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Bill Thayer

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This webpage reproduces a Book of the


published in the Loeb Classical Library,

The text is in the public domain.

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Book II

 p201  Oppian, Halieutica or Fishing


[Link to a page in Greek] The tribes of the sea and the far scattered ranks of all manner of fishes, the swimming brood of Amphitrite, will I declare, O Antoninus,​1 sovereign majesty of earth; all that inhabit the watery flood and where each dwells, their mating in the waters and their birth, the life of fishes, their hates, their loves, their wiles,​2 and the crafty devices of the cunning fisher's art — even all that men have devised against the baffling fishes. Over the unknown sea they sail with daring heart and they have beheld the unseen deeps and by their arts have mapped out the measures of the sea, men more than human. The mountain-bred Boar and the Bear the hunter sees, and, when he confronts him watches him openly, whether to shoot him afar or slay him at close quarters. Both beast and man fight securely on the land, and the hounds go with the hunter as guides to mark the quarry and direct their masters to the very lair and attend close at hand as helpers. To them winter brings no great fear, nor summer brings burning heat; for hunters have many shelters — shady thickets and cliffs and caves in the rock self-roofed; many a silvery river, too, stretching through the hills to quench thirst and  p203 dispense a never-failing bath; and by the green-fringed streams are low beds of grass, a soft couch in sunny weather for sleep after toil, and seasonable repast to eat of woodland fruits which grow abundant on the hills. Pleasure more than sweat attends the hunt. And those who prepare destruction for birds, easy for them too and visible is their prey. For some they capture unawares asleep upon their nests;​3 others they take with limed reeds; others fall of themselves into the fine-plaited nets, seeking for a bed, and a woeful roost they find. But for the toilsome fishermen their labours are uncertain,​4 and unstable as a dream is the hope that flatters their hearts. For not upon the moveless​5 land do they labour, but always they have to encounter the chill and wildly raging water, which even to behold from the land brings terror and to essay it only with the eyes. In tiny barks they wander obsequious to the stormy winds, their minds ever on the surging waves; always they scan the dark clouds and ever tremble at the blackening tract of sea; no shelter have they from the raging winds nor any defence against the rain nor bulwark against summer heat. Moreover, they shudder at the terrors awful to behold of the grim sea, even the Sea-monsters​6 which encounter them when they traverse the secret places of the deep. No hounds guide the fishers on their seaward  p205 path — for the tracks of the swimming tribes are unseen — nor do they see where the fish will encounter them and come within range of capture; for not by one path does the fish travel. In feeble hairs and bent hooks of bronze and in reeds and nets the fishers have their strength.

[Link to a page in Greek] Yet not bereft of pleasure art thou, if pleasure thou desirest, but sweet is the royal sport. A ship well-riveted, well-benched, light exceedingly, the young men drive with racing oars smiting the back of the sea; and at the stern the best man as steersman guides the ship, steady and true, to a wide space of gently heaving waves; and there feed​7 infinite tribes of feasting fishes which thy servants ever tend, fattening them with abundant food, a ready choir of spoil for thee, O blessed one, and for thy glorious son, the flock of your capture. For straightway thou lettest from thy hand into the sea the well-woven line, and the fish quickly meets and seizes the hook of bronze and is speedily haled forth — not all unwilling — by our king;​8 and thy heart is gladdened, O Lord of earth. For great delight it is for eye and mind to see the captive fish tossing and turning.

[Link to a page in Greek] But be thou gracious unto me, thou who art king  p207 in the tract of the sea, wide-ruling son of Cronus, Girdler of the earth, and be gracious thyself, O Sea, and ye gods who in the sounding sea have your abode; and grant me to tell of your herds and sea-bred tribes; and do thou, O lady Goddess, direct all and make these gifts of thy song well pleasing to our sovereign lord and to his son.

[Link to a page in Greek] Infinite and beyond ken are the tribes that move and swim in the depths of the sea, and none could name them certainly; for no man hath reached the limit of the sea, but unto three hundred fathoms​9 less or more men know and have explored the deep. But, since the sea is infinite and of unmeasured depth, many things are hidden, and of these dark things none that is mortal can tell; for small are the understanding and the strength of men. The briny sea feeds not, I ween, fewer herds nor lesser tribes than earth, mother of many. But whether the tale of offspring be debatable between them both, or whether one excels the other, the gods know certainly; but we must make our reckoning by human wits.

[Link to a page in Greek] Now fishes differ in breed and habit and in their path in the sea, and not all fishes have like range. For some keep by the low shores, feeding on sand and whatever things grow in the sand; to wit, the Sea-horse,​10 the swift Cuckoo-fish,​11 the yellow  p209 Erythinus,​12 the Citharus​13 and the Red Mullet​14 and the feeble Melanurus,​15 the shoals of the Trachurus,​16 and the Sole​17 and the Platyurus,​18 the weak Ribbon-fish​19 and the Mormyrus​20 of varied hue and the Mackerel​21 and the Carp​22 and all that love the shores.23

[Link to a page in Greek] Others again feed in the mud and the shallows24  p211 of the sea; to wit, the Skate​25 and the monster tribes of the Ox-ray​26 and the terrible Sting-ray,​27 and the Cramp-fish​28 truly named,​29 the Turbot​30 and the Callarias,​31 the Red Mullet​32 and the works of the Oniscus,​33 and the Horse-mackerel​34 and the Scepanus​35 and whatsoever else feeds in mud.

[Link to a page in Greek] On the weedy beach under the green grasses feeds the Maenis​36 and the Goat-fish​37 and the Atherine,38  p213 the Smaris​39 and the Blenny​40 and the Sparus​41 and both sorts of Bogue​42 and whatsoever others love to feed on sea-weed.

[Link to a page in Greek] The Grey Mullets​43 — Cestreus and Cephalus — the most righteous​44 race of the briny sea, and the Basse​45 and the bold Amia,​46 the Chremes,​47 the Pelamyd,​48 the Conger,​49 and the fish which men call Olisthus​50 — these always dwell in the sea where it neighbours rivers or lakes, where the sweet water ceases from the brine, and where much alluvial silt is gathered, drawn from the land by the eddying current. There they feed on pleasant food and fatten on the sweet brine. The Basse does not fail even from the rivers themselves but swims up out  p215 of the sea into the estuaries; while the Eels​51 come from the rivers and draw to the flat reefs of the sea.

[Link to a page in Greek] The sea-girt rocks are of many sorts. Some are wet and covered with seaweed and about them grows abundant moss. About these feed the Perch​52 and the Rainbow-wrasse​53 and the Channus​54 and withal the spangled Saupe​55 and the slender Thrush-wrasse​56 and the Phycis​57a and those which fishermen have nicknamed from the name of an effeminate man.​57b

[Link to a page in Greek] Other rocks are low-lying beside the sandy sea and rough; about these dwell the Cirrhis​58 and the Sea-swine​59 and the Basiliscus​60 and withal the Mylus​61 and the rosy tribes of the Red Mullet.

[Link to a page in Greek] Other rocks again whose wet faces are green with  p217 grasses have for tenant the Sargue​62 and the Sciaena,​63 the Dory,​64 and the Crow-fish,​65 named from its dusky colour, and the Parrot-wrasse,​66 which alone among all the voiceless​67 fishes utters a liquid note​68 and alone rejects its food back into its mouth, and feasts​69 on it a second time, throwing up its food even as sheep and goats.70

[Link to a page in Greek] Those rocks again which abound in Clams​71 or Limpets​72 and in which there are chambers and abodes for fish to enter — on these abide the Braize​73 and the shameless Wild Braize​74 and the Cercurus​75 and the gluttonous and baleful Muraena​76 and the  p219 Horse-mackerel​77 and the race of the late-dying Merou,​78 which of all others on the earth remain longest alive and wriggle even when cut in pieces with a knife.

[Link to a page in Greek] Others​79 in the deeps under the sea abide in their lairs; to wit, the Sea-sheep​80 and the Hepatus​81 and the Prepon.​82 Strong and large of body are they, but slowly they roll upon their way; wherefore also they never leave their own cleft, but just there they lie in wait beside their lair for any fish that may approach, and bring sudden doom on lesser fishes. Among these also is numbered the Hake,​83 which beyond all fishes shrinks from the bitter assault of the Dog-star in summer, and remains retired within  p221 his dark recess and comes not forth so long as the breath of the fierce star prevails.

[Link to a page in Greek] A fish there is which haunts the sea-washed rocks,​84 yellow of aspect and in like build unto the Grey Mullet; some men call him Adonis;​85 others name him the Sleeper-out, because he takes his sleep outside the sea and comes to the land, alone of all them that have gills, those folds of the mouth, on either side. For when calm​86 hushes the works of the glancing sea, he hastes with the hasting tide and, stretched upon the rocks, takes his rest in fine weather. But he fears the race of sea-birds​87 which are hostile to him; if he sees any of them approach, he hops like a dancer until, as he rolls on and on, the sea-wave receives him safe from the rocks.

[Link to a page in Greek] Others live both among the rocks and in the sands;  p223 to wit, the Gilt-head,​88 named​89 from its beauty, and the Weever​90 and the Simus​91 and the Glaucus​92 and the strong Dentex,​93 the rushing Scorpion,​94 a double race, and both sorts of the long Sphyraena​95 and therewithal the slender Needle-fish;​96 the Charax​97 likewise is there and the nimble tumbling Goby​98 and the savage tribe of Sea-mice,​99 which are bold beyond all other fishes and contend even with men; not that they are so very large, but trusting chiefly to their hard hide and the serried teeth of their mouth, they fight with fishes and with mightier men.

 p225  [Link to a page in Greek] Others roam in the unmeasured seas far from the dry land and companion not with the shores; to wit, the dashing Tunny,​100 most excellent among fishes for spring and speed, and the Sword-fish, truly named,​101 and the huge race of the Orcynus​102 and the Premas​103 and the Cybeia​104 and the Coly-mackerel​105 and the Scytala​106 and the tribes of the Hippurus.​107 Among these, too, is the Beauty-fish,​108 truly named, a holy fish;​109 and among them dwells the Pilot-fish​110 which sailors revere exceedingly, and they have given him this name for his convoying of ships. For they delight exceedingly in ships that run over the wet  p227 seas, and they attend them as convoyers, voyaging with them on this side and on that, gambolling around and about the well-benched chariot of the sea, about both sides and about the controlling helm at the stern, while others gather round the prow; not of their own motion thou wouldst say that they voyage, but rather entangled in the well-riveted timbers are pulled against their will as in chains and carried along perforce; so great a swarm does their passion for hollow ships collect. Even as a city-saving king or some athlete crowned with fresh garlands is beset by boys and youths and men who lead him to his house and attend him always in troops until he passes the fencing threshold of his halls, even so the Pilot-fishes always attend swift-faring ships, so long as no fear of the earth drives them away. But when they mark the dry land — and greatly do they abhor the solid earth — they all turn back again in a body and rush away as from the starting-post and follow the ships no more. This is a true sign to sailors that they are near land, when they see those companions of their voyage leaving them. O Pilot-fish, honoured of seafarers, by thee doth a man divine the coming of temperate winds; for with fair weather thou dost put to sea and fair weather signs thou showest forth.

[Link to a page in Greek] Companion of the open seas likewise is the Echeneïs.​111 It is slender of aspect, in length a cubit,  p229 its colour dusky, its nature like that of the eel; under its head its mouth slopes sharp and crooked, like the barb of a curved hook. A marvellous thing have mariners remarked of the slippery Echeneïs, hearing which a man would refuse to believe it in his heart; for always the mind of inexperienced men is hard to persuade, and they will not believe even the truth. When a ship is straining under stress of a strong wind, running with spread sails over the spaces of the sea, the fish gapes its tiny mouth and stays all the ship underneath, constraining it below the keel; and it cleaves waves no more for all its haste but is firmly stayed, even as if it were shut up in a tideless harbour. All its canvas groans upon the forestays, the ropes creak, the yard-arm bends under the stress of the breeze, and on the stern the steersman gives every rein to the ship, urging her to her briny path. But she nor heeds the helm nor obeys the winds nor is driven by the waves but, fixed fast, remains against her will and is fettered for all her haste, rooted on the mouth of a feeble fish. And the sailors tremble to see the mysterious bonds of the sea, beholding a marvel like unto a dream. As when in the woods a hunter lies in wait for a swift-running Deer and smites her with winged arrow on the leg and stays her in her course; and she for all her haste, transfixed with compelling pain, unwillingly awaits the bold hunter; even such a fetter doth the spotted fish cast about the ship which it encounters, and from such deeds it gets its name.

 p231  [Link to a page in Greek] The Pilchard​112 again and the Shad​113 and the Abramis​114 move in shoals, now in one path of the sea, now in another, round rocks or in the open sea, and they also run to the long shores, ever changing to a strange path like wanderers.

[Link to a page in Greek] The range of the Anthias​115 is most familiar to the deep rocks; yet no wise do they always dwell among these, but wander everywhere as they are bidden by their jaws, their belly and their gluttonous desire insatiate of food; for beyond others a voracious passion drives those fishes, albeit the space of their mouth is toothless. Four mighty tribes of the Anthias inhabit the sea, the yellow, the white, and, a third breed, the black; others men call Euopus and Aulopus, because they have a circular dark brow ringed above their eyes.

 p233  [Link to a page in Greek] Two​116 fishes whose limbs are fenced with hard coats swim in the gulfs of the sea; to wit, the Spiny Crayfish​117 and the Lobster.​118 Both these dwell among the rocks and among the rocks they feed. The Lobster again holds in his heart a love exceeding and unspeakable for his own lair and he never leaves it willingly, but if one drag him away by force and let him go again in the sea, in no long time he returns to his own cleft eagerly, and will not choose a strange retreat nor does he heed any other rock but seeks the home that he left and his native haunts and his feeding-ground in the brine which fed him before, and leaves not the sea from which seafaring fishermen estranged him. Thus even to the swimming tribes their own house and their native sea and the home place where they were born instil in their hearts a sweet delight, and it is not to mortal men only that their fatherland is dearest of all; and there is nothing more painful or more terrible thenº when a man perforce lives the grievous life of an exile from his native land, a stranger among aliens bearing the yoke of dishonour.

[Link to a page in Greek] In that kind are also the wandering Crab​119 and the  p235 herds of the Prawn​120 and the shameless tribes of the Pagurus,​121 whose lot is numbered with the amphibians.122

[Link to a page in Greek] All those whose body is set beneath a shell put off the old shell​123 and another springs up from the nether flesh. The Pagurus, when they feel the violence of the rending shell, rush everywhere in their desire for food, that the separation of the slough may be easier when they have sated themselves. But when the sheath is rent and slips off, then at first they lie idly stretched upon the sands, mindful neither of food nor of aught else, thinking to be numbered with the dead and to breathe warm breath no more, and they tremble for their new-grown tender hide. Afterwards they recover their spirits again and take a little courage and eat of the sand; but they are weak and helpless of heart until a new shelter is compacted around their limbs. Even as when a physician tends a man who is laden with disease, in the first days he keeps him from tasting food, blunting the fierceness of his malady, and then he gives him a little food for the sick, until he has cleared away all his distress and his limb-devouring aches and pains; even so they retire, fearing for their new-grown shells, to escape the evil fates of disease.

[Link to a page in Greek] Other reptiles dwell in the haunts of the sea, the crooked Poulpe​124 and the Water-newt​125 and the Scolopendra,​126 abhorred by fishermen, and the  p237 Osmylus.​127 These also are amphibious; and some rustic tiller of the soil, I ween, who tends a vineyard by the sea, has seen an Osmylus or a Poulpe twining above the fruit-laden branches and devouring the sweet fruit off the trees.​128 The same way as these reptiles have also the crafty Cuttle-fish.​129 But other tribes dwell in the waves which have a hard shell,​130 many among the rocks and many amid the sands;​131 to wit, the Nerites​132 and the race of the Strombus and the Purple-shells themselves and the Trumpet-shells and the Mussel​133 and the truly-named Razor-shell​134 and the dewy Oysters​135 and the prickly Sea-urchins,​136 which, if one cut them in small pieces and cast them into the sea, grow together and again become alive.137

 p239  [Link to a page in Greek] The Hermit-crabs have no shell of their own from birth but are born naked​138 and unprotected and weak; yet they devise for themselves an acquired home, covering their feeble bodies with a bastard shelter. For when they see a shell left all desolate, the tenant having left his home, they creep in below the alien mantle and settle there and dwell and take it for their home. And along with it they travel and move their shelter from within — whether​139 it be some Nerites that hath left the shell or a Trumpet or a Strombus. Most of all they love the shelters of the Strombus, because these are wide​140 and light to carry. But when the Hermit-crab within grows​141 and fills the cavity, it keeps that house no longer, but leaves it and seeks a wider shell-vessel to put on. Ofttimes battle arises and great contention among the Hermit-crabs about a hollow shell and the stronger drives out the weaker and herself puts on the fitting house.

[Link to a page in Greek] One fish there is covered with a hollow shell, like in form to the Poulpe, which men call the Nautilus,​142 so named because it sails of itself. It dwells in the sands and it rises to the surface of the water face downwards, so that the sea may not fill it. But when  p241 it swims above the waves of Amphitrite, straightway it turns over and sails like a man skilled in sailing a boat. Two feet it stretches aloft by way of rigging and between these runs like a sail a fine membrane which is stretched by the wind; but underneath two feet touching the water, like rudders, guide and direct house and ship and fish. But when it fears some evil hard at hand, no longer does it trust the winds in its flight, but gathers in all its tackle, sails and rudders, and receives the full flood within and is weighed down and sunk by the rush of water. Ah! whosoever first invented ships, the chariots of the sea, whether it was some god that devised them or whether some daring mortal first boasted to have crossed the wave, surely it was when he had seen that voyaging of a fish that he framed a like work in wood, spreading from the forestays those parts to catch the wind and those behind to control the ship.

[Link to a page in Greek] The Sea-monsters​143 mighty of limb and huge, the wonders of the sea, heavy with strength invincible, a terror for the eyes to behold and ever armed with deadly rage — many of these there be that roam the spacious seas, where are the unmapped prospects of Poseidon, but few of them come nigh the shore, those only whose weight the beaches can bear and whom the salt water does not fail. Among these are the terrible Lion​144 and the truculent Hammer-head145  p243 and the deadly Leopard​146 and the dashing Physalus;​147 among them also is the impetuous black race of the Tunny and the deadly Saw-fish​148 and the dread gape of the woeful Lamna​149 and the Maltha,​150 named not from soft feebleness, and the terrible Rams​151 and the awful weight of the Hyaena​152 and the ravenous and shameless Dog-fish​153. Of the Dog-fish there are three races; one fierce race​154 in the deep seas is numbered among the terrible Sea-monsters; two other races among the mightiest fishes dwell in the deep mud; one of these from its black spines is called Centrines,​155 the other by the general name of Galeus;​156 and of the Galeus there are different kinds, to wit, the  p245 Scymnus,​157 the Smooth Dog-fish,​158 the Spiny Dog-fish;​159 and among them are the Angel-shark,​160 the Fox-shark​161 and the Spotted Dog-fish.​162 But the works and the feeding of them all is alike and they herd together.

[Link to a page in Greek] The Dolphins both rejoice in the echoing shores and dwell in the deep seas, and there is no sea without Dolphins; for Poseidon loves them exceedingly, inasmuch as when he was seeking the dark-eyed daughter​163 of Nereus who fled from his embraces, the Dolphin marked her hiding in the halls of Ocean and told Poseidon; and the god of the dark hair straightway carried off the maiden and overcame her against her will. Her he made his bride, queen of the sea, and for their tidings he commended his kindly attendants and bestowed on them exceeding honour for their portion.

[Link to a page in Greek] There are also those among the stern Sea-monsters which leave the salt water and come forth upon the life-giving soil of the dry land. For a long space do Eels​164 consort with the shores and the fields beside  p247 the sea; so too the shielded Turtle​165 and the woeful, lamentable Castorids,​166 which utter on the shores their grievous voice​167 of evil omen. He who receives in his ears their voice of sorrow, shall soon be not far from death, but that dread sound prophesies for him doom and death. Nay, even the shameless Whale,​168 they say, leaves the sea for the dry land and basks in the sun. And Seals​169 in the night-time always leave the sea, and often in the day-time they abide at their ease on the rocks and on the sands and take their sleep outside the sea.

[Link to a page in Greek] O Father Zeus, in thee and by thee are all things rooted, whether thou dwellest in the highest height of heaven or whether thou dwellest everywhere; for that is impossible for a mortal to declare. With  p249 what loving-kindness, although thou hast marked out and divided the bright sky and the air and the fluid water and earth, mother of all, and established them apart each from the other, yet hast thou bound them all one to another in a bond of amity that may not be broken and set them perforce under a common yoke not to be removed! For neither is the sky without air nor the air without water nor is the water sundered from the earth, but they inhere each in the other, and all travel one path and revolve in one cycle of change. Therefore also they pledge one another in the common race of the amphibians;​170 of whom some come up from the sea to the land; others again go down from the air to consort with the sea; to wit, the light Gulls​171 and the plaintive tribes of the Kingfisher​172 and the strong rapacious Sea-eagle,​173 and whatsoever others there be that fish and seek their prey in the water. Others again, though they are dwellers in the sea, plough the air; to wit, the Calamaries​174 and the race of Sea-hawks​175 and the Swallow​176 of the deep. These, when they fear a mightier fish at hand, leap from the sea and fly in the air. But while the Calamaries ply the wing high and far — a bird would you think you were seeing, not a fish, when they set themselves in shoals to fly — the Swallows keep a lower path and the Hawks  p251 fly close to the very sea, grazing the surface of the water, seeming, to behold, as if they swam at once and flew.

[Link to a page in Greek] These are the city-states, as it were, among fishes, these the various communities of the sea-wandering race. And of these some roam all together in their various tribes, like flocks of sheep or like armies, and these are called shoaling fishes;​177 others again move in files; others like platoons or sections of ten;​178 another goes on his own course all alone​179a and apart from others; yet others travel in pairs;​179b while some again remain at home​180 in their own lairs.

[Link to a page in Greek] In winter​181 all dread exceedingly the terrible eddies of the storm-winds and the billows of the evil-sounding sea itself: for beyond all else the fishy tribes abhor their beloved sea when it rages. Then do some with their fins scrape the sand​182 together and skulk like cowards beneath it, others creep below the rocks​183 where they huddle together, others flee down to the nether depths of the deepest​184 seas; for those seas neither roll overmuch nor are stirred to the bottom by the winds and no blast penetrates the nether foundation of the sea; and  p253 the great depth protects the fishes from the pangs of cold and the cruel assault of winter. But when the flowery hours of spring smile brightly on the earth and with fine weather the sea has respite from winter and there is calm water with a gentle swell, then from this quarter and from that the fishes come trooping joyfully nigh the land. As when, happily escaped from the cloud of ruinous war, some city dear to the deathless gods, which long time the brazen storm of foemen beset as with a flood, at last ceases gladly from strife and recovers her breath; she rejoices and takes her delight in the eager labours of peace and in calm weather holds festival, full of the dancing of men and women; even so the fishes, gladly escaped from sorrowful affliction and rough seas, rush exultant over the wave, leaping like dancers. And in spring the sweet goad of compelling desire and mating and mutual love are in season among all that move upon the fruitful earth and in the folds of air and in the bellowing sea. In spring​185 the Birth-goddesses deliver most part of the fishes from the heavy travail of spawning. The female, in their desire to give birth and to bring forth, rub their tender bellies in the sand; for the eggs do not part easily but are closely entangled together within the belly, confusedly cohering — how could they bring forth the mass? — and, painfully straitened, they with difficulty pass their spawn. So not even on the fishes have the Fates bestowed easy birth, and not alone to women upon earth are there pains, but everywhere the birth-pangs are grievous. As for the males, on the other hand, some hasten to approach  p255 the shores, bringing doom to other fishes on which they feast; others again run before the shoals of females by whom they are pursued, since drawn by the passion of desire the females haste after the males​186 with rush incontinent. Then the males, rubbing belly against belly,​187 discharge behind them the moist milt; and the females, goaded by desire, rush to gobble​188 it up with their mouths; by such mating they are filled with roe. This is the most common custom among fishes, but others there are which have separate and apart their own beds and bridal chambers and wedded wives; for there is much Passion among fishes and Desire and Jealousy, that grievous god, and all that hot Love brings forth, when he stirs fierce tumult in the heart. Many quarrel with one another and fight over a mate, like unto wooers who about a bride gather many and well-matched and contend in wealth and beauty. These weapons the fish have not, but strength and jaws and sawlike teeth within: with these they enter the lists and arm themselves to win a mate; and he who excels with these, wins at once both victory and mate. And some delight in more mates than one to share their bed, to wit, the race of the Sargue​189 and the dusky Merle;​190 others love and attend a single mate, as the Black Sea-bream​191 and the Aetnaeus​192 and delight not in more than one.

 p257  [Link to a page in Greek] But neither Eels​193 nor Turtles nor Poulpes effect their mating in this fashion, nor the dark Muraena, but they have an unusual mode of union. Eels coil round one another and closely entwined they writhe their moist bodies, and from them a fluid like foam flows and is covered by the sands; and the mud receives it and conceives, and gives birth to the trailing Eel. Such also is the generation of the slippery​194 Conger.

[Link to a page in Greek] The Turtles greatly fear and hate their mating;​195 for they have no delight or pleasure in union, as other creatures have, but they have far more pain. For the organ of the male is very hard, an unyielding bone, which is whetted in a joyless union. Therefore they fight and rend each other with their bent teeth, when they come together: the females seeking to avoid the rough mating, the males eager to mate, willing bridegrooms of unwilling brides; until the male by his strength prevails and makes her perforce his mate, like a captive bride, the prize of war. The mating of Dogs on land is similar to that of Turtles in the sea: similar also is that of Seals;​196 for all of those remain a long time coupled rearwards, fast bound as by a chain.

[Link to a page in Greek] For the Poulpe​197 his deadly mating goes with bitter destruction and union consummated is consummated  p259 death: for he does not abstain or cease from his desire, until he is spent and strength forsakes his limbs and he himself falls exhausted on the sand and perishes. For all that come nigh devour​198 him — the timid Hermit-crab and the Crabs and other fishes which he himself formerly was wont to banquet on, easily stealing upon them; by these he is now devoured, still alive but lying helplessly, and making no resistance, until he dies. By such a death, the sad fruit of desire, he perishes. And even so the female​199 likewise perishes, exhausted by the travail of birth. For their eggs do not issue forth separately, as with other fishes, but, clustered together like grapes,​200 they pass with difficulty through the narrow channel. Wherefore the Poulpes never live beyond the measure of a year;​201 for always they perish by dreadest mating and dreadest travail of birth.

[Link to a page in Greek] Touching the Muraena there is a not obscure report​202 that a Serpent mates with her, and that the Muraena herself comes forth from the sea willingly, eager mate to eager mate. The bitter Serpent, whetted by the fiery passion within him, is frenzied for mating and drags himself nigh the shore; and anon he espies a hollow rock and therein vomits forth  p261 his baneful venom, the fierce bile of his teeth, a deadly store, that he may be mild and serene to meet his bride. Standing on the shore he utters his hissing note, his mating call; and the dusky Muraena quickly hears his cry and speeds swifter than an arrow. She stretches her from the sea, he from the land treads the grey surf, and, eager to mate with one another, the two embrace, and the panting bride receives with open mouth the Serpent's head. Then, exulting over their union, she goes back again to her haunts in the sea, while he makes his trailing way to the land, where he takes in again his venom, lapping up that which before he shed and discharged from his teeth. But if he find not that bile — which some wayfarer, seeing it for what it is, has washed away with torrents of water — then indignant he dashes his body, till he finds the doom of a sad and unthought-for death, ashamed to be a Serpent when he is left defenceless of the weapons in which he trusted, and on the rock with his lost venom he loses his life.

[Link to a page in Greek] Dolphins​203 mate after the manner of men, and the organs with which they are equipped are quite human-like; the male organ is not always visible but is hidden within and extended on occasion of mating.

[Link to a page in Greek] Such are the loves and mating among fishes. And others at other season​204 they desire to mate and bring forth their young; for some summer, some winter, for others spring or waning autumn brings birth. And some — the greatest part — are in travail of a single brood a year, but the Basse is twice205  p263 burdened by the pangs of birth; the Red Mullet gets its name Trigla from its triple brood;​206 the Scorpion again endures the pang of four labours;​207 the Carps alone bear five times;​208 and the Oniscus​209 is the only fish, they say, whose breeding no one has ever remarked, but that is still a mystery among men.

[Link to a page in Greek] When in spring the oviparous fishes are full of roe, some of them remain quietly in their homes, each tribe in its own place; but many gather together and pursue a common path to the Euxine Sea,​210 that there they may bring forth their brood. For that gulf is the sweetest of all the sea, watered as it is by infinite rivers of abundant water; and it has soft and sandy bays; therein are goodly feeding-grounds and waveless shores and caverned rocks and silty clefts and shady headlands and all that fish most love; but no fierce Sea-monster inhabits there not any deadly bane of the finny race nor any of those which prey upon the smaller fishes — no coiling  p265 Poulpe nor Lobster nor Crab;​211 Dolphins, indeed, dwell there but few, and feebler even these than the Sea-monster breed and harmless. Wherefore to fishes that water is pleasant exceedingly and they greatly haste to come to it. All together they set forth in company, gathering to one place from their several haunts, and all have one path, one voyage, one course, even as again all have the same impulse of return. And the swarms of various tribe make the Thracian Ford of the Cow,​212 past the Bebrycian Sea​213 and the narrow mouth​214 of Pontus traversing a long course of the ocean. And as when​215 from the Ethiopians and the streams of Egypt there comes the high-flying​216 choir of clanging Cranes,​217 fleeing from winter and the snowy Mount of Atlas​218 and the weak  p267 race of the feeble Pygmies:​219 as they fly in ordered ranks​220 their broad swarms shadow the air and keep unbroken line; even so in that season those myriad-tribed phalanxes of the sea plough the great waves of the Euxine; and the sea is full to overflowing and rough with the beating of many fins, till eagerly they win rest from their long journey and their spawning. But when the term of autumn​221 passes, they bethink them of their homeward way, since chillier​222 than all other is the winter that rages on that eddying sea; for it is not deep offshore​223 but is easily buffeted about by the winds which beat upon it violent and deadly. Wherefore they slip away from the Amazonian mere​224 and with their young travel home again, and scatter over the sea, each tribe to the place where they are to feed.

[Link to a page in Greek] Now those which are called Molluscs,​225 whose  p269 limbs are bloodless and boneless,​226 and those tribes that are covered with close-set scales or armed with scutes,​227 are all alike oviparous;​228 but from the fierce Dog-fish​229 and the Eagle-ray​230 and all the tribes that are called Selachians​231 and from the kingly Dolphins​232 which lord it among fishes and from the ox-eyed Seal​233 spring children who straightway from birth are like their parents.

[Link to a page in Greek] Now all the viviparous denizens of the sea love and cherish their young but diviner than the Dolphin is nothing yet created; for indeed they were aforetime men and lived in cities along with mortals, but  p271 but by the devising of Dionysus​234 they exchanged the land for the sea and put on the form of fishes;​235 but even now the righteous spirit of men in them preserves human thought and human deeds. For when the twin​236 offspring of their travail come into the light, straightway, soon as they are born they swim and gambol round their mother and enter within her teeth and linger in the maternal mouth; and she for her love suffers them and circles about her children gaily and exulting with exceeding joy. And she gives them her breasts,​237 one to each, that they may suck the sweet milk; for god has given her milk and breasts of like nature to those of women. Thus for a season she nurses them; but, when they attain the strength of youth, straightway their mother leads them in their eagerness to the way of hunting and teaches them the art of catching fish; nor does she part from her children nor forsake them, until they have attained the fulness of their age in limb and strength, but always the parents attend​238 them to keep watch and ward. What a marvel shalt thou contemplate in thy heart and what sweet delight, when on a voyage, watching when the wind is fair and the sea is calm, thou shalt see the beautiful herds of Dolphins, the desire of the sea; the young go before in a troop like youths unwed, even as if  p273 they were going through the changing circle of a mazy dance; behind and not aloof their children come the parents great and splendid, a guardian host, even as in spring the shepherds attend the tender lambs at pasture. As when from the works of the Muses​239 children come trooping while behind there follow, to watch them and to be censors of modesty and heart and mind, men of older years: for age makes a man discreet; even so also the parent Dolphins attend their children, lest aught untoward encounter them.

[Link to a page in Greek] Yea and the Seal also tends her young no less well; for she too has breasts, and in the breasts streams of milk.​240 But not amid the waves but when she comes up on the dry land​241 is she delivered of the burden of her womb in seasonable travail. For twelve days in all she remains with her children there upon the dry land; but with the thirteenth​242 dawn she takes in her arms her young cubs and goes down into the sea, glorying in her children and showing them, as it were, their fatherland. Even as a woman that has borne a child in an alien land comes gladly to her fatherland and to her own home; and all day long she carries her child in her arms and hugs him while she shows him the house, his mother's home, with sateless delight; and he, though he does not understand, gazes at each thing, the hall and the haunts of his parents; even so that wild thing of the sea  p275 brings her children to the water and shows them all the works of the deep.

[Link to a page in Greek] Ye gods, not alone then among men are children very dear, sweeter than light or life, but in birds also and in savage beasts and in carrion fishes there is inbred, mysterious and self-taught, a keen passion for their young, and for their children they are not unwilling but heartily eager to die and to endure all manner of woeful ill. Ere now on the hills a hunter has seen a roaring Lion bestriding his young, fighting in defence of his offspring;​243 the thick hurtling stones he heeds not nor recks of the hunter's spear but all undaunted keeps heart and spirit, though hit and torn by all manner of wounds; nor will he shrink from the combat till he die, but even half-dead he stands over his children to defend them, and not so much does he mind death as that he should not see his children in the hands of the hunters, penned in the rude​244 wild-beast den. And ere now a shepherd, approaching the kennel where a bitch nursed her new-born whelps,​245 even if he were acquainted with her before, has drawn back in terror at her yelping wrath; so fiercely she guards her young and has no regard for any but is fearful of approach for all. How, too, around calves when they are dragged away do their grieving mothers make lament, not unlike the mourning of women, causing the very herdsmen to share their pain. Yea and a man hears at morn the shrill plaint for her children of Gier​246 or many-noted Nightingale, or in the spring  p277 chances on the Swallows wailing for their young, which cruel men or snakes have harried from the nest. Among fishes again the Dolphin is first in love for its children, but others likewise care for their young.

[Link to a page in Greek] Here is the marvel of the sea-roaming Dog-fish.​247 Her new-born brood keep her company and their mother is their shield; but when they are affrighted by any of the infinite terrors of the sea, then she receives her children within her loins by the same entry,​248 the same path, by which they glided forth when they were born. And this labour, despite her pain, she endures gladly, taking her children back within her body and putting them forth again when they have recovered from their fear.

[Link to a page in Greek] A like defence also does the Angel-shark​249 furnish for her young; but it is not into her womb that her children enter, as with the Dog-fish, but on either side below her fins she has slits, like the jaws of other fishes, wherewith she covers the terror of her frightened children.

[Link to a page in Greek] Others again protect their children by taking them into the mouth as it were into a house or nest; as, for example, the Glaucus​250 which loves its children beyond all other fishes that are oviparous. For it both remains sitting by until the young come forth  p279 from the eggs and always swims beside them; and when it sees them afraid of a strange fish it opens its gape and takes them into its mouth until the terror has withdrawn, and then again ejects them from its throat.

[Link to a page in Greek] Than the Tunny I deem there is no fish that dwells in the brine more lawless or which exceeds it in wickedness of heart; for when she has laid her eggs and escaped from the grievous travail of birth, the very mother that bare them devours all that she can overtake: pitiless mother who devours her own children while yet they are ignorant of flight and hath no compassion on her brood.

[Link to a page in Greek] There are also those which are not produced by bridal or birth — races self-created and self-made: even all the Oysters,​251 which are produced by the slime itself. Of these there is no female sex nor, in turn, are there any males, but all are of one nature and alike.

[Link to a page in Greek] So also the weak race of the feeble Fry​252 are born of no blood and of no parents. For when from the clouds the wisdom of Zeus draws rain, fierce and incontinent, upon the deep, straightway all the sea, confounded by the eddying winds, hisses and foams  p281 and swells up and, by what manner of mating is beyond ken or guess, the Fry in shoals are born and bred and come to light, numberless and feeble, a hoary brood; and from the manner of their birth they are nicknamed the Daughters of the Foam.​253 And others of the Fry spring from alluvial slime; for when in the eddies and tides of the sea a medley mass of scum is washed up by the driving wind, then all the slimy silt comes together and when calm is spread abroad, straightway the sand and the infinite refuse of the sea ferment and therefrom spring the Fry innumerable like worms. There is not surely any other race more feeble than the poor Fry; for all fishes they are a goodly feast, but themselves they lick each the body of the other: that is their food and livelihood. And when in their shoals they beset the sea, seeking haply a shady rock or covert of the sea and watery shelter, then all the grey deep shows white. As when the swift might of Zephyrus from the West shadows with snow-flakes a spacious garden and nothing of the dark earth appears to the eye, but all is white and covered with snow on snow; even so in that season, full to overflowing with the infinite shoals of Fry, white shines the garden of Poseidon.

The Loeb Editor's Notes:

1 Introduction, p. xx.

2 Of fishes, cf. H. II.53 f., III.92 ff. Editors, punctuating at φιλότητας, take βουλάς of the devices of fishermen.

3 Manil. V.371 Aut nido captare suo ramove sedentem | Pascentemve super surgentia ducere lina; cf. C. I.64.

4 Cf. Gaelic proverbs: "Precarious is the hunting, unreliable the fishing; place thy trust in the land, it never left man empty"; "Unstable is the point of the fish-hook"; "Good is the help of the fishing, but a bad barn is fishing," Carmichael, Carmina Gadelica (Edin. 1900), p255.º "Plough the sea!" said Triptolemus; "that's a furrow requires small harrowing," Scott, The Pirate, c. 5.

5 Walton, Compleat Angler, c. I. Venator: The Earth is a solid, settled element.

6 κῆτος (H. I.360 n.) denotes Whales, Dolphins, Seals, Sharks, Tunnies, and the large creatures of the sea generally.

7 ἐν τῷ βιβαρίῳ schol. The reference is to a royal marine fish-preserve. Such a fish-preserve, which might be either in fresh or salt water, was called by the Romans piscina (Varro, III.17.2 cum piscinarum genera sint duo, dulcium et salsarum, alterum apud plebem et non sine fructu, ubi lymphae aquam piscibus nostris villaticis ministrant: illac autem maritimae piscinae nobilium, quibus Neptunus et aquam et pisces ministrat, cf. III.3.2 ff., 17.2; Plin. X.193; Colum. I.6.21, 8.17) or vivarium (M. G. βιβάριον), a more general term, applicable to any preserve for wild creatures (Plin. IX.168 ostrearum vivaria; ibid. 170 reliquorum piscium vivaria, VIII.15 for Deer, VIII.211 vivaria eorum (sc. Wild Swine) ceterarumque silvestrium), with its subdivisions, leporarium (not confined to Hares, Varro, III.3.1), aviarium (Varro, III.3.6) or ornithon (Varro, III.3.1), etc. Cf. Ael. VIII.4, XII.30; Juv. IV.51; Mart. IV.30; Aul. Gell. II.20.4 f.; Badham, pp35 ff.; Radcliffe, pp224 ff.

Thayer's Note: See also Procopius, B. G. V.23.17.

8 Cf. Beaumont and Fletcher, The False One, I.2 "She was used to take delight, with her fair hand | To angle in the Nile, where the glad fish, | As if they knew who 'twas sought to deceive them, | Contended to be taken" (quoted Radcliffe, p173); Mart. I.104 norunt cui serviant leones.

9 Ael. IX.35 εἰς τριακοσίας ὀργυιάς φασιν ἀνθρώποις κάτοπτα εἶναι τὰ ἐν τῇ θαλάττῃ, περαιτέρω γε μὴν οὐκέτι. But Plin. II.102 Altissimum mare XV stadiorum Fabianus tradit.

10 Hippocampus revirostris Cuv. or H. guttulatus Cuv., both M. G. ἀλογάκι (i.e. Horse), the latter being commoner in Greek waters (Apost. p7). Cf. Marc. S. 21; Plin. XXXII.149; Athen. 304E.

11 One of the Gurnards, prob. Trigla lyra L., The Piper. It is of a bright red colour (ἐρυθρὸν κόκκυγα Numen. ap. Athen. 309F) and Athen. 324F quotes Speusippus, etc., for its resemblance to the Red Mullet. Marc. S. 21 ὀξύκομοι κόκκυγες in allusion to the dorsal spines which they erect on being touched (Day I p55); A. 598 A15 ἐπαμφοτερίζουσιν, i.e. found both in deep and shallow water; 535 B20 "utters a sound like the cuckoo, whence its name." Cf. Ael. X.11. The noise made by Gurnards when taken from the water is due to escape of gas from the air-bladder. Apost. p11 (where he identifies Aristotle's κόκκυξ with the allied Dactylopterus volitans Mor.) enumerates eight species of Trigla found in Greek waters.

12 The hermaphrodite Eryth(r)inus of A. 538 A20, 567 A27, etc.; Plin. IX.56, seems to be a Serranus (perhaps S. anthias). It is a pelagic fish (A. 598 A13). As a descriptive term like Erythinus (red) might be applied to different fishes (cf. Athen. 300F), the schol. λιθρινάρια, ῥούσια, which suggests a Pagrus or Pagellus, perhaps Pagellus erythrinus, M. G. λυθρίνι, λυθρινάρι (collectively for all species of Pagellus, Apost. p17) may be right. Ov. Hal. 104 caeruleaque rubens erythinus in unda; Plin. XXXII.152; Hesych. s. ἐρυθῖνοι.

13 A species of Flatfish. Galen, De aliment. facult. III.30 περὶ δὲ τῶν κιθάρων καὶ πάνυ θαυμάζω τοῦ Φιλοτίμου· παραπλήσιος γὰρ ὢν ὁ ῥόμβος αὐτῶν μαλακωτέραν ἔχει τὴν σάρκα, τῶν ὀνίσκων ἀπολειπόμενος οὐκ ὀλίγῳ; Plin. XXXII.146 citharus rhomborum generis pessimus. Cf. A. 508 B17; Athen. 305F ff.; Poll. VI.50. Ael. XI.23 describes the κιθαρῳδός, a Red Sea fish, as πλατὺς τὸ σχῆμα κατὰ τὴν βούγλωττον.

14 C. II.392 n.

15 C. II.391 n. For habitat, Marc. S. 13 ἀκταῖοι μελάνουροι. The schol. οἱ μοσχῖται οἱ οὐροῦντες μέλαν ἢ τὰ καλαμάρια mistakes the etymology.

16 H. III.400 n.

17 Solea vulgaris, M. G. γλῶσσα, at Nauplia and Missolonghi χωματίδα (Apost. p22). Marc. S. 18 ἐκτάδιον βούγλωσσον; Athen. 136B, 288B, where he says Ἀττικοὶ δὲ ψῆτταν αὐτὴν καλοῦσιν. Cf. Galen, De aliment. facult. III.30 παρέλιπε δ’ ἐν τούτοις ὁ Φιλότιμος καὶ τὸ βούγλωττον, . . . εἰ μή τι ἄρα τῷ τῆς ψήττης ὀνόματι καὶ κατὰ τῶν βουγλώττων ἐχρήσατο. παραπλήσια μὲν γὰρ πώς ἐστιν, οὐ μὴν ἁκριβῶςº ὁμοειδῆ βούγλωττόν τε καὶ ψῆττα· μαλακώτερον γάρ ἐστι καὶ ἥδιον εἰς ἐδωδὴν καὶ παντὶ βέλτιον τὸ βούγλωττον τῆς ψήττης; Plin. IX.52 soleae (Pontum non intrant), cum rhombi intrent; Hesych. s.v. and s. ψῆττα; Ov. Hal. 124 Fulgentes soleae candore et concolor illis | Passer et Adriaco mirandus litore rhombus.

18 Schol. ψησσία, πλατεῖς. Some species of Flatfish.

19 Schol. ζαργάναι (a term used to interpret σφύραιναι H. I.172, III.117 and ῥαφίδες H. I.172). A. 504 B32 ἡ καλουμένη ταινία has two fins; Athen. 329F Σπεύσιππος . . . πραπλήσιά φησιν εἶναι ψῆτταν, βούγλωσσον, ταινίαν. Bussemaker makes it Monochirus Pegusa Risso, a species of Sole; A. and W. suggest Cobitis taenia L., the Spined Loach, as, though like Cepola rubescens Cuv. (C. taenia Bloch) it has two pairs of fins, the pectoral are very short.

20 C. I.74 n. For habitat, Marc. S. = Archestr. ap. Athen. 313F μόρμυρος αἰγιαλεύς; A. P. VI.304 Ἀκτῖτ’ ἆ καλαμευτά, ποτὶ ξερὸν ἔλθ’ ἀπὸ πέτρας | καί με λάβ’ εὐάρχαν πρώιον ἐμπολέα· | αἴτε σύ γ’ ἐν κύρτῳ μελανουρίδας αἴτε τιν’ ἀγρεῖς μορμύρον ἢ κίχλην ἢ σπάρον ἢ σμαρίδα.

21 Scomber scomber L., M. G. σκουμβρί (Apost. p13). A. 571 A14, 597 A22, 599 A2, 610 B7; Athen. 121A, 321A. They are pelagic fishes (Ov. Hal. 94 gaudent pelago quales scombri), but "at certain seasons approach the shores in countless multitudes, either prior to, during, or after breeding, or else for predaceous purposes," Day, I p85.

22 Cyprinus carpio L., abundant in lakes of Thessaly and Aetolia, M. G. σαζάνι, καρλόψαρο in Thessaly, τσερούκλα in Aetolia (Apost. p23). Cf. A. 568 B26, etc.; Athen. 309A f. "It mostly frequents ponds, canals, sluggish pieces of water . . . being especially partial to localities possessing soft, marly, or muddy bottoms," Day, II p159.

23 A. 488 B7 τῶν θαλαττίων τὰ μὲν πελάγια, τὰ δὲ αἰγιαλώδη, τὰ δὲ πετραῖα.

24 τεναγώδης as an epithet of fish is opposed to πελάγιος Hices. ap. Athen. 320D; cf. A. 548 A1, 602 A9. For τέναγος cf. Herod. VIII.129; Pind. N. III.24.

25 Raia Batis L., M. G. βατί, and allied species of Raiidae, of which five others occur in Greek waters — R. clavata Rond., R. punchata Risso, R. chagrinea Pennant, R. miraletus Rond., R. ondulata or Mosaica (Apost. p6). βατίς in A. 565 A27, etc., seems generic for the oviparous Rays. Cf. Athen. 286B‑E; Poll. VI.50; Plin. XXXII.145.

26 H. II.141 n.

27 H. II.462 n.

28 H. II.56 n.

29 Cf. H. I.169, 371, II.460.

30 The references of Aristotle to the ψῆττα (A. 538 A20, 543 A2, 620 B30) do not enable us to say more than that it is a Pleuronectid. In Graeco-Latin glossaries it is equated with Latin rhombus, cf. Athen. 330B Ῥωμαῖοι δὲ καλοῦσι τὴν ψῆτταν ῥόμβον καί ἐστι τὸ ὄνομα Ἑλληνικόν. But Ael. XIV.3 τοὺς ἰχθῦς τοὺς πλατεῖς . . . ψῆττας τε καὶ ῥόμβους καὶ στρουθοὺς distinguishes them; cf. Galen, Aliment. fac. III.30. It was sometimes identified with the Sole: Hesych. s. ψῆττα· ἰχθύδιον τῶν πλατέων ἢ ψῆττα ἥν τινες σανδάλιον ἢ βούγλωσσον; Athen. 288B Ἀττικοὶ δὲ ψῆτταν αὐτὴν καλοῦσιν; Galen, l.c. παρέλιπε δ’ ἐν τούτοις ὁ Φιλότιμος καὶ τὸ βούγλωττον, . . . εἰ μὴ τι ἄρα τῷ τῆς ψήττης ὀνόματι καὶ κατὰ τῶν βουγλώττων ἐχρήσατο. παραπλήσια μὲν γάρ πώς ἐστιν, οὐ μὴν ἁκριβῶς ὁμοειδῆ; cf. schol. Plato, Symp. 191D. But Oppian (H. I.99) distinguishes them, as do Archestr. ap. Athen. l.c. and 330A. Dorion ibid., Speusipp. ib. 329F, Plin. IX.57 condi per hiemes torpedinem, psettam, soleam tradunt.

31 Introd. p. lxv.

32 C. I.75 n., II.392 n.

33 Introd. p. lxiv. Schol. ἔργα τ’ ὀνίσκων· ἤγουν οἱ ὀνίσκοι, περίφρασις.

34 Schol. σαῦροι· σαυρίδες. If σαῦρος differs from τραχοῦρος V.99, III.400 — they are identified Xenocr. Aliment. c. 7 but distinguished Galen, Aliment. fac. III.30‑31 — it may be Caranx suareus which differs little from Trachurus trachurus. It is known in M. G. as σαυρίδι κυνηγός or κοκκάλι (Apost. p14); cf. A. 610 B5, Athen. 309F, 322C‑E, Hesych. s. σαῦρα, Marc. S. 33, Plin. XXXII.89 sauri piscis marini (cf. ibid. 151), but in Latin usually lacertus, Plin. XXXII.146, Stat. S. IV.9.13, Mart. X.48.11, etc. From Athen. 305C it seems that the κίχλη was also called σαῦρος.

35 Schol. σκεπανοί· κόπανοι. A species of Tunny: "Thynnus brachypterus, vulg. ὄρκυνος et κόπανος dans le golfe de Volo (Sinus Pagasaeus)," Apost. p14; cf. Hesych. s. σκεπινός; Athen. 322E σκεπινός· τούτου μνημονεύων Δωρίων . . . καλεῖσθαί φησιν αὐτὸν ἀτταγεινόν.

36 H. III.188 n.

37 The male Maenis in the breeding season: A. 607 B9 κύουσα μὲν οὖν ἀγαθὴ μαινίς· . . . συμβαίνει δ’ ἀρχομένης κυίσκεσθαι τῆς θηλείας τοὺς ἄρρενας μέλαν τὸ χρῶμα ἴσχειν καὶ ποικιλώτερον καὶ φαγεῖν χειρίστους εἶναι· καλεῖται δ’ ὑπ’ ἐνίων τράγοι περὶ τοῦτον τὸν χρόνον. Cf. Athen. 328C, 356B, Ael. XII.28, Marc. S. 23 τραγίσκος, Ov. Hal. 112, Plin. XXXII.152.

38 Atherina hepsetus, M. G. ἀθερίνα (Apost. p21); cf. A. 570 B15, 571 A6, 610 B6, Athen. 285A, 329A. The Atherines are littoral fishes, living in large shoals. . . . They rarely exceed a length of six inches, but are nevertheless esteemed as food. . . . The young, for some time after they are hatched, cling together in dense masses and in numbers almost incredible. The inhabitants of the Mediterranean coast of France call these newly hatched Atherines 'Nonnat' (unborn)," Günther, p500.

39 Smaris vulgaris, M. G. σμαρίς, μαρίς (Apost. p18), a small Mediterranean fish (Fam. Maenidae): A. 607 B22. Athen. 315B, 328F; Ov. Hal. 120; Plin. XXXII.151, etc.

40 Seven species of Blenny are found in Greek waters: Blennius pavo Risso, M. G. σαλιάρες, B. gattorugine, M. G. σαλιάρα, B. palmicornis Cuv., B. ocellaris L., B. Montagui Flem., B. trigloides Val., B. pholis L. (Apost. p9). Cf. Athen. 288A.

41 A Sea-bream, Fam. Sparidae, Genus Sargus, of which four species occur in Greek waters: S. vulgaris, M. G. σαργός, χαρακίδα at Siphnas; S. Rondeletii, M. G. σπάρος; S. vetula, M. G. σκάρος; S. annularis, M. G. σουβλομύτης, at Corfu (Apost. p16); A. 508 C17; Ov. Hal. 106 et super aurata sparulus cervice refulgens; Mart. III.60.6 res tibi cum rhombo est, at mihi cum sparulo.

42 H. III.186 n.

43 H. II.642 n., IV.127 n.

44 H. II.643 n.

45 H. II.130 n.

46 H. II.554 n.

47 We assume this to be the fish which is otherwise called χρόμις, χρέμυς, χρέμψ, etc.; A. 534 A8 μάλιστα δ’ εἰσὶ τῶν ἰχθύων ὀξυηκόοι κεστρεύς, χρέμψ, λάβραξ, σάλπη, χρόμις, where χρέμψ would probably be omitted as a mere v.l. for χρόμις. Cf. Plin. X.193 produntur etiam clarissime audire mugil, lupus, salpa, chromis; A. 535 B16 ψόφους δέ τινας ἀφιᾶσι καὶ τριγμοὺς οὓς λέγουσι φωνεῖν, οἷον λύρα καὶ χρόμις (οὕτοι γὰρ ἀφιᾶσιν ὥσπερ γρυλισμόν); 543 A2 χρόμις is one of the shoal-fishes (χυτοί) which spawn once a year; 601 B29 μάλιστα δὲ πονοῦσιν ἐν τοῖς χειμῶσιν οἱ ἔχοντες λίθον ἐν τῇ κεφαλῇ, οἷον χρόμις, λάβραξ, σκίαινα, φάγρος. Cf. Plin. IX.57 Praegelidam hiemem omnes sentiunt, sed maxime qui lapidem in capite habere existimantur, ut lupi, chromis, sciaena, phagri; Athen. 305D Ἀριστοτέλης . . . φησί· . . . τὰ μὲν λιθοκέφαλα ὡς κρέμυς; Plin. XXXII.153 (among fishes mentioned by Ovid) chromim qui nidificet in aquis; Ov. Hal. 121 immunda chromis; Hesych. s. χρέμυς· ὁ ὀνίσκος ἰχθύς; s. χρόμις· εἶδος ἰχθύος; Ael. XV.11 incidentally mentions χρέμης as having a large beard (γένειον), while in IX.7 he means otolith and acute hearing of χρόμις. Aristotle's χρόμις is identified by J. Müller, etc., with Sciaena aquila Cuv., which "porte le nom vulg. μυλοκόπι et κρανιός à Chalcis" (Apost. p13). Bussemaker takes χρέμης to be one of the Cod-family (Gadidae).

48 H. IV.504 n.

49 Conger vulgaris, M. G. μουγγρί, δρόγγα at Missolonghi (Apost. p26).

50 Schol. ὄλισθον· γλίσχρος γάρ ἐστιν γλανεόν, i.e. the γλάνις of A. 621 A21, etc., Silurus glanis, M. G. γλανός (Apost. p24). It is a fresh-water fish but is given among marine fishes by Marc. S. 11 and Plin. XXXII.149, just as Oppian, H. I.101 and 592 includes the Carp among marine fishes. Gesner p742 suggests the Lamprey.

51 H. I.513 n.;º cf. A. 569 A6.

52 Either Perca fluviatilis — "on le trouve dans les affluents de l'Alphée" Apost. p12 — a fresh-water fish (Auson. Mosell. 115 Nec te, . . . perca, silebo | Amnigenos inter pisces dignande marinis) which sometimes enters salt water (Plin. XXXII.145 communes amni tantum ac mari . . . percae) — as generally in Aristotle (A. 568 A20, etc.), or Serranus scriba, M. G. πέρκα (Apost. p12), as apparently in A. 599 B8, where it is classed among "rock fishes," οἱ πετραῖοι, as it is in Galen, De aliment. facult. III.28, Plin. IX.57 percae et saxatiles omnes. Marc. S. 16 includes πέρκαι among marine fishes. Cf. Ov. Hal. 112; Athen. 319B‑C, 450C.

53 H. II.434 n.

54 Aristotle's χάννη (χάννα) is either Serranus cabrilla or S. scriba (Fam. Percidae, Gen. Serranus), the former still known in Greece as χάνος. Marc. S. 33. The genus Serranus is hermaphrodite as was known to Aristotle: A. 538 A21, 567 A27, De gen. 755 B21, 760 A9; Plin. IX.56, XXXII.153; Ov. Hal. 107 et ex se | Concipiens channe, gemino fraudata parente; Athen. 319B, 327F.

55 H. III.414 n. For "spangled" cf. Arist. ap. Athen. 321E πολύγραμμος καὶ ἐρυθρόγραμμος. For habitat cf. A. 598 A19 γίνονται . . . ἐν ταῖς λιμνοθαλαττίαις πολλοὶ τῶν ἰχθύων, οἷον σάλπαι.

56 H. IV.173 n.

57a 57b Introduction, p. l.

58 Introd. p. liii.

59 Schol. ὕσκαι (used again to interpret ὕαινα H. I.372) ἢ συάκιον ἢ σύαινα, which suggests a Flatfish. Hesych. s. συάριον· βούγλωσσον. Cf. Du Cange, Gloss. Gr. s. σιάκιον and s. σύαξ. Epicharm. ap. Athen. 326E couples ὑαινίδες, βούγλωσσοι, κίθαρος.

60 Schol. βασιλίσκοι· σκιρίδια. On H. I.370 the schol. uses βασιλίσκος to interpret πρῆστις, on H. I.592 to interpret ὀνίσκος. Bussemaker gives Clupea alosa L., the Shad.

61 Schol. μύλοι· μυλοκόπια, μυλοκόποι, which points to one of the Sciaenidae, μυλοκόπος being in M. G. Sciaena aquila Cuv. (Apost. p13). Corvina nigra Cuv., Bik. p81. Athen. 308E Εὐθύδημος δ’ ἐν τῷ περὶ ταρίχων τὸν κορακῖνόν φησιν ὑπὸ πολλῶν σαπέρδην προσαγορεύεσθαι . . . ὅτι δὲ καὶ πλατίστακος καλεῖται ὁ σαπέρδης [we are not here concerned with the freshwater σαπερδίς of A. 608 A2], καθάπερ καὶ ὁ κορακῖνος, Παρμένων φησίν; 118C τοὺς δὲ προσαγορευομένους φησὶ (Δωρίων) μύλλους ὑπὸ μέν τινων καλεῖσθαι ἀγνωτίδια, ὑπὸ δέ τινων πλατιστάκους ὄντας τοὺς αὐτούς. . . . οἱ μὲν οὗν μείζονες αὐτῶν ὀνομάζονται πλατίστακοι, οἱ δὲ μέσην ἔχοντες ἡλικίαν μύλλοι, οἱ δὲ βαιοὶ τοῖς μεγέθεσιν ἀγνωτίδια. Bussemaker makes μύλος Sciaena cirrhosa.

62 C. II.433 n. Cf. H. I.510.

63 H. IV.596 n.

64 Zeus faber L., M. G. χριστόψαρο, σανπιέρος etc. (Apost. p15): Plin. IX.68 est et haec natura ut alii alibi pisces principatum obtineant, coracinus in Aegypto, Zeus idem faber appellatus Gadibus (cf. XXXII.148); Colum. VII.16; Ov. Hal. 110 Et rarus faber; Athen. 328D διαφέρει δὲ τῆς χαλκίδος ὁ χαλκεύς, οὗ μνημονεύει . . . Εὐθύδημος . . . λέγων αὐτοὺς περιφερεῖς τε εἶναι καὶ κυκλοειδεῖς; A. 535 B18 (among fishes which ψόφους τινὰς ἀφιᾶσι καὶ τριγμοὺς) ἔτι δὲ χαλκὶς (i.e. χαλκεύς) καὶ κόκκυξ· ἡ μὲν γὰρ ψοφεῖ οἷον συριγμόν. The Dory makes a noise on being removed from the water, cf. Day I p140.

65 H. III.184 n.

66 Scarus cretensis (Fam. Labridae) M. G. σκάρος (Bik. p84, Erh. p91); anciently held in high esteem: Epicharm. ap. Athen. 319F ἁλιεύομεν σπάρους | καὶ σκάρους, τῶν οὐδὲ τὸ σκᾶρ θεμιτὸν ἐκβαλεῖν θεοῖς; Plin. IX.62 Nunc principatus scaro datur; Hor. Epod. II.50, S. II.2.22; Galen, De aliment. facult. III.23 ἄριστος δ’ ἐν αὐτοῖς (sc. τοῖς πετραίοις) ἡδονῆς ἕνεκεν ὁ σκάρος εἶναι πεπίστευται.

67 Aesch. Pers. 577 ἀναύδων παίδων τᾶς ἀμιάντου; Hes. Sc. 212; Soph. Aj. 1297, id. fr. 691; Athen. 277, 308; Ov. A. A. III.325, cf. the jest οὐδεὶς κακὸς μέγας ἰχθύς Athen. 348A.

68 Athen. 331D Μνασέας . . . τοὺς ἐν τῷ Κλείτορι ποταμῷ φησιν ἰχθῦς φθέγγεσθαι (Plin. IX.70; Pausan. VIII.21.2) καίτοι μόνους εἰρηκότος Ἀριστοτέλους φθέγγεσθαι σκάρον καὶ τὸν ποτάμιον χοῖρον. The "voice" of fishes is discussed A. 535 B14 ff., where the σκάρος is not mentioned, cf. Ael. X.11; Plin. XI.267.

69 i.e. chews the cud: A. 591 B22 δοκεῖ δὲ τῶν ἰχθύων ὁ καλούμενος σκάρος μηρυκάζειν ὥσπερ τὰ τετράποδα μόνος. Cf. A. 508 B12; P. A. 675 A3; Athen. 319F; Ael. II.54; Antig. 73; Plin. IX.62 solus piscium dicitur ruminare; Ov. Hal. 119 ut scarus epastas solus qui ruminat escas.

70 μῆλα, Kleinvieh, Sheep and Goats (Hom. Od. IX.184 μῆλ’, ὄιές τε καὶ αἶγες) as opp. to Kine; Hom. Il. XVIII.524 μῆλα . . . καὶ ἕλικας βοῦς, Il. V.556 βόας καὶ ἴφια μῆλα; Pind. P. IV.148 μῆλά τε . . . καὶ βοῶν ξανθὰς ἀγέλας. Cf. τὰ βληχητά Ael. II.54. Here merely as typical Ruminants.

71 χήμη is generic for certain species of bivalves; Hices. ap. Athen. 87B; Plin. XXXII.147; Galen, op. cit. III.33 ὄστρεά τε καὶ χήμας. From A. 547 B13 αἱ χῆμαι . . . ἐν τοῖς ἀμμώδεσι λαμβάνουσι τὴν σύστασιν it is suggested that Venus-shells (Veneraceae) are especially meant.

72 Patella vulgata and allied species. Cf. Athen. 85C‑86F.

73 C. II.391 n.

74 Only here. Schol. ἀγριόφαγροι· διωξίφαγροι διὰ τὸ κινεῖσθαι ταχέως.

75 Schol. κέρκουροι· κουτζουρίναι (bob-tailed); Ov. Hal. 102 Cercurusque ferox scopulorum fine moratus; Plin. XXXII.152 cercurum in scopulis viventem; Hesych. s. κερκοῦρος· εἶδος πλοίου καὶ ἰχθύς. Not identified.

76 Muraena helena L., the Murry, M. G. σμέρνα, σμῦρνα (Apost. p26).

77 H. I.106 n. The reading σαῦροι involves duplication in view of v. 106, but so does the v.l. σκόμβροι (read by schol. σκόμβροι· σαῦροι) in view of v. 101.

78 The Great Sea-perch, Serranus (Epinephelus) gigas, M. G. ὀρφώς, ῥοφός, "poisson très estimé pour sa chair blanche, et qui se pêche presque toujours à l'hameçon" (Apost. p13): Ov. Hal. 104 f. Cantharus . . . tum concolor illi | Orphus; Aristoph. Vesp. 493; Marc. S. 33; Plin. IX.57, XXXII.152. For habitat, A. 598 A9 πρόσγειος; cf. Athen. 315A, Ael. V.18. The epithet "late-dying" refers not to longevity — ζῇ οὐ πλέον δύο ἐτῶν Athen. 315B — but to tenacity of life: Athen. 315A ἴδιον δ’ ἐν αὐτῷ ἐστι . . . τὸ δύνασθαι πολὺν χρόνον ζῆν μετὰ τὴν ἀνατομήν; Ael. l.c. εἰ ἕλοις καὶ ἀνατέμοις, οὐκ ἂν ἴδοις τεθνεῶτα παραχρῆμα αὐτόν, ἀλλ’ ἐπιλαμβάνει τῆς κινήσεως καὶ οὐκ ἐπ’ ὀλίγον. For spelling and accent cf. Athen. 315C, Poll. VI.50, E. M. s.v.

79 Lines 145‑154 are paraphrased by Ael. IX.38 and, in part, by Suid. s. ὕπατοι.

80 Only here and H. III.139, Ael. l.c., Suid. s. ὕπατοι· εἶδος ἰχθύος κητώδους, οἳ καλοῦνται καὶ πρόβατα καὶ πρέποντες. ἀριθμοῖτο δὲ τούτοις καὶ ὁ ὄνος. "Rondeletus umbram piscem a Graecis huius temporis ovem marinam appellari scribit. Bellonius aselli speciem, quam vulgo Merlangam [i.e. M. poutassos, M. G. γαϊδουρόψαρον] vocitant, ovem facit," Gesner, p770. One of the Cod-family (Gadidae)?

81 A. 508 B19 has few caeca; Ael. XV.11. ἡ γαλῆ δέ, φαίης ἂν αὐτὴν εἶναι τὸν καλούμενον ἥπατον· . . . καὶ τὸ μὲν γένειον ἔχει τοῦ ἡπάτου μεῖζον; Athen. 108A ἐστὶ δὲ καὶ ἰχθύς τις ἥπατος καλούμενος ὅν φησιν Εὔβουλος . . . οὐκ ἔχειν χολήν . . . Ἡγήσανδρος δ’ . . . ἐν τῇ κεφαλῇ φησι τὸν ἥπατον δύο λίθους ἔχειν τῇ μὲν αὐγῇ καὶ τῷ χρώματι παραπλησίους τοῖς ὀστρείοις τῷ δὲ σχήματι ῥομβοειδεῖς; id. 300E Σπεύσιππος παραπλήσιά φησιν εἶναι φάγρον ἐρυθῖνον ἥπατον; id. 301C ἥπατοςλεβίας (for which cf. Athen. 118B Hesych. s. λέβια, Poll. VI.48); Marc. S. ἥπατοι ἀγκυλόδοντες; Plin. XXXII.149 hepar; Galen, De aliment. fac. III.30 τοὺς ἡπάτους καλουμένους καὶ τοὺς ἄλλους, ὅσους ἔμιξε τοῖς πετραίοις τε καὶ τοῖς ὀνίσκοις ὁ Φιλότιμος ἐν τῷ μέσῳ καθεστηκέναι γίνωσκε τῶν θ’ ἁπαλοσάρκων καὶ τῶν σκληροσάρκων. Cuvier II p232 (who, however, wrongly says "dans un autre endroit [XVI.11] Élien fait entendre que c'est un poisson court, dont les yeux sont rapprochés," that being said not of hepatus but of the γαλῆ) thinks most of the indications point — in spite of the "few caeca" — to Gadus eglefinus, the Haddock.

82 Only here, Ael. l.c., Suid. l.c., Marc. S. 8. One of the Gadidae?

83 Introduction, p. lxii.

84 Clearchus ap. Athen. 332D ἐστὶ δ’ ὁ ἐξώκοιτος τῶν πετραίων καὶ βιοτεύει περὶ τοὺς πετρώδεις τόπους.

85 One of the Blennies (H. I.109 n.). The description by Clearch. ap. Athen. 332C ὁ ἐξώκοιτος ἰχθύς, ὃν ἔνιοι καλοῦσιν Ἄδωνιν, τοὔνομα μὲν εἴληφε διὰ τὸ πολλάκις τὰς ἀναπαύσεις ἔξω τοῦ ὑγροῦ ποιεῖσθαι· ἐστὶ δὲ ὑπόπυρρος καὶ ἀπὸ τῶν βραγχίων ἑκατέρωθεν τοῦ σώματος μέχρι τῆς κέρκου μίαν ἔχει διηνεκῆ λευκὴν ῥάβδον suggests Montague's Blenny (B. Montagui). For its habit (shared by other species of Blenny) of remaining for hours out of the water cf. Day I p201; cf. Hesych. s. Ἄδωνις· ἰχθὺς θαλάσσιος, οὗ μνημονεύει Κλέαρχος; s. ἐξώκοιτος· εἶδος ἰχθύος, καὶ Ἄδωνις. Ael. IX.36, describing the habits of ἐξώκοιτος or Ἄδωνις, calls it a γένος κεστρέως (so too Phil. 114), a misunderstanding of Oppian's κεστρεῦσι φυὴν ἐναλίγκιος, which appears to be based on Clearch. l.c. κατὰ τὸ μέγεθος ἴσος ἐστὶ τοῖς παραιγιαλίταις κεστρινίσκοις. Plin. IX.70 Miratur et Arcadia suum exocoetum, appellatum ab eo quod in siccum somni causa exeat. Circa Clitorium vocalis hic traditur et sine branchiis, idem aliquis Adonis dictus. Pliny confuses with Clearchus's account of exocoetus another passage of Clearchus which immediately follows in Athen. 332F ἐπεί τινες τῶν ἰχθύων οὐκ ἔχοντες βρόγχον φθέγγονται. τοιοῦτοι δ’ εἰσὶν οἱ περὶ Κλείτορα τῆς Ἀρκαδίας ἐν τῷ Λάδωνι καλουμένῳ ποταμῷ· φθέγγονται γὰρ καὶ πολὺν ἦχον ἀποτελοῦσιν (cf. Pausan. VIII.21.2).

86 Clearch. ap. Athen. 332D ὅταν ᾖ γαλήνη, συνεξορούσας τῷ κύματι κεῖται ἐπὶ τῶν πετριδίων πολὺν χρόνον ἀναπαυόμενος ἐν τῷ ξηρῷ καὶ μεταστρέφει μὲν ἑαυτὸν πρὸς τὸν ἥλιον· ὅταν δ’ ἱκανῶς αὐτῷ τὰ πρὸς τὴν ἀνάπαυσιν ἔχῃ, προσκυλινδεῖται τῷ ὑγρῷ, μέχρι οὗ ἂν πάλιν ὑπολαβὸν αὐτὸν τὸ κῦμα κατενέγκῃ μετὰ τῆς ἀναρροίας εἰς τὴν θάλασσαν.

87 Clearch. l.c. ὅταν δ’ ἐγρηγορὼς ἐν τῷ ξηρῷ τύχῃ, φυλάττεται τῶν ὀρνίθων τοὺς παρευδιαστὰς καλουμένους, ὧν ἐστι κηρύλος, τροχίλος, καὶ ὁ τῇ κρεκὶ προσεμφερὴς ἐρωδιός· οὗτοι γὰρ ἐν ταῖς εὐδίαις παρὰ τὸ χηρὸν νεμόμενοι πολλάκις αὐτῷ περιπίπτουσιν, οὓς ὅταν προΐδηται φεύγει πηδῶν καὶ ἀσπαίρων, ἕως ἂν εἰς τὸ ὕδωρ ἀποκυβιστήσῃ.

88 Chrysophrys aurata Cuv., M. G. χρυσόφα (cf. χρύσαφοι Marc. S. 12) τσιππούρα, κότσα at Corfu μαρίδα at Missolonghi (Apost. p17). Habitat, A. 598 A10 πρόσγειος, cf. 543 B3; Day I p33. Cf. in general Athen. 284C, 382A‑C; Plut. Mor. 981D; Ael. XIII.28; Plin. IX.58; Mart. XIII.90.

89 It gets its name (cf. Lat. aurata [Plin. l.c., etc.], Fr. Daurade, etc.) from its interorbital golden band: Ov. Hal. 110 et auri | Chrysophrys imitata decus; Plin. XXXII.152 auri coloris chrysophryn.

90 H. II.459 n. Habitat, A. 598 A11 πρόσγειος. Plin. IX.82; Day I p79.

91 Schol. μικροί πατζοὶ τὴν ἡλικίαν· πατζοὶ ἤγουν σιμοσπόνδυλοι. In list of Nile fishes Athen. 312B, but not Strabo 823. Cf. fish called αἰθίοψ, διὰ τὸ καὶ τοῦ προσώπου σιμὸν ἔχειν τὸν τύπον Agatharch. ap. Phot. p460 Bekker.

92 Introd. p. lxi.

93 H. III.610 n.

94 Scorpaena scrofa L., M. G. σκόρπινα, and S. porcus L.: "à cette seconde espèce d'une coloration brune on donne vulg. le nom de σκορπιός et χάφτης" (Apost. p12). Hices. ap. Athen. 320D τῶν σκορπίων ὁ μέν ἐστι πελάγιος, ὁ δὲ τεναγώδης. καὶ ὁ μὲν πελάγιος πυρρός, ὁ δ’ ἕτερος μελανίζων. διαφέρει δὲ τῇ γεύσει καὶ τῷ τροφίμῳ ὁ πελάγιος; Athen. 355D σκορπίοι δὲ οἱ πελάγιοι καὶ κιρροὶ τροφιμώτεροι τῶν τεναγωδῶν τῶν ἐν τοῖς αἰγιαλοῖς τῶν μεγάλων (μελάνων Coraes); Numen. ap. Athen. 320E ἐρυθρὸν σκορπίον, Epicharm. ibid. σκορπίοι ποικίλοι. Aristotle has σκορπίος 508 B17, 543 A7, 598 A14, σκορπίς only 543 B5 σκορπίδες (v.l. σκομβρίδες) ἐν τῷ πελάγει (τίκτουσιν). Cf. Athen. 320F ἐν δὲ πέμπτῳ ζῴων μορίων ὁ Ἀριστοτέλης σκορπίους καὶ σκορπίδας ἐν διαφόροις τόποις ὀνομάζει ἄδηλον δὲ εἰ τοὺς αὐτοὺς λέγει· ὅτι καὶ σκόρπαιναν καὶ σκορπίους πολλάκις ἡμεῖς ἐφάγομεν καὶ διάφοροι καὶ οἱ χυμοὶ καὶ αἱ χρόαι εἰσίν, οὐδεὶς ἀγνοεῖ; Plin. XXXII.70 Marini scorpionis rufi; ibid. 151 scorpaena, scorpio.

95 Schol. σφύραιναι· ζαργάναι (see H. I.100 n.). Apparently Sphyraena spet (S. vulgaris), M. G. λοῦτζος or σφύραινα, "the pike-like Bicuda or spet of the Mediterranean" (Lowe ap. E. Forbes p122) and some similar species. σφύραινα = Attic κέστρα Athen. 323A; Plin. XXXII.154 Sunt praeterea a nullo auctore nominati sudis Latine appellatus, Graece sphyraena, rostro similis nomini, magnitudine inter amplissimos; Hesych. s. κέστρα, s. σφῦρα; A. 610 B5.

96 C. II.392 n.

97 Sargus vulgaris is in M. G. σαργός but χαρακίδα at Siphnos (Apost. p16), and such evidence as we have points to a Sea-bream; Athen. 355E συνόδους καὶ χάραξ τοῦ μὲν αὐτοῦ γένους εἰσί. Cf. Ael. XII.25.

98 H. II.458 n.

99 Balistes capriscus, M. G. μονόχοιρος, Apost. p8, the File-fish (Fam. Sclerodermi): Athen. 355F καπρίσκος καλεῖται μὲν καὶ μῦς; Plin. IX.71 exeunt in terram et qui marini mures vocantur; Ov. Hal. 130 durique sues; Ael. IX.41 τῶν γε μὴν οἰκετῶν (μυῶν) θρασύτεροι οἱ θαλάττιοι. μικρὸν μὲν αὐτῶν τὸ σῶμα, τόλμα δὲ ἄμαχος· καὶ θαρροῦσι δύο ὅπλοις, δορᾷ τε εὐτόνῳ καὶ ὀδόντων κράτει· μάχονται δὲ καὶ τοῖς ἰχθύσι τοῖς ἁδροτέροις καὶ τῶν ἁλιέων τοῖς μάλιστα θωρατικοῖς; Marc. S. 30 μύες εὐθώρηκες; Phil. 112.

100 Thynnus thynnus (T. vulgaris), M. G. μαιάτικο τουνῖνα etc., T. thynina, T. brachypterus. θύννοι θύνοντες is a punning reference (παρήχησις schol.) to the (popular) derivation from θύ(ν)ω: E. M. s.v.; Athen. 302B, 324D θύω θύννος, ὁ ὁρμητικός, διὰ τὸ κατὰ τὴν τοῦ κυνὸς ἐπιτολὴν ὑπὸ τοῦ ἐπὶ τῆς κεφαλῆς οἴστρου ἐξελαύνεσθαι (see H. II.508 n.).

101 H. II.462 n.

102 H. III.132 n.

103 Young Tunny in its first year: A. 599 B17 αἱ πριμάδες κρύπτουσιν ἑαυτὰς ἐν τῷ βορβόρῳ· σημεῖον δὲ τὸ μὴ ἁλίσκεσθαι καὶ ἰλὺν ἐχούσας ἐπὶ τοῦ νώτου φαίνεσθαι πολλὴν καὶ τὰ πτερύγια ἐντεθλιμμένα; Athen. 328B πρημνάδας τὰς θυννίδας ἔλεγον; Hesych. s. πρημάδες καὶ πρῆμναι· εἶδος θυννώδους ἰχθύος.

104 The κύβιον was apparently a small-sized Tunny which was cut into κύβοι and salted: Athen. 116E τὰ νεώτερα τῶν θυννείων τὴν αὐτὴν ἀναλογίαν ἔχειν τοῖς κυβίοις; 118A πηλαμύδας κύβια εἶναί φησι (Ἱκέσιος) μεγάλα; 120E κράτιστα δὲ τῶν μὲν ἀπιόνων (ταριχῶν) κύβια καὶ ὡραῖα καὶ τὰ τούτοις ὅμοια γένη, τῶν δὲ πιόνων τὰ θυννεῖα καὶ κορδύλεια . . . τὸ δὲ θυννεῖον, φησί (Δίφιλος), γίνεται ἐκ τῆς μείζονος πηλαμύδος, ὧν τὸ μικρὸν ἀναλογεῖ τῷ κυβίῳ. Cf. 356 f.; Poll. VI.48; Plin. XXXII.146 cybium — ita vocatur concisa pelamys quae post XL dies a Ponto in Maeotim redit; ibid. 151 tritomum pelamydum generis magni ex quo terra cybia fiunt; IX.48 Pelamydes in apolectos particulatimque consectae in genera cybiorum dispertiuntur. For the development of meaning cf. ἑψητός (Athen. 301), τμητόν (Athen. 357A), and our "Kipper," formerly a Salmon, now a Herring. κυβιοσάκτης = dealer in salt-fish, Strabo 796, cf. Suet. Vesp. xix.

105 Scomber colias, M. G. κολιός. "Ce poisson, salé, est très estimé, on le mange surtout au mois d'août. Un proverbe dit: 'Chaque chose son temps, et le colios au mois d'août' " (Apost. p14). A. 543 A2, 598 A24, B27, 610 B7; Plin. XXXII.146 colias sive Parianus sive Sexitanus a patria Baetica lacertorum minimi. Cf. Athen. 120F ἡ δὲ σάρδα προσέοικε τῷ κολίᾳ μεγέθει . . . κρείσσων δὲ ὁ Ἀμυνκλανὸς καὶ Σπανὸς ὁ Σαξιτανὸς λεγόμενος.

106 Schol. σκυτάλαι· αἱ ἀβίναι λεγόμεναι λεπίδαι. Not mentioned elsewhere.

107 H. IV.404 n. Cf. Ov. Hal. 95 (gaudent pelago) hippuri celeres.

108 H. III.335 n.

109 For use of this term cf. Athen. 282C‑284E.

110 Naucrates ductor, one of the Horse-mackerels (Carangidae): "ce poisson partage avec certains squales le nom vulg. de κουλαγοῦξος. C'est, d'après les pêcheurs grecs, un conducteur d'autres poissons" (Apost. p14). Cf. Athen. 282 ff.; Ael. II.15, XV.23; Plin. IX.51 idem (sc. Tunny-fish) saepe navigia velis euntia comitantes mira quadam dulcedine per aliquot horarum spatia et passuum milia a gubernaculis spectantur, ne tridente quidem in eos saepius iacto territi. Quidam eos qui hoc e thynnis faciant pompilos vocant; id. XXXII.153 pompilum qui semper comitetur navium cursus; Ov. Hal. 100 Tuque comes ratium tractique per aequora sulci | Qui semper spumas sequeris, pompile, nitentes. See further H. V.70 n.

111 The ἐχενηίς of A. 505 B19 ἰχθύδιόν τι τῶν πετραίων ὃ καλοῦσί τινες ἐχενηίδα; Plin. IX.79 parvus admodum piscis adsuetus petris echeneis appellatus, may be Echeneis remora L. (Fam. Scombridae), but the fish described by Oppian is the Lamprey, Petromyzon marinus, M. G. λάμπρινα. For similar confusion cf. Day I p109. For legend of Echeneis detaining ships cf. Plut. Mor. 641B; Ael. IX.17; Phil. 117; Plin. XXXII.2‑6; Ov. Hal. 99 Parva echeneis adest, mirum, mora puppibus ingens; Lucan VI.674 f. puppim retinens Euro tendente rudentes | In mediis echeneis aquis.

112 Clupea sardina Cuv. (Alosa sardina Moreau). The precise identification is uncertain. Aristotle's references to χαλκίς are perplexing, but Oppian's fish is probably intended in A. 543 A2, 621 B7, 602 B28. Plin. IX.154 adeoque nihil non gignitur in mari ut cauponarum etiam aestiva animalia pernici molesta saltu aut quae capillus maxime celat existant et circumglobatae escae saepe extrahantur . . . quibusdam vero ipsis innascuntur, quo in numero chalcis accipitur; Athen. 328C χαλκίδες καὶ τὰ ὅμοια, θρίσσαι, τριχίδες, ἐρίτιμοι; ibid. 328F Ἐπαίνετος . . . φησί . . . χαλκίδας ἃς καλοῦσι καὶ σαρδίνους. Cf. Athen. 329A, 355F; Ael. I.58.

113 A. 621 B15 οὐ γίνεται δ’ ἐν τῷ εὐρίπῳ (of Pyrrha in Lesbos A. 621 B12; Strabo 617 τὸν Πυρραίων εὔριπον, cf. Plin. V.139) οὔτε σκάρος οὔτε θρίττα οὔτε ἄλλο τῶν άκανθηροτέρων οὐθέν; Thritta Plin. XXXII.151. It is clear from Athen. 328C‑329B that it is a Clupeid, or member of the Herring family, like χαλκίς and τριχίς. Athen. 328B θρισσῶν δὲ μέμνηται Ἀριστοτέλης ἐν τῷ περὶ ζῴων καὶ ἰχθύων ἐν τούτοις· "μόνιμα (? μαῖνα) θρίσσα, ἐγκρασίχολος, μεμβράς, κορακῖνος, ἐρυθρῖνος, τριχίς"; 328F τῶν δὲ λεγομένων ἔσθ’ ὅτι ἥδεται ὀρχήσει καὶ ᾠδῇ (ἡ τριχίς) καὶ ἀκούσασα ἀναπηδᾷ ἐκ τῆς θαλάσσης, cf. Plut. Mor. 961E where the same is said of the θρίσσα: καὶ τὴν θρίσσαν ᾀδόντων καὶ κροτούντων ἀναδύεσθαι καὶ προιέναι λέγουσιν. Perhaps the Shad, Alosa vulgaris, which is anadromous (Athen. 328E Δωρίων δ’ ἐν τῷ περὶ ἰχθύων καὶ τῆς ποταμίας μέμνηται θρίσσης καὶ τὴν τριχίδα τριχίαν ὀνομάζει; Auson. Mosell. 127 Stridentesque focis, obsonia plebis, alausas) or the nearly allied Sardinella aurita, M. G. θρίσσα, φρίσσα (Apost. p24). The schol. θρίσσαι δύο εἴδη ἐχθύων οἱ τριχαῖοι καὶ ἕτερον ὅμοιον σκόμβρῳ ἢ μικρότερον rather suggests the Twaite Shad (Alosa finta) and the larger Allis Shad (A. vulgaris).

114 Mentioned among Nile fishes Athen. 312B (along with θρίσσα). Salted Abramis (ἀβραμίδια) are mentioned Xenocr. De aliment. 36. Schemseddin Mohammed, an Arabic writer of XVI cent., gives abermis as the old name for modern bouriMugil cephalus (Grey Mullet) which was salted and exported from Egypt. Schneider's Artedi Synonymia piscium, p322.

115 Introduction p. liii.

116 Here Oppian begins his account of μαλακόστρακα or Crustaceans; cf. A. 523 B5 ἓν δὲ τῶν μαλακοστράκων· ταῦτα δ’ ἐστὶν ὅσων ἐκτὸς τὸ στερεόν, ἐντὸς δὲ τὸ μαλακὸν καὶ σαρκῶδες· τὸ δὲ σκληρὸν αὐτῶν ἐστιν οὐ θραυστὸν ἀλλὰ θλαστόν, οἷόν ἐστι τὸ τῶν καράβων καὶ τὸ τῶν καρκίνων. In this class A. includes ἀστακός, κάραβος, καρίς, various species of καρκίνος (πάγουρος, πιννοφύλαξ, etc.) and two species of καρκίνιον or Hermit-crab. Plin. IX.83 piscium sanguine carent de quibus dicemus. Sunt autem tria genera: in primis quae mollia [= μαλάκια, see H. I.638 n.] appellantur, dein contecta crustis tenuibus [= Crustaceans], postremo testis conclusa duris [= Testaceans]. Cf. Athen. 106C; Ael. XI.37; Galen, De aliment. fac. III.34; A. 490 B10 ff.

117 Palinurus vulgaris, the Spiny Lobster or Sea Crayfish; A. 525 A32 ff.; Athen. 104C‑105D; Marc. S. 34 κάραβος ὀκριόεις. In Latin writers it is usually locusta (Plin. IX.95 Locustae crusta fragili muniuntur), sometimes carabus (Plin. IX.97).

118 Homarus vulgaris, A. 525 A32 f.; Athen. l.c.; Plin. l.c.; Marc. S. 31 ἀστακοὶ ἠυκέρωτες.

119 Decapoda brachyura in general. For different species, A. 525 B3 ff.; Plin. IX.97.

120 H. II.128 n.

121 Cancer pagurus L., the Edible Crab, M. G. καβούρι A. 525 B5; Athen. 319A.

122 C. II.217 n.

123 A. 601 A10 τῶν θαλαττίων οἱ κάραβοι καὶ ἀστακοὶ ἐκδύνουσιν . . . ἐκδύνουσι δὲ καὶ οἱ καρκίνοι τὸ γῆρας . . . ὅταν δ’ ἐκδύνωσι, σφόδρα δύνανται; Plin. IX.95 ambo (i.e. locustae and cancri) veris principio senectutem anguium more exuunt renovatione tergorum; Phil. III; Ael. IX.37. For use of comparative γεραίτερον cf. παλαίτερος Callim. E. VI.1. An account of Crab casting shell, St. John, N. H., etc., in Moray, p208.

124 Octopus vulgaris.

125 Triton palustris, or allied species, cf. A. 487 A28, 490 A4, 589 B27; De resp. 476 A6; Part. an. 695 B25; Athen. 306B.

126 H. II.424 n.

127 Probably Eledone moschata, a species of Octopus variously named from its strong smell: A. 525 A19 ἣν καλοῦσιν οἱ μὲν βολίταιναν [βόλιτος = dung], οἱ δ’ ὄζολιν [ὄζειν = smell]; 621 B17 οὐδὲ πολύποδες οὐδὲ βολίταιναι; Athen. 318E εἴδη δ’ ἐστὶ πολυπόδων ἑλεδώνη, πολυποδίνη, βολβιτίνη, ὀσμύλος, ὡς Ἀριστοτέλης ἱστορεῖ καὶ Σπεύσιππος; Athen. 329A Καλλίμαχος . . . καταλέγων ἰχθύων ὀνομασίας φησίν· ὄζαινα ὀσμύλιον Θούριοι; Epicharm. ap. Athen. 318E χὰ δυσώδης βολβιτίς; Ael. V.44, IX.45 ὀσμίλος; Hesych. s. ὀσμύλια· τῶν πολυπόδων αἱ ὄζαιναι λεγόμεναι; s. ὀσμύναι· βολβιτῖναι θαλάσσιοι; Plin. IX.89 Polyporum generis est ozaena dicta a gravi capitis odore, ob hoc maxime murenis eam consectantibus.

128 This passage is paraphrased Ael. IX.45 Ἀγροῦ γειτνιῶντος θαλάττῃ καὶ φυτῶν παρεστώτων ἐγκάρπων γεωργοὶ πολλάκις καταλαμβάνουσιν ἐν ὥρᾳ θερείῳ πολύποδάς τε καὶ ὀσμύλιους ἐκ τῶν κυμάτων προελθόντας καὶ διὰ τῶν πρέμνιον ἀνερπύσαντας κτλ. Cf. Phil. 101.32; A. 622 A31; Plin. IX.85 (polypi) soli mollium in siccum exeunt; Athen. 317B‑C.

129 H. II.121 n. Its craft, Phil. 105; A. 621 B28.

130 i.e. Testaceans, A. 523 B8 ἔτι δὲ τὰ ὀστρακόδερμα· τοιαῦτα δ’ ἐστὶν ὧν ἐντὸς μὲν τὸ σαρκῶδές ἐστιν, ἐκτὸς δὲ τὸ στερεόν, θραυστὸν ὂν καὶ κατακτόν, ἀλλ’ οὐ θλαστόν. τοιοῦτον δὲ τὸ τῶν κοχλιῶν γένος καὶ τὸ τῶν ὀστρέων ἐστίν; Plin. IX.40 Aquatilium tegumenta plura sunt. Alia . . . teguntur . . . silicum duritia ut ostreae et conchae; Ael. XI.37; Galen, De aliment. fac. III.33.

131 A. 547 B33 φύεται δ’ αὐτῶν τὰ μὲν ἐν τοῖς τενάγεσι, τὰ δ’ ἐν τοῖς αἰγιαλοῖς, τὰ δ’ ἐν τοῖς σπιλώδεσι τόποις, ἔνιοι δ’ ἐν τοῖς σκληροῖς καὶ τραχέσι, τὰ δ’ ἐν τοῖς ἀμμώδεσιν.

132 νηρίτης, στρόμβος, πορφύρα, κῆρυξ all belong to the στρομβώδη (A. 528 A10, Part. an. 679 B14) or spiral-shaped Testaceans. νηρίτης (A. 530 A7, 547 B23, etc.; Ael. XIV.28; also called ἀναρίτης Athen. 85D, 86A) and κῆρυξ (A. 528 A10, 547 B2, etc.; Athen. 86C‑91E) may be species of Buccinum or Trochus. στρόμβος (A. 548 A17, etc.; Ael. VII.31, etc.) may be Cerithium vulgatum, Ital. strombolo. πορφύρα (A. 547 A4 εἰσὶ δὲ τῶν πορφυρῶν γένη πλείω, cf. Athen. 88F ff.; Plin. IX.130 ff.) probably includes Murex brandaris, M. trunculus, Purpura lapillus, etc.

133 Mytilus edulis, etc., A. 528 A15, 547 B11, etc.

134 A bivalve which burrows in the sand; several species, Solen siliqua, S. ensis, S. legumen, etc., occur in the Mediterranean. A. 547 B13, etc.; Plin. X.192, XI.139. It is "truly named" as σωλήν = pipe, in reference to the long and tubular shell. Also called αὐλός, δόναξ, ὄνυξ Athen. 90D, cf. Plin. XXXII.151.

135 H. I.764 n.

136 H. II.225 n.; E. Forbes, pp149 ff.

137 Ael. IX.47; Phil. 64.

138 A. 548 A14 τὸ δὲ καρκίνιον γίνεται μὲν τὴν ἀρχὴν ἐκ τῆς γῆς καὶ ἰλύος, εἶτ’ εἰς τὰ κενὰ τῶν ὀστράκων εἰσδύεται, cf. 529 B19; Ael. VII.31 αἱ δὲ καρκινάδες τίκτονται μὲν γυμναί, τὸ δὲ ὄστρακον ἑαυταῖς αἱροῦνται ὡς οἰκίαν οἰκῆσαι τὴν ἀρίστην.

139 A. 548 A16 αὐξανόμενον μετεισδύνει πάλιν εἰς ἄλλο μεῖζον ὄστρακον, οἷον εἴς τε τὸ τοῦ νηρείτου καὶ τὸ τοῦ στρόμβου . . . πολλάκις δ’ εἰς τοὺς κήρυκας τοὺς μικρούς; Ael. l.c.

140 A. 530 A6 προμηκέστερα δ’ ἐστὶ τὰ ἐν τοῖς στρόμβοις τῶν ἐν τοῖς νηρείταις.

141 A. 548 A19 ὅταν δ’ εἰσδύνῃ, συμπεριφέρει τοῦτο καὶ ἐν τούτῳ τρέφεται πάλιν· καὶ αὐξανόμενον πάλιν εἰς ἄλλο μετεισδύνει μεῖζον; Ael. l.c.; Plin. IX.98.

142 Argonauta argo L., cf. A. 622 B5; Athen. 317F ff., who preserves the famous epigram of Callimachus (E. VI); Ael. IX.34; Antig. 56; Plin. IX.88.

143 The list of κήτη μέγιστα Ael. IX.49 is λέων, ζύγαινα, πάρδαλις, φύσαλος, πρῆστις, μάλθη, κριός, ὕαινα. Suid. s. κῆτος omits ὕαινα; Phil. 85 omits ὕαινα and μάλθη. Cf. Plin. IX.2 ff.

144 Not identified. Ael. XVI.18 (the sea round Taprobane) ἄμαχόν τι πλῆθος καὶ ἰχθύων καὶ κητῶν τρέφειν φασί, καὶ ταῦτα μέντοι καὶ λεόντων ἔχειν κεφαλὰς καὶ παρδαλέων καὶ λύκων καὶ κριῶν. The λέων θαλάσσιος of Ael. XIV.9 seems to be a Crustacean.

145 H. V.37 n.

146 H. V.30 n.

147 Perhaps Physeter macrocephalus L; the Cachalot or Sperm Whale. Erh. pp28 f. tells of one which was stranded at Tenos in 1840, another at Melos, and a young one at Tenos in 1857 (Erh. p95), Ael. IX.49. Strabo 145 (of the sea off Turdetania) ὣς δ’ αὔτως ἔχει καὶ περὶ τῶν κητέων ἁπάντων, ὀρύγων τε καὶ φαλαινῶν καὶ φυσητήρων, ὧν ἀναφυσησάντων φαίνεταί τις νεφώδους ὄψις κίονος τοῖς πόρρωθεν ἀφορῶσι; Plin. IX.8 Maximum animal . . . in Gallico oceano physeter ingentis columnae modo se attollens altiorque navium velis diluviem quandam eructans; Phil. 95; Senec. Hippol. 1030.

148 Pristis antiquorum (Squalus pristis): A. 566 B3 ζῳοτοκοῦσιν, ἔτι δὲ πρίστις καὶ βοῦς; Plin. IX.4 f.; schol. πρῆστις, βασιλίσκος.

149 H. V.36 n.

150 Unidentified. Ael. IX.49 (among κήτη μέγιστα) ἡ πρῆστις καὶ ἡ καλουμένη μάλθη· δυσανταγώνιστον δὲ ἄρα τὸ θηρίον τοῦτο καὶ ἄμαχον; Suid. s. κῆτος· . . . πρῆστις, ἡ λεγομένη μάλθη, ὃ καὶ δυσανταγώνιστόν ἐστι; s. πρῆστις· εἶδος κήτους θαλασσίου, ἡ λεγομένη μάλθη ὃ καὶ δυσανταγώνιστόν ἐστι. Thus to Suidas πρῆστιςμάλθη.

151 H. V.34 n.

152 H. V.32 n.

153 Apparently, like M. G. σκυλόψαρο, collective name for the Sharks and Dog-fishes. κύων is mentioned once in Aristotle where it is included among the γαλεοειδεῖς: A. 566 A30 οἱ μὲν οὖν γαλεοὶ καὶ οἱ γαλεοειδεῖς, οἷον ἀλώπηξ καὶ κύων. Cf. Ael. I.55.

154 If this is not one of the Cete just mentioned, it may be Selache maxima Cuv., the Basking Shark.

155 κεντρίνης from κέντρον, spine. Centrina vulpecula Mor. (Squalus centrina L.), M. G. γουρουνόψαρο, Fr. Le Humantin.

156 Aristotle's γαλεοί (γαλεώδεις) are the long cartilaginous fishes, i.e. the Sharks as opposed to the Skates and Rays: A. 489 B6 τὰ σελάχη, γαλεοί τε καὶ βάτοι; 505 A3 τῶν σελαχῶν τὰ μὲν πλατέα, . . . οἷον νάρκη καὶ βάτος, τὰ δὲ προμήκη . . . οἷον πάντα τὰ γαλεώδη; and the species mentioned are ἀκανθίας A. 565 B27, ἀστερίας A. 543 A17, 566 A17, τὰ σκύλια οὓς καλοῦσί τινες νεβρίας γαλεούς A. 565 A26, ἀλώπηξ A. 566 A31, 565 B1, 621 A12, γαλοὶ λεῖοι A. 565 B2, De gen. 754 B33. Cf. Athen. 294D Ἀριστοτέλης δὲ εἴδη αὐτῶν (sc. τῶν γαλεῶν) φησιν εἶναι πλείω, ἀκανθίαν, λεῖον, ποικίλον, σκύμνον, ἀλωπεκίαν, ῥίνην (the inclusion of the last being due perhaps to misunderstanding of A. 565 B25. See H. I.381 n.).

157 As σκύμνος is given in Athenaeus but not in Aristotle, it is perhaps to be equated with Aristotle's σκύλιον and identified as Scyllium canicula Cuv., M. G. σκυλί, σκυλόψαρο, which is very common in Greek waters (Apost. p1).

158 Mustelus laevis Risso, M. G. γαληός. In this species the embryo is attached to the uterus by a placenta, as was known to Aristotle; A. 565 B1 ff.

159 Acanthias vulgaris, commonest of Greek Plagiostoma, M. G. σκυλόψαρο (Apost. p5). A. 565 A29, B27, 621 B17; Athen. 294D.

160 Rhina squatina or Monk-fish. One of the σελάχη A. 543 A14, but not one of the γαλεοί A. 565 B25. Cf. 566 A20; Plin. IX.161. Aristotle's references, while rather indefinite, associate the ῥίνη rather with the Rays than the Sharks, and though it is now classed as a Shark, it is "intermediate between the ordinary Sharks and the Skates and Rays, both in external appearance and internal structure, but is more Ray-like than Shark-like in its habits," Cambridge N. H. VII p457. It is viviparous.

161 Alopias (Alopecias) vulpes, the Thresher Shark, commonest of the larger Sharks on British coasts. It grows of a length of 15 feet or more, the tail forming at least one-half. Cf. Apost. p4; A. 566 A31 ἀλώπηξ. Fr. Le Renard.

162 Scyllium Catulus Cuv., the γαλεὸς νεβρίας of A. 565 A26.

163 When Poseidon wished to marry Amphitrite, she hid herself. The Dolphin found her, and for this Poseidon gave him the highest honours in the sea and set in the sky the constellation of the Dolphin. Eratosth. Catast. 31; Hygin. Astr. II.17.

164 A. 592 A13; Plin. IX.74.

165 Chelonia cephalo Dussum. "Die Caguana und nicht, wie man sie fälschlich in Handbüchern findet, Carette genannt," Erh. p71. M. G. ἀχελῶνα (generic for all Turtles and Tortoises). A. 589 A26, 558 A11, etc.; Plin. IX.36 Ferunt et pastum egressas noctu, etc.; ibid. 37 in terram egressae herbis vivunt.

166 Comparison of A. 594 B28 ἔνια δὲ τῶν τετραπόδων καὶ ἀγρίων ζῴων ποιεῖται τὴν τροφὴν περὶ λίμνας καὶ ποταμούς, περὶ δὲ τὴν θάλατταν οὐδὲν ἔξω φώκης. τοιαῦτα δ’ ἐστὶν ὅ τε καλούμενος κάστωρ καὶ τὸ σαθέριον καὶ τὸ σατύριον καὶ ἐνυδρὶς καὶ ἡ καλουμένη λάταξ· ἔστι δὲ τοῦτο πλατύτερον τῆς ἐνυδρίδος, καὶ ὀδόντας ἔχει ἰσχυρούς· ἐξιοῦσα γὰρ νύκτωρ πολλάκις τὰς περὶ τὸν ποταμὸν κερκίδας ἐκτέμνει τοῖς ὀδοῦσιν, cf. A. 487 A22, leaves no doubt that Oppian's καστορίς = Aristotle's κάστωρCastor fiber, the Beaver, still found in S. Russia, the various names, acc. to Sundevall, being synonyms for the same animal; cf. Herod. IV.109. Ael. IX.50 paraphrases vv. 398‑408.

167 Cf. Ael. l.c. This seems to be merely an expansion of A. 589 B19 (of the Dolphin) καὶ ἔξω δὲ ζῇ πολὺν χρόνον μύζων καὶ στένων. Cf. A. 535 B32.

168 Ael. l.c. καὶ ἡ φάλαινα δὲ τῆς θαλάττης πρόεισι καὶ ἀλεαίνεται τῇ ἀκτῖνι. Cf. XVI.18. The statement is probably based on such passages as A. 589 A10‑b11 which deals with amphibious animals (τὰ ἐπαμφοτερίζοντα) where both δελφίς and φάλαινα are mentioned. The φάλαινα of Aristotle (cf. esp. A. 489 B4 ἔχει δὲ ὁ μὲν δελφὶς τὸν αὑλὸν (blow-hole) διὰ τοῦ νώτου, ἡ δὲ φάλαινα ἐν τῷ μετώπῳ) is probably Physeter macrocephalus or, according to A. and W., Delphinus tursio, which is rarer than the common Dolphin (Delphinus delphis) and more frequent in the S. Mediterranean, particularly off Crete (Erh. p28).

169 Ael. l.c. κνεφαῖαι δὲ αἱ φῶκαι ἐξιᾶσι μᾶλλον· ἤδη μέντοι καὶ μεσημβρίας οὔσης καθεύδουσι τῆς θαλάσσης ἔξω. τοῦτό τοι καὶ Ὅμηρος ᾔδει (Hom. O. IV.448). A. 566 B27; Plin. IX.41. The only Seal found in the Mediterranean appears to be Phoca monachus which is common in the Cyclades: "Es giebt kaum ein Eiland, grösseres oder kleineres in ägäischen Meere, wo nicht ein und mehre Paare dieser Robben ihr Standquartier aufgeschlagen hätten, obwohl man sie nur sehr selten, bei ruhigem Wetter oder Tageslicht wohl nie, zu Gesichte bekömmt. Den Fischern des Archipels ist sie besser bekannt; sie wissen die beinahe unterseeischen Uferschluchten, in denen sie sich verbirgt, wohl zu finden, und bezeichnen sie allgemein mit dem Ausdrucke φωκότρυπαι" (Erh. p18).

170 C. II.217 n.

171 λάρος, M. G. γλάρος, generic for Gulls and Terns.

172 Alcedo ispida L., M. G. ψαροφάγος etc.

173 Pandion haliaëtus, the Osprey, or Aquila naevia, or Haliaëtus albicilla. A. 620 A1‑12 etc

174 Loligo vulgaris Cuv., the Squid. A. 524 A30 etc. For their flight cf. Epicharm. ap. Athen. 323F ποταναὶ τευθίδες; Plin. IX.84 Loligo etiam volitat extra aquam se efferens. Oppian's lines 427‑437 are paraphrased Ael. IX.52.

175 Mentioned along with χελιδών Epainet. ap. Athen. 329A. Probably Exocetus volitans Cuv. (E. exsiliens Bloch). Plin. IX.82 volat hirundo, sane perquam similis volucri hirundini, item milvus; Ov. Hal. 95 nigro corpore milvi.

176 Dactylopterus volitans, Cuv. (Trigla volitans L.), the Flying Gurnard, M. G. χελιδονόψαρο (Apost. p11). A. 535 B26 οἱ κτένες ὅταν φέρωνται ἀπερειδόμενοι τῷ ὑγρῷ ὃ καλοῦσι πέτεσθαι ῥοιζοῦσι, καὶ αἱ χελιδόνες αἱ θαλάττιαι ὁμοίως· καὶ γὰρ αὗται πέτονται μετέωροι, οὐχ ἁπτόμεναι τῆς θαλάττης; Marc. S. ὠκυπέτεια χελιδών.

177 A. 610 B4 (list of ἀγελαῖοι), 488 A3 ἀγελαῖα . . . καὶ τῶν πλωτῶν πολλὰ γένη τῶν ἰχθύων, οἷον οὓς καλοῦσι δρομάδας. Cf. χυτοί 543 A1, ῥυάδες 534 A27, etc.; Plin. IX.56 vagantur gregatim fere cuiusque generis squamosi.

178 Ael. IX.53 ἀλῶνται δὲ ἄρα ἰχθῦς καὶ πλανῶνται οἱ μὲν ἀθρόοι, ὥσπερ οὖν ἀγέλαι θρεμμάτων ἢ τάξεις ὁπλιτῶν ἰοῦσαι κατὰ ἴλας καὶ φάλαγγας· οἱ δὲ ἐν κόσμῳ κατὰ στοῖχον ἔρχονται· οἱ δέ, φαίης ἂν αὐτοὺς εἶναι λόχους· ἠρίθμηνται δὲ εἰς δεκάδας ἄλλοι, . . . ἤδη δὲ νήχονται καὶ κατὰ ζεῦγός τινες· ἄλλοι δὲ οἰκουροῦσιν ἐν τοῖς φωλεοῖς καὶ ἐνταυθοῖ καταζῶσιν. μοναδικά A. 488 A1, etc. μονήρης, used by Athen. (e.g. 301C) in quoting Aristotle, does not occur in our texts.

179A 179B A. 610 B7 ἔνιά ἐστιν οὐ μόνον ἀγελαῖα ἀλλὰ καὶ σύζυγα.

180 ἐπιδημητικά opp. to ἐκτοπιστικά A. 488 A13.

181 vv. 446‑462 are paraphrased Ael. IX.57. Cf. A. 599 B2 φωλοῦσι δὲ πολλοὶ καὶ τῶν ἰχθύων . . . τοῦ χειμῶνος; Plin. IX.57 Praegelidam hiemem omnes sentiunt . . . itaque his mensibus iacent speluncis conditi.

182 A. 599 B26 φωλεῖ δὲ τὰ μὲν ἐν τῇ ἄμμῳ; 537 A25 οἱ δὲ πλατεῖς ἐν τῇ ἄμμῳ.

183 A. 537 A23 τὰ δὲ πλεῖστα καθεύδουσι τῆς γῆς ἢ τῆς ἄμμου ἢ λίθου τινὸς ἐχόμενοι ἐν τῷ βυθῷ ἢ ἀποκρύψαντες ὑπὸ πέτραν ἢ θῖνα ἑαυτούς.

184 A. 599 B8 φωλοῦσι δὲ καὶ οἱ θύννοι τοῦ χειμῶνος ἐν τοῖς βαθέσιν.

185 A. 570 B11 οἱ δὲ τόκοι γίνονται τοῖς μὲν ῥυάσιν τοῦ ἔαρος, καὶ τοῖς πλείστοις δὲ περὶ τὴν ἐαρινὴν ἰσημερίαν. Cf. Plin. IX.162.

186 A. 541 A14 περὶ μὲν γὰρ τὴν τῆς ὀχείας ὥραν αἱ θήλειαι τοῖς ἄρρεσιν ἑπόμεναι . . . κόπτουσιν ὑπὸ τὴν γαστέρα τοῖς στόμασιν, οἱ δὲ θᾶττον προΐενται (τὸν θορὸν) καὶ μᾶλλον; Plin. IX.157 femina piscis coitus tempore marem sequitur ventrem eius rostro pulsans.

187 Plin. l.c. pisces attritu ventrium coeunt; A. De gen. 717 B36 οἱ μὲν γὰρ ίχθύες ὀχεύουσι παραπίπτοντες.

188 A. 541 A11 ἡ δὲ τῶν ᾠοτόκων ἰχθύων ὀχεία ἧττον γίνεται κατάδηλος· διόπερ οἱ πλεῖστοι νομίζουσι πληροῦσθαι τὰ θήλεα τῶν ἀρρένων ἀνακάπτοντα τὸν θορόν.

189 C. II.433 n.

190 H. IV.173 n.

191 H. III.338 n.

192 Ael. I.13 ὁ γοῦν αἰτναῖος οὕτω λεγόμενος, ἐπὰν τῇ ἑαυτοῦ συννόμῳ οἱονεὶ γαμέτῃ τινὶ συνδυασθεὶς κληρώσηται τὸ λέχος, ἄλλης οὐχ ἅπτεται; cf. Phil. 53. Not identified.

193 Anguilla vulgaris, M. G. χέλυ. For generation of, A. 570 A3 ff. αἱ δ’ ἐγχέλυς οὔτ’ ἐξ ὀχείας γίνονται οὔτ’ ᾠοτοκοῦσιν, οὐδ’ ἐλήφθη πώποτε οὔτε θορὸν ἔχουσα οὐδεμία οὔτ’ ᾠά; Plin. IX.160 anguillae atterunt se scopulis; ea strigmenta vivescunt, nec alia est earum procreatio.

194 Plin. IX.73 longis et lubricis ut anguillis et congris.

195 Ael. XV.19; Plin. IX.37 Quidam oculis spectandoque ova foveri ab his putant, feminas coitum fugere, donec mas festucam aliquam imponat aversae. For mode of mating, A. 540 A28 τὰ μὲν γὰρ ἐπιβαίνοντα . . . οἷον χελώνη καὶ ἡ θαλάττια καὶ ἡ χερσαία; Plin. IX.158 Testudines in coitu superveniunt.

196 A. 540 A23 ὀχεύεται δὲ καὶ ἡ φώκη καθάπερ τὰ ὀπισθουρητικὰ τῶν ζῴων καὶ συνέχονται ἐν τῇ ὀχείᾳ πολὺν χρόνον, ὥσπερ καὶ αἱ κύνες· ἔχουσι δὲ τὸ αἰδοῖον μέγα οἱ ἄρρενες; Plin. IX.41 (vitulus marinus) in coitu canum modo cohaeret.

197 This passage is paraphrased Ael. VI.28. Cf. A. 622 A14 ff.; Athen. 316C ff.

198 A. 622 A25 ὅταν δὲ τὰ ᾠὰ ἐκτέκωσιν, οὕτω καταγηράσκειν καὶ ἀσθενεῖς γίνεσθαι ἀμφοτέρους φασὶν ὥστε ὑπὸ τῶν ἰχθυδίον κατεσθίεσθαι.

199 A. 622 A17 αἱ δὲ θήλειαι μετὰ τὸν τόκον . . . γίνονται μωραί κτλ.

200 A. 544 A8 τίκτει τὸ ᾠὸν καθάπερ βοστρύχιον; 549 B32 ὅμοιον βοστρυχίοις οἰνάνθης; Athen. 316E τίκτει ᾠὰ βοτρυδόν; Plin. IX.163 Polypi . . . pariunt vere ova tortili vibrata pampino.

201 A. 550 B13 ἔστι δὲ καὶ ὁ τεῦθος καὶ ἡ σηπία βραχύβιον. οὐ γὰρ διετίζουσιν, . . . ὁμοίως δὲ καὶ οἱ πολύποδες. Cf. A. 622 A22; Athen. 323; Ael. l.c.; Plin. IX.93.

202 Plin. IX.76 (Murenas) in sicca litora elapsas vulgus coitu serpentium impleri putat. Oppian's lines are paraphrased Ael. I.50, IX.66. Cf. Nicand. T. 823 ff. (with schol. ad loc.), whose lines are quoted by Athen. 312D, where it is said that the story was rejected by Andreas but accepted by Sostratus; Phil. 81. Hence the point of the lines of Matron the parodist ap. Athen. 136B μύραιναν δ’ ἐπέθηκε φέρων . . . | ζώνην θ’ ἣν φορέεσκεν . . . | εἰς λέχος ἡνικ’ ἔβαινε Δρακοντιάδῃ μεγαθύμῳ. For Murena coming ashore, A. 543 A28; Plin. IX.73.

203 A. 540 B22; De gen. 756 B1; Plin. IX.74.

204 A. 570 A25, 570 B11 ff., 543 B18 ff.; Plin. IX.162.

205 A. 542 B32 ὁμοίως δὲ καὶ τῶν ἰχθύων οἱ πλεῖστοι ἅπαξ (τίκτουσιν) οἷον οἱ χυτοί . . . πλὴν ὁ λάβραξ· οὗτος δὲ δὶς τούτων μόνος. Cf. 567 B18; Plin. IX.162; Ael. X.2; Athen. 310F.

206 A. 543 A5 ἡ δὲ τρίγλη μόνη τρίς. Oppian derives τρίγλη from τρίς, cf. Ael. X.2 τρίγλην δὲ καὶ τρὶς κύειν κατηγορεῖ, φασί, καὶ τὸ ὄνομα. Cf. IX.51; Phil. 116; Athen. 334D.

207 But A. 543 A7 ὁ σκορπίος τίκτει δίς; Plin. IX.162 scorpaenae bis (anno pariunt); Athen. 320E.

208 A. 568 A16 τίκτουσι δ’ ἐν τῇ καθηκούσῃ ὥρᾳ κυπρῖνος μὲν πεντάκις ἢ ἑξάκις· ποιεῖται δὲ τὸν τόκον μάλιστα ἐπὶ τοῖς ἄστροις.

209 Introd. p. lxiv.

210 Black Sea. A. 598 A30 εἰσπλέουσι δ’ εἰς τὸν Πόντον διά τε τὴν τροφήν (ἡ γὰρ νομὴ καὶ πλείων καὶ βελτίων διὰ τὸ πότιμον, καὶ τὰ θηρία δὲ τὰ μεγάλα ἐλάττω· ἔξω γὰρ δελφῖνος καὶ φωκαίνης [Porpoise] οὐδέν ἐστιν ἐν τῷ Πόντῳ καὶ ὁ δελφὶς μικρός· ἔξω δ’ εὐθὺς προελθόντι μεγάλοι), διά τε δὴ τὴν τροφὴν εἰσπλέουσι καὶ διὰ τὸν τόκον· τόποι γάρ εἰσιν ἐπιτήδειοι ἐντίκτειν καὶ τὸ πότιμον καὶ τὸ γλυκύτερον ὕδωρ ἐκτρέφει τὰ κυήματα. Cf. Ael. IV.4, IX.59; Plut. Mor. 981D; Plin. IX.49 f.; Arr. Peripl. Eux. Pont. c. viii; A. 567 B15 ἐν τῷ Πόντῳ περὶ τὸν Θερμώδοντα ποταμὸν οἱ πλεῖστοι τίκτουσιν· νήνεμος γὰρ ὁ τόπος καὶ ἀλεεινὸς καὶ ἔχων ὕδατα γλυκέα; A. Meteor. 354 A16 πλείους γὰρ εἰς τὸν Εὔξεινον ῥέουσι ποταμοὶ καὶ τὴν Μαιῶτιν ἢ τὴν πολλαπλασίαν χώραν αὐτῆς.

211 A. 606 A10 ἐν μὲν τῷ Πόντῳ οὔτε τὰ μαλάκια γίνεται οὔτε τὰ ὀστρακόδερμα εἰ μὴ ἔν τισι τόποις ὀλίγα. Cf. Plin. IX.52; Ael. XVII.10; Athen. 317F ἐν δὲ τῷ περὶ τῶν κατὰ τόπους διαφορῶν ὁ Θεόφραστος πολύποδας οὐ γίνεσθαί φησιν περὶ Ἑλλήσποντον. ψυχρὰ γὰρ ἡ θάλασσα αὕτη καὶ ἧττον ἁλμυρά, ταῦτα δ’ ἀμφότερα πολέμια πολύποδι; E. Forbes, N. H. of the European Seas, p203, "The deficiencies in the Black Sea fauna are remarkable. All those classes of Mollusca which, as we have seen, are but poorly represented in the Eastern Mediterranean as compared with the Western, are either here altogether wanting, or are of rarest occurrence, such as Cephalopods, Pteropods, and Nudibranchs. Echinoderms and Zoophytes are absent. The composition of the water is inimical to all these forms."

212 πόρον· ἤγουν τὸν Ἑλλήσποντον schol., but the reference can hardly be other than to the strait of Byzantium (Constantinople) which connects the Propontis (Sea of Marmora) with the Euxine (Black Sea) and is regularly called the Thracian Bosporus: Strabo 125 ἐκδίδωσι δ’ αὕτη (ἡ Μαιῶτις λίμνη) μὲν εἰς Πόντον κατὰ τὸν Κιμμερικὸν καλούμενον Βόσπορον (Strait of Kerch), οὗτος δὲ κατὰ τὸν Θρᾴκιον εἰς τὴν Προποντίδα· τὸ γὰρ βυζαντιακὸν στόμα οὕτω καλοῦσι Θρᾴκιον Βόσπορον, ὃ τετραστάδιον ἐστιν. Cf. Strab. 319, 566; Dion. P. 140 Θρηικίου στόμα Βοσπόρου, ὃν πάρος Ἰὼ | Ἥρης ἐννεσίῃσιν ἐνήξατο πόρτις ἐοῦσα. ἀνύουσι: Stat. T. VII.439 Taurus init fecitque vadum.

213 Sea of Marmora. The Bebryces are located in Mysia or eastward to Chalcedon. Dion. P. 805 Βέβρυκες δ’ ἐπὶ τοῖσι καὶ οὔρεα Μυσίδος αἴης; Strab. 541.

214 Dion. P. 142 στεινότατος δὴ κεῖνος ἁπάντων ἔπλετο πορθμὸς | τῷ ἄλλων οἵ τ’ εἰσὶ περικλύστοιο θαλάσσης; Arr. Peripl. Eux. Pont. XII.2 καὶ ἔστι στενότατον ταύτῃ τὸ στόμα τοῦ Πόντου καλούμενον, καθ’ ὅτι εἰσβάλλει ἐς τὴν Προποντίδα.

215 Hom. Il. III.3 ff. ἠύτε περ κλαγγὴ γεράνων πέλει οὐρανόθι πρό, | οἵ τ’ ἐπεὶ οὖν χειμῶνα φύγον καὶ ἀθέσφατον ὄμβρον, | κλαγγῇ ταί γε πέτονται ἐπ’ Ὠκεανοῖο ῥοάων | ἀνδράσι Πυγμαίοισι φόνον καὶ κῆρα φέρουσαι. But while Homer refers to the Southward migration about October (A. 599 A24 τοῦ Μαιμακτηριῶνος, the signal for sowing, Hesiod, W. 448, Aristoph. Av. 710, Theocr. X.31), Oppian means the N. migration in beginning of March. Momms. Jahr. p267; Milton, P. L. VII.425 ff.

216 ὑψόθεν ἐκ νεφέων Hesiod l.c., σύννομοι νεφέων δρόμου Eur. Hel. 1488.

217 Grus cinerea, M. G. γερανός, γεράνι, and γορίλλα in Attica. The much rarer G. virgo is mentioned as a summer visitor in the Cyclades, Erh. p54.

218 In N. W. Africa. Strabo 825.

219 A. 597 A4 ff.; Strabo 35, etc.; Plin. X.58.

220 Their flight was in the form of a triangle (γεράνων τὴν ἐν τριγώνῳ πτῆσιν Plut. Mor. 979B), the apex leading, the older birds in front and rear, the young in the middle. Ael. III.13; Plut. Mor. 967C; Eur. Hel. 1478 ff.; Plin. X.58.

221 A. 598 B6 ὅταν δὲ τέκωσι καὶ τὰ γενόμενα αὐξηθῇ, ἐκπλέουσιν εὐθὺς μετὰ Πλείαδα, i.e. after the heliacal rising of the Pleiades.

222 E. Forbes, op. cit. p201 "Some of the rivers which discharge into the Black Sea take their rise in high latitudes, in districts annually covered with snow. These rivers also are annually frozen. Again, the winter temperature of the northern shores of this sea is such that coast ice forms there, as also in the Sea of Azof; and hence the waters of the Black Sea are much colder than those of the rest of the marine province to which it belongs. It is to the combined influence of composition and temperature that the great difference in the assemblage of animals in the Mediterranean and Black Seas must be attributed. The Black Sea is the great ultimate estuary of the rivers which drain one-half of the European area."

223 τηλεβαθής seems to be modelled on ἀγχιβαθής. For relative depths of different seas cf. A. Meteor. 354 A19 καὶ τῆς μὲν Μαιώτιδος ὁ Πόντος (βαθύτερος), τούτου δὲ ὁ Αἰγαῖος, τοῦ δ’ Αἰγαίου ὁ Σικελικός· ὁ δὲ Σαρδονικὸς καὶ ὁ Τυρρηνικὸς βαθύτατοι πάντων.

224 The schol. hesitate between the Euxine (Black Sea) and the Λίμνη Μαιῶτις (Sea of Azov).

225 In the Aristotelian sense, i.e. Cephalopods or Cuttles: A. 523 B1 περὶ δὲ τῶν ἀναίμων ζῴων νυνὶ λεκτέον. ἔστι δὲ γένη πλείω, ἓν μὲν τὸ τῶν καλουμένων μαλακίων· ταῦτα δ’ ἐστὶν ὅσα ἄναιμα ὄντα ἐκτὸς ἔχει τὸ σαρκῶδες, ἐντὸς δ’ εἴ τι ἔχει στερεόν . . . οἷον τὸ τῶν σηπιῶν γένος. Aristotle divides the ἄναιμα or bloodless animals (Invertebrates) into μαλάκια (Cephalopods), μαλακόστρακα (Crustaceans), ἔντομα (Insects, Arachnidae, Worms), ὀστρακόδερμα (Mussels, Snails, Ascidians, Holothurians, Actinia, Sponges). His μαλάκια or "Molluscs" are: βολίταινα or ὄζολις, ἑλεδώνη, ναυτίλος πολύπους (3 species), σηπία, τευθίς, τεῦθος. Cf. Ael. XI.37; Plin. IX.83 Mollia sunt loligo, sepia, polypus et cetera generis eius.

226 A. Part. an. 654 A9 τὰ δ’ ἔντομα τῶν ζῴων καὶ τὰ μαλάκια . . . οὐδὲν . . . ὀστῶδες ἔχειν ἔοικεν οὐδὲ γεηρὸν ἀποκεκριμένον, ὅτι καὶ ἄξιον εἰπεῖν, ἀλλὰ τὰ μὲν μαλάκια σχεδὸν ὅλα σαρκώδη καὶ μαλακά.

227 For the distinction between λεπιδωτά and φολιδωτά cf. A. 505 A20 ff. ἔτι δὲ πρὸς τἄλλα ζῷα οἱ ἰχθύες διαφέρουσι . . . οὔτε γὰρ ὥσπερ τῶν πεζῶν ὅσα ζῳοτόκα ἔχει τρίχας, οὔθ’ ὥσπερ ἔνια τῶν ᾠοτοκούντων τετραπόδων φολίδας, οὔθ’ ὡς τὸ τῶν ὀρνέων γένος πτερωτόν, ἀλλ’ οἱ μὲν πλεῖστοι αὐτῶν λεπιδωτοί εἰσιν, ὀλίγοι δέ τινες τραχεῖς, ἐλάχιστον δ’ ἐστὶ πλῆθος αὐτῶν τὸ λεῖον. τῶν μὲν οὖν σελαχῶν τὰ μὲν τραχέα ἐστί, τὰ δὲ λεῖα, γόγγροι δὲ καὶ ἐγχέλυες καὶ θύννοι τῶν λείων. For distinction between λεπίς and φολίς cf. A. 490 B22, etc. The λεπιδωτοί thus include the great majority of fishes, while the φολιδωτοί include Snakes (ἄποδα ᾠοτόκα φολιδωτά) — only the Viper (ἔχις) being viviparous (A. 511 A16) — Lizards and Tortoises (τετράποδα ᾠοτόκα φολιδωτά). Cf. Ael. XI.37 φολιδωτὰ δὲ σαῦρος, σαλαμάνδρα, χελώνη, κροκόδειλος, ὄφις. ταῦτα δὲ καὶ τὸ γῆρας ἀποδύεται, πλὴν κροκόδειλου καὶ χελώνης.

228 For μαλάκια cf. A. 549 B27 τὰ δὲ μαλάκια ἐκ τοῦ συνδυασμοῦ καὶ τῆς ὀχείας ᾠὸν ἴσχει λευκόν. For λεπιδωτοί cf. A. 505 B2 εἰσὶ δ’ αὐτῶν (sc. τῶν ἰχθύων)º οἱ μὲν ᾠοτόκοι οἱ ζῳοτόκοι, οἱ μὲν λεπιδωτοὶ πάντες ᾠοτόκοι τὰ δὲ σελάχη πάντα ζῳοτόκα πλὴν βατράχου. For φολιδωτά cf. A. Part. an. 733 A6 οἱ μὲν γὰρ ὄρνιθες καὶ τὰ φολιδωτὰ . . . ᾠοτοκοῦσι.

229 κύων is here either generic, as in H. I.373, or, if specific, is as unidentifiable as in A. 566 A30 ff. οἱ μὲν οὖν γαλεοὶ καὶ οἱ γαλεοειδεῖς, οἷον ἀλώπηξ καὶ κύων [the only case in Aristotle of κύων in sing. in connexion with Dog-fish] καὶ οἱ πλατεῖς ἰχθύες . . . ζῳοτοκοῦσιν ᾠοτοκήσαντες.

230 Mylobatis aquila, M. G. ἀετός. A. 540 B18.

231 i.e. cartilaginous fishes, the Sharks and Rays. A. 511 A5 καλεῖται δὲ σέλαχος ὃ ἂν ἄπουν ὂν καὶ βράγχια ἔχον ζῳοτόκον ᾖ. Cf. Hesych. s. σελάχιον. Aristotle's Selachians are (1) προμήκη (A. 505 A5) or γαλεώδη, Sharks and Dog-fishes; ἀκανθίας, ἀλώπηξ ἀστερίας, γαλεὸς ὁ λεῖος, κύων, σκύλια, (2) πλατέα καὶ κερκοφόρα (A. 489 B31, 540 B8), the Rays; ἀετός, βατίς, βάτος, βοῦς, λάμια, λειόβατος, νάρκη, ῥινόβατος· τρυγών. Among the Selachians he includes also βάτραχος (see H. II.86 n.) and ῥίνη (see H. I.742 n.). In saying that the Selachians are viviparous Oppian is following Aristotle, who makes ζῳοτόκον part of his definition of σέλαχος (see above). Cf. A. 505 B3 τὰ δὲ σελάχη πάντα ζῳοτοκεῖ πλὴν βατράχου; 564 B12 ζῳοτοκεὶ δὲ τὰ σελάχη πρότερον ᾠοτοκήσαντα ἐν αὑτοῖς καὶ ἐκτρέφουσιν ἐν αὑτοῖς πλὴν βατράχου; De gen. 754 A23 τὰ δὲ καλούμενα σελάχη τῶν ἰχθύων ἐν αὑτοῖς μὲν ᾠοτοκεῖ τέλειον ᾠὸν ἔξω δὲ ζῳοτοκεῖ, πλὴν ἑνὸς ὃν καλοῦσι βάτραχον· οὗτος δὲ ᾠοτοκεῖ θύραζε τέλειον ᾠὸν μόνος; Plin. IX.78 cum ceteri pisces ova pariant, hoc genus (sc. cartilagineaσελάχη) solum ut ea quae cete appellant animal parit excepta quam ranam vocant.

232 A. 504 B21, etc.

233 A. 489 A35, etc.

234 The story is variously told (cf. schol.). The version of Apollod. III.5 is: Wishing to cross from Icaria to Naxos, Dionysus hired a vessel of some Tyrrhenian pirates. Putting him on board, they sailed past Naxos and made all speed for Asia, with a view to selling him. He then turned mast and sails into snakes and filled the ship with ivy and the noise of flutes. The pirates, becoming mad, threw themselves into the sea and became Dolphins. Cf. Hom. H. VII.

235 Cf. C. III.16.

236 A. 566 B6 τίκτει δ’ ὁ μὲν δελφὶς τὰ μὲν πολλὰ ἕν, ἐνίοτε δὲ καὶ δύο; Plin. IX.21; Ael. I.18; Phil. 86.

237 A. 521 B23 τὰ κήτη, οἷον δελφὶς καὶ φώκη καὶ φάλαινα· καὶ γὰρ ταῦτα μαστοὺς ἔχει καὶ γάλα. Cf. A. 504 B22, 566 B16; Ael. V.4; Plin. IX.7.

238 A. 566 B22 παρακολουθεῖ δὲ τὰ τέκνα πολὺν χρόνον, καὶ ἔστι τὸ ζῷον φιλότεκνον; Plin. l.c.

239 The reference is to children attended from school by their paedagogus. Schol. μουσοπόλων· ἢ σχολῆς, ἀπὸ τῶν σχολείων . . . ἐπίσκοποι· οἱ παιδαγωγοί. Cf. Hor. S. I.6.81 Ipse mihi custos incorruptissimus omnes | Circum doctores aderat.

240 A. 567 A2 μαστοὺς δ’ ἔχει δύο καὶ θηλάζεται ὑπὸ τῶν τέκνων καθάπερ τὰ τετράποδα; Plin. IX.41.

241 A. 566 B28 τίκτει ἐν τῇ γῇ μέν, πρὸς αἰγιαλοῖς δέ; Ael. IX.9; Plin. IX.41.

242 A. 567 A5 ἄγει δὲ περὶ δωδεκαταῖα ὄντα τὰ τέκνα εἰς τὴν θάλατταν πολλάκις τῆς ἡμέρας, συνεθίζουσα κατὰ μικρόν; Plin. l.c.; Ael. l.c.

243 Hom. Il. XVII.133 ἑστήκει ὥς τίς τε λέων περὶ οἶσι τέκεσσιν | ᾧ ῥά τε νήπι’ ἄγοντι συναντήσωνται ἐν ὕλῃ | ἄνδρες ἐπακτῆρες.

244 Schol. αὐτοκμῆτα· . . . αὐτοφυῆ ἢ τὸ σπήλαιον λέγει τοῦ λέοντος. Cf. αὐτόκτιτ’ ἄντρα Aesch. P. V. 303.

245 Hom. Od. XX.14 ὡς δὲ κύων ἀμαλῇσι περὶ σκυλάκεσσι βεβῶσα ἄνδρ’ ἀγνοιήσασ’ ὑλάει μέμονέν τε μάχεσθαι.

246 C. III.116 n.

247 Ael. I.17 κύων δὲ θαλαττία τεκοῦσα ἔχει συννέοντα τὰ σκυλάκια ἤδη καὶ οὐκ εἰς ἀναβολάς· ἐὰν δὲ δείσῃ τι τούτων, εἰς τὴν μητέρα εἰσέδυ αὖθις κατὰ τὸ ἄρθρον· εἶτα, τοῦ δέους παραδραμόντος, τὸ δὲ πρόεισιν, ὥσπερ οὖν ἀνατικτόμενον αὖθις; A. 565 B23 οἱ μὲν οὖν ἄλλοι γαλεοὶ καὶ ἐξαφιᾶσι καὶ δέχονται εἰς ἑαυτοὺς τοὺς νεοττούς, . . . ὁ δ’ ἀκανθίας οὐκ εἰσδέχεται μόνος τῶν γαλεῶν διὰ τὴν ἄκανθαν. Cf. Athen. 294E; Plut. Mor. 982A; Antig. 21; Phil. 91. In A. l.c. the ῥίνη and the νάρκη are said to take in their young, while the τρυωών and the βάτος among the Rays (τῶν πλατέων) do not διὰ τὴν τραχύτητα τῆς κέρκου, as neither does the βάτραχος, διὰ τὸ μέγεθος τῆς κεφαλῆς καὶ τὰς ἀκάνθας (cf. De gen. 754 A29). Even the Dolphin and the Porpoise εἰσδέχονται τὰ τέκνα μικρὰ ὄντα A. 566 B17.

248 Ael. I.17; but Aristotle doubtless meant "by the mouth," cf. Athen. l.c. εἰς τὸ στόμα; Plut. l.c. διὰ τοῦ στόματος; Antig. l.c. κατὰ τὸ στόμα.

249 H. I.381 n.; A. 565 B25 says the ῥίνη takes in its young, mode not indicated.

250 Introduction, p. lxi.

251 Here generic = ὀστρακόδερμα, Testaceans. Cf. A. 490 B9 ἄλλο δὲ γένος ἐστὶ τὸ τῶν ὀστρακοδέρμων, ὃ καλεῖται ὄστρεον. Cf. Nicandr. ap. Athen. 92D. For their spontaneous generation, A. 547 B18 ὅλως δὲ πάντα τὰ ὀστρακώδη γίνεται καὶ αὐτόματα ἐν τῇ ἰλύι, κατὰ τὴν διαφορὰν τῆς ἰλύος ἕτερα, ἐν μὲν τῇ βορβορώδει τὰ ὄστρεα (here = bivalve Testaceans), ἐν δὲ τῇ ἀμμώδει κόγχαι καὶ τὰ εἰρημένα, περὶ δὲ τὰς σήραγγας τῶν πετριδίων τήθυα καὶ βάλανοι καὶ τὰ ἐπιπολάζοντα, οἷον αἱ λεπάδες καὶ οἱ νηρείται.

252 ἀφύη (ἀ- neg. and φύω, cf. Athen. 324D) is generic for various tiny fishes and fish-fry. Some ἀφύαι are said by Aristotle to be spontaneously generated, others are merely the young of various fishes (cf. ἑψητός or Eng. Whitebait); A. 569 A25 ὅτι μὲν οὖν γίνεται αὐτόματα ἔνια οὔτ’ ἐκ ζῴων οὔτ’ ἐξ ὀχείας, φανερὸν ἐκ τούτων. ὅσα δὲ μήτ’ ᾠοτοκεῖ μήτε ζῳοτοκεῖ, πάντα γίνεται τὰ μὲν ἐκ τῆς ἰλύος τὰ δ’ ἐκ τῆς ἄμμου καὶ τῆς ἐπιπολαζούσης σήψεως, οἷον καὶ τῆς ἀφύης ὁ καλούμενος ἀφρὸς γίνεται ἐκ τῆς ἀμμώδους γῆς; 569 B22 ἡ ἄλλη ἀφύη γόνος ἰχθύων ἐστίν, e.g.κωβῖτις, Φαληρική, etc.; cf. Athen. 284F ff., Badham, Fish Tattle, p330 "This Greek epithet, aphya, 'unborn,' translated into the Italian equivalent non-nati, is that employed by the lazzaroni of Naples to designate young anchovies, and a variety of other piccoli pesci of whose origin and parentage they are uncertain"; cf. Ael. II.22; Phil. 115; Poll. VI.51; Hesych. s.v. and s. τριχθάδες.

253 Athen. 285A πάντων δὲ τούτων ἡ ἀφρῖτις ἀρίστη. Cf. A. 569 B9 γίνονται δ’ ἐν τοῖς ἐπισκίοις καὶ ἑλώδεσι τόποις, ὅταν εὐημερίας γενομένης ἀναθερμαίνεται ἡ γῆ, οἶον περὶ Ἀθήνας ἐν Σαλαμῖνι . . . καὶ ἐν Μαραθῶνι· ἐν γὰρ τούτοις τοῖς τόποις γίνεται ὁ ἀφρός. . . . γίνεται δ’ ἐνιαχοῦ καὶ ὁπόταν ὕδωρ πολὺ ἐξ οὐρανοῦ γένηται, ἐν τῷ ἀφρῷ τῷ γίγνομένῳ ὑπὸ τοῦ ὀμβρίου ὕδατος, διὸ καὶ καλεῖται ἀφρός· καὶ ἐπιφέρεται ἐνίοτε ἐπιπολῆς τῆς θαλάττης, ὅταν εὐημερία ᾖ, ἐν ᾧ συστρέφεται, οἷον ἐν τῇ κόπρῳ τὰ σκωλήκια, οὕτως ἐν τούτῳ ὁ ἀφρὸς, ὅπου ἂν συστῇ ἐπιπολῆς.

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