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Bill Thayer

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Frederick Copleston, S. J.:
A History of Philosophy

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Volume I: Greece and Rome

Chapter Page

Preface

v

Introduction

1

Part I
Pre-Socratic Philosophy

The Cradle of Western Thought: Ionia

13

The Pioneers: Early Ionian Philosophers

22

The Pythagorean Society

29

The Word of Heraclitus

38

The One of Parmenides and Melissus

47

The Dialectic of Zeno

54

Empedocles of Akragas

61

The Advance of Anaxagoras

66

The Atomists

72

Pre‑Socratic Philosophy

76

Part II
The Socratic Period

The Sophists

81

Some Individual Sophists

87

Socrates

96

Minor Socratic Schools

116

Democritus of Abdera

124

Part III
Plato

Life of Plato

127

Plato's Works

133

Theory of Knowledge

142

The Doctrine of Forms

163

The Psychology of Plato

207

Moral Theory

216

The State

223

Physics of Plato

244

Art

253

Note on the Influence of Plato

260

The Old Academy

263

Part IV
Aristotle

Life and Writings of Aristotle

266

Logic of Aristotle

277

The Metaphysics of Aristotle

287

Philosophy of Nature and Psychology

320

Aristotle's Ethics

332

Politics

351

Aesthetics of Aristotle

359

Note on the Older Peripatetics

369

Plato and Aristotle

372

Part V
Post-Aristotelian Philosophy

Introductory

379

The Early Stoa

385

Epicureanism

401

Note on Cynicism in the First Period of the Hellenistic Epoch

412

The Older Sceptics, the Middle and New Academies

413

The Middle Stoa

421

Note on the Peripatetic School in the Hellenistic-Roman Period

425

The Later Stoa

428

Cynics, Eclectics, Sceptics

438

Neo-Pythagoreanism

446

Note on Apollonius of Tyana

449

Middle Platonism

451

Jewish-Hellenistic Philosophy

457

Plotinian Neo-Platonism

463

Other Neo-Platonic Schools

476

Concluding Review

486

Appendices

Some Abbreviations used in this Volume

507

A Note on Sources

510

A Few Books

512

Technical Details

Edition Used

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Proofreading

As almost always, I retyped the text by hand rather than scanning it — not only to minimize errors prior to proofreading, but as an opportunity for me to become intimately familiar with the work, an exercise which I heartily recommend: Qui scribit, bis legit. (Well-meaning attempts to get me to scan text, if successful, would merely turn me into some kind of machine: gambit declined.)

This transcription has been minutely proofread. I run a first proofreading pass immediately after entering each chapter; then a second proofreading, detailed and meant to be final: in the table of contents above, the chapters are shown on blue backgrounds, indicating that I believe them to be completely errorfree; any red backgrounds would mean that the chapter had not received that second final proofreading. The header bar at the top of each chapter page will remind you with the same color scheme. [violet backgrounds indicate pages where the text has been thoroughly proofread, but from which images or the like may be missing.]

Inevitably, though the print edition seems to have been well proofread, I've still caught a few errors in it, not all of them even strictly typographical. Those I could fix, I did, marking the correction each time with one of these: º; as elsewhere on my site, glide your cursor over the bullet to read the variant. If for some reason I could not fix the error, I marked it º. Similarly, bullets before measurements provide conversions to metric, e.g., 10 miles. Very occasionally, also, I use this blue circle to make some brief comment.

Inconsistencies in punctuation have been corrected to the author's usual style, in slightly brighter blue — barely noticeable on the page, but it shows up in the sourcecode as <SPAN CLASS="emend">. Finally, a number of odd spellings, curious turns of phrase, apparently duplicated citations, etc. have been marked <!-- sic --> in the sourcecode, just to confirm that they were checked.

Any other mistakes, please drop me a line, of course: especially if you have the printed edition in front of you.

Pagination and Local Links

For citation and indexing purposes, the pagination is indicated by local links in the sourcecode and made apparent in the right margin of the text at the page turns (like at the end of this line p57 ). Sticklers for total accuracy will of course find the anchor at its exact place in the sourcecode.

In addition, I've inserted a number of other local anchors: whatever links might be required to accommodate the author's own cross-references, as well as a few others for my own purposes. If in turn you have a website and would like to target a link to some specific passage of the text, please let me know: I'll be glad to insert a local anchor there as well.


My icon for the book is my own photograph of Raphael's fresco "The School of Athens" in the Stanze di Raffaello in the Vatican Palace. The subject is Greek philosophy, as interpreted in a very Catholic place.


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