Short URL for this page:

[image ALT: Much of my site will be useless to you if you've got the images turned off!]
Bill Thayer

[image ALT: Cliccare qui per una pagina di aiuto in Italiano.]

[Link to a series of help pages]
[Link to the next level up]
[Link to my homepage]
[image ALT: a blank space]

This webpage reproduces part of
A History of Rome
Tenney Frank

published by
Henry Holt and Company
New York 1923

The text is in the public domain.

This page has been carefully proofread
and I believe it to be free of errors.
If you find a mistake though,
please let me know!

[image ALT: a blank space]

 p587  Bibliography​*

The first historian of Rome was Fabius Pictor, who wrote a brief history in Greek about 200 B.C., that is, at least four centuries after the city was founded. From the appearance of this work till the fall of Rome there was a steady stream of histories produced, and enough of these have survived to provide a fairly satisfactory account. But opinions differ widely regarding the reliability of the stories provided by Livy, Dionysius, Diodorus, and Plutarch for the several centuries anterior to 200 B.C. The point of view adopted in the present volume is that the basic structure of important events narrated by later historians is fairly reliable for the period after 500 B.C. The Romans, respecters of law and legal forms to an unusual degree, preserved copies of their treaties, laws, and senatorial decrees, and also the high priests' brief record of events. The pontifical annals purported, to be sure, to record only deeds of religious significance, but since only men of political dignity became priests, their annals were apt to contain many items of political import.

The common assumption that most records were destroyed by the Gauls in 390 B.C. is far from probable. Archaeologists have found reason to believe that most of the temples escaped destruction and with them the records they contained. Apparently the Celts, as is often the case with primitive peoples, respected the holy places. At any rate, the treaties, which were kept on the Capitol, survived.

The earlier historians of Rome, like Fabius Pictor, were statesmen trained to acquire an accurate knowledge of laws and treaties. It is incorrect to ascribe to such men the loose historical methods that were followed by the rhetorical romancers who wrote for entertainment in Sulla's day. The care and knowledge they employed in affairs of state they doubtless used in their composition of history.

In using later historians who have filled in the Fabian skeleton with many picturesque legends, we may in general assume that the main structure of the chronology is reliable — allowing of course for a discrepancy of a few years for the early period — that the consular lists are on the whole safe, and that in large part the laws, treaties, senatusconsulta, colonial dates, and dates of important wars  p588 are acceptable. It must, however, be remembered that senatorial debates and bills proposed but not passed were not recorded, and that the pontifical records had not space for details regarding military movements. Hence when such things occur in the accounts of the period before 300 B. C. they must be considered as arising from mere oral tradition which it is safest to reject wholly. After such purgation the account afforded by our literary sources seems to be in reasonable accord with the latest conclusions of archaeology.

Archaeological researches in the remains of the early city have been very fruitful in recent years (published chiefly in the Notizie degli scavi). They have done much to establish faith in the early traditions recorded by the later authors. The historians of twenty years ago who insisted upon reducing the chronology of the early Republic by a century or two have been proved to be in the wrong. By comparing the art objects, native and imported, found in the débris of early Rome with those of Greece and Etruria, which can generally be dated, we are now in the position to say, for instance, that Rome was a large city in the sixth century B.C., surrounded by a well-built stone wall, possessing many buildings that were decorated by excellent Greek and Etruscan artists, and in touch with an extensive Mediterranean commerce. We also know from archaeology that the Latin cities and colonies mentioned by early tradition as flourishing in the sixth century were in fact what the accounts of Livy and Dionysius picture them as being at that time. Indeed archaeology has generally vindicated tradition wherever the test can be applied.

From the time of the first Punic war we generally can establish a sound basis upon which to build. Polybius, who wrote between 150 and 130 B.C., provides an excellent account for the period between 264 and 146. Livy's work, though somewhat less reliable, is very much fuller. His history, in books 20‑45, is very serviceable for the years between 218 and 167 B.C., and the brief epitomes of his last books, from book 46 to 150, are of some value for another century and a half. Plutarch's "Lives" vary in historical value. Those that deal with characters of the early Republic are based wholly upon the oral traditions recorded by romancing story-tellers of the Sullan age. The "Lives" of men of the post-Hannibalic period usually contain the fruits of indiscriminate reading of current histories, biographies, and of some valuable autobiographies now lost.  p589 Plutarch did not pretend to be a critical historian; he selected his material wholly with a view to writing entertaining and moralizing stories. Nevertheless he reports what he finds, he does not invent.

Appian, another Greek author, though not a great historian, has preserved for us in his "Civil Wars" and his "Foreign Wars" a heavy conglomerate of stuff drawn from the numerous historians, good and bad, who wrote during the last two centuries of the Republic. We have not always the means whereby to sift his material. The account of Caesar's rule seems to be very reliable, for instance, while the portion which follows Caesar's death is demonstrably full of grave errors. The Greek Cassius Dio is valuable in preserving in his extensive "Roman History" much of Livy's lost history of the end of the Republic, but his work is also badly contaminated with useless rhetorical verbiage and with apologetic material drawn from political pamphlets written with a decided bias. Caesar's " Gallic War" is excellent, his "Civil War," written in self-defense, not quite so reliable. Sallust has provided useful material in the "Catiline" and in the "Jugurtha." Cicero's correspondence, of which we have about nine hundred letters, is invaluable, and his orations and essays furnish much useful material to the historian.

For the first century of the Empire we really mainly upon Tacitus' "Annals" and "Histories," Suetonius's "Lives of the Caesars" (to and including Domitian), Velleius' brief history, Cassius Dio (fragmentary after 46 A.D.), Josephus, casual statements in Seneca, Pliny's letters, Juvenal, and Quintilian, besides a number of important inscriptions and a mass of coins. Tacitus was a keen critic of society and politics and wrote with compelling force, but his point of view is too insistently that of the senatorial nobility. Suetonius is valuable chiefly as an antiquarian who delved into the imperial archives, but he failed at times to submit his finds to thorough-going criticism. The inscriptions, of which more than 100,000 have been published in the Corpus Inscriptionum Latinarum, provide a great mass of incidental but useful facts. The coins supply dates of importance, and frequently facts overvalue for economic history.

After the reign of Nerva, we must rely more and more upon the casual contributions of inscriptions. There exists, for instance, no consecutive account of the reigns of Nerva and Trajan. Fragments and paraphrased abstracts of Cassius Dio are of service here and there down to 180 A.D., then Herodian, who continued Dio's work,  p590 offers us a hasty and rhetorical sketch as far as 238 A.D. The Scriptores Historiae Augustae, composed in the fourth century, purports to continue Suetonius' "Lives of the Caesars" down to Numerian. The first few "Lives" of this collection, beginning with Hadrian, seem to rest on fairly good sources, but the account of the emperors of the third century is very careless work. Ammianus Marcellinus brings us back to solid ground but only for the brief period of 353‑378, while Procopius and Jordanes give full accounts of the late wars with the Persian and Germanic invaders. The lacunae must be filled in by references in the voluminous works of the Christian apologists.

Concise discussions of the sources of Roman History may be found in the bibliographical notes (passim), of Niese, B., Römische Geschichte, 4th ed. 1910,º and Rosenberg, A., Einleitung und Quellenkunde zur römischen Geschichte, 1921.

The following bibliography of modern books and essays is intended for those who wish to follow the subject further in authoritative histories. It is far from exhaustive, omitting not only works not based upon a first‑hand knowledge of the sources, but also many books that seemed too minutely argumentative or too circumscribed in interest for the purpose in view. However, it includes in every paragraph a few such thorough-going works as De Sanctis, Storia dei Romani, and Mommsen's Staatsrecht, for the benefit of those who care to pursue a fascinating subject to its obscurest lairs. The Manual of Historical Bibliography soon to be published by a committee of the American Historical Association will provide brief estimates of the value of the more important of these works.

 p591  The Republic

General Works

Abbott, F. F.: Roman Political Institutions, 2nd ed., 1907.º

Boak, A. E. R.: A History of Rome to 565 A.D., 1922.

Botsford, G. W.: Roman Assemblies, 1909.

Cagnat, R., and Chapot, V.: Manuel d'archéologie romaine, I, 1916; II, 1920.

Cavaignac, E.: Histoire de l'antiquité, 1913‑1921. [3 vols.: I, Javan, l'Orient et les Grecs (1917); II, Athènes, 1913; III, La Macédoine, Carthage et Rome, 1914; and Index, 1920]

Daremberg et Saglio: Dictionnaire des antiquités grecques et romaines.a

De Sanctis, G.: Storia dei Romani, III, 1907; III (Punic Wars), 1916 [2 parts: I, II]

Duff, J. W.: A Literary History of Rome, 1909.

Fowler, W. Warde: The Religious Experience of the Roman People, 1911.

Girard, P. F.: Manuel élémentaire de droit romainº (Partial Eng. tr. 1906, "A Short History of Roman Law").

Heitland, W. E.: The Roman Republic, I‑III, 1909. [Vol. I, Vol. II (does not appear to be online anywhere), Vol. III]

Hill, G. F.: Historical Roman Coins, 1909.

Jones, H. S.: Companion to Roman History, 1912.

Jordan-Huelsen: Topographie der Stadt Rom, I, 1871; II, 1878; III, 1907.

Kiepert, H.: Atlas Antiquus.

––––––––––––– Manual of Ancient Geography, 1881.

Marquardt und Mommsen: Handbuch der römischen Altertümer, 2nd ed., 1881‑88.

Meyer, E.: Geschichte des Altertums, I-V (vol. I in 3rd ed.), 1884-.

Mommsen, Th.: History of Rome, tr. by Dickson. [Vol. I, Vol. II, Vol. III, Vol. IV, Vol. V]

Niese, B.: Römische Geschichte,º 4th ed., 1910.

Nissen, H.: Italische Landeskunde, 1883‑1902.

Pais, E.: Storia Critica di Roma, I‑IV, 1913‑1920. [Vol. I, Vol. II, Vol. III, Vol. IV]

Pauly-Wissowa: Realencyclopädie, edited by Wissowa and Kroll (about half complete).

Pelham, H. F.: Outlines of Roman History,4 1905.

Platner, S. B.: Topography and Monuments of Ancient Rome, 2nd ed., 1911.b1

Reid, J. S.: The Municipalities of the Roman Empire, 1913.

Schanz, M.: Geschichte der römischen Litteratur, I‑IV. [Vol. I, Vol. II, Vol. III, Vol. IV: Part I, Part II]

Walters, F. B.: Art of the Romans, 1911.

Wissowa, G.: Religion und Kultus der Römer,º 2nd ed., 1912.

Special Lists

Chapter I

Adams, L. E. W.: A Study of the Commerce of Latium (Smith College Classical Studies, 1921).

Beloch, J.: Griechische Geschichte, I2, 229 ff.

Curtis, C. D.: The Bernardini Tomb, in Mem. American Acad. in Rome, III, 1919.

Dennis, G.: Cities and Cemeteries of Etruria, 2nd ed., 1878.​c

Grenier, A.: Bologne villanovienne et étrusque, 1912.

 p592  Graffunder: Art. Rom in Pauly-Wissowa, Realencyclopädie.

Jones, H. S.: Companion to Roman History, 1912, ch. I.

Körte und Skutsch: Art. Etrusker in Pauly-Wissowa, Realencycl.

Kretschmer: In Gercke und Norden's Einleitung in die Altertumswissenschaft, I, 172 ff.

Modestov, V. I.: Introduction à l'histoire Romaine, 1907.

Peet, T. E.: The Stone and Bronze Ages in Italy and Sicily, 1909.

Pinza, G., and Nogara, B.: Materiali per l'Etnologia, 1915.

Poulsen, F.: Der Orient und die frühgriechische Kunst, 1912, 116 ff.

––––––––––––– Etruscan Tomb Paintings, 1922.

Reinach, A.: L'Hellénisation du monde antique, 1914.

Ridgeway, W.: Who were the Romans? (Proc. British Academy, 1907).

Sergi, G.: Italia, le origini, 1919.

Taylor, L. R.: The Cults of Etruria, 1922.d

Chapter II

Binder, J.: Die Plebs, 1909.

Botsford, G. W.: Roman Assemblies, 1909, ch. I‑III.

Carter, J. B.: Evolution of the City of Rome (Proc. Am. Phil. Ass., 1909).

De Sanctis, G.: Storia dei Romani, vol. I, 1907, ch. VI, VIIVIII.

Fowler, W. Warde: The Religious Experience of the Roman People, 1911, ch. V, VIVII.

Frank, T.: An Economic History of Rome, 1920, ch. III.

––––––––––––– Notes on the Servian Wall (Am. Jour. Arch., 1918).

Graffunder: Art. Rom in Pauly-Wissowa, Realencycl.

Meyer, E.: Art. Plebs in Conrad's Handwörterbuch, 3rd ed.

Neumann, K.: Die Grundherrschaft der römischen Republik, 1900.

Strong, E. S.: Early Architectural Decoration (Jour. Roman Studies, 1914).

Chapter III

Abbott, F. F.: Roman Political Institutions, 1907.

Botsford, G. W.: Roman Assemblies, 1909, ch. VI‑XII.

Fowler, W. Warde: Religious Experience of the Roman People, 1911, ch. X.

Frank, T.: Roman Imperialism, ch. II.

––––––––––––– An Economic History of Rome, 1920, ch. II (end), III.

Girard, P. F.: Manuel élémentaire de droit romain.

Kuhlenbeck, L.: Entwicklungsgeschichte des römischen Rechts, 1910.

Leuze, O.: Die römische Jahrzählung, 1914.º

Niese, B.: Römische Geschichte, 1910.º

Pelham, H. F.: Outlines of Roman History, 45 ff.

Roberts, L.: The Gallic Fire (Mem. Am. Acad., vol. II, 1918).

Rosenberg, A.: Der Staat der alten Italiker, 1913.

Täubler, E.: Imperium Romanum, 1913, 188 ff.

Vinogradoff, P.: Outlines of Historical Jurisprudence, vol. II (forthcoming).

Chapters IV and V

Abbott, F. F.: Roman Political Institutions, ch. IVV.

Beloch, J.: Griechische Geschichte,2 vol. III, ch. XV.

Bryce, J.: Studies in History and Jurisprudence, 1901, ch. XIVXV.

Burger, C. P.: Der Kampf zwischen Rom und Samnium, 1898.

 p593  De Sanctis, G.: Storia dei Romani, 1907, vol. II.

Frank, T.: Roman Imperialism, ch. III‑IV.

––––––––––––– An Economic History of Rome, ch. IV‑VI.

Heitland, W. E.: The Roman Republic, 1909, vol. I, 113 ff.;º 164 ff.º

Jones, H. S.: A Companion to Roman History, 1912, ch. III.

Kornemann, E.: Art. Colonia, in Pauly-Wissowa, Realencycl.

Liebenam, W.: Art. Exercitus, in Pauly-Wissowa, Realencycl.

Reid, J. S.: The Municipalities of the Roman Empire, 1913, ch. III‑V.

Vinogradoff, P.: Outlines of Historical Jurisprudence.

Chapters VI and VII

Beloch, J.: Griechische Geschichte,2, vol. III.

Carcopino, J.: La loi de Hiéron et les Romains, 1919.

Cavaignac, E.: Histoire de l'antiquité, 1913‑1921, vol. III, ch. I.

Clark, F. W.: The Influence of Sea‑Power on the History of the Roman Republic, 1915.º

De Sanctis, G.: Storia dei Romani, vol. III, 1916. [2 parts: I, II]

Frank, T.: Roman Imperialism, ch. VIVII.

––––––––––––– An Economic Hist., ch. VI.

Gsell, S.: Histoire ancienne de l'Afrique du nord, 1914‑1920, vol. III.

Heitland, W. E.: The Roman Republic, 1909, I, 186 ff.

Kromayer, J.: Hannibal als Staatsmann, Historische Zeitschrift, 1909, p237.

–––––––––––––Antike Schlachtfelder, 1912, vol. III. [2 parts: I, II]

Meyer, P.: Der Ausbruch des ersten pun. Krieges, 1908.

Rostowzew, M.: Studien zur Geschichte des römischen Kolonates, 1910, ch. III.

––––––––––––– A Large Estate in Egypt in the Third Century, B.C., 1922.

Tarn, W. W.: The Fleets of the First Punic War, Journal of Hellenic Studies, 1907.

Chapters VIII, IX, X, XI

Abbott, F. F.: Roman Political Institutions, ch. V.

Bouche-Leclercq, A.: Histoire des Séleucides, 1913‑14.

––––––––––––– Histoire des Lagides, 1903‑07.

Cavaignac, E.: Histoire de l'antiquité, vol. III.

Colin, G.: Rome et la Grèce, 1905.

Duff, J. W.: A Literary History of Rome, 1909.

Ferguson, W. S.: Greek Imperialism, 1913.

––––––––––––– Hellenistic Athens, 1911.

Fowler, W. W.: Religious Experience of the Roman People, 1911, ch. XIV.

Frank, T.: Roman Imperialism, ch. VIII‑XI, XIV.

–––––––––––––Representative Government in the Macedonian Republics, Class. Philology, 1914.

–––––––––––––Mercantilism and Rome's Foreign Policy, Am. Hist. Rev., 1912.

Gsell, S.: Histoire ancienne de l'Afrique du nord, vol. III.

Gummerus, H.: Der röm. Gutsbetrieb, Klio, 1906.

Hatzfeld, J.: Les trafiquants italiens dans l'Orient hellénique, 1919.

Heitland, W. E.: The Roman Republic, 1909, vol. III, 1‑264.

––––––––––––– Agricola, a Study of Agriculture and Rustic Life in the Greco-Roman World, 1921.

Kahrstedt, U.: Vol. III of Meltzer, Geschichte der Karthager, 1913.

Leo, F.: Römische Litteratur, 1913.

 p594  Mommsen: History of Rome, Bk. III, ch. VII‑XIV.

Niese, B.: Griechische und makedonische Staaten, 1893‑1903, vol. II, 562–III end.

Chapter XII

Cardinali, G.: Studi Graccani, 1912.

Chapot, V. X.: La province Romaine d'Asie, 1904, ch. III.

Fowler, W. W.: The Lex Frumentaria of Gaius Gracchus, in Roman Essays and Interpretations, 1920, p99.

Frank, T.: Roman Imperialism, ch. XII.

––––––––––––– An Economic Hist., ch. VIII.

Greenidge, A. H. J.: A History of Rome, 1904.

Heitland, W. E.: The Roman Republic, II, 265 ff.

Meyer, E.: Kleine Schriften, 1910, 383 ff.

Mommsen: History of Rome, Bk. IV, ch. I‑IV.

Pais, E.: Storia Critica di Roma. [Vol. I, Vol. II, Vol. III, Vol. IV]

Rostowzew, M.: Geschichte der Staatspacht, Philologus, Suppl. IX, 336 ff.

Stern, E. von: Zur Beurteilung der politischen Wirksamkeit des Ti. und G. Gracchus, HermesLVI.

Chapters  XIII, XIV, XV

Bloch, G.: M. Aemilius Scaurus, 1909.

Botsford, G. W.: Roman Assemblies, 1909, ch. XV, XVI.

Cavaignac, E.: Histoire, Bk. IV.

Chapot, V.: La province Romaine d'Asie, 1904.

Drumann, W., revised by Groebe, P.: Geschichte Roms, 1899‑1918, articles on Cornelius Sulla, Licinius Crassus, Licinius Lucullus, Pompeius Magnus, and Tullius Cicero.

Ferrero, G.: Greatness and Decline of Rome, Vol. I, 1907.

Frank, T.: Roman Imperialism, ch. XIII, XV, XVI.

–––––––––––––Race Mixture in the Roman Empire, Am. Hist. Review, 1916, 689.

Greenidge, A. H. J.: A History of Rome, 1904, 277 ff.

Heitland, W. E.: The Roman Republic, II, 326 ff.

Mommsen: History of Rome, Bk. IV, ch. VBk. V, ch. VI.

Oman, C. W. C.: Seven Roman Statesmen (Marius, Sulla, Pompey, Crassus), 1902.

Park, M.: The Plebs in Cicero's Day, Bryn Mawr Diss., 1918.

Petersson, T.: Cicero, A Biography, 1920.

Reinach, Th.: Mithridate Eupator, 1890.

Robinson, F. W.: Marius, Saturninus und Glaucia, 1912.


Arnold, E. V.: Roman Stoicism, 1911.

Beck, E.: M. Junius Brutus (forthcoming).

Boissier, G.: Cicero and His Friends, 1897.

Botsford, G. W.: Roman Assemblies, ch. XVII.

Byrne, A. H.: T. Pomponius Atticus, 1919.

Duff, J. W.: A Literary History of Rome, 1909.

Ferguson, W. S.: Legalized Absolutism, in Am. Hist. Rev., 1912.

Fowler, W. W.: Julius Caesar, 1892.

–––––––––––––Social Life at Rome in Cicero's Day, 1909.

–––––––––––––Religious Experience, ch. XIV‑XVII.

 p595  Frank, T.: Roman Imperialism, ch. XVII.

Hardy, E. G.: Roman Laws and Charters, 1912.

–––––––––––––Caesar's Legal Position in Gaul, in Jour. Phil., 1918.

Heitland, W. E.: The Roman Republic, vol. III, ch. 53‑58.

Holmes, T. R.: Caesar's Conquest of Gaul, 2nd ed., 1911.

Jullian, C.: Histoire de la Gaule, 1908.

Meyer, E.: Caesars Monarchie und das Principat des Pompejus, 2nd ed., 1919.º

Mommsen: History of Rome, Bk. V, ch. VI to end.

Münzer, F.: Römische Adelsparteien und Adelsfamilien, 1920.

Oman, C. W. C.: Seven Roman Statesmen (Caesar, Cato, Crassus, Pompey), 1902.

Petersson, T.: Cicero, A Biography, 1920.

Santayana, G.: Three Philosophic Poets (Lucretius), 1910.

Schanz, M.: Geschichte d. röm. Litteratur, I, pt. II.

Strachan-Davidson, J. L.: Cicero, 1894.

Tyrrell and Purser: The Correspondence of Cicero, vol. I, ed. 3; vol. II‑IV, ed. 2; vol. VI, ed. 1 (The Introductory Chapters).

The Empire

General Works

Abbott, F. F.: Roman Political Institutions, 2nd ed., 1907.º

Arnold, W. T.: Roman Provincial Administration, 3rd ed., 1914.

Blümner, H.: Römische Privat-Altertümer, 1911.

Boak, A. E. R.: A History of Rome, 1922.

Buckland, W. W.: A Textbook of Roman Law, 1921.

Bury, J. B.: Student's Roman Empire, 1893.

Bussell, F. W.: The Roman Empire, 1910.

Cagnat, R., and Chapot, V.: Manuel d'archéologie romaine, 1916‑1920.

Dessau, H.: Inscriptiones Latinae Selectae, 1892‑1916.

von Domaszewski, A.: Geschichte der römischen Kaiser, 1909.

Friedländer, L.: Sittengeschichte Roms, 10th ed., 1920 (7th ed., translated as "Roman Life and Manners under the Early Empire," (1908‑13)).

Gibbon: Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire (Bury's ed.)

Glover, T. R.: Conflict of Religions in the Early Roman Empire, 1909.

Hardy, E. G.: Provincial Concilia from Augustus to Diocletian (in Studies in Roman Hist., vol. I, 1906).

Harnack, A.: The Expansion of Christianity in the First Three Centuries, 1905.

Hirschfeld, O.: Die kaiserlichen Verwaltungsbeamten, 1905.

Huelsen-Carter: The Roman Forum, 1909.

Jones, H. S.: Roman Empire, 1908.

–––––––––––––Companion to Roman History, 1912.

Kornemann, E.: Art. Concilium in Pauly-Wissowa, Realenc.

Liebenam, W.: Städteverwaltung in römischen Kaiserreiche, 1900.

Mackail, J. W.: Latin Literature, 1895.

McFayden, D.: History of the Title "Imperator," 1920.

Marquardt: Privatleben der Römer, 2nd ed., 1886.

Merivale, C.: History of the Romans under the Empire,4 1865.

Mitteis-Wilcken: Grundzüge und Chrestomathie der Papyruskunde, 1912.

 p596  Mommsen: The Provinces of the Roman Empire (Eng. tr., 2nd ed., 1909). [Vol. I, Vol. II]

–––––––––––––Römisches Staatsrecht.

Moore, C. H.: The Religious Thought of the Greeks, 1916.

Platner, S. B.: Topography and Monuments of Ancient Rome, 2nd ed., 1911.b2

Reid, J. S.: Municipalities of the Roman Empire, 1913.

Rostowzew, M.: Studien zur Geschichte des röm. Kolonates, 1910.

Sandys, J. E.: Latin Epigraphy, 1919.

Schanz, M.: Römische Litteraturgeschichte.

Schiller, H.: Geschichte der röm. Kaiserszeit, 1883.

Seeck, O.: Geschichte des Untergangs der antiken Welt, 6 vols., 1897‑1920.

Strong, E.: Roman Sculpture, 2nd ed., 1911.

Toutain, J.: Cultes païens dans l'empire romain, (1907- ).

Walters, H. B.: The Art of the Romans, 1911.

Waltzing, J. P.: Les corporations professionnelles chez les Romains, I‑IV, 1895‑1900.

Chapters XIX, XX, XXI, XXII

Arnold, W. T.: Studies in Roman Imperialism, 1906.

Besnier, M.: Le commerce romain, Journal des Savants, 1920.

Duff, J. W.: A Literary History of Rome.

Firth, J. B.: Augustus Caesar, 1903.

Fowler, W. W.: Roman Ideas of Deity, 1914.

Frank, T.: Economic History, ch. XI‑XV.

–––––––––––––Race Mixture in the Roman Empire, in Am. Hist. Rev., 1916.

–––––––––––––Vergil, A Biography, 1922.

Gardthausen, V.: Augustus und seine Zeit, I‑III, 1891‑1904.

Heinen: Zur Begründung des röm. Kaiserkults, Klio, 1911.

Jones, H. S.: Roman Empire, 1908.

Mau‑Kelsey: Pompeii, its Life and Art, 2nd ed., 1902.

McFayden, D.: The Princeps and the Senatorial Provinces, in Classical Philology, 1919.

Meyer, E.: Kaiser Augustus, in Kleine Schriften, 1910, p441.

Mommsen, Th.: Res Gestae Divi Augusti, 2nd ed., 1883º (an abbreviated trans. by W. Fairley, 1898).

Strong, E.: Roman Sculpture, 2nd ed., 1911.º

Taylor, L. R.: The Worship of Augustus in Italy, in Trans. Am. Philol. Ass., LI.

Van Nostrand, J. J.: The Reorganization of Spain by Augustus, 1916.


Abbott, F. F.: The Common People of Ancient Rome, 1911.

Boissier, G.: L'opposition sous les Césars, 1875.º

Davis, W. S.: The Influence of Wealth in Imperial Rome, 1910.

Dill, S.: Roman Society from Nero to M. Aurelius, 1905.

Freeman, E. A.: Historical Essays, II (The Flavian Caesars), 1889.

Gsell, S.: Essai sur le règne de l'empereur Domitien, 1894.

Henderson, B. W.: Life and Principate of the Emperor Nero, 1903.

––––––––––––– Civil War and Rebellion in the Roman Empire, 1908.

Hirschfeld, O.: Die kaiserlichen Verwaltungsbeamten, 1905.

Holland, F.: Seneca, 1920.

 p597  Lowe: Ed. and Trans. of Petronius' Cena Trimalchionis.

Mackail, J. W.: Latin Literature.

Mau‑Kelsey: Pompeii, Its Life and Art.

Pelham, H. F.: Essays (The Roman Frontier, VIIIIX), 1911.

Schoff, W. H.: Ed. of The Periplus of the Erythraean Sea, 1912.

Strong, E.: Roman Sculpture.

Summers, W. C.: Silver Age of Latin Literature, 1920.

Walker, W.: A History of the Christian Church, 1918.º

Chapters XXVI, XXVII

Ashley, A.: The "Alimenta" of Nerva and His Successors in Eng. Hist. Rev., 1921.

Bouchier, E. S.: Life and Letters in Roman Africa, 1913.

Bryant, E. E.: The Reign of Antoninus Pius, 1895.

Bury, J. B.: Student's Roman Empire.

Cheesman, G. L.: The Auxilia of the Roman Imperial Army, 1914.

Cichorius, C.: Die Reliefs der Trajanssäule, I, 1896; II, 1900.

Cumont, F.: The Mysteries of Mithra, an Eng. tr. of 2nd ed., 1903.

––––––––––––– Oriental Religions in Roman Paganism, an Eng. tr., 1911.

De Pachtere, F. G.: La table hypothécaire de Veleia, 1920.

Dill, S.: Roman Society from Nero to Marcus Aurelius, 1905.º

Gregorovius, F.: The Emperor Hadrian, 1898.

Jones, H. S.: Roman Empire.

Moore, C. H.: The Religious Thought of the Greeks, 1916.

Rostowzew, M.: Studien zur Geschichte des röm. Kolonates, 1910, ch. IV.

Sedgwick, H. D.: Marcus Aurelius, a Biography, 1921.

Weber, W.: Untersuchungen zur Geschichte des Kaisers Hadrianus, 1907.


Beloch, J.: Der Verfall der antiken Kultur, Hist. Zeitschrift, 1900.

Boak, A. E. R.: A Roman History, ch. XXII‑XXV.

Bury, J. B.: History of the Later Roman Empire, 1889-

–––––––––––––The Constitution of the Later Roman Empire, 1910.

Bussell, F. W.: The Roman Empire, 1910. Bks. IIIII.

–––––––––––––Cambridge Medieval History, 1911, Vol. III.

Diehl, Ch.: Histoire de l'empire byzantin, 1920.

Dill, S.: Roman Society in the Last Century of the Western Empire, 1906.

Duchesne, L.: Early History of the Christian Church, tr. from 4th ed., 1909.

Ferrero, G.: La ruine de la civilisation antique, 1921.

Frank, T.: Race Mixture in the Roman Empire, in Am. Hist. Review, 1916.

Freeman, E. A.: Historical EssaysIII (Illyrian Emperors), 1879.

Geffcken, J.: Kaiser Julian, 1914.

–––––––––––––Der Ausgang des griech-röm. Heidentums, Neue Jahrb., 1918.

Hay, J. S.: The Amazing Emperor Heliogabalus, 1911.

Hodgkin, T.: Italy and her Invaders, I-V, 2nd ed., 1892‑96.

Holmes, W. G.: The Age of Justinian and Theodora, 1904.

Hopkins, R. V. N.: Life of Alexander Severus, 1907.

Jones, H. S.: Roman Empire.

Mommsen, Th.: Gesammelte SchriftenIV ("Stilicho und Alarich," "Aetius").

Munro, D. C.: The Middle Ages, 1921.º

 p598  Pelham, H. F.: EssaysXIII ("The Imperial Domains"), 1911.

Platnauer, M.: The Life and Reign of Septimius Severus, 1918.

Rostowzew, M.: Art. Colonus in Conrad's Handwörterbuch (3rd ed.).

–––––––––––––South Russia in the Classical Period, Am. Hist. Rev., 1921.

Schmidt, L.: Allgemeine Geschichte der germanischen Völker, 1909.

Schulz, O.: Vom Prinzipat zum Dominat, 1919.

Schwartz, W.: Kaiser Constantin und die christliche Kirche.

Seeck, O.: Geschichte des Untergangs der antiken Welt, vol. VI, 1920.

Simkhovitch, V.: Rome's Fall Reconsidered, Political Science Quarterly, 1916.

Sundwall, J.: Weströmische Studien, 1915.

–––––––––––––Abhandlungen zur Geschichte des ausgehenden Römertums, 1917.

Walker, W.: A History of the Western Christian Church, 1918.

Westermann, W. L.: The Economic Basis of the Decline of Ancient Culture, in Am. Hist. Rev., 1915.

Zulueta, F. de: De patrociniis vicorum, Oxford Studies in Social and Legal Hist., I, 1909.

Thayer's Notes:

* My additions are set off in colored font.

a In addition to the complete 10‑volume dictionary linked above, a small selection in English translation is onsite.

b1 b2 Superseded by Platner's later work, which then underwent major reworking by Thomas Ashby: Platner & Ashby's A Topographical Dictionary of Ancient Rome (1929).

c The 1848 edition is onsite in full.

d Such was the title as preannounced in 1922; when it was actually published, the following year, the book was titled Local Cults in Etruria.

[image ALT: Valid HTML 4.01.]

Page updated: 17 Nov 21