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Bill Thayer

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Tenney Frank
A History of Rome

The Author and the Book

Tenney Frank (b. near Clay Center, KS, 1876; † Oxford, England, 1939) was a classical scholar and historian who started his career in the sere reaches of grammar and prosody, eventually to find his true voice in the social and economic analysis of ancient Rome. The book transcribed here is, as he says in his Preface, geared to the general reader although with an eye firmly on college instruction.

 p. vii  Contents

Prefaceº p. v
I Early Invasions of Italy 1
II Latium Before and During Etruscan Occupation 14
III The Early Republic 30
IV Rome's Conquest and Organization of Italy 57
V Economics, Politics, and Law 76
VI Rome and Carthage: the First Punic War 94
VII The Second Punic War 115
VIII Rome and Greece 136
IX The Growth of an Eastern Protectorate 148
X Roman Society in the Days of Cato 166
XI The Roman Constitution 180
XII The Gracchan Reforms 194
XIII The Senate, the Knights, and Marius 211
XIV The "Social" and Civil Wars 229
XV From Sulla to Catiline 248
XVI The First "Triumvirate" 272
XVII The Civil War 293
XVIII Internal Conditions 314
XIX From Autocracy to Dyarchy 332
XX Government, Arts, Religion 355
XXI The Business-Life of Rome 375
XXII Augustus and the Empire 406
XXIII The Julio-Claudian Emperors 416
XXIV The Flavian Period 444
XXV The Literature and Art of the First Century 462
XXVI  p. viii  From the Tyrant Domitian to the Philosopher M. Aurelius 473
XXVII Art and Government in the Second Century 501
XXVIII The Age of the Severi 528
XXIX Fifty Years of Anarchy 543
XXX Autocracy, Diocletian, and Constantine 553
XXXI The Causes of Rome's Decline 565
XXXII Epilogue 575
Bibliography 587

Technical Details

Edition Used

These webpages transcribe my copy of the first edition (1923), Henry Holt and Company, New York (hardback). The book was copyrighted in that year, and the copyright was renewed in 1951; it therefore rose into the public domain on Jan. 1, 2019.

My copy of the book is marked on the flyleaf, and presumably once belonged to,

Irene Foster

730 Heman Av.

University City

Washington University

The 1927 issue of the yearbook of Washington University (near St. Louis, Mo.), The Hatchet, includes this photograph of Irene Foster, then a senior, and her fellow members of the Tricornes, the Roman Chapter of Martha Washington Association. Copyright was not asserted in this handsome yearbook, but even if it had been, it was not renewed in 1954 or 1955 as required by the law of the time in order to maintain it: the photograph [3 MB] is thus public domain.

Summarizing her obituary in the Peoria Journal Star, April 22, 1994, page C8, as I found it on the site of the Genealogy Trails History Group, Eula Irene Foster Dintelman, known as Irene, was a lifelong native of western Illinois. She was born in Rushville, IL on Aug. 4, 1903 to Alpheus Guy and Grace Finch Foster and died on Apr. 22, 1994 in Peoria. She married Charles Joseph Dintelman on Dec. 27, 1938, in Rushville, who died in 1990. Graduating with honors from Washington University in St. Louis in 1926 and Phi Beta Kappa, she went on to teach Latin, English and history at Highland High School in Highland, IL. She was a member of First United Presbyterian Church and was active with the Schuyler Jail Museum & Genealogical Center, both in Rushville.

For citation and indexing purposes, the pagination is shown in the right margin of the text at the page turns (like at the end of this line); p57  these are also local anchors. Sticklers for total accuracy will of course find the anchor at its exact place in the sourcecode.

In addition, I've inserted a number of other local anchors: whatever links might be required to accommodate the authors' own cross-references, as well as a few others for my own purposes. If in turn you have a website and would like to target a link to some specific passage of the text, please let me know: I'll be glad to insert a local anchor there as well.


As almost always, I retyped the text by hand rather than scanning it — not only to minimize errors prior to proofreading, but as an opportunity for me to become intimately familiar with the work, an exercise which I heartily recommend: Qui scribit, bis legit. (Well-meaning attempts to get me to scan text, if success­ful, would merely turn me into some kind of machine: gambit declined.)

My transcription has been minutely proofread. In the table of contents below, the sections are shown on blue backgrounds, indicating that I believe the text of them to be completely errorfree; a red background would mean that the page had not been proofread. As elsewhere onsite, the header bar at the top of each chapter's webpage will remind you with the same color scheme.

The running text of the printed book was well proofread, with fewer than a dozen typographical errors, all of them trivial, and therefore marked only by a dotted underscore like this: as elsewhere on my site, glide your cursor over the underscored words to read what was actually printed.

Before measurements, bullets indicate conversions to metric; glide your cursor over them in a similar fashion to read them; e.g., 10 miles.

A small number of odd spellings, curious turns of phrase, etc. have been marked <!‑‑ sic  in the sourcecode, just to confirm that they were checked.

Any over­looked mistakes, please drop me a line, of course: especially if you have a copy of the printed book in front of you.

[image ALT: A roundel with a pastoral scene: a peasant plows his field with two oxen; in the background, mountains and a sunrise. The image serves as the icon on this site for Tenney Frank\'s book, \'A History of Rome\'.]

The icon I use to indicate this subsite is an adaptation of the official seal of Prof. Frank's home state of Kansas, in which I replaced the pioneer plowing his field with horses by an ancient Roman working with oxen (an image taken from Smith's Dictionary of Greek and Roman Antiquitiesq.v.); the whole on the same background used for this page and the orientation page to LacusCurtius, the Roman section of this site: shading from the pale blue I use to represent republican Rome, to the pale purple of imperial Rome.

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Site updated: 10 Dec 20