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Bill Thayer

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The entries on pp382‑439 of

William Smith, D.C.L., LL.D.:
A Dictionary of Greek and Roman Antiquities, John Murray, London, 1875.


Thayer's Note: I'm not particularly interested in ancient Greece. My site therefore includes, with few exceptions, only those entries that pertain to Rome. In these index pages, those that pertain exclusively to Greece are indicated in grey; I do not plan to put them onsite, although here and there I may change my mind.

DACTYLIOTHECA, (δακτυλιοθήκη), a case or box where rings were kept (Mart. XI.59). The name was also applied to a cabinet or collection of jewels. We learn from Pliny (H. N. XXXVII.5), that Scaurus, the step-son of Sulla, was the first person at Rome who had a collection of this kind, and that his was the only one till Pompey brought to Rome the collection of Mithridates, which he placed in the capitol.

Dactylus • Daduchus

Daedala: see separate page.

Damaretion • Damiurgi

Damnum: see separate page.

DAMNUM INFECTUM: see separate page.

DAMNUM INJURIA DATUM: see separate page.

Damosia • Danace

DANEISMA. [Fenus.]

Daphnephoria: see separate page.


Debitor: [Obligationes.]

Decaduchi • Decarchia • Decasmus

Decastylos: [Templum.]


DECEMPEDA, a pole ten feet long, used by the agrimensores in measuring land (Cic. Pro Mil. 27; Hor. Carm. II.15.14; Cic. Philipp. XIV.4). The decempeda was in fact the standard land-measure. [Actus; Agrimensores]

Decem primi: [Senatus.]

Decemviri: see separate page.

Decennalia: see separate page.

Decimatio: see separate page.

Decimatrus: [Quinquatrus.]

Decretum: see separate page.

Decumae: see separate page.

DECUMANI. [Decumae.]

DECUNCIS, another name for the dextans [As, p140B]

Decuria: [Exercitus.]

Thayer's Note: More generally, a decuria is any squad of 10 men. In farming for example, Columella (R. R. I.9.7) gives it as an old term for a team of laborers assigned to some particular task.

Decuriae judicum: [Judex.]

Decuriones: [Colonia, Exercitus.]

Decurrere: [Funus.]

Decussis: [As.]

Dedicatio: [Inauguratio.]

Dediticii: see separate page.

DEDITIO. [Dediticii.]

Deductores: [Ambitus.]

Defensores: [Provincia.]

Defrutum: [Vinum.]

DEICELISTAE. [Comoedia.]


DEJECTUM EFFUSUM. [Dejecti Effusive Actio.]

DEJECTI EFFUSIVE ACTIO: see separate page.

Deilias Graphe

DEIPNON. [Coena.]

Delator: see separate page.

Delectus: [Exercitus.]

Delia: see separate page.

DELICTUM. [Crimen.]

Delphinia: see separate page.


Delubrum: [Templum.]


Demens: [Curator.]

Demensum: [Servus.]

Dementia: [Curator.]

Demetria: see separate page.

Deminutio capitis: [Caput.]

Demioprata • Demiurgi • Demius • Democratia

Demonstratio: [Actio.]

Demopoietos • Demosii • Demus

Denarius: see separate page.

Denicales: [Feriae.]

Dentale: [Aratrum.]

Dentifricium: see separate page.

Depensi actio: [Intercessio.]

Deportatio: [Exsilium.]

DEPOSITI ACTIO. [Depositum.]

Depositum: see separate page.

DESERTOR, is defined by Modestinus to be one "qui per prolixum tempus vagatus, reducitur," and differs from an emansor, "qui diu vagatus ad castra egreditur (Dig. 49 tit. 16 s3). Those who deserted in time of peace, were punished by loss of rank, corporal chastisement, fines ignominious dismission from the service, &c. Those who left the standards in time of war were usually punished with death. The transfugae, or deserters to the enemy, when taken, were sometimes deprived of their hands or feet (Liv. XXVI.12), but generally were put to death. (Lipsius, De Milit. Rom. IV.4.)

Designator: [Funus.]

Desmoterion • Desposionautae

Desultor: see separate page.

Detestatio sacrorum: [Gens.]

Deversorium: [Caupona.]

Deunx: [As.]

Deunx: [Libra.]º

Dextans: [As.]

Dextans: [Libra.]º


Diadema: see separate page.

Diadicasia • Diadoseis

Diaeta: [Domus.]

Diaetetae • Diagrapheis

Dialis flamen: [Flamen.]

Diamartyria • Diamastigosis • Dianomae • Diapsephisis

Diarium: [Servus.]

Diasia: see separate page.

Diastylos: [Templum.]

Diatreta: [Vitrum.]

DIAULOS. [Stadium.]

Diazoma: [Subligaculum.]

Dicasterion • Dicastes • Dicasticon • Dike

Dicrotum: [Navis.]

Dictator: see separate page.

Dictynnia: see separate page.

Dies: see separate page.

DIFFARREATIO.º [Divortium.]

DIGESTA. [Pandectae.]

Digitalia: [Manica.]

Digitus: [Pes.]

Diipoleia: see separate page.

DIMACHAE (διμάχαι), Macedonian horse-soldiers, who also fought on foot when occasion required. Their armour was heavier than that of the ordinary horse-soldiers, and lighter than that of the regular heavy-armed foot. A servant accompanied each soldier in order to take care of his horse when he alighted to fight on foot. This species of troops is said to have been first introduced by Alexander the Great (Pollux, I.132; Curtius, V.13).

Dimacheri: [Gladiatores.]

Dimensum: [Servus.]

Diminutio capitis: [Caput.]


Diocleia: see separate page.


DIONYSIA. [Bacchanalia.]

Dioscuria: see separate page.

Diota: [Amphora.]


Diphros: [Currus.]

Diphros: [Thronus.]

Diplax: [Pallium.]

Diploma: see separate page.

Diptycha: [Tabulae.]

Directa actio: [Actio.]

Diribitores: see separate page.

Discus: see separate page.

Dispensator: [Calculator.]


Diversorium: [Caupona.]

Dividiculum: [Aquaeductus.]

Divinatio: see separate page.

Divisor: [Ambitus.]

Divortium: see separate page.

Docana • Docimasia

Dodrans: [As.]

Dolabra: see separate page.

DOLICHOS. [Stadium.]

Dolium: [Vinum.]

DOLO (δόλων). 1. A secret poniard or dagger contained in a case, used by the Italians. It was inserted in the handles of whips (Dig. 9 tit. 2 s52; Serv. ad Virg. Aen. VII.664), and also in walking-sticks, thus corresponding to our sword-stick. It was a weapon of the latter kind that Tib. Gracchus carried (Plut. Tib. Gracch. 10; comp. Hesych. s.v. Δόλωνες).

2. A small top-sail. [Navis.]º



Domestici: [Praetoriani.]

Domicilium: see separate page.

Dominium: see separate page.

DOMINUS means master, owner [Dominium]. Dominus is opposed to Servus, as master to slave. Plinius, in his letters, always addresses Trajanus as Dominus; but this must be viewed rather as a mode of showing his respect than any acknowledgment of a title (C. Plinii Caecilii Secundi Ep. ed. G. H. Schaefer, p500, note). Domitianus claimed the titles of Dominus and Deus (Dion Cass. LXVII.13, and the note of Reimarus; also Martialis, Ep. V.8, and X.72, when Domitianus was dead). It is said, that Aurelianus first adopted the title Dominus on his medals (Eckhel, Doct. Num. Vet. vol. VII p482).

Domus: see separate page.

Donaria: see separate page.

DONATIO: see separate page.

DONATIO MORTIS CAUSA: see separate page.

DONATIO PROPTER NUPTIAS: see separate page.


Dormitoria: [Domus.]

Dorodikias Graphe • Doron • Doron Graphe • Doroxenias Graphe • Dorpia • Dorpon

DORU. [Hasta.]


Dos: see separate page.

Doulos • Drachma

Draco: [Signa Militaria.]

Ducenarii: see separate page.

Ducentesima: [Centesima.]

Duella: [Uncia.]

Dulciarii: [Pistor.]

Duodecim scripta: [Latrunculi.]


DUPLA′RII or DUPLICA′RII, were soldiers who received on account of their good conduct double allowance (duplicia cibaria), and perhaps in some cases double pay likewise (Varro, De Ling. Lat. V.90, Müller; Liv. II.59, XXIV.47; Orelli, Inscrip. No. 3535). They are frequently mentioned in inscriptions (Orelli, Nos. 3533, 4994), but more commonly under the name of duplarii (Orelli, Nos. 3531, 3535, 3476, 3481, &c.). In one inscription the form duplicarius occurs (Orelli, No. 3534). Vegetius (II.7) calls them duplares milites.

Duplicatio: [Actio.]

Dupondius: [As.]

Dussis: [As.]

Duumviri: see separate page.

Dux: [Provincia.]

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Page updated: 3 Jun 14