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This webpage reproduces part of the
The Tactics


(Loeb Classical Library edition, 1928)

The text is in the public domain.

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This site is not affiliated with the US Military Academy.


 p334  A List of some of the more Important
Technical Terms in Asclepiodotus​1

ἀκροβολιστής, skirmisher; of horsemen, i.3; vii.1.

ἄκρον, wing of a line of battle, i.3.

ἀμφίστομος -ον; πορεία ἀμφίστομος, when the main divisions of an army march in parallel or in column formation with the line of front-rank men on the outside, iii.5; x.22; xi.3 and 4.

ἀναστρέφω, to wheel to the original position, after a military evolution, = ἀποκαθίστημι, ἀποκαθιστάνω, xii.3.

ἀναστροφή, wheeling back to the original position, x.1 and 6; wheeling in general, vii.3 (also vii.2 K. and R.).

ἀντιπορία, counter attack, or frontal attack, x.2.

ἀντίστομος -ον; πορεία ἀντίστομος, when the main divisions of an army march in parallel formation with the line of front-rank men on the inside, xi.3.

ἀποκαθίστημι, to return to the original position, xii.11, etc.

ἀποκατάστασις, return to original position after wheeling or other evolutions, x.1; 9 and 11. Cf. ἐπικατάστασις.

ἀπόστασις; ἐν ἀποστάσει, at a distance, at some interval, x.21.

[ἀποστροφή, wheeling away (from the enemy), retreat, vii.2 (Oldfather).]

ἀποτομή; ἀποτομὴ κέρατος, half-wing, or corps, theoretically 4096 men, ii.10; iii.1 and 2.

ἀραιός -ά -όν, open, wide, opposed to πυκνός, of the space between soldiers in array, iv.1.

ἀραρός, (neu. perf. ptcp. of ἀραρίσκω used as a substantive), joining-point, point of division between  p335 the two wings of an army, ii.6.

ἁρματαρχία, unit of sixteen war‑chariots, viii.1.

ἀσπιδίσκη, small shield, i.2.

ἀσπίς, shield; ἐπ’ ἀσπίδα, to the left, x.1, etc.

δεκανία, decury, older designation for a file (λόχος), ii.2.

διάστημα, interval between soldiers in rank and in file, iv.1.

διίππευσις, breaking through with cavalry, vii.3.

διίστημι, to take distance, for the different spacings in the ranks, xii.11; cf. διάστημα.

διλοχία, two files, ii.8 and 10; iii.4.

διλοχίτης, commander of two files, ii.8.

διμοιρία, half-file, where the file had twelve men, ii.2.

διμοιρίτης, leader of a half-file, ii.2.

διπλασιάζω, to double either the number of soldiers in a given area, or the area by deploying the soldiers, x.1.

διφαλαγγία, double corps, or wing, theoretically 8192 men, ii.10.

διχοτομία, point of division, ii.6.

δορατοφόρος -ον, spear-bearing, of cavalry, i.3.

δόρυ, spear; ἐπὶ δόρυ, to the right, x.1, etc.

δρεπανηφόρος -ον, scythe-bearing, of chariots, viii.1.

εἴλη, squadron of cavalry, vii.2.

ἑκατοντάρχηςταξίαρχος, captain of hundred, really 128 men, ii.8.

ἑκατονταρχία, two platoons of light-armed troops, a company, composed of 128 men, vi.3.

ἐκπερισπασμός, three‑quarter-turn, x.1 and 8.

ἔκτακτος -η -ον; οἱ ἔκτακτοι, the supernumeraries, attached originally to the τάξις, but later either to the σύνταγμα, ii.9, or the ἑκατονταρχία of light-armed troops, vi.3, or the φάλαγξ of light-armed troops, vi.3.

ἐλεφαντάρχης, commander of sixteen war‑elephants, ix.1.

ἐμπλέκω, to incorporate, of light infantry, man beside man, in the phalanx of hoplites, vi.1.

ἐναντίος -α -ον; ἀπ’ ἐναντίας, on the other hand, i.2.

ἐνωμοτάρχης, leader of an ἐνωμοτία, ii.2.

ἐνωμοτία, quarter-file, ii.2.

ἐξάριθμος -η -ον, outside the normal number, or in addition to it, ii.9.

ἐξελιγμός, counter-march, x.13 ff.

ἐξελίσσω, to counter march, x.1; xii.1.

 p336  ἐπαγωγή, sequence formation, i.e., when one wing follows the other, both marching in column, x.1; xi.2 and 4.

ἐπιθηραρχία, a unit of four war‑elephants, ix.1.

ἐπιθήραρχος, a commander of four war‑elephants, ix.1.

ἐπικαθίστημι, to advance to original position, x.10; cf. ἐπικατάστασις.

ἐπικάμπιος -ον; ἐπικάμπιος εἰς τοὐπίσω (sc. φάλαγξ), half-square march backward, xi.1; ἐ. εἰς τὸ πρόσω, the same forward, xi.1.

ἐπικατάστασις, advance to original position after wheeling, x.1 and 9; cf. ἀποκατάστασις.

ἐπικοινωνέω, to be attached to, or stationed upon, i.3.

ἐπιλαρχία, battalion of cavalry, vii.11.

ἐπιξεναγία, a division of light-armed troops, 2048 men, vi.3.

ἐπιξεναγός, commander of an ἐπιξεναγία, vi.3.

ἐπιστάτης, 2nd, 4th, 6th, etc., man in a file, ii.3 and 4; iv.2.

ἐπιστροφή, quarter-turn, x.14, etc.; wheeling towards (the enemy), attack, vii.2.

ἐπισυζυγία, unit of eight war‑chariots, viii.1.

ἐπίταγμα, supporting-force, the phalanx of light-armed troops, 8192 men, vi.3; vii.10; the full force of cavalry, vii.11.

ἐπίταξις, supporting-position, x.1 (cf.  vii.10).

ἐπιφάνεια, facing-right, or -left, of an army, x.4 and 5.

ἑτερόστομος -ον; ἑτερόστομος πορεία, when the wings of an army march in column, with their front-line men on opposite sides, xi.4.

ἐφιππαρχία, division of cavalry, vii.11.

ζυγαρχέω, cf. ζυγάρχης, vii.9.

ζυγάρχης, rank-leader in cavalry, the man at the corner of each rank when in wedge-formation, vii.9.

ζυγαρχία, a unit of two war‑chariots, viii.1.

ζυγέω, to stand in ranks, of a phalanx, ii.6; of a cavalry squadron, vii.4 and 5, etc.

ζῴαρχος, driver or commander of a war‑elephant, ix.1.

ἡμιλόχιον, half-file, ii.2.

ἡμιλοχίτης, commander of a ἡμιλόχιον, ii.2.

ἡμισιάζω, to halve intervals, xii.11.

θηραρχία, unit of two war‑elephants, ix.1.

θηράρχος, commander of two war‑elephants, ix.1.

θυρεοφόρος, bearing a large, oblong shield, of cavalry, i.3.

 p337  ἰλάρχης, (1) front‑man of a cavalry squadron, stationed at the point of the wedge, vii.23, etc.; (2) commander of eight war‑elephants, ix.1.

ἱππαρχία, two Ταραντιναρχίαι (q.v.) of cavalry, vii.11.

κατάπυκνος -ον; ἐν καταπύκνῳ, in compact formation, v.1.

κεράρχης, (1) commander of a wing, 8192 men, ii.10; (2) commander of thirty‑two war‑elephants, ix.1.

κέρας, (1) wing of an army, formerly 2048 men = μεραρχία, later a double-corps, consisting of 8192 men, ii.10; (2) squadron of thirty‑two war chariots, viii.1.

κλίσις, right- or left-face, x.1 and 2.

κοιλέμβολος, hollow-wedge, xi.5.

κοῖλος -η -ον; κοίλη φάλαγξ, concave formation, xi.1.

κυρτός -ή -όν; κυρτὴ φάλαγξ, convex formation, xi.1.

λοξός -ή -όν; λοξὴ φάλαγξ, a phalanx in march with extended front, one wing in advance of the other, x.1; xi.1.

λοχαγός, first man and leader of a file (λόχος), ii.2, etc.

λόχος, a file, consisting of sixteen men, ii.1, etc.

μεράρχης, commander of a μεραρχία, ii.10.

μεραρχία, command of 2048 men, a division, ii.10; iii.2.

μεταβάλλω, (act.) to cause to about face, xii.5; (mid.) to about face, xii.3.

μεταβολή, about-face, x.1 and 3.

μεταγωγή, manoeuvring, wheeling, vii.5.

μετατάττω, to reorganize, ii.2.

μέτωπον, front line of phalanx, ii.5; iv.4; v.1 and 2.

μῆκος, first line of a phalanx, ii.5.

ξεναγία, two battalions of light-armed troops, a regiment of 512 men, vi.3 [supplied from Aelian, Tactica, XVI.3].

ὀκταλοχία, a military unit of eight λόχοι, ii.9.

ὁμόζυγος, comrade-in‑rank, ii.4. Cf. παραστάτης.

ὁμοιόστομος -ον; πορεία ὁμοιόστομος, when the divisions of an army march in parallel formation, with the front-line men on the same side, xi.3; or in column, with the same disposition, xi.4.

ὄμφαλος, centre, point of division between the two wings, ii.6; xii.9.

ὄρθιος -α -ον; φάλαγξ ὀρθία, the phalanx marching forward in file, or in column, xi.1 ff.

 p338  ὀρθός -ή -όν; εἰς ὀρθὸν ἀποδοῦναι, to face the front originally held, lines front, x.1 and 12; xii.6, etc.

οὐρά; ἐπ’ οὐράν, about face to the rear from the enemy, x.3; ἀπ’ οὐρᾶς, about face from the rear toward the enemy, x.3.

οὐραγός, (1) the last man in file, file-closer, ii.2; iii.6, etc.; (2) the man at the rear corner of a squadron, vii.2, etc.; (3) a supernumerary to the τάξις, ii.9; iii.6; or the ἑκατονταρχία, vi.3.

ὀχηματικός -ή -όν, pertaining to the mounted force of an army, whether cavalry, chariots, or elephants, i.1 and 3.

παραγωγή, march in line, where the phalanx on the march keeps the original battle-line, x.1; xi.1 ff.

παραστάτης, comrade-in‑rank, ii.4; iv.2. Cf. ὁμόζυγος.

παράταξις, first line, or front line, of a phalanx, ii.5.

παρεδρεύω; ὁ παρεδρεύων, comrade behind in file, iii.6.

παρεμβολή, insertion, differing from παρένταξις in that soldiers of the same branch are inserted in the battle-line, as hoplites beside hoplites, vi.1.

παρένθεσις, insertion, general term including both παρεμβολή and παρένταξις, vi.1.

παρένταξις, insertion, differing from παρεμβολή in that soldiers of different branches of the army, as light-armed troops, are inserted in the phalanx of hoplites, man beside man, vi.1.

πεντακοσιάρχης, commander of a πεντακοσιαρχία, ii.10.

πεντακοσιαρχία, command of 512 men, ii.10; iii.3.

πεντηκονταρχία, two squads of light-armed troops, a platoon, composed of sixty-four men, vi.3.

περισπασμός, half-turn, x.1 and 7.

πλάγιος -α -ον; πλαγία φάλαγξ, an army in march with the front extended, x.1; xi.1.

πλαγιοφύλαξ, guard on the flank of a wedge-shaped squadron, vii.2; 6, etc.

προαγωνίζομαι, to open battle, vii.1.

πρόπτωσις, projection of spears before a phalanx, v.1.

προσένταξις, flank-position, used of light infantry stationed on the wings of the phalanx, vi.1.

πρόσωπον, front line of phalanx, ii.5.

πρόταξις, position of the light-armed troops in front of the phalanx, vi.1.

πρωτολοχία, front line of the phalanx, ii.5.

πρωτοστάτης, front man in a  p339 file, ii.3; also 1st, 3rd, 5th, etc., man in a file, ibid., 3 and 4.

πύκνωσις, close order, a compact arrangement used in attack, the men being spaced two cubits from one another, iv.1 and 3; xii.4 and 9.

σαλπιγκτής, bugler, ii.9; vi.3.

σημειοφόρος, signalman, ii.9; vi.3.

Σκύθης, branch of cavalry armed only with bows, i.3.

στῖφος, two divisions of light-armed troops, a corps, 4096 men, vi.3.

στίχος, a row of soldiers, used for both 'rank' and 'file,' ii.5; as an old designation of 'file,' ii.2.

στοιχέω, to be in file, of a phalanx, ii.6; of a cavalry squadron, vii.4 and 5, etc.

στόμα, front line of phalanx, ii.5; xi.1; van of army, xi.1, etc.

στρατηγός, general, formerly of a corps of 4096 men, but properly commander-in‑chief of a phalanx of 16,384 men, ii.10.

στρατοκῆρυξ, army-herald, ii.9; vi.3.

σύζευξις; κατὰ σύζευξιν, used of the march of an army when the columns are parallel with each other; opposed to κατ’ ἐπαγωγήν, xi.2.

συζυγία, a unit of four war‑chariots, viii.1.

συλλοχισμός, assembly of the files in parallel formation, constituting the phalanx, ii.5.

συνασπισμός, formation with locked shields, to meet attack, iii.6; iv.3.

συνεδρεύω, to close up, draw together, of troops taking up the compact formation, iii.6 (but cf. crit. note).

συνεπισκέπω, to protect at the same time, of armour protecting both man and horse, i.3.

σύνταγμα, two companies or a battalion, ii.8; iii.6; συνταξιαρχία takes its place in ii.10; iii.3 and 4.

συνταγματάρχης, commander of a σύνταγμα, ii.8.

συνταξιαρχία, battalion, ii.9; takes the place of σύνταγμα, ii.10; iii.3 and 4.

συνωμοτία, a squad of soldiers bound by an oath, an early term for file (λόχος), ii.2.

σύστασις, four files of light-armed troops, a squad, consisting of thirty‑two men, vi.3.

σύστρεμμα, brigade of light-armed troops, 1024 men, vi.3.

ταξιαρχία, eight files (λόχοι)  p340 of infantry, = τάξις, ii.10; iii.4.

ταξίαρχος, commander of a company, composed of eight files (λόχοι), ii.8.

τάξις, a company, eight files (λόχοι) of infantry, ii.8 and 9.

Ταραντιναρχία, two battalions of cavalry, vii.11.

Ταραντῖνος -η -ον; οἱ Ταραντῖνοι, cavalry who fight only at a distance with javelins, i.3.

τελάρχης, commander of a τέλοςμεράρχης, ii.10.

τέλος, (1) in infantry, a division, 2048 men = μεραρχία, ii.10; (2) in cavalry, a half-phalanx, vii.11.

τετράρχης, commander of a τετραρχία, ii.8.

τετραρχία, four files (λόχοι) of infantry, a platoon, ii.8; iii.4.

τετράς; κατὰ τετράδα, on a fourfold division or basis, iii.1.

τόξευμα, missile of any kind, i.2.

τοξότης, archer, part of the cavalry, i.3.

ὑπερβάλλω; τὸ κέρας ὑπερβαλέσθαι, to outflank on one wing, x.2 and 18.

ὑπερκεράωὑπερβάλλω, x.18.

ὑπερφαλαγγέω, to outflank on both wings, x.18.

ὑπηρέτης, aide-de‑camp, ii.9; vi.3.

ὑποβαίνω, to march behind, as one rank of soldiers marches a certain distance behind another, v.1.

ὑποστολή; δι’ ὑποστολῆς, held back, partly withdrawn, refused, x.21.

ὑπόταξις, rear-position, of light infantry stationed behind the phalanx, vi.1.

φαλαγγάρχης, (1) commander of a φαλαγγαρχία, ii.10; (2) commander of a full force of sixty-four war‑elephants, ix.1.

φαλαγγαρχία, corps, 4096 men, ii.10; iii.2.

φάλαγξ, (1) any branch of the service, i. title; i.4; (2) specifically, the force of hoplites, consisting of 16,384 men, ii.10, etc.; (3) the full force of sixty-four war‑chariots, viii.1.

χιλιάρχης, commander of a χιλιαρχία, ii.10.

χιλιαρχία, brigade, 1024 men, ii.10; iii.2 and 3.

ψιλαγία, a command of two ἑκατονταρχίαι, a battalion of light-armed troops, vi.3 [supplied from Aelian, Tactica, XVI.3].

The Author's Note:

1 No attempt has been made to include every technical term, or all instances of each term cited, but only the most noteworthy or unusual.

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