istoriya Rusov" and Something About its Author) in Yuvileynyi Zbirnyk VUAN na poshanu akad. Hrushev­s'koho, I, Kiev, 1928; "Pro litopysni dzherela istorychnykh prats' Stepana Lukom­s'koho" (On Chronicle Sources of Stepan Lukomsky's Historical Works) in Zapysky Nizhyn­s'koho I. N. O., VIII; about O. Shafonsky in Naukovyi Zbirnyk Istorychnoyi Sektsiyi VUAN za rik 1928 (Scientific Symposium of the VUAN Historical Section for the Year 1928),  p356 Kiev, 1928; "Koly i khto napysav Hustyns'kyi litopys?" (When and by whom was the Hustyn Chronicle written?) in ZNTSH, vol. C, No. 2, Lviv, 1930.

Of Yershov's historical-economic works, most noteworthy were studies of the history of guilds in the Left-Bank Ukraine: "Do istoriyi tsekhiv na Livoberezhzhi XVII‑XVIII vv." (On the History of Guilds in the Left-Bank of the XVII and XVIII Centuries) in Zapysky Nizhyn­s'koho I. N. O., VIIIX; "Nizhyns'ki tsekhy v pershiy polovyni XVII st." (Nizhen Guilds in the First Half of the XVII Century) in Chernihiv i Pivnichne Livoberezhzhya (Chernihiv and the Northern Left-Bank), Kiev, 1928; Yershov also wrote a study: "Do istoriyi hroshovoyi lichby i monety na Livoberezhniy Ukrayini XVII‑XVIII vv." (On the History of the System of Currency and Coins in the Left-Bank Ukraine in the XVII and XVIII Centuries) in Naukovyi Zbirnyk (Scientific Symposium), 1929; appearing as "Geldrechnung und Münze in der Ukraine des 17 und 18 Jahrhunderts auf Grund der ukrainischen Historiographie von 1918‑1929" in Zeitschrift für ost-europäische Geschichte, vol. V, No. 3, Königsberg and Berlin, 1931.

Fairly important work in the field of Ukrainian history was conducted in the twenties in Dnipropetrovsk (formerly Katerynoslav). Here, historical research was associated with the Dnipropetrovsk Scientific Society, the Institute of Public Education (replacing the former Katerynoslav University established in 1918), the Scientific-Research Chair, and the local Museum and Archive which continued in the tradition of the old Katerynoslav Archive Commission (see supra). Local historians published their works in Zapysky Dnipropetrov­s'koho I. N. O. (Proceedings of the Dnipropetrovsk Institute of Public Education) and in publications of VUAN.

Dmytro Yavornytsky (Evarnytsky), 1855‑1940, director of the Museum and later (1929) a full member of VUAN, carried on many years of research in the history and archeology of Zaporozhe and the Southern Ukraine (see supra). He published several works, particularly, Dniprovi porohy (The Dnieper  p357 Rapids), Dnipropetrovsk, 1927; and Do istoriyi Stepovoyi Ukrayiny (On the History of the Steppe Ukraine), Dnipropetrovsk, 1929.

Volodymyr Parkhomenko, who continued his work on the history of the Kievan State (see supra), published a series of studies; of special interest are the monograph Pochatok istorychno-derzhavnoho zhyttya na Ukrayini (The Beginnings of Historical National Life in the Ukraine), Kiev, 1925;265 the study "Oleh ta Ihor. Do pytannya pro vzayemovidnosyny" (Oleh and Ihor. On the Question of Their Mutual Relations) in Zapysky Ist.‑Fil. Vid. VUAN, IV, Kiev, 1924; and others.266

Vasyl' Hrekov, historian-archivist, who studied the history of the eighteenth‑century Zaporozhe and published documentary studies: "Bunt siromy na Zaporizhzhi v 1768 rotsi" (Mob Riot in Zaporozhe in 1768) in Zapysky Ist.‑Fil. Vid. VUAN, IX; "Zaporiz'kyi Kish ta Koliyivshchyna" (The Zaporozhian Camp and the Koliyi Movement) in Ukrayina, IV, 1928; and others.

The City of Poltava was also an important center of Ukrainian historiography in the twenties. The traditions of such institutions as the Poltava Archive Commission (see supra), and the Ukrainian Scientific Society of Research and Conservation of Monuments of Antiquity and Art in Poltava Province (existing since 1918), continued in the scientific activities of the Poltava Scientific Society and the Institute of Public Education (historians  p358 working here were: V. Parkhomenko, P. Klepatsky, and I. Rybakov, and at the Poltava Historical Archive: M. Hnip and M. Buzhynsky). Historians of Poltava published their works in Zapysky Poltav­s'koho Naukovoho pry VUAN Tovarystva, and in Zapysky Poltav­s'koho I. N. O. (Proceedings of the Poltava Institute of Public Education), in publications of VUAN's Historical Section and of the Bahaliy Institute in Kharkiv, with which these historians had close ties.

Pavlo Klepatsky, graduate of Odessa University (see supra), professor at Kamyanets University and later at Poltava I. N. O., worked in the twenties in the field of nineteenth-century Ukrainian history, mainly economic research on the economy of huge estates, particularly of the Princes Kochubey (on the basis of the Dykan'ka estate files). He was also interested in Ukrainian historiography of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. He published a series of studies and articles. The following should be mentioned: "Lystuvannya O. A. Bezborod'ka z svoyim bat'kom, yak istorychne dzherelo" (Correspondence of O. A. Bezborod'ko, with His Father, As an Historical Source) in Yuvileynyi Zbirnyk VUAN na poshanu akad. Hrushev­s'koho, I, Kiev, 1928; "Dvoryans'ke zems'ke opolchennya (Kozaky) 1812 r. na Poltavshchyni" (Landlords' Mobilization (Cossacks) in Poltava Province in 1812) in Za Sto Lit, V, Kiev, 1920; and others.

Ivan Rybakov worked on the history of the Ukraine of the first half of the nineteenth century. He wrote studies: "Do istoriyi Malorosiy­s'koho Tayemnoho Tovarystva" (On the History of the Little Russian Secret Society) in UkrayinaVI, 1925; and "Sovisnyi sud na Ukrayini" (Equity Courts in the Ukraine) in Naukovyi Zbirnyk Leninhrad­s'koho Tovarystva doslidynikv ukrayin­s'koyi istoriyi, pys'menstva ta movy (Scientific Symposium of the Leningrad Society of Students of Ukrainian History, Literature and Language), VUAN, I, Kiev, 1928.

Mykhaylo Hnip worked on the history of the Ukrainian movement of the eighteen-sixties and published a monograph: Politychnyi rukh 1860‑kh rr. na Ukrayini. Kn. I. Poltavs'ka Hromada  p359 (The Political Movement of the Sixties in the Ukraine, Book I, The Poltava Hromada), Kharkiv, 1930.267

Mykhaylo Buzhynsky published new materials on the biography of Vasyl' Lukashevych in Za Sto Lit, III, 1928.

In Chernihiv, work on historical science in the twenties went on in connection with the activities of the Historical Archive and the Historical Museum, which continued the tradition of the Chernihiv Archive Commission and of the Scientific Society. Noteworthy among the historians were:

Valentin Shuhayevsky, author of several works on Ukrainian numismatics.

Pavlo Fedorenko, graduate of Kiev University, director of the Chernihiv Archive, studied the economic history of monasteries in the Hetmanate and the history of the iron‑ore industry in Chernihiv Province during the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. He published several studies and articles in publications of the Historical Section of VUAN. Under his editor­ship the Archeographic Commission of VUAN published Opys Novhorodsiver­s'koho namisnychestva, 1779‑1781 rr. (Description of the Novhorod-Siversky Vicegerency in the Years 1779‑1781), Kiev, 1931; but his monograph Rudni Chernihivshchyny XVII‑XVIII st. (Smelteries of Chernihiv Province in the XVII and XVIII Centuries) which he readied for publication was never printed.

Scientific work in the field of history, chiefly local and based on local archival materials, was conducted also in Kamyanets-Podilsk, Vinnytsya, Zhytomyr, Mykolaiv, Luhans'ke and in other Ukrainian cities which had higher institutions of learning, museums, historical and cultural monuments, and scientific land study societies. Most of these local centers were associated with general Ukrainian scientific institutions (primarily with VUAN) which published the works of local researchers. Sometimes their works appeared also locally, e.g., in Zapysky I. N. O. (Proceedings  p360 of Institutes of Public Education), in the works of scientific societies, in publications of the Vinnytsya Branch of the National Library of the Ukraine, etc.

Ukrainian historiography in the Dnieper Ukraine of the twenties clearly indicates several trends which sometimes took on the characteristics of certain scientific "schools" (in Kiev the cultural-historical or sociological but actually neo‑populist school of M. Hrushevsky; in Kharkiv: the social-economic school of D. Bahaliy; the historical-economic school; the historical-legal school of M. Vasylenko; the Marxist school).

Each of these trends had (or created) its own ideo-methodological traditions, its sphere of scientific interests and selection of subjects, its organizational centers, its periodicals, and finally, its circle of community, political and personal-group relation­ships. With the exception of the Marxist trend, however, all the others maintained scientific or scientific-organizational contacts with one another in some form.

This was primarily due to the fact that the entire Ukrainian historiography of the twenties in the Dnieper Ukraine, in Galicia and abroad, stood on identical ideological Ukrainian national problems, centering its main attention and its research on the problem of Ukrainian statehood in its historical development in all its manifestations: political, economic, cultural and national.

Whereas the historical-legal school, in the nature of things, placed at the head of its scholar­ly interests the historical forms and institutions of Ukrainian constitutional law, the historical-economic school believed its main duty to be to study those historical-economic processes and phenomena which determined historical Ukrainian economics as a separate, independent (autonomous) economic body. Even the social-economic and cultural-historical schools which were founded on old popular tradition could not avoid the influence of statehood ideology. Besides, even the Marxist school (particularly in the works of M. Yavorsky), to the extent that it stayed within the framework of Ukrainian historiography, could not deny the role and significance  p361 of the national-state factor, both in Ukrainian history and in contemporary times.

This spirit of statehood and this national character were precisely the fundamental features of Ukrainian historiography in the Dnieper Ukraine in the twenties.

The development of Ukrainian historiography in the Dnieper Ukraine in the twenties (and subsequently) went on under extremely complicated and generally unfavorable political conditions, for which the rule of Moscow Bolshevism in the Ukraine was primarily respectable. Sooner or later, Ukrainian historical science had to be subjected to the tasks and purposes of Soviet policy.

In this undertaking, however, the Soviet authorities encountered serious obstacles. The position of Ukrainian historical science and the tempo of its development in the twenties, set by reestablishment of Ukrainian statehood in the years 1917‑1920, were such that the Communist authorities were compelled to proceed slowly. At first they introduced financial restrictions, censor­ship pressure, control in regard to certain subjects, official criticism of some trends in Ukrainian historiography and of certain works and publications and their authors, or editors. But the end of the decade brought a series of heavier blows upon Ukrainian historical science: the trial of the Union for Liberation of the Ukraine (SVU) in 1929‑1930, the political purge of VUAN in 1930, deportation of M. Hrushevsky to Moscow (1931) and his death (1934), arrests of many historians, and official condemnation of scholar­ly activities of historical institutions and of prominent Ukrainian historians (1930‑1932).

Then new measures were undertaken by the Soviet authorities directed toward further destruction of Ukrainian historical science. During the first half of the thirties, historical institutions of the Ukrainian Academy of Sciences were liquidated268 and the Academy was changed to the Academy of Sciences of the  p362 Ukrainian SSR. Scientific-Research Chairs (Odessa, Dnipropetrovsk, Kiev, and Nizhen) and institutes (particularly the Bahaliy Institute in Kharkiv) were abolished. Reorganized archives and museums had to abandon virtually all kinds of scientific activity, and they became inaccessible to any scientific work. Even the main center of official Communist historical science, the VUAMLIN Historical Institute (transferred in the meantime from Kharkiv to Kiev) was liquidated in the 1935‑1936 period. Universities in the Ukrainian SSR which had been reestablished in 1933 and 1934 did not engage in historical research to any appreciable extent until the end of the thirties.

Publication of the literature of historical science was stopped. Numerous scientific works already printed, and others ready for printing, never saw the light of day and most were lost without a trace.269

 p363  In 1937 and 1938 (the so‑called Yezhov period), many historians of the older as well as of the younger generation were arrested, deported, executed or tortured during interrogations, or perished in exile.270 Others were removed from scientific institutions and prohibited from engaging in scientific activities, or compelled to leave the Ukraine and abandon scientific work in the field of Ukrainian history forever or for a very long time. Their works were strictly forbidden by the censor, their books removed from libraries, their manuscripts and materials destroyed, and even their names were removed from scholar­ly references.

Certain, albeit very restricted, possibilities for scientific research in the field of Ukrainian history reappeared in the late thirties in connection with the establishment (late 1936) of the Institute of Ukrainian History of the Academy of Sciences of the Ukrainian SSR.

The Institute of Ukrainian History (in Kiev, with a branch in Lviv during the 1939‑1941 period) comprised several older and younger historians, who managed to survive the difficult thirties, and several candidates who were preparing themselves for a scholar­ly career under the direction of older scholars (O. Ohloblyn and M. Petrovsky in Kiev, I. Krypyakevych in Lviv). Although the basic purpose of the Institute was to prepare auxiliary scientific material,271 text books, as well as popular-propagandist historical literature, the Institute nevertheless also conducted research work, some results of which were published in the forties.

 p364  Working in the Institute of Ukrainian History in Kiev until the outbreak of World War II were: O. Ohloblyn, M. Petrovsky, N. Polons'ka‑Vasylenko (for their works, see supra), K. Huslystyi, F. Yastrebov, I. Premysler, M. Suprunenko, M. Marchenko, K. Stestyuk, V. Dyadychenko, F. Los' and others.

Kost' Huslystyi, who began his scientific career in the Bahaliy Institute in Kharkiv, worked on the history of eighteenth‑century Ukrainian political movements and on Ukrainian history of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. He wrote the following documentary studies: Z istoriyi klasovoyi borot'by v Stepoviy Ukrayini v 60‑70‑kh r.r. XVIII st. (From the History of the Class Struggle in the Steppe Ukraine in the Sixties and Seventies of the XVIII Century), Kharkiv, 1933; Turbayivs'ke povstannya (The Turbayiv Insurrection), Kiev, 1947; two volumes of Narysy z istoriyi Ukrayiny (An Outline of Ukrainian History), a major publication of the Institute; vol. II, Ukrayins'ki zemli pid lytovs'kym panuvannyam i zakhoplennya yikh Pol'shcheyu z XIV st. po 1569 rik (Ukrainian Lands under Lithuanian Rule and Their Conquest by Poland Between the XIV Century and 1569), Kiev, 1940; vol. III, Ukrayina pid panuvannyam Pol'shchi v XVI‑XVII st. (The Ukraine under Polish Rule in the XVI and XVII Centuries), Kiev, 1941; the sketch Koliyivshchyna (The Koliyi Movement), Kiev, 1944; and other publications.

Fedir Yastrebov, graduate of Kiev University (INO), worked on the history of nineteenth-century Ukrainian revolutionary movements, with particular attention to documentary material about Ustym Karmelyuk. He also published two volumes of sketches from Ukrainian history: vol. I, Kyyivs'ka Rus' i feodal'ni knyazivstva (Kievan Rus′ and Feudal Duchies) in co‑authorship with K. Huslystyi, Kiev, 1939; vol. VIII, Ukrayina v pershiy polovyni XIX st. (The Ukraine in the First Half of the XIX Century), Kiev, 1939.

Illya Premysler worked on the history of revolutionary movements in the Ukraine in the early twenties.

Mykola Suprunenko worked on Ukrainian history of the 1917‑1920 period and published a series of studies, particularly: Ukrayina  p365 v period inozemnoyi voyennoyi interventsiyi i hromadyan­s'koyi viyny (1918‑1920) (The Ukraine during the Period of Foreign Armed Intervention and Civil War, 1918‑1920), Kiev, 1952 (edited by Suprunenko).

Mykhaylo Marchenko worked on Ukrainian history of the B. Khmelnytsky and I. Vyhovsky period.

Kateryna Stetsyuk worked on Ukrainian history of the second half of the seventeenth century. She wrote a monograph: Vplyv povstannya Stepana Razina na Ukrayinu (Repercussions of the Stepan Razin Insurrection in the Ukraine), Kiev, 1947.

Vadym Dyadychenko studied the Mazepa period, particularly the activities of Semen Paliy. He published several articles about the events of 1708‑1709 in the Ukraine, but his monograph on S. Paliy was not printed.

Fedir Los' worked on the social-economic history of the Ukraine of the early twentieth century. He published a monograph about the Stolypin agrarian reform in the Ukraine and several articles, particularly on the problem of the emergence of a working class in the Ukraine, in Voprosy istorii (Problems of History), II, Moscow, 1951.

Among scientific publications of the Institute of the prewar period, those worthy of mention are the works of the Moscow historian of law, Professor Serafim Yushkov, corresponding member of the Academy of Sciences of the Ukrainian SSR: Narysy istoriyi feodalizmu v Kyyivs'kiy Rusi (An Outline of the History of Feudalism in Kievan Rus′), Kiev, 1940; and Rus'ka Pravda, Kiev, 1939 (texts edited by Yushkov).272

The Institute of Ukrainian History published Korotkyi kurs istoriyi Ukrayiny (A Short Course in Ukrainian History), Kiev, 1941, a collective work, with Serhiy Belousov, Director of the Institute, as chief editor; and volume I, Istoriya Ukrayiny (History of the Ukraine) edited by M. Petrovsky, Ufa, 1942.273

 p366  Scientific activities of the Institute of Ukrainian History and all works in the field of history in the Soviet Ukraine274 were supposed to proceed along the lines of so‑called "Marxist-Leninist" methodology, under strict Party supervision with respect to ideology, and even phraseology, according to certain (fairly limited) imposed subjects. The prescribed basis of the Institute's scientific work was the official idea of "Soviet patriotism" and its concomitant idea (widely propagated following the war) of leader­ship of the "great Russian nation" in all branches of social life — political, economic and cultural — in all territories of the USSR, and throughout the existence of the Russian State. As applied to Ukrainian history, this constituted a theoretic justification of Moscow's centralist policy of the tsars and Soviets in the Ukraine, with the end result of leveling down all Ukrainian national interests, special characteristics, and traditions.

Under these circumstances which, following a short breathing spell during World War II, have become even more acute (and continue to grow more acute) since the war, Ukrainian historiography throughout the Ukrainian SSR has lost its Ukrainian character and tradition. The very few historical works (and these stem from the previous period), which appeared in the Ukraine during the latter part of the forties and early fifties, with the exception of some publications of archival documents,275 are actually outside the scope of real historical science.276

 p367  Bibliography

Official reports of VUAN and of its separate institutions, publications of scientific research chairs and institutes, the Central Bureau of Archives of the Ukrainian SSR, individual archives, museums and historical-cultural monuments, scientific and geographic societies; Chronicles and bibliography in scholar­ly historical periodicals, particularly in the periodical Ukrayina during the periods 1917‑1918, 1924‑1930 and 1932, Kiev; Knyhar, 1917‑1920, Kiev; Khliborobs'ka Ukrayina, vols. I‑V, Vienna, 1920‑1925; Stara Ukrayina, Lviv, 1924‑1925; Arkhivna Sprava, Kharkiv, 1925‑1930; Arkhiv Radyan­s'koyi Ukrayiny, Kharkiv, 1932‑1933; Letopis' Revolyutsii (after 1928 Litopys Revolyutsiyi), Kharkiv, 1922‑1933; Prapor Marksyzmu, Kharkiv, 1927‑1930; Chervonyi Shlyakh, Kharkiv, 1923‑1936; Visti Vseukrayin­s'koyi Akademiyi Nauk, Kiev; Visti Akademiyi Nauk USSR (Ukrainian SSR), Visnyk Akademiyi Nauk URSR (Ukrainian SSR); Kwartalnik Historyczny, Lviv; and others.

Literature in Chronological Order:

Pershyi pivrik isnuvannya Ukrayin­s'koyi Akademiyi Nauk, Kiev, 1919; I. Krevetsky, "Ukrayins'ka Akademiya Nauk," Literaturno-Naukovyi Vistnyk, V‑VIII, 1922; I. Kalynovych, "Istoriya Ukrayiny. Publikatsiyi v ukrains'kiy movi," in Bibliohrafiya ukrayinoznavstva za 1914‑1923 r.r., No. 1, Lviv, 1924; S. Smal-Stocki, "Ukrayins'ka Akademiya Nauk," SlaviaII, Prague, 1922; I. Krevetsky, "Ukrayins'ka istoriohrafiya na perelomi," ZNTSH, vols. CXXXIV‑CXXXV, Lviv, 1924; D. Dorošenko, "Ukrajinská Akademie nauk v Kijevě," Slovanský Přehled,  p368 Prague, No. 6, 1926; M. H. (Hrushevsky), "Perspektyvy i vymohy ukrayin­s'koyi nauky," Ukrayina, I, 1926; Minerva, Jahrbuch der gelehrten Welt, Berlin, 1926; D. Dorošenko, "Entwicklung und Errungenschaften der ukrainischen wissenschaftlichen Forschungstätigkeit in den letzten fünfzig Jahren," Mitteilungen des Ukrainischen Wissenschaftlichen Institutes in Berlin, No. 1, Berlin, 1927; D. Dorošenko, "Akademie der Wissenschaften in Kyjiv," ibid.; D. Bahaliy, Narys istoriyi Ukrayiny na sotsiyal'no-ekonomichnomu grunti, v. I, Kharkiv, 1928; D. Dorošenko, "Die Entwicklung der Geschichtsforschung in der Sowjet-ukraine in den letzten Jahren," Mitteilungen des Ukrainischen Wissenschaftlichen Institutes in Berlin, No. II, Berlin, 1928; O. Hötzsch, Die Geschichtswissenschaft in Sowjet-Russland (1917‑1927), Berlin, 1928; Nauka i nauchnye rabotniki SSSR, Academy of Sciences of the USSR, Leningrad, 1928; Spysok prats' Ukrayin­s'koyi Akademiyi Nauk, vydanykh za 10 lit yiyi isnuvannya, 1918‑1928, Kiev, 1928; Materiyaliy do obrannya novykh akademikiv VUAN, VUAN, Kiev, 1929; O. Hermayze, "Ukrayins'ka istorychna nauka za ostannye desyatylittya," Studiyi z istoriyi Ukrayiny, II, Kiev, 1929; O. Hermajze, "Die ukrainische Geschichtwissenschaft in der USSR," Slavische Rundschau, No. 5, Prague, 1929; M. Yavorsky, "Providni dumky v rozvytkovi istorychnoyi nauky," Prapor Marksyzmu, Kharkiv, I, 1929; M. Yavorsky, "Suchasni techiyi sered ukrayin­s'koyi istoriohrafiyi," Druha Vse‑ukrayins'ka konferentsiya vykladachiv sotsiyal'no-ekonomichnykh dyststsyplin u VUZ‑akh, Kharkiv, 1929; M. Jaworskyj, "Das Ergebnis der ukrainischen Geschichtsforschung in den Jahren 1917‑1927," Osteuropäische Forschungen, new series, VI, Vienna, 1929; "Desyat' rokiv pratsi Komisiyi dlya vyuchuvannya istoriyi zakhidno-rus'koho ta ukrayin­s'koho prava (1919‑29)," Pratsi Komisiyi dlya vyuchuvannya istoriyi zakhidno-rus'koho ta ukrayin­s'koho prava, VI, Kiev, 1929; L. Okinchevitch, "Dix ans de travail de la Commission pour l'étude de l'histoire du droit occidental russe et ukrainien (1919‑1929)," ibid.; Tsentral'nyi Arkhiv Starodavnikh Aktiv u Kyyevi, Kiev, 1929; G. Gautier, "Histoire Ukrainienne. Publications en langue ukrainienne parues dans l'URSS  p369 de 1917 à 1928," Revue Historique, vol. 154, No. 9, Paris, 1929, also separately, Paris, 1930; "Bibliohrafiya istoriyi Ukrayiny, Rosiyi ta ukrayin­s'koho prava, krayeznavstva ta etnolohiya za 1917‑1927 roky," Materiyaly do ukrayin­s'koyi istorychnoyi bibliohrafiyi, vol. I, Kharkiv, 1929; D. Bahaliy, "Orhanizatsiya ukrayin­s'koyi istoriyi za rr. 1917‑1927 na Ukrayini," ibid.; A. Kozachenko, "Nauka istoriyi Ukrayiny ta Rosiyi za r.r. 1917‑1927 v USRR," ibid.; "Bibliohrafiya istorychnyi literatury za 1928 rik," ibid., vol. II, Kharkiv, 1930; Naukovyi ustanovy ta orhanizatsiyi USRR, Derzhplan USRR, Kharkiv, 1930; M. Hruchevsky, "Organisation des études historiques en Ukraine," Bulletin of the International Committee of Historical Sciences, No. 10, vol. V, part V, Paris, 1930; D. Doroschenko, "Aufschwung der Wissenschaft und ihr jetziger Stand. Das geistige Leben der Ukraine in Vergangenheit und Gegenwart," Das Deutschtum und Ausland, Münster in Westfalen, 1930; Systematychnyi kataloh vydan' Vseukrayin­s'koyi Akademiyi Nauk, 1918‑1929, Kiev, 1930, and two supplements of 1931 and 1932 listing publications of 1930 and 1931; M. Yavorsky, "Doklad o rabote marksistskikh istoricheskikh uchrezhdenii na Ukraine," Trudy pervoi vsesoyuznoi konferentsii istorikov-marksistov, 28.XII 1928–4.I 1929, vol. I, Moscow, 1930; M. Yavorsky, "Sovremennye antimarksistskie techeniya v ukrainskoi istori­cheskoi nauke," ibid.; T. Skubitsky, "Klassovaya bor'ba v ukrainskoi istori­cheskoi literature," Istorik-Marksist, XVII, Moscow, 1930; Ukrayins'ka Zahal'na Entsyklopediya, vols. I‑III, Lviv-Stanyslaviv-Kolomyya, 1930‑1935; D. Dorošenko, "Die ukrainische historische Forschungen in den Jahren 1914‑1930," Zeitschrift für osteuropäische Geschichte, vol. V, No. 3, 1931; M. Tschubatyj, "Literatur der ukrainischen Rechtsgeschichte in den Jahren 1919‑1929," Przewodnik Historyczno-Prawny, vol. I, Lviv, 1930, and reprint, Lviv, 1931; A. Artemsky, Shcho take Vseukrayins'ka Akademiya Nauk (VUAN), Kiev, 1931; D. Dorošenko, "Neues zur ukrainischen Historiographie," Slavische Rundschau, No. 5, 1932; M. Andrusiak, "Ukrayins'ka istoriohrafiya v 1921‑1931 r.r.," Litopys Chervonoyi Kalyny, No. 9‑10, Lviv, 1932; M. Korduba, Contributions  p370 à l'histoire de l'Ukraine au VII‑e Congrès International des sciences historiques, Varsovie, Août, 1933 (Edited by the Lviv Shevchenko Scientific Society), Lviv, 1933; N. Tschubatyj, "Gegenstand der Geschichte des ukrainisches Rechtes," Contributions à l'histoire de l'Ukraine au VII‑e Congrès International des sciences historiques, Varsovie, Août, 1933, Lviv, 1933; M. Andrusiak, "Historiografija ruska (ukraińska) w latach 1921‑1933," Kwartalnik Historyczny, XLVIII, No. 1‑2, Lviv, 1934; I. Smirnov, "Natsionalisti­cheskaya kontrrevolyutsiya na Ukraine pod maskoi istori­cheskoi nauki," Problemy istorii dokapitalisti­cheskogo obshchestva, VI, Leningrad, 1934; D. Doroshenko, "Istorychna pratsya D. Bahaliya; Novi studiyi nad Ukrayin­s'koyu Koza­ts'koyu Derzhavoyu XVII‑XVIII vikiv," 2 Ukrayins'kyi Naukovyi Z'yizd u Prazi, Prague, 1934; T. Kostruba, "Bibliohrafiya ekonomichnoyi istoriyi Ukrayiny," Ukrayins'kyi Agronomichnyi Vistnyk, I, Lviv, 1934; D. Doroszenko, "Ukraińska Akademja Nauk i jej losy," Przegląd Wspólczesny, No. 157, Warsaw, 1935, reprinted in Miscellanea Slawistyczne, No. X, Kraków, 1937; S. Narizhnyi, "Istoriohrafiya," Ukrayins'ka Zahal'na Entsyklopediya, vol. III, Lviv-Stanyslaviv-Kolomyya, 1935; E. Borschak, "Les institutions scientifiques de l'Ukraine soviétique," Le Monde Slave, Paris, 1935; M. Korduba, "La littérature historique soviétique ukrainienne. Compte-rendu 1917‑31," Bulletin d'Information des sciences historiques en Europe Orientale, vol. 7‑8, Warsaw, 1938, and separately, Warsaw, 1938; J. Pfitzner, "Die Geschichtswissenschaft in der Sowjetunion," Bolschewistische Wissenschaft und Kulturpolitik. Ein Sammelwerk herausgegeben von Bolko Freiherrn v. Richthofen, Königsberg and Berlin, 1938; M. Andrusiak, "Ukrayins'ka istoriohrafiya," Pratsi Ukrayin­s'koho Naukovoho Instytutu v Amerytsi. I. Zbirnyk Ukrayin­s'koho Naukovoho Instytutu v Amerytsi, St. Paul (Minn.)-Prague, 1939, and separately, Prague, 1939; H. Lazarevsky, "Z diyal'nosty Akademiyi Nauk USSR, 1938 r." Syohochasne i mynule. II, Lviv, 1939; B. Krupnyc'kyj, "Die ukrainische Geschichtswissenschaft in der Sowjetunion 1921‑1941," Jahrbücher für Geschichte Osteuropas, II‑IV, Breslau-Berlin, 1941; O. Shvedova, Istoriki SSSR. Ukazatel'  p371 pechatnykh spiskov ikh trudov, Moscow, 1941; N. Rubinshtein, Russkaya istoriografiya, Moscow, 1941; B. Grekov, "Razvitie istoricheskikh nauk v SSSR za 25 let," Pod znamenem marksizma, XI‑XII, Moscow, 1942; 25 let istori­cheskoi nauki v SSSR, Academy of Sciences of the USSR, Moscow-Leningrad, 1942; M. Czubatyj, The Problems of Modern Ukrainian Historiography, New York City, 1944; O. Mez'ko (O. Ohloblyn), Yak bol'shevyky ruynovaly ukrayins'ku istorychnu nauku, Prague, 1945; second edition: "Ukrayins'ka istorychna nauka pid Sovyetamy v 1920-1930‑kh r.r.," Vyzvol'nyi Shklyakh, Nos. 4‑8, London, 1951; N. Czubatyj, "Silver Jubilee of the Ukrainian Academy of Sciences, 1918‑1943," The Ukrainian Quarterly, vol. I, No. 3, 1945; B. Krupnyts'ky, Do metodolohichnykh problem ukrayin­s'koyi istoriyi, The Ukrainian Free Academy of Sciences, Augsburg, 1946; B. Grekov, "Osnovnye itogi izucheniya istorii SSSR za 30 let," Trudy Yubileinoi Sessii Akademii Nauk SSSR, OON, Moscow, 1948; O. M. (O. Ohloblyn), "Ukrayins'ka istorychna nauka v 1920‑kh rokakh," SuchasnykI, 1948; O. Ohloblyn, "The Ukrainian Humanities and the Soviets," The Ukrainian Quarterly, vol. V, No. 1, 1949; Entsyklopediya Ukrayino­znavstva, The Shevchenko Scientific Society, Munich‑New York, 1949; N. D., "Ahatanhel Krymsky," UkrayinaII, Paris, 1949; D. Doroshenko-O. Ohloblyn, "Istoriohrafiya," Entsyklopediya Ukrayino­znavstva, vol. I, Munich‑New York, 1949; N. D., "M. P. Vasylenko i VUAN," UkrayinaV, Paris, 1951; L. O. (Okinshevich), "Doslidnyk Samovydtsya (pamyati M. N. Petrov­s'koho)," UkrayinaVII, Paris, 1952; L. Okinshevich, The Law of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania: Background and Bibliography, Research Program on the U. S. S. R., New York City, 1953; J. Lawrynenko, Ukrainian Communism and Soviet Russian Policy Toward the Ukraine — An Annotated Bibliography 1917‑1953, New York 1953; A. Ohloblyn, "Soviet Historiography," Academic Freedom Under the Soviet Regime, A Symposium, New York, 1954; Entsyklopediya Ukrayino­znavstva, vol. II, Paris‑New York, 1955; N. Polons'ka‑Vasylenko, Ukrayins'ka Akademiya Nauk (Narys istoriyi), vol. I, Munich, 1955;  p372 B. Krupnytsky, Ukrayins'ka istorychna nauka pid Sovyetamy (1920‑1950), Munich, 1957, mimeographed.

Literature referring to individual historians of the older generation (M. Hrushevsky, D. Bahaliy, M. Vasylenko, D. Yavornytsky and others) is provided supra.


The Author's Notes:

213 In 1920 the universities in the Ukrainian SSR were reorganized. Institutes of Public Education (Instytuty Narodnoyi Osvity — I. N. O.) were established.

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214 This abbreviation will be used henceforth.

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215 Reviewed by D. I. Doroshenko in Jahrbücher für Kultur und Geschichte der Slaven, vol. IV, No. II, Breslau, 1928.

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216 Reviewed by D. I. Doroshenko in Zeitschrift für osteuropäische Geschichte, vol. VIII, No. I, Berlin, 1933.

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217 Among these, publications to be noted are: "Heneral'ne slidstvo pro mayetnosti Starodub­s'koho polku 1729‑1731 r.r." (General Investigation of the Estates of the Starodub Regiment for the years 1729‑1731) in Ukrayins'kyi Arkhiv, vol. I, Kiev, 1929, edited by K. Lazarevska; "Kodens'ka knyha sudovykh sprav" (Kodnya Book of Judicial Cases), ibid., vol. II, Kiev, 1931, edited by O. Hermayze; "Perepysni knyhy 1666 roku" (Census Reports for the Year 1666), ibid., vol. III, Kiev, 1931, edited by V. Romanovsky; "Heneral'ne slidstvo pro mayetnosti Luben­s'koho polku 1729‑1731 r.r." (General Investigation of the Estates of the Lubny Regiment for the years 1729‑1731), ibid., vol. IV, Kiev, 1931, edited by K. Lazarevska. Also published was: Opys Novhorod­siver­s'koho Namistnichystva 1779‑1781 r.r. (Description of the Novgorod-Siversk Vicegerency for the Years 1779‑1781), Kiev, 1931, edited by P. Fedorenko.

Reviews by D. I. Doroshenko: vol. I of Ukrayins'kyi Arkhivi, in Zeitschrift für osteuropäische Geschichte, (vol. V, No. 3, 1931), and vol. II, ibid., (vol. VIII, No. 1, 1933).

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218 Review by D. I. Doroshenko on: "Naukovoho-publitsystychni i polemichni pysannya Kostomarova" (Scientific-Journalistic and Polemic Writings of Kostomarov), Kiev, 1928, in Abhandlungen des Ukrainischen Wissenchaftlichen Institutes, vol. II, Berlin, 1929.

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219 Reviewed by D. I. Doroshenko in Zeitschrift für osteuropäische Geschichte, vol. VII, No. 1, 1932.

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220 Reviewed by D. I. Doroshenko in Jahrbücher für Kultur und Geschichte der Slaven, Vol. VI, Nos. 2‑3, 1931.

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221 The book was published without the editor's foreword and without mention of his name. It was reviewed by D. I. Doroshenko in Zeitschrift für osteuropäische Geschichte, Vol. VIII, No. 1, 1933.

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222 The scientific work of O. Baranovych in the Ukraine was interrupted in 1934. Not until after World War II did his works begin to appear in Russian scholar­ly publications. Worthy of mention are: "Upadok goroda Rechi Pospolitoi (Starokonstantinov)" (Fall of the City of Rzecz Pospolita (Starokonstantinov)) in Voprosy istorii (Problems of History), No. 8, Moscow, 1947; "Naselenie predstepnoi Ukrainy XVI st." (Population of Cis‑Steppe Ukraine in the XVI Century) in Istoricheskie zapiski (Historical Proceedings), No. 32, Moscow, 1950; "Fol'varki v yuzhnoi Volyni vo vtoroi polovine XVIII veka" (Estates in Southern Volynia in the Second Half of the XVIII Century) in Akademiku B. D. Grekovu ko dnyu semidesyatiletiya (On the Seventieth Birthday of Academician B. D. Grekov), published by the Academy of Sciences of the USSR, Moscow, 1952; and others.

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223 Following an interruption in the 1930's, M. Tkachenko continues his scientific work in Kiev.

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224 Reviewed by D. I. Doroshenko in Zeitschrift für osteuropäische Geschichte, vol. VI, No. 4, 1932.

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225 Reviewed by D. I. Doroshenko in Zeitschrift für osteuropäische Geschichte, vol. VI, No. 2, 1932.

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226 In addition, several of Hrushevsky's associates, whose first works were devoted to Ukrainian history and were published by VUAN, subsequently dropped Ukrainian subjects and transferred their research activities to Russia (D. Kravtsov, O. Narochnytsky and others).

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227 On what happened to these studies and publications, see Ukrayins'ki Bibliolohichni Visti (Ukrainian Bibliological News), I, Augsburg, 1948, pp51‑53, and Naukovyi Zbirnyk UVAN u SshA (Scientific Symposium of the Ukrainian Academy of Arts and Sciences in the U. S.), II, New York, 1953, pp196‑198.

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228 Reviewed by D. I. Doroshenko in Suspil'stvo (Society), No. III‑IV, Prague, 1926.

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229 The third (chronologically the second) volume of the history of Ukrainian industry devoted to "Ukrayins'ka kripats'ka fabryka XVIII‑XIX st." (Ukrainian Industry of XVIII and XIX Centuries Using the Work of Serfs) was printed in 1931 but was not released and the edition was destroyed by the Soviet censor.

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230 The following monographs by O. Ohloblyn are as yet unpublished: "Ukrayins'ka kripats'ka fabryka XVIII‑XIX st." (Ukrainian Industry of XVIII and XIX Centuries Using the Work of Serfs); "Metalurhiya Pravoberezhnoyi Ukrayiny XVI‑XIX stolittya" (Metallurgy in the Right-Bank Ukraine in the XVI‑XIX Centuries); "Het'man Ivan Mazepa ta yoho doba" (Hetman Ivan Mazepa and His Times); "Ukrayina v chasy het'maniv Ivana Skoropad­s'koho i Pavla Polubotka" (The Ukraine During the Times of Hetmans Ivan Skoropadsky and Pavlo Polubotok); "Lyudy Staroyi Ukrayiny XVIII st." (People of the Old Ukraine of the XVIII Century); "Opanas Lobysevych, 1732‑1805; "Studiyi nad 'Istoriyeyu Rusiv' " (Studies on Istoriya Rusov).

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231 D. Bovanenko's extensive monograph on Podolynsky remained unpublished due to the author's arrest and exile.

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232 I. Kravchenko's monograph on labor in the Smila sugar refineries of the Counts Bobrinsky in the nineteenth century, and his "Sketches from the History of the Polish Insurrection of 1830‑31 in the Right-Bank Ukraine" were not published.

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233 S. Pidhaynyi's works: archeographic collection of documents on the Bakhmut and Tor salt plants in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, and his study of labor conditions in the linen-textile factories in the first half of the eighteenth century were accepted for publication by VUAN, but were not printed because the author was exiled to Solovetsky Islands.

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234 V. Fesenko's monograph about labor in the old Luhans'ke Foundry remains unpublished.

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235 Printing of this collection was not completed. Having returned from exile in the 1950's, Romanovsky continued his work on the history of economy of the Left-Bank Ukraine in the second half of the seventeenth century.

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236 Liquidated in 1930.

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237 For his scholar­ly activities prior to 1917, see supra.

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238 A collection of documents on monastic land holdings in the Left-Bank Ukraine during the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries prepared by Vasylenko for publication, and a collection of decrees pursuant to the Magdeburg law for Ukrainian Left-Bank cities, edited by him (see supra), were not published.

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239 The last was volume VIII (Kiev, 1930), but volume VII, which had been printed, was not released.

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240 The first variant of this work, "Rada Starshyns'ka na Hetmanshchyni" (The Officer Council in the Hetmanate) was published in Ukrayina, IV, 1924.

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241 Reviewed by D. I. Doroshenko in Zeitschrift für osteuropäische Geschichte, vol. VI, No. 2, 1932.

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242 Volume I was also published in Russian: Opyt istorii sveklosakharnoi promyshlennosti SSSR (Outline of History of the Sugar-beet Industry of the USSR), v. I, Moscow, 1928.

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243 Volume IV of this monograph, ready for printing, was never published.

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244 Historian of law, Professor Mykola Maksymenko (Kharkiv) and Professor Yuriy Maksymovych (Simferopol), former professor at Kiev University and of Nizhen Historical-Philological Institute (see supra) also worked in the Institute.

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245 Reviewed by D. I. Doroshenko in Jahrbücher für Kultur und Geschichte der Slaven, vol. VI, No. 2‑3, 1931.

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246 In connection with this jubilee, several scientific collections dedicated to Bahaliy were published. His autobiography and a complete bibliography of his works was published in Yuvileyni Zbirnyk VUAN na poshanu akad. D. I. Bahaliya (VUAN Jubilee Symposium Dedicated to Academician D. I. Bahaliy).

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247 Reviewed by D. I. Doroshenko in Literaturno-Naukovyi Visnyk (Literary-Scientific News), III, Lviv, 1922.

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248 N. Yu. Mirza-Avak'yants also worked on the history of Zaporozhe, but the work was not completed due to her arrest and deportation.

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249 M. Horban's scientific activity in the Ukraine was interrupted by his arrest and deportation in the early 1930's. Later he worked as historian-archivist in Kazakhstan and published several works on the history and documents of Kazakhstan, as well as on the history of Western Siberia.

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250 A. Kozachenko subsequently moved to Moscow and devoted himself to studies of Russian history.

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251 As an emigré, D. Solovey, who is at present in the United States, works mostly in the field of Ukrainian political history of the twentieth century.

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252 He is an emigré at present.

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253 Reviewed by D. I. Doroshenko in Literaturno-Naukovyi Visnyk (Literary-Scientific News), X, Lviv, 1923.

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254 Yavorsky's works were pronounced "nationalist" in 1930; he was expelled from the Party, deprived of the degree of Academician and exiled beyond the borders of Ukraine. Later he was arrested and deported to the Solovetsky Islands.

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255 The Central Bureau of Archives of the Ukr. SSR (TsAU) published an historical-archival journal (or strictly speaking, a collection) under the title Arkhivna Sprava (Archival Affairs) between 1925 and 1930, and later Arkhiv Radyan­s'koyi Ukrayiny (Archive of the Soviet Ukraine), which also published works of non‑members of TsAU.

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256 Volume I also came out in Ukrainian, under the title Hospodarstvo Het'manshchyny XVII‑XVIII st., vol. I, Zemlevolodinnya ta formy sil'­s'koho hospodarstva, Odessa, 1923.

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257 Slabchenko's later studies of modern Ukrainian history were not completed. Vol. III of his Materiyaly, devoted to Ukrainian history of the twentieth century up to 1917, was not released. Only an outline of this work was made public in mimeographed reproduction in Odessa in 1929.

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258 Slabchenko's study of General Military Courts was printed in vol. VII of Pratsi Komisiyi dlya vyuchuvannya istoriyi zakhidno-rus'koho prava, but, following the arrest and sentencing of the author, this volume was not released.

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259 In addition, works of Odessa historians were published in other publications, many in those of VUAN.

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260 I. Brover and O. Pohrebynsky subsequently worked in Russia on problems of Russian economics and economic history.

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261 Another of Slabchenko's pupils was Professor Nikolai Rubinshtein, (Mykola Rubinshteyn), contemporary Russian historian, author of Russkaya Istoriografiya (Russian Historiography), Moscow, 1941, and of a series of studies of eighteenth-century Russian economic history. In particular, he wrote the study: "Do istoriyi sotsiyal'nykh vidnosyn Kyyiv­s'koyi Rusy XI‑XII st." (On the History of Social Conditions in Kievan Rus′ of the XI and XII Centuries), in Naukovi Zapysky Naukovo-Doslidnoyi Katedry istoriyi Ukrayin­s'koyi kul'tury (Scientific Proceeding of the Scientific-Research Chair of the History of Ukrainian Culture), IV, Kharkiv, 1927.

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262 Even before 1917, Ye. Zahorovsky did research in the history of foreign colonization and administration of the Southern Ukraine in the second half of the eighteenth century. He wrote the following studies: "Slavyanskaya kolonizatsiya Novorossiiskago kraya" (Slavic Colonization of New Russian Land) in Voenno-Istoricheskii Vestnik (War‑History News), Kiev, 1910; "Organizatsiya upravleniya Novorossii pri Potemkine v 1774‑1791 godakh" (Organization of the Government of New Russia under Potemkin in the Years 1774‑1791) in Zapiski Odesskago Obshchestva Istorii i drevnostei (Proceedings of the Odessa Society of History and Antiquity), XXXI, Odessa, 1913; and others.

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263 Volume 11 and 12 came out as Zapysky Nizhyn­s'koho Instytutu Sotsiyal'no Vykhovannya (Proceedings of the Nizhen Institute of Social Education).

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264 Reviewed by D. I. Doroshenko in Zeitschrift für osteuropäische Geschichte,vol. V, No. 4, 1931.

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265 This work was also published in Russian under the title U istokov russkoi gosudarstvennosti (The Sources of Russian Statehood), Leningrad, 1924.

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266 V. Parkhomenko was ordered to leave the Ukraine in 1929 (in connection with the trial of the Union for Liberation of the Ukraine) and his subsequent scientific work continued in Russia, lately in Leningrad. Among his later works, the following should be noted: "K voprosu o normanskom zavoevanii i proiskhozhdenii Rusi" (On the Problem of the Norman Conquest and the Origin of Rus′) in Istorik-Marksist, No. 4, Moscow, 1938; "Pervaya izvestnaya data sushchestvovaniya gosudarstva Rusi" (The First Known Date of the Existence of the State of Rus′), ibid., No. 6; and "Kharakter i znachenie epokhi Vladimira, prinyavshego khristianstvo" (Character and Significance of the Era of Volodymyr who Accepted Christianity) in Uchenye Zapiski Leningradskogo Gosudarstvennogo Universiteta (Scientific Proceedings of Leningrad State University), VIII, Leningrad, 1941.

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267 Reviewed by D. I. Doroshenko in Zeitschrift für osteuropäische Geschichte,vol. V, No. 2, 1931.

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268 Only one historical institution remained within VUAN — The Institute of History of Material Culture, but opportunities for scientific research in the field of Ukrainian history were extremely restricted.

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269 Specifically, in VUAN alone, the following works ready for publication were lost completely: the Collection of the Historical Section of VUAN — Poludneva Ukrayina (The Southern Ukraine); Za Sto Lit (Over a Period of 100 Years), vol. VII; the last (43rd) issue of Ukrayina for 1930; volume II of Pratsi Komisiyi Sotsiyal'no‑Ekonomichnoyi Istoriyi Ukrayiny (Works of the Commission of the Social-Economic History of the Ukraine); volume VII of Pratsi Komisiyi dlya vyuchuvannya istoriyi zakhidno-rus'koho ta ukrayin­s'koho prava (Works of the Research Commission on the History of Western‑Rus′ and Ukrainian Law); volume IV of Ukrayins'kyi Arkheohrafichnyi Zbirnyk (Ukrainian Archeographic Collection); volume V of Ukrayins'kyi Arkhiv (The Ukrainian Archive) containing "Heneral'ne Slidstvo Poltav­s'koho polku 1729 roku" (A General Investigation of the Poltava Regiment in 1729); a collection of decrees granting Magdeburg Law to Ukrainian cities in the sixteenth through the eighteenth centuries; a collection of archival material of Ukrainian history of the mid‑seventeenth century, gathered by the Lviv historian V. Herasymchuk; a whole series of D. Bahaliy's works; "Ukrayins'ka kripats'ka fabryka XVIII‑XIX st." (Ukrainian Serf-worked Factories in the XVIII‑XIX Centuries) by O. Ohloblyn; volume IV of Istoriya tsukro-buryakovoyi promyslovosty Ukrayiny (History of the Sugar-beet Industry of the Ukraine) by K. Voblyi; two volumes (VI and VII) of Istoriya Ukrayin­s'koyi Literatury (History of Ukrainian Literature) by M. Hrushevsky; Materiyaly Poli­s'koyi istorychno-ekonomichnoyi ekspedytsiyi 1932 r. (Materials of the Polissya Historical-economic Expedition of 1932); and most monographs, collections of articles and archival materials. The same fate befell many historical works in Kharkiv, Odessa and other scholar­ly centers.

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270 The following is a far from complete list of Ukrainian historians persecuted by Soviet authorities: M. Slabchenko, O. Hermayze, V. Parkhomenko, O. Hrushevsky, P. Klymenko, N. Mirza-Avak'yantz, Ye. Stashevsky, I. Cherkasky, A. Yaroshevych, V. Barvinsky, V. Romanovsky, F. Savchenko, S. Shamray, S. Hlushko, V. Novytsky, S. Borysenok, V. Otamanovsky, M. Yavorsky, M. Horban', L. Okinshevich, V. Dubrovsky, V. Miyakovsky, V. Bazylevych, O. Ryabinin-Sklyarevsky, F. Petrun', O. Plevako, D. Bovanenko, V. Kaminsky, S. Pidhaynyi, K. Kushnirchuk and many others. Only a very few of them could return to scientific work, and that, either outside the Ukrainian SSR or as emigres.

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271 Of such type were, for example, Narysy z istoriyi Ukrayiny (Outlines of the History of the Ukraine) published by the Institute between 1939 and 1941.

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272 The work was begun by the Archeographic Commission of VUAN during the time of M. Hrushevsky.

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273 Under the editor­ship of K. Huslstyi, L. Slavin (an archeologist) and F. Yastrebov, "Narys Istoryi Ukrayiny" (An Outline of the History of the Ukraine) was published in Ufa in 1942.

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274 In addition to the Institute of Ukrainian History of the Academy of Sciences of the Ukrainian SSR, scientific work in the field of Ukrainian history was also conducted during the 1938‑1941 period (although in very limited volume) by the appropriate chairs of the universities in Kiev, Kharkiv, Odessa and Lviv (1939). Volume I of Trudy istoricheksogo fakul'teta Kievskogo Gosudarstvennoago Universiteta im. T. G. Shevchenka (Works of the Faculty of History of T. H. Shevchenko State University in Kiev) came out (in Russian) in 1939 (1940); and volume I of Zapysky Istorychnoho i Filolohichnoho Fakul'tetiv L'viv­s'koho Derzhavnoho Universytetu im. I. Franka (Proceedings of the Faculties of History and Philology of I. Franko State University in Lviv) came out in 1940.

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275 The following publications are worth mentioning: Ukrayina pered vyzvol'noyu viynoyu 1648‑1654 r.r. (The Ukraine Before the War of Liberation of 1648‑1654), Kiev, 1946; Ukrayins'kyi narod u vitchyznyaniy viyni 1812 r. (The Ukrainian People in the Patriotic War of 1812), Kiev, 1948; Ustym Karmelyuk, Kiev, 1948; Selyans'kyi Rukh v 40‑kh r.r. XIX st. (The Peasant Movement in the Forties of the Nineteenth Century), Kiev, 1949; and others.

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276 A flagrant example of this is Istoriya Ukrayin­s'koyi RSR (History of the Ukrainian SSR), the first volume of which was published in Kiev in 1954 by the Institute of History of the Academy of Sciences of the Ukrainian SSR (this is the present name of the former Institute of Ukrainian History), edited by O. Kasymenko (chief editor) and V. Dyadychenko, F. Los', F. Shevchenko and F. Yastrebov.


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