This page has been carefully proofread
actuarii, originally scribes or secretaries; cf. Suet. Jul. 55.3 (of short-hand writers). They were assigned to various posts which required the keeping of accounts, the issuing of warrants, and the like, XV.5.3, note; XX.5.9; XXV.10.7 (an auditor).
admissionum magister, chief master of ceremonies under the magister officiorum, XV.5.18, note. Admissionum proximus, one of the assistants of the magister, of whom there were four, each in charge of a decury of admissionales, XXII.7.2.
agens palatii curam = curator palatii, a marshal of the court, XIV.7.19.
agens scholam scutariorum secundam = tribunus (cf. XXVI.1.4); XXVI.1.5.
agentes in rebus, XIV.11.19, note, XVI.8.3; 5.11 (from which it is inferred that they formed a schola palatina; see schola). They were organized and dressed as soldiers and divided into five grades, with regular promotion from the lowest to the highest; and they sometimes rose to still higher positions. They were at first under the praetorian prefect; after Constantine, under the master of the offices.
agrimensor, a land-surveyor, XIX.11.8.
Alamanni, a part of the Roman auxiliaries in Britain, XXIX.4.7.
antepilani, XVI.12.20, note. Used metaphorically in XXVIII.1.46.
apparitores, a general term for the attendants on a higher official, XV.3.8; 5.36; 7.3; etc., nec praefectianus nec praesidialis apparitor, XVII.3.6; cella castrensis apparitor, XXVI.8.5. See also domesticus.
Armeniaca secunda, the name of a legion, XX.7.1.
Ascarii, a corps of the auxilia palatina, XXVII.2.9.
ballistarii, XVI.2.5, note.
Bracchiati, a body of Roman soldiers divided into seniores and iuniores, named in connection with the Cornuti. According to Lydus, De Mag. I.46, βραχιᾶτοι ἥτοι ἀρμιλλίγεροι, ψελιοφόροι, "wearers of bracelets," XV.5.30; XVI.12.43.
candidati militares, two bodies of the court troops, divided into seniores and iuniores. They were selected because of their height and handsome appearance, had the rank of subaltern officers, and were in line for appointment as tribunes; they sometimes formed an imperial bodyguard, XV.5.16; XXV.3.6; XXXI.13.14.
castra praetoria, the praetorian camp, used by Ammianus (XVI.12.49) for the centre of the battle-line, "forte quia imperator, quoties in exercitu est, eo in loco tutiore consistere solet . . . praetorium erat in medio castrorum" (Valesius).
centurio rerum nitentium, XVI.6.2, note; later we find a tribunus (Not. Imp. Occid., p1818), and still later a comes rerum nitentium (Cassiod., Varia, VII, Epist. XIII). The centurio was perhaps a subordinate of the curator statuarum.
clibanarii, see cataphractarii.
comitatensis fabrica, see fabrica.
compulsores, collectors of money due to the fiscus, XXII.6.1.
Cornuti, a body of Roman soldiers, divided into seniores and iuniores; cf. Bracchiati, with whom they are associated in XV.5.30; XVI.12.43. According to the Notit. Dig. Orient. 6.48 there was also a mounted troop. They perhaps derived their name from Cornutum in Illyricum.
correctores, XV.5.14, note.
cubicularii, chamberlains, XX.8.4.
curator, a marshal of the court, XIV.7.19, agens palatii Caesaris curam; curator urbis, usually a Roman senator sent to the provinces as a city official; he ranked above the local decuriones, but below the duumviri, XIV.7.17.
(cursus publicus), the state courier-service, consisting of relays of horses and vehicles at stations along the highways, for the use of those who were sent to the provinces on official business, or summoned to the court; see vehiculis publicis, XXI.13.7; the clavicularis cursus (XX.4.11, note) apparently refers to the use of clavulae, vehicles of some special sort, but the derivation and meaning of clavularis are uncertain; see, however, XX.4.11, note.
Decimani, the soldiers of the Tenth legion; see Fortenses.
decuriones, senators in municipal towns and colonies, XXVIII.6.10.
diogmitae, light-armed soldiers, used especially in the pursuit of the enemy, XXVII.9.6.
duces, used generally of leaders of armies (XV.5.25); in a narrower sense, generals or governors of varying rank and importance, distinguished as militares and provinciarum. They ranked below the comites (XXIII.3.5); in the west there were two comites and thirteen duces; in the east six comites and twelve duces; used of a Persian, XVIII.5.3. Dux Aegypti, XXIII.3.5; XXIV.1.9.
fabricae, manufactories of arms; at Antioch XIV.7.18, note; Cremona, XV.5.9; Treves, XXIX.3.4; fabricae tribunus, XIV.7.18, 9.4; XV.5.9; praepositus, XXIX.3.4; comitatensis fabrica, used metaphorically, XVIII.4.2.
Fortenses, a name applied to the soldiers of the Tenth legion, XVIII.9.3, see note, and cf. Dessau, Inscr. Lat., Index, p55.
hastati, standard bearers, XVI.12.20, note.
largitionum comes, see comes sacrarum largitionum.
libellis respondens, another term for the magister libellorum, in charge of petitions, XX.9.8.
magister, a civil and military title, see Boak, Bibliographical Note. It included the m. admissionum, XV.5.18, note; the magistri peditum, equitum, and militum, see Introd., p. xxxiv; the m. libellorum, see libellis respondens; the m. officiorum, XV.5.12, note; and the m. memoriae, XV.5.4, note.
Martenses milites, a troop of soldiers perhaps named from the Marteni, a people of Babylonia, XXVI.6.7.
minister triclinii, a steward, XV.3.4.
ministri fucandae purpurae, XIV.9.7.
ministri tori et mensae, chamberlains and stewards, XIV.11.16.
notarii, secretaries and stenographers, XIV.5.6; 9.3; XV.3.4; the highest in rank was the primicerius (primus omnium notariorum), XXVI.6.3, next the secundicerius (secundum inter notarios adeptus gradum), XXIX.1.8. These two are combined in summitates notariorum, XXVI.6.1. There were three classes of notarii, two of tribuni et notarii, with the rank of clarissimi, XVII.5.15 (see note) in the service respectively of the emperor (XXIX.2.5; XXX.2.11) and of the praetorian prefects, and a third of domestici et notarii, who were attached to military commanders. Tribunus and militare, as used of notarii, do not imply military service; the former is merely a designation of rank, and militare and militia are used also of court duties.
officiales, subordinate officers of the magistrates, XXVII.7.5.
ordinum primi, XVI.12.20, see note.
palatina cohors, used ironically; see palatini.
p580 palatini, used (1) of court attendants in general (XXII.4.1; cf. palatina cohors, XVIII.5.4); (2) of subordinates of the comites largitionum and rei privatae, who collected the taxes (XXVI.6.5); (3) of the soldiers on duty at the court, as opposed to those on the frontiers, XIV.7.9, note; XIV.7.12.
Pannonica et Moesiaca, names of legions, XXIX.6.13.
parens publicus = pater patriae, XXIX.2.7.
patriciatus columna prima, the noblest of the patricians, XXIX.2.8.
phylarchus, a Greek military title, used of the Saracens, XXIV.2.4.
praefectus Asiae, who ruled Asia as deputy of the prefects, XXIX.1.9.
praefectus praetorio, see Introd., pp. xxxi ff.; also XV.5.5; XVII.3.4; XXI.16.2; XXII.3.1, in which some of the powers of the prefects are mentioned; praefectus praetorio praesens, XIV.1.10, see note; XXIII.5.6; cf. XX.4.8.
praepositus cubiculi, see cubiculi praepositus.
praepositus fabricae, see fabrica.
praepositus Tyrii textrini, XIV.9.7.
praeventores et superventores, XVIII.9.3, note.
primanorum legio, a legion of palace troops, under the magister militum praesens; that they also took part in campaigns is shown by their presence at the battle of Argentoratum, XVI.12.49.
primates, chief officials: members of the consistorium, XV.5.18; military leaders, XXIV.7.1; the leading men of cities, XIV.7.1; of a local senate (ordinis), XXVIII.6.4; cf. ordinis vertices, XIV.7.2.
princeps apparitionis praefecturae praetoriae, XV.3.8; XVI.8.3. He belonged to the schola of agentes in rebus, and commonly retired after two years; Rufinus (XVI.8.3) is mentioned as an exception to this rule.
principia, the higher in rank among the soldiers; the principiorum vertices (XV.5.16) were the tribunes, centurions, and draconarii; cf. principes et tribuni, XXII.3.2, 9, where it seems to be used in the sense of p581 high officers.
proculcatores, the same as speculatores, or scouts, XXVII.10.10, also called exculcatores by Vegetius.
procurator Aegypti, XVII.4.5, note.
promoti, XV.4.10, see note; promotorum tribunus, XXXI.13.18. The meaning of promoti is not certain, except that they were a select body of troops. It is not certain that the passage from Vegetius in the note refers to them.
pyrricha, the military dance of the Spartans and Cretans, consisting of rhythmical motions in imitation of martial attitudes and motions, used in XVI.5.10 of rhythmic marching to the music of pipes. It was used also of various forms of entertainment; cf. Suet., Jul. XXXIX.1; Nero, XII.1, note.
rector, a word used by Ammianus for various commanders and governors; rector Aegypti, XXII.14.6 (for praefectus); secundae Pannoniae, XV.3.7 (for consularis, cf. XVI.8.3); pedestris militiae, XV.5.2; XVIII.3.1 (for magister peditum); armaturarum, XV.4.10; gentilium, XV.5.6; scutariorum, XIV.10.8 (for tribunus).
referendarius, an official who, on behalf of the Court, drew up a statement of the conflicting claims of the litigants, Exc. 85.
Reges, XVI.12.45, see note.
scholae, a name applied to the cohorts of soldiers on guard before the palace, because they occupied scholae, or barracks, near the palace, XIV.7.9 (note 3), 12; domesticorum, XXVI.5.3; scutariorum prima et secunda, XXII.11.2; scholarum capita, XXV.10.8; agens scholam scutariorum secundam, XXVI.1.5.
stratores, men who were sent to the provinces to procure horses p582 for the imperial stables, XXIX.3.5; also strator miles, one who took care of the emperor's horse and helped him mount it, XXX.5.19.
superventores, see praeventores.
susceptores, officials who exacted grain for the soldiers from the provincials and stored it in granaries; they gave it out in exchange for receipts specifying the time and the amount, XVII.10.4, note; they are called suscipientes in XIX.11.3.
Thebaeae legiones, XIV.11.14. In the Notit. Imperii included under the forces of the magister militum in Thrace. The reason for the name is uncertain.
vexillatio, originally a select body of troops made up of, or from, various legions; in Ammianus a cavalry force, contrasted with legiones and numeri (Cod. Theod. II, p314); XXV.1.9.
vexilla, banners, especially the standards of the maniples, XV.5.16.
vicarii, second in command to the praefectus praetorio; they governed dioceses or provinces; Asia, XXVII.9.6; Africa, XXVII.6.8; Spain, XXIII.1.4; Italy, XXVII.7.5. Vicarius urbis Romae, XXVIII.5.1, 6; the latter reference shows that he outranked the praefectus annonae. Ammianus uses various paraphrases, such as agens pro praefectis, XIV.5.7; curans Romani2 vicem, XXIX.5.6; curans vicariam praefecturam, XVII.11.5; potestatis vicariae per Italiam, XXVII.7.5; regens vicariam praefecturam, XXVIII.1.5.
xystarcha, the head of a wrestling school, XXI.1.4.
Zabdiceni sagittarii, XX.7.1, in the Not. Imperii included under the command of the dux of Mesopotamia, of which country the Zabdiceni were natives.
Zinnanorum legio, XXV.1.19. In the Not. Imperii Orientalis,º Tzanni are mentioned among the troops of the magister militum per Thracias; the Tzanni, called Sani in early times, were neighbours of the Armenians and the Lazi, dwelling on the river Phasis in Colchis (Procopius, II.29.14; I, p136 ff. L. C. L.).
1 Not confined to Vol. I; and including bodies of troops and other military terms.
2 The name of a praetorian prefect.
Images with borders lead to more information.
The thicker the border, the more information. (Details here.)
A page or image on this site is in the public domain ONLY if its URL has a total of one *asterisk. If the URL has two **asterisks, the item is copyright someone else, and used by permission or fair use. If the URL has none the item is © Bill Thayer.
See my copyright page for details and contact information.
Page updated: 20 Aug 07