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This webpage reproduces a section of
The Deipnosophistae


published in Vol. IV
of the Loeb Classical Library edition,

The text is in the public domain.

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(Vol. IV) Athenaeus

Book X
(Part 4 of 5)

 p495  "Hence the divine Plato, in the second book,​1 is right in laying down the law that 'boys under eighteen shall not taste wine at all; for one should not conduct fire to fire; wine in moderation may be tasted until one is thirty years old, but the young man should abstain entirely from drunkenness and excessive drinking; but when a man is entering upon his fortieth year he, after a feast at the public mess, may summon the other gods and particularly call upon Dionysus to join the old men's holy rite, and their mirth as well, which the god has given to men to lighten their burden — wine, that is, the cure for the crabbedness of old age, whereby we may renew our youth and enjoy forgetfulness of despair.' And in a succeeding passage, he says:​2 'A report and tradition has slipped in among men, that this god had his reason torn from his soul by his stepmother Hera; hence he inspires Bacchic ravings and all mad dancing by way of revenge, and so he has also given wine for this very purpose.'

"Phalaecus in his Epigrams records a woman named Cleo who was a hearty drinker:​3 'This saffron tunic which she girded about her Cleo hath given as a gift to golden Dionysus, for that she excelled at the symposia; no man hath ever yet matched her in equal drinking.' That womankind is fond of wine is common report. Not unwittily does Xenarchus introduce a woman in The Pentathlum who  p497 swears a most horrible oath:​4 'So may it be mine, my daughter, to die while you are living, provided I have drunk the — wine of freedom.' Among the Romans, so says Polybius in the sixth book,​5 women are forbidden to drink wine; but they drink what is called passum. This is made of raisins, and when drunk it tastes like the sweet wine of Aegosthena, or like the Cretan; hence they use it to counteract urgency of thirst. But it is impossible for a woman to drink wine undetected; for, in the first place, the woman has no control over the store of wine; besides this, she must kiss her own and her husband's relations down to cousin's children, and do this every day as soon as she sees them. Finally, since the chances of meeting make it uncertain whom she will encounter, she is on her guard; for the situation is such that if she but take a small taste, nothing more need be said by way of accusation. Alcimus of Sicily, in that one of his volumes which is entitled Italy, says that all the women in Italy abstain from wine for the following reason:​6 'When Heracles was in the region of Croton he came to a house beside the road; being thirsty, he went up to it and asked for a drink from the inmates. Now it happened that the wife of the proprietor had secretly opened a cask of wine; and she said to her husband that he would be doing a strange thing if he opened this cask for a mere stranger,  p499 and told him to fetch water. Heracles, standing at the front door, heard this conversation and warmly commended her husband,​7 and told him to pass inside and look at the cask. The man went in and found that the cask had turned to stone. And this remains as a sign even to this day among the women of that region, that the drinking of wine must be elected as disgraceful for the reason just set forth.' What Greek women are like when intoxicated is shown by Antiphanes in Hit by a Javelin:​8 'I have a neighbour who sells wine; whenever I am thirsty and go to him he knows at once — and he is the only one — how I have it mixed. Never do I remember having drunk it too diluted or too strong.' And in Mystis; the persons conversing are women:​9 'A. Will you too, dearie, have a drink? B. No, thanks, I am all right as I am. A. Well, then, hand it to me. For they say one should honour the gods to the extent of three cups.' Alexis in The Dancing-girl:​10 'A. Women have all they want if there is enough wine on hand to drink. B. Why, then, the two goddesses​11 are my witnesses, there will be as much as we desire, and it shall be very sweet, too, with no teeth in it, already grown mellow, marvellously aged. A. I greet the Sphinx-woman! For the words she tosses at me are like riddles.​12 Now tell me the rest.' And  p501 in Twice a Mourner Alexis mentions a woman named Zopyra and says:​13 'And there's Zopyra, a vessel smelling of wine.' Antiphanes in The Bacchants:​14 'But this cannot be; a poor devil, emphatically, is the man who marries a wife, except in Scythia: there alone the vine doesn't even grow.' Xenarchus in The Pentathlum:​15 'But I write a woman's oath in wine.' Plato, rocketing in Phaon all the things that happen to estimate because of wine, says:​16 'All right, ladies; for I have long been praying that your folly may turn into — wine. Indeed, as the proverb has it, I think your mind is set on nothing but the wine-dealer. If you really want to see Phaon, you must first perform many preliminary ceremonies of this nature: first you must sacrifice to me, goddess of child-nurture, a cheese-cake testicle-shaped, a cake of fine flour pregnant, sixteen unblemished thrushes thoroughly mixed with honey, a dozen hares​17 against the full moon.​18 All the rest costs very little; listen. Half a bushel of bulbs to the Erector,​19 and to Conisalus and his  p503 two attendants​20 a platter of myrtle-berries​21 depilated by hand; for the divinities do not like the smell of lamps.​22 A dark-coloured raisin must be offered to the hounds and the hunters,​23 a shilling to Lordon,​24 sixpence of the Cybdasus,​25 a hide and some cakes to the Rider-demon. These are the costs. If, then, you will contribute them, you may go in; otherwise, all that you women can do is merely to enjoy an empty Barmecide spree.' And Axionicus says in Philinna:​26 'Believe a woman when she says she drinks — no water.'

"Entire nations, also, have been deemed worthy of mention for their devotion to hard drinking. Baeton, for example, Alexander's road-commissioner, in the work entitled Stages in Alexander's Journey,​27 and Amyntas in his Stages,​28 declare that the nation of the Tapyri are so addicted to wine that even in anointing themselves they use nothing else than wine. Ctesias also records the same in his work On Tributes paid throughout Asia.​29 But he says that they are also very honest.​30 Harmodius of Lepreum, in the work On the Customs of Phigaleia, says​31 that Phigalians are addicted to drinking; they are neighbours of the Messenians, and accustomed to  p505 journey away from home. Phylarchus, in the sixth book, says​32 that the Byzantians are besotted with wine and live in the wine-shops; they let out their own marriage-chambers, along with their wives, to strangers, and cannot bear to health are the sound of a war-trumpet even in dreams. Hence on one occasion, when war was made on them and they could not endure the hardships of service on the walls, their general Leonides ordered tents for the wine-dealers to be set up on the walls, and they at last reluctantly stopped leaving the ranks; this is recorded by Damon in his book On Byzantium.​33 Menander in The Peplos-bearer or The Flute-girl:​34 'Byzantium makes all the traders tipsy. The whole night through we were drinking for your sake, and, methinks, it was very strong wine too. At any rate I got up with four heads on me.' The people of Argos and of Tiryns are satirized as drunkards by Ephippus in Busiris. He makes Heracles say:​35 'Her. Don't you know, in the gods' name, that I am an Argive from Tiryns? They are always drunk when they fight their battles. B. So that is why they always run away!' Eubulus, in Glued Together, says​36 that the Milesians are Ruffians when drunk. Polemon, in the work On Epigrams compiled City by City, cites the following epigram when speaking of the people of Elis:​37 'Elis gets drunk and tells lies. As is each man's house, so also is the entire  p507 city.' And Theopompus in the twenty-second book, when giving an account of the people of Chalcidice, in Thrace, says:​38 'For it happened that they despised the noblest pursuits, and were pretty much devoted to drinking, laziness, and excessive licence.' But the fact is that all Thracians are deep drinkers. Hence Callimachus, also, said:​39 'For verily he loathed drinking wine greedily in a long Thracian draught, but was content with a small bowl.' In the fiftieth book Theopompus says of the people of Methymna:​40 'They ate their daily food in a sumptuous manner, reclining and drinking; but they did no deed in keeping with their lavish expenditures. And so the tyrant Cleomis stopped them from these practices; he was the one who tied up in sacks the procuresses who were in the habit of seducing well-born women of the free class, as well as three or four of the most conspicuous harlots, and ordered them to be drowned in the sea.' Hermippus, too, in his work On the Seven Sages, says that Periander did the same.​41 And Theopompus, in the second book of his History of Philip, says​42 that 'the Illyrians dine and drink seated, and even bring their wives to parties; and it is good form for the women to pledge any of the guests, no matter who they may be. They conduct their husbands home from drinking-bouts. The men all live a hard life, and when they drink they gird their bellies with wide belts. This they do, at  p509 first, with tolerable looseness; but as the drinking becomes more intense, they pull their belts more and more tightly together. The people of Ardia (he continues) own 300,000 bondmen who are like helots. They get drunk every day and have parties, and are too uncontrolled in their predilection for eating and drinking. Hence the Celts, when they made war on them, knowing their lack of self-control, ordered all the troops to prepare a dinner in their tents with the utmost possible splendour, but to put into the food a certain poisonous herb which had the effect of upsetting the bowels and thoroughly purging them. When this had been done some of the Ardiaeans were overcome by the Celts and put to death, while others threw themselves into the rivers, being unable to bear the pain in their stomaches.' "

After this long and continuous category given by Democritus,​43 Pontianus remarked that wine is the source​44 of all these dread evils; from it come intoxication, acts of madness, and drunken violence; to those who partake too passionately of it Dionysius, nicknamed the Bronze, gave the not inept name of "rowers of cups" in his Elegies. He said:​45 'Some there are, too, who ply their wine in the oarage of Dionysus, mariners of the drinking-bout, rowers of cups, and they fight for it; for their (mad) love of it never dies." Alexis, speaking in The Hairdresser of one who drank too much, says:​46 "Now one of my sons, as you have just seen, has grown to be like this; he's an Oenopion,​47 or a Maron,​48 or  p511 Vintner, of or just a — Timocles; for he gets drunk and is nothing else. But the other boy — what can I possibly call him? He's a clod, a plough, a fellow born of the sod." Yes, drunkenness, my friends, is a hateful thing, and well does Alexis again, in Ripe Fruit (the play bears the name of a courtesan), score those who lap up wine in this excessive way:​49 "You drink a deal of wine, not mixed, when you are chock full, and don't spew it forth." And in The Ring:​50 "And so, is not drunkenness the greatest bane in the world to mankind, and the most harmful?" He has also said, in The Trustee:​51 "Much wine causes the commission of many crimes." Crobylus in The Woman who left her Husband:​52 "What pleasure, really, has continual drunkenness? It robs a man of his reason when he is still alive, and reason is the greatest boon our human nature has acquired." So one should not get drunk. For "whenever a democratic state," says Plato in the eighth book of The Republic,​53 "thirsting for liberty, lights on evil wine-pourers at its head, and going beyond all decency, become so intoxicated with unmixed liberty, it punishes its rulers if they are not very meek and do not supply liberty unstinted, charging them with being pernicious oligarchs, while it insults those who are obedient to the results." And in the sixth book of The Laws he says:​54 "For  p513 the state, like a mixing-bowl, must be well mingled; in it the raging wine, with boiling heat, is poured, but when subdued by another and a sober god, it takes on a noble partnership and makes a good and temperate drink." For drunken violence comes from intoxication; hence Antiphanes, also, says in Arcadia:​55 "Indeed, when a man is sober he ought never to rage like a drunkard, governor, nor yet, when drinking is called for, ought he be too serious. Whoever plumes himself more than a human being should, trusting in his own paltry little coinage, will discover that he is like all other men when he goes to the privy — provided he studies the marks of life which physicians know, and the direction taken by the veins, some moving upwards, others downward, by which all our mortal lives are governed." And in Aeolus, attacking the outrages precipitated by people who drink too much, he says:​56 "macareus, smitten with passion for one of his sisters, for a while mastered his misfortune and restrained himself; but then he took wine for his guide — a general that more than all others leads out men's rashness in front of their prudence; and rising up at night he obtained his desire." Aptly, therefore, has Aristophanes called wine "Aphrodite's milk"; he said:​57 'Wine, Aphrodite's milk, is pleasant to drink"; quaffing too much of this, some conceive an appetite for illicit love.

 p515  Hegesander of Delphi calls certain persons "thoroughly wined"​58 when he says:​59 "Combon and Rhodophon, who belonged to the governing body of Rhodes, were thoroughly wined. Combon, jesting at the expense of Rhodophon as a dicer, quoted:​60 'Old man, verily young dicers press thee hard.' Rhodophon retorted by reviling the other for his craze for women and his incontinence, abstaining from no insult whatever." Theopompus, discoursing on another Rhodian in the sixteenth book of his Histories, says:​61 "Hegesilochus proved good for nothing first because of his sodden drunkenness and his gambling, and he had absolutely no credit among the Rhodians; on the contrary, on account of the prodigality of his life, he was in bad odour amongst his own companions and the rest of the citizens as well." Continuing on the subject of the oligarchical government which Hegesilochus established with the help of his friends, Theopompus then adds: "They violated many well-born women and wives of the foremost men, and corrupted not a few boys and young lads; they went so far in their licentiousness that they even presumed to gamble with one another for the possession of free-born women, and stipulated among themselves which one of the women of the city was to be brought to the winner for his enjoyment by those whose throw with the dice was the less; and they allowed no evasion, but commanded them to bring the women in whatever way they could, by persuasion or by force. Some of the other  p517 Rhodians also played at this kind of dicing, but the one who played at it most conspicuously and most often was Hegesilochus himself, who presumed to rule over the state." According to Philomnestus, in his treatise On the Sminthian Festival at Rhodes,​62 Antheas of Lindus, who claimed to be a kinsman of Cleobulus, one of the Seven Sages, was an older man than Hegesilochus, rich, and with a natural gift of poetry; he kept high festival​63 all his life, wearing a Dionysiac costume and keeping many fellow-Bacchants, and continually leading them forth in a revel band, day and night. He was also the inventor of verses made up of compound words, which Asopodorus of Phlius used later in his rhythmical iambic prose. Antheas also wrote comedies and many other pieces in this style, which he used to bring out dancing at the head of his phallus-bearers.64

After listening to this Ulpian said: "In what author, my good Pontianus, is the word paroinos65 found?" To which he replied: "To quote the good Agathon,​66 'you will be the death of me with your questions — you and the modern ways, using words mal à propos.' However, since it is decided that all of us shall submit to your scrutiny, Antiphanes says in The Lydian:​67 'The Colchian wench is violent in her cups (paroinos).' You also, being violent in your cups and drunken, are not satisfied even yet, and you do not reflect that Eumenes of Pergamum, the nephew of King Philetaerus of Pergamum,  p519 died of intoxication, as recorded by Ctesicles in the third book of his Chronicles.​68 But Perseus, who was destroyed by the Romans, did not die in that way; for in no respect did he imitate his father, Philip.​69 For Perseus neither cared for women nor was given to wine; quite the contrary; not only did he drink moderately at dinner, but the friends associated with him did also, as Polybius records in the twenty-sixth book.​70 But you, Ulpian are what Timon of Phlius calls an 'arrhythmic drinker'; for this is the name he gave to those who quaff strong wine in too great quantities, in the second book of his Satires:​71 'Or the cruel ox-cleaver, sharper than Lycurgus, who, as everyone knows, lopped off the arrhythmic drinkers of Dionysus, and cast of doors drinking-horns and cups insatiate in wine.' But you are not simply fond of a drink.​72 Such a person is called "potic" by Alcaeus in Ganymede, thus:​73 . . . That drunkenness causes our perception to go wrong is clearly shown by the remark of Anacharsis in which he revealed that false opinions occur to drunken men. Once a fellow-drinker saw the wife of anacharsis at the drinking-bout and said to him, 'You have married an ugly woman, anacharsis.' He answered, 'Yes, indeed, I think so too; come, slave, fill up a stronger cup, that I may make her good-looking.' "

After this Ulpian drinking to one of the company,  p521 said: "To quote Antiphanes, my love, who says in The Farmers:​74 'A. Shut your eyes and drain the whole cup. B. That's a big load. A. Oh, no; not if one is used to it,' — so drink, my comrade. And 'let us not be ever quaffing full cups,' as the same Antiphanes says in The Wounded Man,​75 'but let a bit of a discourse hit it up, and a bit of a song, and let a maze of words come winding forth. A change from every task — save one​76 is a pleasant thing. . . . Then hand over to me the limb-strengthener, as Euripides called it.​77 B. What! Euripides called it that? A. Why, who else? B. Philoxenus,​78 of course. A. There's no difference, my friend; you put me in the wrong merely for one syllable.' " The other answered: "Whoever said pithi?"​79 Said Ulpian: " 'You've gone completely blind, my dear, with quaffing so much wine.'​80 You have the word in The Odysseis of Cratinus:​81 'Here, now; take this forthwith and drink (pithi), and straightway ask me my name.' And in Mystis, by Antiphanes:​82 'A. You then, drink. B. I'll yield to you in this; for somehow the cup has an alluring shape — O ye gods! — and is in keeping with the glory of the festival.  p523 Where we were a little while ago, we had too drink out of earthenware cruets. (To the cup on which he reads the maker's signature.) My child, may the gods grant many blessings to this artist who made you, such are your beautiful proportions and your simplicity.' DAgain, Diphilus in The Bath:​83 'Fill up to the brim! Envelope thy mortality with the god.​84 Drink! For among us Greeks this comports with Zeus the god of comradeship,​85 Daddy.' Ameipsias in The Sling:​86 'Stir in the sea-hare and drink.' Menander in The Flute-girl:​87 'A. Have you ever drunk hellebore​88 before this, Sosias? S. Yes, once. A. Drink again now; for you have a bad case of lunacy.'

"The form piomai (I shall drink) should be pronounced without the u,​89 but with the lengthening of the i. For thus it is in the Homeric line:​90 'To drink (pīomena) from the pasture.' Aristophanes in The Knights:​91 'Never shall he drink (pīetai) out of the same cup with us.' And in other lines:​92 'A very bitter wine shalt thou soon drink (piei) to‑day.'  p525 Sometimes they also shorten the i; thus Plato in After the Holidays:​93 'Nor any man who proposes to drink up (ekpīetai) her wealth.' Also in Scum of the Earth:​94 'And ye shall drink (pīesthe) much water.' Menander, in The Dagger, has the disyllabic form pië:​95 'A. Drink (pië). B. I'll make this sacrilegious woman drink first.' Also in the Homeric 'take, drink!'​96 So do you, my comrade, drink a toast as Alexis commands in The Twins:​97 'Pledge him here, that in his turn may pledge another'; and thus we shall have what Anacreon calls the 'hearth-cup.' For that lyric poet says:​98 'And roar not like the wave of the sea, as you drink the hearth-cup too generously with that loud-voiced creature, that Gastrodora.'​99 This is what we call the 'cup of equality.' Drink, then, and don't be afraid of falling down backward; for that cannot happen to those who drink, as Simonides puts it,​100 'the wine which repels our cares.' Still, as Aristotle declares in the treatise On Drunkenness,​101 those who have drunk the barley-wine which they call pinon (beer) fall down on their backs; he says: 'But a peculiar thing happens in the case of barley drunks, or the so‑called pinon. Under the influence of all other  p527 intoxicants, those who get drunk fall in all directions, sometimes to the left, or to the right, or on their faces, or on their backs. But those who get drunk on pinon only fall backward and lie supine.' This barley wine is called bryton by some, as Sophocles in Triptolemus:​102 'The beer (bryton) of the mainland 'tis not our wont to drink.' And Archilochus:​103 'As a man of Thrace or of Phrygia guzzled his beer (bryton) while the flute played; meanwhile her lover plied her vigorously.' The drink is mentioned by Aeschylus in Lycurgus:​104 'Upon this he fell to drinking beer ripened with age, and swaggered loudly, rating this as courage.' Hellanicus in The Foundings105 says that beer is made also of rye; he writes as follows: 'They drink beer made of rye, as the Thracians drink it made of barley.' Hecataeus, in the second book of his Description, after saying of the Egyptians that they were bread-eaters,​106 continues:​107 'They grind up the barley to make the drink.' And in The Description of Europe he says that the Paeonians drink a beer made from barley, also parabias, made from millet, and even fleabane. 'They also anoint themselves,' he says, 'with an oil made from milk.' So much for that.

" 'Dear to our revel band is wine, which Dionysus  p529 the wand-bearer, mightily revered, hath bestowed, says Ion of Chios in his Elegies:​108 'For that is the excuse for every kind of lovers' chat; and the meetings of all Greeks, the mirth of princes, have arisen since the time when the clustering vine lifted up its shoot from beneath the earth, and enfolded the air in its lusty arm; from its burgeons leapt its children crowding, vocal whenever one fell upon the other, though silent heretofore. When they have ceased their outcry, they are squeezed into nectar, the only blessing which all men have in common, nature's own cure to bring gladness. Hence come mirth, children dear, friendly greetings, dancing bands; of these blessings King Wine hath shown us the true nature. For that, father Dionysus, hail! Thou delightest in men wearing garlands, thou master of merry symposia. Grant long life, thou helper to glorious deeds, to drink and sport, and have just thoughts.' And Amphis, praising the life which drink-lovers lead, says in Brothers in Love with their Sisters:​109 'On many accounts I praise the life of drink-lovers more than the life of you who habitually have nothing but sense​110 in your skulls. The foresight which is always engaged in perfect marshalling of itself, for the very reason that it scrutinizes all things subtly and craftily, fears to advance promptly upon the tasks to be done, whereas the mind which hasn't stopped to calculate with certainty the result  p531 of every action gets something done Bwith fresh vigour.' "

The Editor's Notes:

1 Laws 666A.

2 Ibid. 672B.

3 Meineke's Delectus p71.

4 Kock II.470. A slave woman is promising something to a young girl on oath (ironically described as horrible); for "water of freedom" she substitutes wine, cf. below 441C.

5 Chap. 2.

6 F. H. G.4.296.

7 For offering wine, whereas the woman, to conceal her pilfering, had proposed water.

8 Kock II.19; the title refers to a woman.

9 Ibid. 78; the title may mean "the female initiate."

10 Ibid. 358.

11 Demeter and Persephone.

12 See critical note 8.

13 Kock II.316.

14 Ibid. 35; for the reference to Scythia see above, 428C.

15 Kock II.470, above, 440E and note a ; a parody on Sophocles (T. G. F.2 306), ὅρκους ἐγὼ γυναικὸς εἰς ὕδωρ γράφω. Cf. Keats, "Here lies one whose name was writ in water"; Shakespeare, Henry VIII IV.11 "their men's virtues we write in water."

16 Kock I.648; the fragment bristles with obscene allusions; Aphrodite is the speaker.

17 On the prolific nature of the hare see 400C.

18 There is also an allusion to the vulgar meaning of σέλινον; see critical note 5.

19 For bulbs as an aphrodisiac see 5C, 63C.

20 The ὄρχεις, Athen. 395F; Conisalus was allied in character to Priapus.

21 Cf. Photius 281.10 μύρτον· τὸ σχῆμα τοῦ γυναικείου αἰδοίου.

22 Used in singeing the hair, Aristoph. Lys. 827, Eccles. 13.

23 Hesychius, s.v. κύων: δηλοῖ δὲ τὸ ἀνδρεῖον αἰδοῖον; the "hunters" are the παραστάται mentioned above. But in κυσὶ καὶ κυνηγέταις is also an allusion to the ianitor Orci of the Romans and the shepherd Euryton, Wilamowitz, Isyllos 100.

24 "Divinity of the protruding stomach," Aristoph. Eccles. 10.

25 "God of the stoop-over."

26 Kock II.414.

27 P134 Müller.

28 Ibid. p136.

29 Frag. 97 Müller.

30 See critical note 6.

31 F. H. G.4.411.

32 F. H. G.1.336.

33 Ibid. IV.377; the occasion may have been the siege conducted by Antiochus (c. 262‑258 B.C.), or the earlier one by Philip of Macedon.

34 Kock III.23, Allinson 320.

35 Kock II.251.

36 Ibid. 181.

37 Frag. 80 Preller. See above, 436D, note b.

38 F. H. G.1.304.

39 Frag. 109 Schneider, Athen. 477C.

40 F. H. G.1.321.

41 F. H. G.3.40.

42 F. H. G.1.284; cf. Athen. 271C.

43 Beginning at 429F.

44 Lit. metropolis, capital city.

45 P. L. G.4 frag 5.

46 Kock II.334.

47 Athen. 26C.

48 26B and note e, 28C, 33D.

49 Kock II.358: Aristophanes had already used the name Opora in this way in The Peace.

50 Kock II.312.

51 Ibid. 323.

52 Kock III.380, Athen. 429E.

53 562C‑D, above, 433F.

54 773C, cf. Politicus 306.

55 Kock II.26; the title is given as The Arcadian at 586A. The text is defective, and the last three verses may be a new fragment (Kock).

56 Kock II.17. The military figure of speech means that wine causes men to put rashness before prudence.

57 Kock I.543.

58 i.e. quite drunk, Athen.349A.

59 F. H. G.4.417.

60 Il. VIII.102, where μαχηταί, "warriors," stands in place of κυβευταί, "dicers."

61 F. H. G.1.300.

62 F. H. G.4.477.

63 Lit. "celebrated the Dionysia."

64 For ἐξῆρχε see 145D, note b (vol. II p163).

65 "Violent when in one's cups," but used also of any violent outbreak.

66 T. G. F.2 766.

67 Kock II.70.

68 F. H. G.4.375; the title Χρονικά occurs at 272C.

69 Philip V of Macedonia, Athen. 78F (vol. I p340).

70 Chap. 5.7.

71 Frag. 46 Wachsmuth, 4 Diels, cf. Athen. 424B.

72 ποτικός, "fond of a drink now and then," and so "sociable," is here opposed to ἀρρυθμοπότης, "immoderate drinker."

73 Kock I.758; the quotation is lost.

74 Kock II.13.

75 Ibid. 101.

76 Sc. the ἔργον Ἀφροδίτης.

77 T. G. F.2 706, apparently of wine (see critical note 4). Euripides, apparently, had used a form ἀερσίγυιον, "limb-lifter" (cf. ἀερσίνοον, "lifting the spirit," Ion ap. Athen. 35E).

78 P. L. G.4 III.615.

79 Imperative, "drink!"

80 An anonymous quotation, Kock III.489.

81 Ibid. I.57, spoken by Odysseus offering wine to the Cyclops.

82 Kock II.97, Athen. 494c. For the title see 441C, note c. The festival mentioned is probably the Eleusinian Mysteries.

83 Kock II.546.

84 i.e. fill yourself with Dionysus, so that you forget you are mortal; for Dionysus = wine cf. above 426F, and for the exaggerated figure cf. 406A (p338).

85 For Ζεὺς ἐταιρεῖος see 572D.

86 Kock I.675, Athen. 400c.

87 Kock III.23, Allinson 320.

88 As a supposed cure for lunacy.

89 i.e. not pioumai, the so‑called Doric future.

90 Il. XIII.493, of sheep being led to water.

91 l. 1289.

92 Kock I.543; the example is inconclusive, since a short syllable may occur in this position. See critical note 12.

93 Kock I.603; the title refers to women returning from some festival.

94 Ibid. 642.

95 Ibid. III.44. A trisyllabic form πιε‑ί, "here, drink!" occurs in inscriptions on vases, Harvard Studies, VII.88. But see critical note 1.

96 Od. IX.347.

97 Kock II.315.

98 P. L. G.4 frag. 90.

99 A surprise for Metrodora, cf. Sophocles in Athen. 679a.

100 P. L. G.4 frag. 86.

101 P118 Rose, cf. Athen. 34b (vol. I p148).

102 T. G. F.2 265.

103 P. L. G.4 frag. 32.

104 T. G. F.2 40.

105 i.e. History of the founding of various states; F. H. G.1.59.

106 Athen. 418e (p396).

107 F. H. G.1.20.

108 P. L. G.4 frag. 1.

109 Kock II.246. So Ptolemy II was called Philadelphius because he married his sister Arsinoë (Athen. 197D, note b).

110 And never the warmth of wine.

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