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Bill Thayer

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This webpage reproduces a section of
The Buildings


published in the Loeb Classical Library,

The text is in the public domain.

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Book V

 p317  1 1 The buildings erected by the Emperor Justinian in all Europe have been recorded, as far as possible, in the preceding Book. We must now go on to the remaining parts of Asia. 2 All the fortifications of cities and the fortresses, as well as the other buildings which he erected throughout the East, from the boundary of Persia as far as the city of Palmyra, which chances to be in Phoenicia by Lebanon​1 — these, I think, have been sufficiently described by me above.​2 3 So at present I shall tell also of all that was done by him in the rest of Asia and in Libya, either in fortifying, or in repairing the roads where they were difficult to travel and wholly beset with dangers (sometimes, because mountains towered above them, where they were too steep, sometimes where, since there was a river near by, travellers were caught in it and drowned), or, finally, in repairing all the parts of cities which had become defective — all this I shall proceed to tell, beginning at this point.

[link to original Greek text] 4 There chanced to be a certain place before the city of Ephesus, lying on a steep slope hilly and bare of soil and incapable of producing crops, even should one attempt to cultivate them, but altogether hard and rough. 5 On that site the natives had set up a church in early times to the Apostle John; this Apostle has been named "the Theologian," because the nature of God was described by him in a manner beyond the unaided power of man. 6 This church, which was small and in a ruined condition because of its great age, the Emperor Justinian tore  p319 down to the ground and replaced by a church so large and beautiful, that, to speak briefly, it resembles very closely in all respects, and is a rival to, the shrine which he dedicated to all the Apostles in the imperial city, which I have described above.3

[link to original Greek text] 7 This, then, was done at Ephesus by this Emperor. And on our neighbouring island of Tenedos he made provision for the welfare of the imperial city and of those who labour on the sea, which I shall describe immediately, with the following introductory observation. 8 The sea at the Hellespont flows in a very narrow channel, since the two continents at that point approach very close to each other and form the beginning of the strait at Sestus and Abydus; and when ships which are holding a direct course for Constantinople reach that point, they cast anchor. 9 And it is impossible for them to go further unless they have a wind blowing from the south. 10 So when the grain fleet from Alexandria reaches that point, if the wind blows favourably for them, those having this business in charge bring their ships into the harbours of Byzantium in a short time; then, after discharging their cargoes, they depart with all speed, so that before the winter season they may complete a second or even a third voyage. 11 And those of them who wish to do so, also take on a return cargo of merchandise from that place before they sail back. 12 If, however, the wind blew against them at the Hellespont, it came about that both the grain and the ships had to lie there rotting. 13 The Emperor Justinian took this situation under consideration, and made a clear demonstration  p321 that nothing could prove impossible for man, even though he have the greatest difficulties to contend with. 14 For on the island of Tenedos, which is very close to the strait, he contrived a granary large enough to allow the whole fleet to unload, in breadth not less than ninety feet and in length two hundred and eighty feet, and rising to a very great height. 15 And since the time when this was built by the Emperor, whenever the carriers of public grain reach that point and are impeded by adverse winds, they deposit their cargoes in this storehouse, and bidding a happy farewell to the north wind and the west, they make ready for the next voyage. 16 And they for their part go straightway about their business, and at a later time, when the voyage from there to Byzantium comes to be practicable, those who are assigned to this office convey the grain from Tenedos in other ships.

[link to original Greek text] 2 1 There is a certain city in Bithynia which bears the name of Helen,​4 mother of the Emperor Constantine, for they say that Helen was born in this village, which formerly was of no consequence. 2 But Constantine, by way of repaying the debt of her nurture, endowed this place with the name and dignity of a city. However, he has built there nothing in a style of imperial magnificence, but, though the place remained outwardly as it had been before, it will now boast merely of the title of city and pride itself in the name of its foster-child Helen. 3 But our Emperor, as if seeking to excuse his imperial predecessor's  p323 want of propriety, first of all observed that the city was suffering from shortage of water and was cruelly oppressed by thirst, and so he improvised a marvellous aqueduct and provided it with an unlooked-for supply of water, sufficient for the people there not only to drink but also to use for bathing and for all the other luxuries in which men indulge who have an unstinted supply of water. 4 Besides this he made for them a public bath which had not existed before, and he rebuilt another which was damaged and lay abandoned, and already lay in ruin because of the scarcity of water which I have mentioned and because of neglect. 5 Nay more, he built here churches and a palace and stoas and lodgings for the magistrates, and in other respects he gave it the appearance of a prosperous city.

[link to original Greek text] 6 Close to this city flows a river which the natives call Dracon from the course which it follows. 7 For it twists about and winds from side to side, reversing its whirling course and advancing with crooked stream, now to the right and now to the left. Consequently it is actually necessary for those visiting there to cross it more than twenty times. 8 Thus it has come about that many have lost their lives when the river has risen in sudden flood. 9 Furthermore, a dense wood and a great expanse of reeds which grew there used to obstruct its exit to the sea and made it more troublesome for the regions round about. 10 Indeed, not long ago, when it had been swollen by heavy rains, it backed up and rose in flood and spread far out over  p325 the land and caused irreparable damage. 11 For it ruined many districts, uprooted vines and even olive trees and countless other trees of all sorts, trunks and all, not sparing the houses which stood outside the circuit-wall of the city and inflicting other severe losses upon the inhabitants. 12 And feeling compassion for them, the Emperor Justinian devised the following plan. He cleared off the woods and cut all the reeds, thus allowing the river a free outlet to the sea, so that it might no longer be necessary for it to spread out. And he cut off in the middle the hills which rise there, and built a waggon-road in places which formerly were sheer and precipitous; 13 and in this way he made the crossing of the river for the most part unnecessary for those who dwelt there. Also he placed two very broad bridges over this river, and in consequence everyone now crosses it without danger.

[link to original Greek text] 3 1 And it is proper to tell of the benefits which he also bestowed upon Nicaea in Bithynia. First of all, he restored the entire aqueduct, which was completely ruined and was not satisfying the need, and thus he provided the city with abundant water. 2 Then he built churches and monasteries, some for women and some for men. 3 And the palace there, which already had in part collapsed, he carefully restored throughout; and he also restored a bath at the lodgings of the veredarii, as they are called,​5 which had lain in ruin for a long time. 4 To the west of this city and very close to it a torrent is wont to  p327 smite almost everything, making the road there altogether impassable. 5 A bridge had been built over it by the men of earlier times, which, as time went on, was quite unable to withstand the impact of the torrent, since it had not been properly constructed, as it chanced; and finally it yielded to the pressure of the surge and was swept away with it without leaving a trace in the spot where previously it had stood. 6 But the Emperor Justinian planted another bridge there of such height and breadth, that the previous bridge seemed to have been only a fraction of the new one in point of size; and this bridge rises high above the torrent when it is in flood and keeps in perfect safety those passing that way.

[link to original Greek text] 7 In Nicomedia​6 he restored the bath called Antoninus, for the most important part of it had collapsed, and because of the great size of the building it had not been expected that it would be rebuilt. 8 And that great river which they now call the Sagaris,​7 rushing down, as it does, with its impetuous stream and having a great depth at the centre and broadening out till it resembles a sea, had always been, since the world began, left untouched by a bridge; instead they lash together a great number of skiffs and fasten them together cross-wise, and people venture to cross these on foot, as once the Persian host, through fear of Xerxes,​8 crossed the Hellespont. 9 But even this is not without danger for them, for many a time the river has seized and carried away all the skiffs, together with their cables, and thus put a stop to the crossing of travellers. 10 But the Emperor Justinian has now undertaken  p329 the project of building a bridge over the river. Having already begun the task, he is now much occupied with it; and I know well that he will complete it not long hence, finding my assurance in this — that God coöperates with him in all his labours.​9 11 Indeed it is for this reason that no project of his has failed of fulfilment up to the present time, though in the beginning he has seemed in many cases to be undertaking impossible things.

[link to original Greek text] 12 There is a certain road in Bithynia leading from there into the Phrygian territory, on which it frequently happened that countless men and beasts too perished in the winter season. 13 The soil of this region is exceedingly deep; and not only after unusual deluges of rain or the final melting of very heavy snows, but even after occasional showers it turns into a deep and impassable marsh, making the roads quagmires, with the result that travellers on that road were frequently drowned. 14 But he himself and the Empress Theodora, by their wise generosity, removed this danger for wayfarers. 15 They laid a covering of very large stones over this highway for a distance of one half a day's journey for an unencumbered traveller​10 and so brought it about that travellers on that road could get through on the hard pavement. These things, then, were done by the Emperor Justinian in this way.

[link to original Greek text] 16 A natural spring of hot water bubbles up in Bithynia, at a place known as Pythia.​11 17 This spring is used as a cure by many and particularly by the  p331 people of Byzantium, especially those who chance to be afflicted by disease. 18 There indeed he displayed a prodigality befitting an Emperor. He built a palace which had not been there before, 19 and made a public bath supplied by the hot water which rises there. And by means of an aqueduct he conveyed to this place springs of drinking-water which gush forth at a very great distance, and thus abated the lack of sweet water which previously had prevailed there. 20 In addition to this, he enlarged and made much more notable both the Church of the Archangel and the infirmary for the sick.

[link to original Greek text] 4 1 There is a river in Galatia which the natives call Siberis, close to the place called Sycae, about ten miles from Juliopolis​12 toward the east. 2 This river often rose suddenly to a great height and caused the death of many of those travelling that way. 3 The Emperor was disturbed when these things were reported to him, and he put a stop to the evil thenceforth by bridging the river with a strong structure capable of resisting the stream when in flood, and by adding another wall in the form of a jetty on the eastward side of the bridge; such a thing is called a promachon or breakwater by those skilled in these matters.​13 4 He also built a church to the west of the bridge to be a refuge for travellers in the winter season. 5 As to this Juliopolis, its circuit-wall used to be disturbed and weakened by a river which  p333 flows along its western side. 6 This Emperor, however, put a stop to that, by setting up a wall flanking the circuit-wall for a distance of not less than five hundred feet, and in this way he preserved the defences of the city, which were no longer deluged by the stream.

[link to original Greek text] 7 In Cappadocia he did the following. The city of Caesarea​14 there has been from ancient times very large and populous. But it was surrounded by a wall which, by reason of its immoderate extent, was very easy to attack and altogether impossible to defend. 8 For it embraced a great expanse of land which was not at all necessary to the city, and by reason of its excessive size it was easily assailable by an attacking force. 9 High hills rise there, not standing very close together, but far apart. These the founder of the city was anxious to enclose within the circuit-wall so that they might not be a threat against the city; and in the name of safety he did a thing which was fraught with danger. 10 For he enclosed within the walls many open fields and gardens as well as rocky cliffs and pasture-lands for flocks. 11 However, even at a later time the inhabitants of the place decided not to build anything in this area, but it remained exactly as it had been. 12 Even such houses as did chance to be in this district have continued to be isolated and solitary up to the present day. 13 And neither could the garrison maintain a proper defence in keeping with the extent of the wall, nor was it possible for the inhabitants to keep it in repair, seeing that it was so large. And because they seemed to be unprotected, they were in constant terror. 14 But the Emperor Justinian tore down the unnecessary  p335 portions of the circuit-wall and surrounded the city with a wall which was truly safe, and made defences which would be thoroughly impregnable in case of attack; and then he made the place strong by the addition of a sufficient garrison. Thus did he guarantee the safety of the inhabitants of Caesarea in Cappadocia.

[link to original Greek text] 15 There was a certain fortress in Cappadocia, Mocesus by name, situated on level ground, but it had sunk into such a state of disrepair that part of it had fallen down and the rest was on the point of doing so. 16 All this the Emperor Justinian pulled down, and he built a very strong wall to the west of the old fortress, on a site which lay above a very steep slope and was quite inaccessible if anyone should try to attack it. 17 There too he built many churches and hospices and public baths and all the other structures that are the mark of a prosperous city. 18 Consequently it rose even to the rank of a metropolis,​15 for thus the Romans call the leading city of a province. These things, then, were done in Cappadocia.

[link to original Greek text] 5 1 As one goes from the city of Antioch, which is now called Theopolis, into Cilicia, there is a suburb lying very close to the road, Platanôn by name;​16 and not far from this city lay a path which had long been compressed into a very narrow track by the overhanging mountains; and after being washed by rains for a long time it was destroyed for the most part and afforded only dangerous passage to travellers. 2 When the Emperor Justinian heard of this, he  p337 took the matter under careful consideration and straightway found a remedy for the trouble. 3 He spent a sum of money past reckoning, cutting through, for a great distance, all the mountains which rose there to a great height and overcoming impossible obstacles; and he constructed a waggon-road, contrary to all reason and expectation, making flat and open ground of what had previously been broken by precipices, thereby clearly demonstrating that nothing could prove impossible for a man of discerning judgment who was ready to disregard expense. This, then, was done as I have said.

[link to original Greek text] 4 There is in Cilicia a certain city called Mopsuestia, said to be the work of that ancient seer.​17 Alongside this flows the Pyramus River, which, while it adds beauty to the city, can be crossed only by a bridge. 5 But as much time passed it came about that the greater part of the bridge had suffered; indeed it seemed to be on the point of falling at any moment and for this reason death faced those who crossed it. 6 Thus a structure which was devised by men of former times for the preservation of life came, by reason of the negligence of the authorities, to be a source of great danger and a thing to be feared. 7 But our Emperor with great care set right all the damaged parts and once more restored the safety of the bridge and of those who crossed it, and caused the city to plume itself​18 again, and without risk, on the river's beauty.

[link to original Greek text] 8 Beyond it there is a certain city named Adana,​19 on the eastern side of which the Sarus​20 River flows,  p339 coming down from the mountains of Armenia. 9 The Sarus is navigable and quite impossible for men on foot to ford. So in ancient times an enormous and very notable bridge was constructed here. It was built in the following fashion. 10 At many points in the river piers of massive blocks of stone were reared upon its bed, built to a great thickness and forming a line extending across the entire width of the stream and in height rising far above high water. 11 Above each pair of piers spring arches which rise to a great height, spanning the open space between them. The portion of this masonry which chanced to be below the water and so was constantly battered by its powerful current had, in a space of time beyond reckoning, come to be mostly destroyed. 12 So the whole bridge appeared likely after no long time to fall into the river. It had come to be always the prayer of each man who crossed the bridge that it might remain firm if only during the moment of his crossing. 13 But the Emperor Justinian dug another channel for the river and forced it to change its course temporarily; and then getting the masonry which I have just mentioned free from the water and removing the damaged portions, he rebuilt them without any delay and then returned the river to its former path, which they call the "bed." Thus then were these things done.​a

[link to original Greek text] 14 At Tarsus, the Cydnus River flows through the middle of the city. It appears that in general it had caused no damage at any time, but on one occasion it chanced that it did cause irreparable loss, for the  p341 following reason.​21 15 It was about the time of the spring equinox, and a strong south wind which arose suddenly had melted all the snow which had fallen through the winter season, blanketing practically the whole Taurus range. 16 Consequently streams of water were pouring down from the heights everywhere and each of the ravines discharged a torrent, and both the summits and the foothills of the Taurus mountains were deluged. 17 So by reason of this water the Cydnus rose in flood, for the streams kept pouring their water into it, since it was close to the mountains, and it was further swollen by heavy rains which fell at the same time; consequently the river flooded and immediately wiped out completely all the suburbs which were situated to the south of the city. Then it went roaring against the city itself, and tearing out the bridges, which were small, it covered all the market-places, flooded the streets, and wrought havoc by entering the houses and rising even to their upper storeys. 18 Night and day the whole city continued in this critical and uncertain situation, and it was only tardily and at length that the river subsided little by little and returned once more to its accustomed level. 19 When the Emperor Justinian learned of this, he devised the following plan. First he prepared another bed for the river above the city, in order that the stream might be separated there into two parts and might divide its volume so that only about half of it should flow toward Tarsus. 20 Then he made the bridges very much broader and so strong that the Cydnus in flood could not sweep them away.  p343 Thus he brought it about that the city stands forever freed from fear and from danger.

[link to original Greek text] 6 1 Such were the works of the Emperor Justinian in Cilicia. And in Jerusalem he dedicated to the Mother of God a shrine with which no other can be compared.​22 2 This is called by the natives the "New Church"; and I shall explain of what sort it is, first making this observation, that this city is for the most part set upon hills; however these hills have no soil upon them, but stand with rough and very steep sides, causing the streets to run straight up and down like ladders. 3 All the other buildings of the city chance to lie in one group, part of them built upon a hill and part upon the lower level where the earth spreads out flat; but this shrine alone forms an exception. 4 For the Emperor Justinian gave orders that it be built on the highest of the hills, specifying what the length and breadth of the building should be, as well as the other details. 5 However, the hill did not satisfy the requirements of the project, according to the Emperor's specifications, but a fourth part of the church, facing the south and the east, was left unsupported, that part in which the priests are wont to perform the rites. 6 Consequently those in charge of this work hit upon the following plan. They threw the foundations out as far as the limit of the even ground, and then erected a structure which rose as high as the rock. 7 And when they had raised this up level with  p345 the rock they set vaults upon the supporting walls, and joined this substructure to the other foundation of the church. 8 Thus the church is partly based upon living rock, and partly carried in the air by a great extension artificially added to the hill by the Emperor's power. 9 The stones of this substructure are not of a size such as we are acquainted with, 10 for the builders of this work, in struggling against the nature of the terrain and labouring to attain a height to match the rocky elevation, had to abandon all familiar methods and resort to practices which were strange and altogether unknown. 11 So they cut out blocks of unusual size from the hills which rise to the sky in the region before the city, and after dressing them carefully they brought them to the site in the following manner. 12 They built waggons to match the size of the stones, placed a single block on each of them, and had each waggon with its stone drawn by forty oxen which had been selected by the Emperor for their strength. 13 But since it was impossible for the roads leading to the city to accommodate these waggons, they cut into the hills for a very great distance, and made them passable for the waggons as they came along there, and thus they completed the length of the church in accordance with the Emperor's wish. 14 However, when they made the width in due proportion, they found themselves quite unable to set a roof upon the building. 15 So they searched through all the woods and forests and every place where they had heard that very tall trees grew, and found a certain dense forest which produced cedars of extraordinary height, and by means of these they  p347 put the roof upon the church, making its height in due proportion to the width and length of the building.

[link to original Greek text] 16 These things the Emperor Justinian accomplished by human strength and skill. But he was also assisted by his pious faith, which rewarded him with the honour he received and aided him in this cherished plan. 17 For the church required throughout columns whose appearance would not fall short of the beauty of the building and of such a size that they could resist the weight of the load which would rest upon them. 18 But the site itself, being inland very far from the sea and walled about on all sides by quite steep hills, as I have said, made it impossible for those who were preparing the foundations to bring columns from outside. 19 But when the impossibility of this task was causing the Emperor to become impatient, God revealed a natural supply of stone perfectly suited to this purpose in the near by hills, one which had either lain there in concealment previously, or was created at that moment. 20 Either explanation is credible to those who trace the cause of it to God; 21 for while we, in estimating all things by the scale of man's power, consider many things to be wholly impossible, for God nothing in the whole world can be difficult or impossible. 22 So the church is supported on all sides by a number of huge columns from that place, which in colour resemble flames of fire, some standing below and some above and others in the stoas which surround the whole church except on the side facing the east. Two of these columns stand before the door of the church, exceptionally large and probably second to no column in the whole world. 23 Here is added another  p349 colonnaded stoa which is called the narthex, I suppose because it is not broad.​23 24 Beyond this is a court with similar columns standing on the four sides. From this there lead doors to the interior (metauloi thyrai) which are so stately that they proclaim to those walking outside what kind of sight they will meet within. Beyond there is a wonderful gateway (propylaia) and an arch (apsis), carried on two columns, which rises to a very great height. 25 Then as one advances there are two semi-circles (hemikykla) which stand facing each other on one side of the road which leads to the church, while facing each other on the other side are two hospices, built by the Emperor Justinian. One of these is destined for the shelter of visiting strangers, while the other is an infirmary for poor persons suffering from diseases. 26 And the Emperor Justinian endowed this Church of the Mother of God with the income from a large sum of money. Such were the activities of the Emperor Justinian in Jerusalem.

[link to original Greek text] 7 1 In Palestine there is a city named Neapolis,​24 above which rises a high mountain, called Garizin. 2 This mountain the Samaritans originally held; and they had been wont to go up to the summit of the mountain to pray on all occasions, not because they had ever built any temple there, but because they worshipped the summit itself with the greatest reverence. 3 But when Jesus, the Son of God, was in the body and went among the  p351 people there, He had a conversation with a certain woman who was a native of the place.​25 And when this woman questioned Him about the mountain, He replied that thereafter the Samaritans would not worship on this mountain, but that the true worshippers (referring to the Christians), would worship Him in that place;​b and as time went on the prediction became a fact. 4 For it was not possible that He who was God should not utter truth. 5 And it came about as follows. During the reign of Zeno,​26 the Samaritans suddenly banded together and fell upon the Christians in Neapolis in the church while they were celebrating the festival called the Pentecost, and they destroyed many of them, and they struck with their swords the man who at that time was their Bishop, Terebinthius by name, finding him standing at the holy table as he performed the mysteries; and they slashed at him and cut off the fingers from his hand; and they railed at the mysteries, as is natural for Samaritans to do, while we honour them with silence. 6 And this priest straightway came to Byzantium and appeared before the ruling Emperor and displayed what he had suffered, setting forth what had happened and reminding the Emperor of the prophecy of Christ; and he begged him to avenge all that had been done. 7 The Emperor Zeno was greatly disturbed by what had happened, and with no delay inflicted punishment in due measure upon those who had done the terrible thing. He drove out the Samaritans from Mt. Garizin and straightway handed it over to the Christians, and building a church  p353 on the summit he dedicated it to the Mother of God, putting a barrier, as it was made to appear, around this church, though in reality he erected only a light wall of stone. 8 And he established a garrison of soldiers, placing a large number in the city below, but not more than ten men at the fortifications and the church. 9 The Samaritans resented this, and chafed bitterly in their vexation and deplored their condition, but through fear of the Emperor they bore their distress in silence. 10 But at a later time, when Anastasius​27 was holding the imperial office, the following happened. 11 Some of the Samaritans, incited by a woman's suggestion, unexpectedly climbed the steep face of the mountain, since the path which leads up from the city was carefully guarded and it was impossible for them to attempt the ascent by that route. 12 Entering the church suddenly, they slew the guards there and with a mighty cry summoned the Samaritans in the city. 13 They, however, through fear of the soldiers, were by no means willing to join the attempt of the conspirators. 14 And not long afterwards the governor of the district (he was Procopius of Edessa, a man of learning) arrested the authors of the outrage and put them to death. 15 Yet even after that no thought was taken for the fortifications, and no provision for proper defence was made at that time by the Emperor. 16 But during the present reign, although the Emperor Justinian has converted the Samaritans for the most part to a more pious way of life and has made them Christians, he  p355 left the old fortifications around the church on Garizin in the form in which it was, that is, merely a barrier, as I have said; but by surrounding this with another wall on the outside he made the place absolutely impregnable. 17 There too he restored five shrines of the Christians which had been burned down by the Samaritans. Thus, then, have these things been done.

[link to original Greek text] 8 1 In what was formerly called Arabia and is now known as "Third Palestine,"​28 a barren land extends for a great distance, unwatered and producing neither crops nor any useful thing. A precipitous and terribly wild mountain, Sina​29 by name, rears its height close to the Red Sea, as it is called. 2 There is no need at this point in my account to write a description of that region because everything has been set forth in the Books on the Wars,​30 where I gave a full description of the Red Sea and what is called the Arabian Gulf, as well as of the Ethiopians and Auxomitae and the tribes of the Homerite Saracens. At that point I shewed also in what manner the Emperor Justinian added the Palm Groves​31 to the Roman Empire. 3 Therefore I omit mention of these things, that I may not acquire a reputation for bad taste. 4 On this Mt. Sina live monks whose life is a kind of careful rehearsal of death,​32 and they enjoy without fear the solitude which is very precious to them. 5 Since these monks have nothing to crave — for they are superior to all  p357 human desires and have no interest in possessing anything or in caring for their bodies, nor do they seek pleasure in any other thing whatever — the Emperor Justinian built them a church which have dedicated to the Mother of God, so that they might be enabled to pass their lives therein praying and holding services. 6 He built this church, not on the mountain's summit, but much lower down. 7 For it is impossible for a man to pass the night on the summit, since constant crashes of thunder and other terrifying manifestations of divine power are heard at night, striking terror into man's body and souls. 8 It was in that place, they say, that Moses received the laws from God and published them. 9 And at the base of the mountain this Emperor built a very strong fortress and established there a considerable garrison of troops, in order that the barbarian Saracens might not be able from that region, which, as I have said, is uninhabited, to make inroads with complete secrecy into the lands of Palestine proper.

[link to original Greek text] 10 Thus, then, were these things done. All that he did in the monasteries of this region and throughout the rest of the East I shall now record in the form of a summary.

9 1 These, then, were the monasteries restored in Jerusalem:

1 The Monastery of St. Thalelaeus.

2 The Monastery of St. Gregory.

3 Also St. Panteleëmon's in the Desert of Jordan.

4 A hospice in Jerichô.

 p359  5 A Church of the Mother of God in Jerichô.

6 The Monastery of the Iberians in Jerusalem.

7 The Monastery of the Lazi in the Desert of Jerusalem.

8 The Monastery of St. Mary on the Mount of Olives.

9 The Monastery of the Spring of St. Elissaeus in Jerusalem.

10 The Monastery of St. Siletheus.

11 The Monastery of the Abbot Romanus.

12 At Bethlehem he restored the wall.

13 The Monastery of the Abbot John in Bethlehem.

14 He also built wells or cisterns as follows:

15 at the Monastery of St. Samuel, a well and a wall;

16 at that of the Abbot Zacharias, a well;

17 at that of Susanna, a well;

18 at that of Aphelius, a well;

19 at St. John's on the Jordan, a well;

20 at St. Sergius' on the mountain called Cisserôn, a well;

21 the wall of Tiberias;

22 the Poor-house in Bostra.

23 In Phoenicia, the following:

the House of the Virgin in Porphyreôn;

24 the Monastery of St. Phocas on the Mount;

25 the House of St. Sergius in Ptolemaïs;

26 in Damascus, the House of St. Leontius;

27 near Apamea,​33 he restored the Poor-house of St. Romanus;

28 the wall of the Blessed Marôn;

 p361  29 near Theopolis, he restored the Church of Daphnê;​34

30 in Laodicea, he restored St. John's.

31 In Mesopotamia:

he restored a Monastery of St. John; 32 the Monasteries of Delphrachis, Zebinus, Theodotus, John, Sarmathê, Cyrenus, Begadaeus;
33 A Monastery of Apadnas in Isauria;
34 At the city of Curicum, he restored a Bath and a Poor-house;

35 the Poor-house of St. Conôn;
36 He renewed the aqueduct of the same in Cyprus;
37 The House of Sts. Cosmas and Damian in Pamphylia;
38 The Poor-house of St. Michael in the Emporium, as it is called, of the harbour-city of Perga in Pamphylia.

The Loeb Editor's Notes:

1 I.e. in the province of Phoenicê Libanensis.

2 Books II, III.

3 I.iv.9 ff. A plan of the Church of St. John is reproduced above, p47.

4 Helenopolis; originally called Drepanon, now Hersek.

5 Couriers of the Public Post.

6 Modern Ishmid.

7 I.e. Sangarius; modern Sakaria.

8 Cf. Herodotus VII.56.

9 This work was done in A.D. 559‑60; see the Introduction, p. ix, and an inscription published by H. Grégoire in ByzantionIV, 1927‑8, pp465‑468.

10 About ten miles.

11 Modern Yalova.

12 Originally called Gordiucomê; the river is probably the Hierus.

13 This structure was evidently a starling added to the pier to reduce the currents and eddies created by the presence of the pier which would wash the bed of the stream and endanger the foundations.

14 Originally Mazica, near Mt. Argaeus.

15 It became the capital of Cappadocia Tertia.

16 This place is mentioned also by Theophanes, A.M. 6004, I, p156, 15 De Boor. Procopius evidently refers to work done in the Beilan Pass, though this is so far from Antioch that Platanôn could not properly be called a suburb of the city.

17 Mopsus, who made an oracle at Malus; the city lies near modern Missis.

18 Literally "bind its brow," as with a wreath.

19 Also its modern name.

20 The Sagrus, now called Sangro.

21 This flood is mentioned in the Secret History, xviii.40.

22 While it has not been possible to identify the site of this church with certainty, traces of such a building have been found on a site between the eastern side of the Jewish quarter and the Haram which corresponds closely with that described by Procopius; see H. Vincent and F.-M. Abel, Jérusalem, II (Paris, 1922), pp912‑919.

23 Cf. above, I.iv.7 and note.

24 Modern Nablous.

25 Gospel of John, IV.

26 A.D. 474‑491.

27 A.D. 491‑518.

28 Under Constantine three provinces were set up, Palaestina Prima in the centre, Secunda in the north, and Tertia in the south.

29 Or Sinaï, now Jebel-et‑Tur.

30 I.xix.8.

31 Inhabited by the Saracens, Wars, loc. cit. and II.iii.41.

32 Cf. Plato, Phaedo 81.

33 Modern Famieh.

34 The famous suburb of Antioch, i.e. Theopolis; cf. Buildings, II.x.2.

Thayer's Notes:

a Hadrian's bridge at Adana is still in existence, and still in use. For further details and two photos, see the page at Livius.Org.

b Procopius distorts the text of the gospel, which says nothing of the sort, and even rather the contrary. John 4.21‑24:

λέγει αὑτῇ ὁ Ἰησοῦς· πίστευέ μοι, γύναι, ὅτι ἔρχεται ὥρα ὅτε οὔτε ἐν τῷ ὄρει τοῦτῷ οὔτε ἐν Ἱεροσολύμοις προσκυνήσετε τῷ πατρί. ὑμεῖς προσκυνεῖτε ὃ οὐκ οἴδατε, ἡμεῖς προσκυνοῦμεν ὃ οἴδαμεν, ὅτι ἡ σωτηρία ἐκ τῶν Ἰουδαίων ἐστίν· ἀλλὰ ἔρχεται ὥρα καὶ νῦν ἐστιν, ὅτε οἱ ἀληθινοὶ προσκυνηταὶ προσκυνήσουσιν τῷ πατρὶ ἐν πνεύματι καὶ ἀληθείᾳ· καὶ γὰρ ὁ πατὴρ τοιούτους ζητεῖ τοὺς προσκυνοῦντας αὐτόν· πνεῦμα ὁ θεός, καὶ τοὺς προσκυνοῦντας ἐν πνεύματι καὶ ἀληθείᾳ δεῖ προσκυνεῖν.

Jesus said to her, "Woman, believe me, the hour is coming when neither on this mountain nor in Jerusalem will you worship the Father. You worship what you do not know; we worship what we know, for salvation is from the Jews. But the hour is coming, and now is, when the true worshippers will worship the Father in spirit and truth, for such the Father seeks to worship him. God is spirit, and those who worship him must worship in spirit and truth.

Novum Testamentum Graece,
ed. Nestle

Revised Standard Version

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