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This webpage reproduces a section of
The Res Gestae


as published in the Loeb Classical Library,

The text is in the public domain.

This text has been carefully proofread
and I believe it to be free of errors.
If you find a mistake though, please let me know!


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Monumentum Ancyranum
(Res Gestae Divi Augusti)

Part V

25 1 Mare pacávi á praedonibus. Eó bello servórum, qui fugerant á dominis 2 suis et arma contrá rem publicam céperant, triginta fere millia capta § 3 dominis ad supplicium sumendum tradidi. § Iuravit  p386 in mea verba tóta 4 Italia sponte suá et me belli, quó víci ad Actium, ducem depoposcit. § Iura5 verunt in eadem verba próvinciae Galliae Hispaniae Africa Sicilia Sar6 dinia. § Qui sub signis meis tum militaverint, fuerunt senátóres plúres 7 quam DCC, in iís qui vel antea vel posteá consules factí sunt ad eum diem 8 quó scripta sunt haec, LXXXIII, sacerdotés circiter CLXX. §

25 14  Θάλασσαν πειρατευομένην ὑπὸ ἀποστατῶν δού15λων εἰρήνευσα· ἐξ ὧν τρεῖς που μυριάδας τοῖς 16 δεσπόταις εἰς κόλασιν παρέδωκα. § Ὤμοσεν 17 εἰς τοὺς ἐμοὺς λόγους ἅπασα ἡ Ἰταλία ἑκοῦσα κἀ18 μὲ πολέμου, ὧι ἐπ’ Ἀκτίωι ἐνείκησα, ἡγεμόνα ἐξῃ19 τήσατο. Ὤμοσαν εἰς τοὺς αὐτοὺς λόγους ἐπαρ20 χεῖαι Γαλατία Ἱσπανία Λιβύη Σικελία Σαρδῶ. Οἱ ὑπ’ ἐ21μαῖς σημέαις τότε στρατευσάμενοι ἦσαν συνκλητι22κοὶ πλείους ἑπτακοσίων· ν αὐτοῖς οἳ ἢ πρότερον ἢ 23 μετέπειτα ἐγένοντο ὑπατοι εἰς ἐκείνην τὴν ἡμέ24 ραν, ἐν ἧι ταῦτα γέγραπται, ὀγδοήκοντα τρες, ἱερεἲς 1 πρόσπου ἑκατὸν ἑβδομήκοντα.

25 I freed the sea from pirates. About thirty thousand slaves, captured in that war, who had run away from their masters and had taken up arms against the republic, I delivered to their masters for punishment.​103 The whole of Italy voluntarily  p387 took oath of allegiance to me and demanded me as its leader in the war in which I was victorious at Actium. The provinces of the Spains, the Gauls, Africa, Sicily, and Sardinia took the same oath of allegiance.​104 Those who served under my standards at that time included more than 700 senators,​105 and among them eighty-three who had previously or have since been consuls up to the day on which these words were written, and about 170 have been priests.

26 9 Omnium próvinciarum populi Romani, quibus finitimae fuerunt 10 gentés quae non parerent imperio nostro, fines auxi. Gallias et Hispa11 niás próviciás​33 et Germaniam qua includit Óceanus a Gádibus ad ósti12 um Albis flúminis pacavi. Alpes a regióne eá, quae proxima est Ha13 driánó mari, ad Tuscum pacari  p388 feci nullí gentí bello per iniúriam 14 inláto. Classis mea per Oceanum ab óstio Rhéni ad sólis orientis re15 gionem usque ad fines Cimbrorum navigavit, § quó neque terra neque 16 mari quisquam Romanus ante ide tempus adít, § Cimbrique et Charydes 17 et Semnones et eiusdem tractús alií Germánórum populi per legátós amici18 tiam meam et populi Románi petierunt. § Meo iussú et auspicio ducti sunt 19 duo exercitus eódem fere tempore in Aethiopiam et in Arabiam, quae appel20 latur eudaemón, maximaeque hostium gentís utriusque copiae 21 caesae sunt in acie et complura oppida capta. In Aethiopiam usque ad oppi22 dum Nabata perventum  p390 est, cuí proxima est Meroé. In Arabiam usque 23 ín fínés Sabaeorum processit exercitus ad oppidum Mariba. §

26 2  Πασῶν ἐπαρχειῶν δήμου Ῥωμαίων, αἴς ὅμορα 3 ἦν ἔθνη τὰ μὴ ὑποτασσόμενα τῆι ἡμετέραι ἡ4γεμονίᾳ, τοὺς ὅρους ἐπεύξσησα. § Γαλατίαν καὶ Ἱσ5πανίας, ὁμοίως δὲ καὶ Γερμανίαν καθὼς Ὠκεα6νὸς περικλείει ἀπ Γαδείρων μέχρι στόματος 7 Ἄλβιος ποταμοῦ ἐν εἰρήνῃ κατέστησα. Ἄλπης ἀπὸ 8 κλίματος τοῦ πλησίον Εἰονίου κόλπου μέχρι Τυρ9ρηνικῆς θαλάσσης εἰρηνεύεσθαι πεπόηκα, § οὐδενὶ 10 ἔθνει ἀδίκως ἐπενεχθέντος πολέμου. § Στόλος 11 ἐμὸς διὰ Ὠκεανοῦ ἀπὸ στόματος Ῥήνου ὡς πρὸς 12 ἀνατολὰς μέχρι ἔθνους Κίμβρων διέπλευσεν, οὗ οὔ13τε κατὰ γῆν οὔτε κατὰ θάλασσαν Ῥωμαίων τις πρὸ 14 τούτου τοῦ χρόνου προσῆλθεν· καὶ Κίμβροι καὶ Χάλυ15βες καὶ Σέμνονες ἄλλα τε πολλὰ ἔθνη Γερμανῶν 16 διὰ πρεσβειῶν τὴν ἐμὴν φιλίαν καὶ τὴν δήμου Ῥω17μαίων ᾐτήσαντο. Ἐμῆι ἐπιταγῆι καὶ οἰωνοῖς αἰσί18οις δύο στρατεύματα ἐπέβη Αἰθιοπίαι καὶ Ἀραβίαι 19 τῆι εὐδαίμονι καλουμένηι, μεγάλας τε τῶν πο20λεμίων δυνάμεις κατέκοψεν ἐν παρατάξει καὶ 21 πλείστας πόλεις δοριαλώτους ἔλαβεν καὶ προ22έβη ἐν Αἰθιοπίαι μέχρι πόλεως Ναβάτης, ἥτις ἐστὶν ἔνγιστα Μερόῃ, ἐν Ἀραβίαι δὲ μέχρι πόλε23ως Μαρίβας.

26 I extended the boundaries​106 of all the provinces which were bordered by races not yet subject to our empire. The provinces of the Gauls, the Spains, and Germany, bounded by the ocean from Gades to the mouth of the Elbe, I reduced to a state of peace.​107 The Alps, from the region which lies nearest to the Adriatic as far as the Tuscan Sea, I  p389 brought to a state of peace without waging on any tribe an unjust war.​108 My fleet sailed from the mouth of the Rhine eastward as far as the lands of the Cimbri to which, up to that time, no Roman had ever penetrated either by land or by sea, and the Cimbri and Charydes and Semnones and other peoples of the Germans of that same region through their envoys sought my friendship and that of the Roman people.​109 On my order and under my auspices two armies were led, at almost the same time, into Ethiopia and into Arabia which is called the "Happy," and very large forces of the enemy of both races were cut to pieces in battle and many towns were captured.​110 Ethiopia was penetrated as far as the town of Nabata,​111 which is next to Meroë.  p391 In Arabia the army advanced into the territories of the Sabaei​112 to the town of Mariba.

27 24 Aegyptum imperio populi Romani adieci. § Armeniam maiorem inter25 fecto rége eius Artaxe § cum possem facere provinciam, málui maiórum 26 nostrórum exemplo regnum id Tigrani regis Artavasdis filio, nepoti au27 tem Tigránis regis, per Ti. Neronem tradere, qui tum mihi privignus erat. 28 Et eandem gentem posteá descíscentem et rebellantem domitam per Gaium 29 filium meum regi Ariobarzani regis Medorum Artabazi filio regen30 dam tradidi § et post eius mortem filio eius Artavasdi. § Quo interfecto Tigra31 ne,​34 qui erat ex régió genere Armeniorum oriundus, in id regnum  p392 mísí. § Pro32 vincias omnís, quae trans Hadrianum mare vergunt ad orientem, Cyre33 násque, iam ex parte magná regibus eas possidentibus, et antea Siciliam et 34 Sardiniam occupatás bello servili reciperáví. §

27 1  Αἴγυπτον δήμου Ῥωμαίων ἡγεμονίαι προσέθηκα. 2 Ἀρμενίαν τὴν μείζονα ἀναιρεθέντος τοῦ βασιλέ3ως δυνάμενος ἐπαρχείαν ποῆσαι μᾶλλον ἐβου4λήθην κατὰ τὰ πάτρια ἡμῶν ἔθη βασιλείαν Τιγρά5νηι Ἀρταουάσδου υἱῶι, υἱωνῶι δὲ Τιγράνου βασι6λέως δοῦνι διὰ Τιβερίου Νέρωνος, ὃς τότ’ ἐμοῦ 7 πρόγονος ἦν· καὶ τὸ αὐτὸ ἔθνος ἀφιστάμενον καὶ 8 ἀναπολεμοῦν δαμασθὲν ὑπὸ Γαϊου τοῦ υἱοῦ 9 μου βασιλεῖ Ἀριοβαρζάνει, βασιλέως Μήδων Ἀρτα10βάζου υἱῶι, παρέδωκα καὶ μετὰ τὸν ἐκείνου θάνα11τον τῶι υἱῶι αὐτοῦ Ἀρταουάσδῃ· οὗ ἀναιρεθέντος 12 Τιγράνην, ὃς ἦν ἐκ γένους Ἀρμενίου βασιλικοῦ, εἰς 13 τὴν βασιλείαν ἔπεμυα. § Ἐπαρχείας ἁπάσας, ὅσαι 14 πέραν τοῦ Εἰονίου κόλπου διατείνουσι πρὸς ἀνα15τολάς, καὶ Κυρήνην ἐκ μείζονοςº μέρους ὑπὸ βασι16λέων κατεσχημένας καὶ ἔμπροσθεν Σικελίαν καὶ Σαρ17δὼι προκατειλημένας πολέμωι δουλικῶι ἀνέλαβον.

27 Egypt I added to the empire of the Roman people.​113 In the case of Greater Armenia, though I might have made it a province after the assassination of its King Artaxes, I preferred, following the precedent of our fathers, to hand that kingdom over to Tigranes, the son of King Artavasdes, and grandson of King Tigranes, through Tiberius Nero who was then my stepson.​114 And later, when the same people revolted and rebelled, and was subdued by my son Gaius,​115 I gave it over to King Ariobarzanes the son of Artabazus, King of the Medes, to rule, and after his death to his son Artavasdes. When he was murdered I sent into that kingdom Tigranes, who was sprung from the royal family of the  p393 Armenians.​116 I recovered all the provinces extending eastward beyond the Adriatic Sea, and Cyrenae, which were then for the most part in possession of kings,​117 and, at an earlier time,​118 Sicily and Sardinia, which had been seized in the servile war.

28 35 Colonias in África Sicilia Macedoniá utráque Hispániá Achaia Asia Syria 36 Galliá Narbonensi Pisidia militum dedúxí. § Italia autem XXVIII coloni37 ás, quae vívo me celeberrimae et frequentissimae fuerunt, meis auspicis 38 deductas habet.

28 18  Ἀποικίας ἐν Λιβύηι Σικελίαι Μακεδονίαι ἐν ἑκατέ19ρα (sic) τε Ἱσπανίαι Ἀχαίαι Ἀσίαι Συρία (sic) Γαλατίαι τῆι πε20ρὶ Νάρβωνα Πισιδίαι στρατιωτῶν κατήγαγον. § Ἰτα21λία δὲ εἴκοσι ὀκτὼ ἀποικίας ἔχει ὑπ’ ἐμοῦ καταχθεί22σας, αἳ ἐμοῦ περιόντος πληθύουσαι ἐτυγχανον.

28 I settled colonies of soldiers in Africa, Sicily, Macedonia, both Spains, Achaea, Asia, Syria, Gallia Narbonensis, Pisidia. Moreover, Italy has twenty-eight colonies founded under my auspices which have grown to be famous and populous during my lifetime.​119

29 39 Signa mílitaria complura per aliós ducés ámissa devictís hostibus reciperaví 40 ex Hispania et Gallia et a Dalmateis. § Parthos trium exercitum Romano41 rum spolia et signa reddere mihi supplicesque amicitiam populí Romaní 42 petere coegi. § Ea  p394 autem signa in penetrálí, quod est in templo Martis Vltoris,43 reposui.

29 23  Σημέας στρατιωτικὰς πλείστας ὑπὸ ἄλλων ἡγεμό24νων ἀποβεβλημένας νικῶν τοὺς πολεμίους 1 ἀπέλαβον ἐξ Ἱσπανίας καὶ Γαλατίας καὶ παρὰ 2 Δαλματῶν. Πάρθους τριῶν στρατευμάτῶν Ῥωμαί3ων σκῦλα καὶ σημέας ἀποδοῦναι ἐμοὶ ἱκέτας τε φι4λίαν δήμου Ῥωμαίων ἀξιῶσαι ἡνάγκασα. § Ταύτας 5 δὲ τὰς σημείας ἐν τῶι Ἄρεως τοῦ Ἀμύντορος ναοῦ ἀ6δύτωι ἀπεθέμην.

29 From Spain, Gaul, and the Dalmatians,​120 I recovered, after conquering the enemy, many military standards which had been lost by other generals. The Parthians I compelled to restore to me the spoils and standards of three Roman armies,​121 and to seek as suppliants the friendship of the Roman  p395 people. These standards I deposited in the inner shrine which is in the Temple of Mars Ultor.​122

30 44 Pannoniorum gentes, quas ante me principem populi Romaní exercitus nun45 quam adít, devictas per Ti. Neronem, qui tum erat privignus et legátus meus, 46 ímperio populi Romani subieci protulique finés Illyrici ad ripam flúminis 47 Danui. Citra quod Dacorum transgressus exercitus meis auspicis victus profliga48 tusque est, et posteá trans Danuvium ductus exercitus meus Dacorum 49 gentes imperia populi Romani perferre coegit.

30 7  Παννονίων ἔθνη, οἴς πρὸ ἐμοῦ ἡγεμόνος στράτευ8μα Ῥωμαίων οὐκ ἤνγισεν, ἡσσηθέντα ὑπὸ Τιβερίου 9 Νέρωνος ὃς τότ’ ἐμοῦ ἦν πρόγονος καὶ πρεσβευτής, 10 ἡγεμονίαι δήμου Ῥωμαίων ὑπέταξα § τά τε Ἰλλυρι11κοῦ ὅρια μέχρι Ἴστρου ποταμοῦ προήγαγον· οὗ ἐπεί12ταδε Δάκων διαβᾶσα πολλὴ δύναμις ἐμοῖς αἰσίοις οἰω13νοῖς κατεκόπη. Καὶ ὑστερον μεταχθὲν τὸ ἐμὸν στρά14τευμα πέραν Ἴστρου τὰ Δάκων ἔθνη προστάγματα 15 δήμου Ῥωμαίων ὑπομένειν ἠνάγκασεν.

30 The tribes of the Pannonians, to which no army of the Roman people had ever penetrated before my principate,​123 having been subdued by Tiberius Nero who was then my stepson and my legate,​124 I brought under the sovereignty of the Roman people, and I pushed forward the frontier of Illyricum as far as the bank of the river Danube. An army of Dacians which crossed to the south of that river was, under my auspices, defeated and crushed, and afterwards my own army was led across the Danube and compelled the tribes of the Dacians to submit to the orders of the Roman people.​125

31 50 Ad me ex India regum legationes saepe missae sunt, nunquam antea visae 51 apud quemquam Romanorum ducem. § Nostram amicitiam petierunt 52 per legatos Bastarnae Scythaeque et  p396 Sarmatarum qui sunt citra flumen 53 Tanaim et ultrá reges, Albanorumque réx et Hibérorum et Medorum.

31 16  Πρὸς ἐμὲ ἐξ Ἰνδίας βασιλέων πρεσβεῖαι πολλάκις ἀπε17στάλησαν, οὐδέποτε πρὸ τούτου χρόνου ὀφθεῖσαι παρὰ 18 Ῥωμαίων ἡγεμόνι. § Τὴν ἡμετέραν φιλίαν ἠξίωσαν 19 διὰ πρέσβεων § Βαστάρναι καὶ Σκύθαι καὶ Σαρμα20τῶν οἱ ἐπιτάδε ὄντες τοῦ Τανάιδος ποταμοῦ καὶ 21 οἱ πέραν δὲ βασιλεῖς, καὶ Ἀλβανῶν δὲ καὶ Ἰβήρων 22 καὶ Μήδων βασιλεῖς.

31 Embassies were often sent to me from the kings of India,​126 a thing never seen before in the camp of any general of the Romans. Our friendship was sought, through ambassadors, by the Bastarnae  p397 and Scythians,​127 and by the kings of the Sarmatians who live on either side of the river Tanais,​128 and by the king of the Albani​129 and of the Hiberi​130 and of the Medes.

The Editor's Notes:

Critical Notes:

33 provicias (sic).

34 Read Tigranem.

Explanatory Notes:

103 He is referring to the war with Sextus Pompey, terminated in 36 B.C. Pompey's following was made up largely of runaway slaves, and his fleet, so manned, had cut off the grain fleets on their way to Rome. See Vell. II.73.

104 In other words, all the provinces in the half of the Empire ruled by Octavianus.

105 The number of senators at that time was about 1000.

106 The extensions included: the temporary pushing forward of the German frontier from the Rhine to the Elbe; the creation of the new provinces of Pannonia and Moesia; the addition of the new provinces of Galatia and Paphlagonia in Asia Minor; the expedition of Aelius Gallus to Arabia Felix; and in Africa, in addition to the formal annexation of Egypt, some minor expeditions by the various pro-consuls.

107 In the Gallic and Cantabrian expeditions of Augustus himself, 27‑25 B.C., in that of Carrinas against the Morini, of Messala against the Aquitani, 27 B.C., and the numerous campaigns in Germany, particularly of Drusus and Tiberius. Pacavi could apply to Germany for a very brief period only.

108 At Torbia (Tropaea Augusti), near Monaco, stood a monument, of which only fragments now exist, commemorating the subjugation of the Alpine peoples. Pliny, N. H. III.20.136, has preserved the inscription: "The Senate and the Roman people to Caesar . . . Augustus . . . because under his leader­ship and auspices all the Alpine nations from the upper to the lower sea have been brought into subjection to the Roman people." There follows a list of forty-six peoples.

Thayer's Note: Torbia is the modern Italian name of la Turbie, a small town on a height over­looking Monaco, that owes its name to the Roman trophy (tropaea). The town was transferred to France in 1860, some sixty years before the translator's note was written. For town and monument, see the BeyondProvence pages.

109 For this naval expedition to the Elbe in A.D. 5 see Vell. II.106. The Cimbri inhabited the coast of Schleswig and Jutland, the Charudes (the Greek text gives "Chalybes") were their close neighbours, and the Semnones were located between the Elbe and Weser.

110 The Arabian expedition of Aelius Gallus, 25‑24 B.C. The two other portions were called Arabia petraea and Arabia deserta.

111 Queen Candace, taking advantage of the withdrawal of Egyptian garrisons for the Arabian expedition, captured some towns in upper Egypt. They were retaken by C. Petronius, 24‑22 B.C. His punitive expedition penetrated Aethiopia.

112 In southern Arabia.

113 In 30 B.C., after Actium. Before that time Egypt had been a nominally independent kingdom, though, in a sense, a Roman protectorate. Since 57 B.C., when Ptolemy Auletes was restored, a considerable Roman force had been maintained there. After Actium, Egypt, unlike other provinces, was treated as the personal domain of the emperor. For the peculiar status of Egypt as a part of the empire see Arnold, Roman Provincial Administration, p113.

114 In 20 B.C. See Vell. II.94.

115 It was in the factional struggle which followed the setting up of Artavasdes that Gaius received the wound from which he died in February, 4 A.D.

116 For the complicated question of the Armenian succession see Mommsen, Res Gestae, pp109‑117.

117 Antony had received by the treaty of Brundisium in 40 B.C. Macedonia, Achaia, Asia, Pontus, Bithynia, Cilicia, Cyprus, Syria, Crete, the Cyrenaica. The last five he had given over to foreign kings. These alienations of foreign territory were the occasion of the civil war which ended at Actium.

118 By the defeat of Sextus Pompey in 36 B.C.

119 For these colonies of Augustus see Mommsen, Res Gestae, pp119‑222; also Hermes, xviii.161 ff.

120 The standards lost to the Dalmatians during the civil wars by Gabinius in 48 B.C., and Vatinius in 44 B.C., were restored to Augustus in 23 B.C. We have no account of the standards lost in Gaul. The loss of standards in Spain was during the wars with Pompey's sons, and the recovery must have occurred in the Cantabrian campaign of 25 B.C.

121 Of Crassus at Carrhae in 53, of Antony in 40 and 36 B.C. The standards were restored by Phraates, the Parthian king, in 20 B.C.

122 Only after its completion in A.D. 2. They were temporarily placed on the Capitol.

123 Augustus had himself fought the Pannonians in 35‑34 B.C. See Dio, XLIX.36‑38.º

124 12‑9 B.C.

125 The Dacians had invaded Roman territory many times during the late republic. Julius Caesar was about to make an expedition against them. Augustus, in 35 B.C., occupied Segesta on the Save as an outpost against their invasions. They figure in the civil war as allies of Antony. He is here referring probably to an invasion in 10 B.C. See Dio, LIV.36.

126 Two such embassies are mentioned: the first, frequently referred to in Augustan literature, while Augustus was in Spain, 26‑25 B.C.; the second visited him at Samos, 20 B.C.

127 The Bastarnae were a Teutonic people then settled at the mouth of the Danube. The Scythians lived in Southern Russia.

Thayer's Note: As often in the 19c, "Southern Russia" is the Tsarist Russian name — uncritically adopted by Western writers — for Ukraine, which isn't Russia at all.

128 The Don.

129 On the Caspian Sea.

130 In what is now Georgia.

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