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Ammianus Marcellinus

 p576  Index of Officials​1

actuarii, originally scribes or secretaries; cf. Suet. Jul. 55.3 (of short-hand writers). They were assigned to various posts which required the keeping of accounts, the issuing of warrants, and the like, XV.5.3, note; XX.5.9; XXV.10.7 (an auditor).

admissionum magister, chief master of ceremonies under the magister officiorum, XV.5.18, note. Admissionum proximus, one of the assistants of the magister, of whom there were four, each in charge of a decury of admissionales, XXII.7.2.

aedilis, an aedile, one of the decuriones (or curiales, q.v.) of a municipal town, XXVIII.6.10.

agens palatii curamcurator palatii, a marshal of the court, XIV.7.19.

agens pro praefectisvicarius, XIV.5.7.

agens scholam scutariorum secundamtribunus (cf. XXVI.1.4); XXVI.1.5.

agentes in rebus, XIV.11.19, note, XVI.8.3; 5.11 (from which it is inferred that they formed a schola palatina; see schola). They were organized and dressed as soldiers and divided into five grades, with regular promotion from the lowest to the highest; and they sometimes rose to still higher positions. They were at first under the praetorian prefect; after Constantine, under the master of the offices.

agrimensor, a land-surveyor, XIX.11.8.

Alamanni, a part of the Roman auxiliaries in Britain, XXIX.4.7.

antepilani, XVI.12.20, note. Used metaphorically in XXVIII.1.46.

apparitores, a general term for the attendants on a higher official, XV.3.8; 5.36; 7.3; etc., nec praefectianus nec praesidialis apparitor, XVII.3.6; cella castrensis apparitor, XXVI.8.5. See also domesticus.

armaturae, two scholae of heavy-armed troops, equipped with large shields and long spears. They were commanded by a tribune (XIV.11.21; XV.5.6), called rector in XV.4.10.

Armeniaca secunda, the name of a legion, XX.7.1.

Ascarii, a corps of the auxilia palatina, XXVII.2.9.

ballistarii, XVI.2.5, note.

Bracchiati, a body of Roman soldiers divided into seniores and iuniores, named in connection with the Cornuti. According to Lydus, De Mag. I.46, βραχιᾶτοι ἥτοι ἀρμιλλίγεροι, ψελιοφόροι, "wearers of bracelets," XV.5.30; XVI.12.43.

Caesares, see note 3, p3, and Introd., p. xxiv. The following references throw light on the subordination of the Caesars to the Augustus, XIV.11.10; XVII.9.6; XX.8.6.

campidoctores, XV.3.10; see note. They trained the soldiers also in military exercises, martial dancing, and rhythmical marching (see pyrricha).

campiductores, subordinate military officers, XIX.6.12; regarded by some as equivalent to campigeni (= antesignani) in Vegetius, II.7.

candidati militares, two bodies of the court troops, divided into seniores and iuniores. They were selected because of their height and handsome appearance, had the rank of subaltern officers, and were in line for appointment as tribunes; they sometimes formed an imperial bodyguard, XV.5.16; XXV.3.6; XXXI.13.14.

capita scholarum, the capita contuberniorum of Vegetius, II.8 and 13. They had charge of the troops occupying the same  p577 quarters or tents, XXV.10.8.

castra praetoria, the praetorian camp, used by Ammianus (XVI.12.49) for the centre of the battle-line, "forte quia imperator, quoties in exercitu est, eo in loco tutiore consistere solet . . . praetorium erat in medio castrorum" (Valesius).

castrensis sacri palatii (comes), marshal of the court, in charge of pages, chamberlains, cooks, etc., Introd. p. xxxvi; cf. ex cura palatii, XXII.3.7.

cataphractarii, XVI.2.5; see note. They are also called clibanarii in XVI.10.8, see note. See also Claudian, In Ruf. II.357 ff. and De VI Cons. Honor. 569 ff.

Celtae et Petulantes, bodies of Roman auxiliary troops (see Petulantes), XX.4.2, 20; XXI.3.2; XXII.12.6; XXX.10.4.

centurio rerum nitentium, XVI.6.2, note; later we find a tribunus (Not. Imp. Occid., p1818), and still later a comes rerum nitentium (Cassiod., Varia, VII, Epist. XIII). The centurio was perhaps a subordinate of the curator statuarum.

clarissimi, see Introd., p. xxviii, XXVI.6.18; XXVIII.1.27.

clibanarii, see cataphractarii.

comes, see Introd., pp. xxviii f. We also find comites in charge of provinces: Aegypti, XXIII.3.5; Africae, XXI.7.4; see also comes Orientis, XIV.1.3.

comes domesticorum, see Introd., p. xlii; XIV.10.8 and note; 11.14, 19.

comes rei castrensis, vicarius of the magister militum, XIV.11.5; XXX.7.3.

comes rerum privatarum, see Introd., pp. xli f.; cf. comes rei privatae, XV.5.4; 3.7.

comes sacrarum largitionum see Introd., pp. xl f.; XIV.7.9; XVI.8.5; XVIII.5.2. Cf. qui largitiones curat, XXI.8.1; qui aerarium tuebatur, XX.11.5.

comitatenses milites, household troops which were taken on campaigns; distinguished from palatini and from limitanei and ripenses, XXIX.5.4.

comitatensis fabrica, see fabrica.

comites sagittarii,º mounted archers who accompanied the emperor on a campaign, XVIII.9.4, a division of the comitum turmae equestres.

comites thesaurorum, who collected the revenues in the provinces and rendered an account to the comes largitionum: per Thracias XXIX.1.26; qui Gallicanos tuebatur thesauros, XXII.3.7; cf. XV.5.36.

comitum turma equestris, a troop of select barbarian horsemen, XV.4.10, note; XVIII.9.4.

compulsores, collectors of money due to the fiscus, XXII.6.1.

consiliarius, a general term for members of the consistorium, XXV.3.14; XXVIII.1.21; 6.12.

consistoriani, members of the consistorium, XXXI.12.10. As distinguished from militares it designated the civil members, XV.5.12; 6.1.

consistorium, see Introd., pp. xxix f.; XIV.7.11 note; XV.5.18; XXV.10.10.

consulares, see XV.5.14, note; consulares Piceni, XV.7.5; Syriae, XIV.7.5.

consules, see Introd., pp. xxx ff.; amplissimus magistratus, XXVI.9.1.

Cornuti, a body of Roman soldiers, divided into seniores and iuniores; cf. Bracchiati, with whom they are associated in XV.5.30; XVI.12.43. According to the Notit. Dig. Orient. 6.48 there was also a mounted troop. They perhaps derived their name from Cornutum in Illyricum.

correctores, XV.5.14, note.

cubicularii, chamberlains, XX.8.4.

cubiculi praepositus, see XIV.10.5, note; XV.3.2; XVI.7.2.

curans summitatem necessitatum castrensium, chief commissary  p578 officer, XXVI.1.14.

curator, a marshal of the court, XIV.7.19, agens palatii Caesaris curam; curator urbis, usually a Roman senator sent to the provinces as a city official; he ranked above the local decuriones, but below the duumviri, XIV.7.17.

curiales, used by Ammianus in the sense of courtiers in XXI.12.20; in that of decuriones in XXI.9.12; XXVII.7.7.

(cursus publicus), the state courier-service, consisting of relays of horses and vehicles at stations along the highways, for the use of those who were sent to the provinces on official business, or summoned to the court; see vehiculis publicis, XXI.13.7; the clavicularis cursus (XX.4.11, note) apparently refers to the use of clavulae, vehicles of some special sort, but the derivation and meaning of clavularis are uncertain; see, however, XX.4.11, note.

Decimani, the soldiers of the Tenth legion; see Fortenses.

decuriones, senators in municipal towns and colonies, XXVIII.6.10.

decurio palatii, one of the three officers in charge of the thirty silentiarii, whose duty it was to preserve the necessary quiet in the presence of the emperor, XX.4.20, note.

diogmitae, light-armed soldiers, used especially in the pursuit of the enemy, XXVII.9.6.

Divitenses et Tungricani, XXVI.6.12; 7.14; XXVII.1.2. Auxiliary troops at the disposition of the commander of the infantry, Not. Imperii, p1483.

domestici, household troops, commanded by a comes domesticorum (XXVI.5.3); see scholae.

domesticus, apparently = apparitor; see apparitores, XV.6.1.

draconarius, a standard bearer, XVI.10.7, where the dracones are described, cf. Claudian, In Ruf., II.177; XVI.12.39; XX.4.18.

dracones, standards of the cohorts in the form of dragons, adopted during the reign of Trajan, XIV.5.16; see draconarius.

duces, used generally of leaders of armies (XV.5.25); in a narrower sense, generals or governors of varying rank and importance, distinguished as militares and provinciarum. They ranked below the comites (XXIII.3.5); in the west there were two comites and thirteen duces; in the east six comites and twelve duces; used of a Persian, XVIII.5.3. Dux Aegypti, XXIII.3.5; XXIV.1.9.

fabricae, manufactories of arms; at Antioch XIV.7.18, note; Cremona, XV.5.9; Treves, XXIX.3.4; fabricae tribunus, XIV.7.18, 9.4; XV.5.9; praepositus, XXIX.3.4; comitatensis fabrica, used metaphorically, XVIII.4.2.

fabricenses, workmen employed in the fabricae, XXXI.6.2.

Flavia prima, the name of a legion, XX.6.8; secunda, XX.7.1.

Fortenses, a name applied to the soldiers of the Tenth legion, XVIII.9.3, see note, and cf. Dessau, Inscr. Lat., Index, p55.

gentiles, XIV.7.9, see note; gentiles scutarii, XX.2.5; rector gentilium, XV.5.6.

hastati, standard bearers, XVI.12.20, note.

Herculiani et Ioviani, legions so named by Diocletian and Maximian; Diocletian was called Iovius, and his son Herculeus, XXII.3.2; XXV.6.2.

honorati, XIV.5.3, see note; XXII.7.1; 9.16; XXIX.1.34. The word is used in its ordinary (non-technical) sense in XIV.1.6.

iudices, the word is used of  p579 Ursicinus, XVIII.6.12. For ordinarii iudices see ordinariae dignitates.º Introd., p. xxvi, note 2.

lancearii (lanciarii) et mattiarii, troops so called from their arms, XXI.13.16; XXXI.13.8; the meaning of mattium is uncertain.

largitionum comes, see comes sacrarum largitionum.

leges Corneliae, XIX.12.17, note; sumptuariae Romanorum, XVI.5.1, note.

libellis respondens, another term for the magister libellorum, in charge of petitions, XX.9.8.

magister, a civil and military title, see Boak, Bibliographical Note. It included the m. admissionum, XV.5.18, note; the magistri peditum, equitum, and militum, see Introd., p. xxxiv; the m. libellorum, see libellis respondens; the m. officiorum, XV.5.12, note; and the m. memoriae, XV.5.4, note.

Martenses milites, a troop of soldiers perhaps named from the Marteni, a people of Babylonia, XXVI.6.7.

militares, military officials, contrasted with consistoriani, XV.5.12; 6.1; with honorati, XIV.5.3, note.

minister triclinii, a steward, XV.3.4.

ministri fucandae purpurae, XIV.9.7.

ministri tori et mensae, chamberlains and stewards, XIV.11.16.

monetae praepositus, director of the mint, XXII.11.9; m. procurator, XXVIII.1.29.

notarii, secretaries and stenographers, XIV.5.6; 9.3; XV.3.4; the highest in rank was the primicerius (primus omnium notariorum), XXVI.6.3, next the secundicerius (secundum inter notarios adeptus gradum), XXIX.1.8. These two are combined in summitates notariorum, XXVI.6.1. There were three classes of notarii, two of tribuni et notarii, with the rank of clarissimi, XVII.5.15 (see note) in the service respectively of the emperor (XXIX.2.5; XXX.2.11) and of the praetorian prefects, and a third of domestici et notarii, who were attached to military commanders. Tribunus and militare, as used of notarii, do not imply military service; the former is merely a designation of rank, and militare and militia are used also of court duties.

numerarius, an accountant, or cashier in the service of the commander of the cavalry, XIX.9.2; the same as rationarius, XV.3.36; XVIII.5.1.

numeri, a general term applied to bodies of troops of varying sizes, XIV.7.19; XXIX.3.7.

officiales, subordinate officers of the magistrates, XXVII.7.5.

officiorum magister, see magister and Introd., pp. xxxvii f.; XV.5.12, note; XX. 2.2; 8.19; 9.5, 8; XXVI.4.4; 5.7.

ordinariae dignitates, civil officials, as opposed to the military, XIV.10.4 (of the pretorian prefect); cf. ordinarios iudices, XVI.8.13.

ordines municipales, the local senate, XXI.12.23; o. oppidorum, XXVII.7.6.

ordinum primi, XVI.12.20, see note.

paedagogiani pueri, pages, XXVI.6.15; XXIX.3.3.

palatina cohors, used ironically; see palatini.

 p580  palatini, used (1) of court attendants in general (XXII.4.1; cf. palatina cohors, XVIII.5.4); (2) of subordinates of the comites largitionum and rei privatae, who collected the taxes (XXVI.6.5); (3) of the soldiers on duty at the court, as opposed to those on the frontiers, XIV.7.9, note; XIV.7.12.

Pannonica et Moesiaca, names of legions, XXIX.6.13.

parens publicuspater patriae, XXIX.2.7.

Parthica prima, XX.6.8; secunda, XX.7.1; quinta, XVIII.9.3; names of legions.

patriciatus columna prima, the noblest of the patricians, XXIX.2.8.

patricius, XXVI.6.7, see Introd., p. xxviii.

perfectissimi, a designation of rank, see Introd., p. xxviii; XXI.16.12.

Petulantes, a name applied to a legion or troop of auxiliaries, probably because of their disposition, XXII.12.6; usually joined with the Celtae, XX.4.20, etc.

phylarchus, a Greek military title, used of the Saracens, XXIV.2.4.

praefecti Britanniae, XIV.5.7; XXIII.1.2; XXVIII.8.10.

praefectus Aegypti, XXI.16.6. The proper title, cf. procurator Aegypti. See also dux.

praefectus annonae, the official who had charge of the grain supply of Rome, subordinate to the praefectus urbi and the vicarius Romae, XXVIII.1.31.

praefectus Asiae, who ruled Asia as deputy of the prefects, XXIX.1.9.

praefectus praetorio, see Introd., pp. xxxi ff.; also XV.5.5; XVII.3.4; XXI.16.2; XXII.3.1, in which some of the powers of the prefects are mentioned; praefectus praetorio praesens, XIV.1.10, see note; XXIII.5.6; cf. XX.4.8.

praepositus cubiculi, see cubiculi praepositus.

praepositus fabricae, see fabrica.

praepositus Martensium, a military officer apparently ranking below the tribunes (Vegetius, II.12); XXVI.16.7.

praepositus Tyrii textrini, XIV.9.7.

praeses, see note on XV.5.14; praeses Africae, XXVII.9.3; XXVIII.6.22.

praesidialis, one who had held the office of praeses, XXII.14.4; XXIX.1.6; praesidialis apparitor, XVII.3.6; praesidiale officium, XXVIII.1.5.

praeventores et superventores, XVIII.9.3, note.

primanorum legio, a legion of palace troops, under the magister militum praesens; that they also took part in campaigns is shown by their presence at the battle of Argentoratum, XVI.12.49.

primates, chief officials: members of the consistorium, XV.5.18; military leaders, XXIV.7.1; the leading men of cities, XIV.7.1; of a local senate (ordinis), XXVIII.6.4; cf. ordinis vertices, XIV.7.2.

primicerius protectorum, an officer of the guard, ranking next below the comes and the tribunus; below him were a secundicerius and the decem primi, XVIII.3.5. Cf. notarii.

primus ordinis domesticorum, the same as the primicerius (q.v.), XXV.5.4.

princeps apparitionis praefecturae praetoriae, XV.3.8; XVI.8.3. He belonged to the schola of agentes in rebus, and commonly retired after two years; Rufinus (XVI.8.3) is mentioned as an exception to this rule.

principia, the higher in rank among the soldiers; the principiorum vertices (XV.5.16) were the tribunes, centurions, and draconarii; cf. principes et tribuni, XXII.3.2, 9, where it seems to be used in the sense of  p581 high officers.

proconsularis, one who had been proconsul, XXVIII.4.21; sometimes the title was held by those who had not been proconsul (cf. consularis).

proculcatores, the same as speculatores, or scouts, XXVII.10.10, also called exculcatores by Vegetius.

procurator Aegypti, XVII.4.5, note.

procurator monetae, see moneta.º

promoti, XV.4.10, see note; promotorum tribunus, XXXI.13.18. The meaning of promoti is not certain, except that they were a select body of troops. It is not certain that the passage from Vegetius in the note refers to them.

protectores, the emperor's bodyguard, see note 3, p56 and Introd., pp. x and xliii.

proximus, next in rank after the magister; proximus admissionum, XXII.7.2; proximus libellorum, XXII.9.16.

pyrricha, the military dance of the Spartans and Cretans, consisting of rhythmical motions in imitation of martial attitudes and motions, used in XVI.5.10 of rhythmic marching to the music of pipes. It was used also of various forms of entertainment; cf. Suet., Jul. XXXIX.1; Nero, XII.1, note.

quaestor (quaesitor), includes the quaestor sacri palatii, XIV.7.12, see note; XX.9.4; XXVIII.1.25, etc., and a military officer who distributed supplies to the soldiers, XIV.11.14.

rationalis, a treasurer or fiscal agent, XV.5.8, see note; XXII.4.9; for their conduct, XXVIII.2.13. Alexander Severus (Lampr. 46) malum necessarium eos appellare solebat.

rationarius the same as numerarius (q.v.), XVIII.5.1; XXVI.1.6.

rector, a word used by Ammianus for various commanders and governors; rector Aegypti, XXII.14.6 (for praefectus); secundae Pannoniae, XV.3.7 (for consularis, cf. XVI.8.3); pedestris militiae, XV.5.2; XVIII.3.1 (for magister peditum); armaturarum, XV.4.10; gentilium, XV.5.6; scutariorum, XIV.10.8 (for tribunus).

referendarius, an official who, on behalf of the Court, drew up a statement of the conflicting claims of the litigants, Exc. 85.

Reges, XVI.12.45, see note.

regina, the wife of Constantine, XV.2.8; of Gallus Caesar, XIV.9.3.

rex, a foreign title, bestowed also on Hannibalianus (q.v.); rex Persarum, XIV.3.1; reges Francorum, XVI.3.2; etc.

sacerdotales, former priests in the municipal towns, ranking as decurions, XXVIII.6.10, cf. aedilis. It is formed like consularis and similar words.

scholae, a name applied to the cohorts of soldiers on guard before the palace, because they occupied scholae, or barracks, near the palace, XIV.7.9 (note 3), 12; domesticorum, XXVI.5.3; scutariorum prima et secunda, XXII.11.2; scholarum capita, XXV.10.8; agens scholam scutariorum secundam, XXVI.1.5.

scutarii, XIV.7.9, note 4; scutariorum rector, XIV.10.8; s. tribunus, XIV.11.11; XVI.11.6; XIX.11.16.

senatus, Introd., p. xxix; coetus amplissimus, XXVIII.1.48;º senati caput, a consul, Exc. 53.

stabuli tribunus or comes, XIV.10.8; XX.4.4; XXVIII.2.10; XXX.5.19; qui stabulum curabat, XXXI.13.18.

stratores, men who were sent to the provinces to procure horses  p582 for the imperial stables, XXIX.3.5; also strator miles, one who took care of the emperor's horse and helped him mount it, XXX.5.19.

superventores, see praeventores.

susceptores, officials who exacted grain for the soldiers from the provincials and stored it in granaries; they gave it out in exchange for receipts specifying the time and the amount, XVII.10.4, note; they are called suscipientes in XIX.11.3.

tabularius praesidialis officii, a cashier in the service of the governor of a province, of lower rank than the numerarius, XXVIII.1.5.

thalamus, used for cubiculum, XV.2.10; XXII.3.12.

Thebaeae legiones, XIV.11.14. In the Notit. Imperii included under the forces of the magister militum in Thrace. The reason for the name is uncertain.

thesaurus, a treasury, XV.5.36; see comes thesaurorum.

tribunus, see Introd., pp. xliii ff. Add vexillationum, XXV.1.9.

(utricularii), XXIV.3.11. They are not mentioned by this name, and are called architecti in XXV.6.15.

vacans tribunus, see Introd., p. xliv; XV.3.10; XVI.17.62; XVIII.2.2; XXXI.13.18. The term sometimes refers to one who has completed his period of service.

vexillatio, originally a select body of troops made up of, or from, various legions; in Ammianus a cavalry force, contrasted with legiones and numeri (Cod. Theod. II, p314); XXV.1.9.

vexilla, banners, especially the standards of the maniples, XV.5.16.

vicarii, second in command to the praefectus praetorio; they governed dioceses or provinces; Asia, XXVII.9.6; Africa, XXVII.6.8; Spain, XXIII.1.4; Italy, XXVII.7.5. Vicarius urbis Romae, XXVIII.5.16; the latter reference shows that he outranked the praefectus annonae. Ammianus uses various paraphrases, such as agens pro praefectis, XIV.5.7; curans Romani​2 vicem, XXIX.5.6; curans vicariam praefecturam, XVII.11.5; potestatis vicariae per Italiam, XXVII.7.5; regens vicariam praefecturam, XXVIII.1.5.

Victores, the name of a legion, XXIV.4.23; XXIX.3.7; associated with the Jovii, XXV.6.3; XXVI.7.13; XXVII.8.7.

xystarcha, the head of a wrestling school, XXI.1.4.

Zabdiceni sagittarii, XX.7.1, in the Not. Imperii included under the command of the dux of Mesopotamia, of which country the Zabdiceni were natives.

Zinnanorum legio, XXV.1.19. In the Not. Imperii Orientalis,º Tzanni are mentioned among the troops of the magister militum per Thracias; the Tzanni, called Sani in early times, were neighbours of the Armenians and the Lazi, dwelling on the river Phasis in Colchis (Procopius, II.29.14; I, p136 ff. L. C. L.).

The Loeb Editor's Notes:

1 Not confined to Vol. I; and including bodies of troops and other military terms.

2 The name of a praetorian prefect.

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