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Bill Thayer

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The entries on pp585‑624 of

William Smith, D.C.L., LL.D.:
A Dictionary of Greek and Roman Antiquities, John Murray, London, 1875.

HABENAE: see separate page.

Habitatio: [Servitutes.]

Haeres: [Heres.]

Halia • Halma • Haloa

Halteres: see separate page.

Hamaxa: [Harmamaxa, Plaustrum.]

Harma: [Currus, Harmamaxa.]

Harmamaxa: see separate page.

Harmostae • Harpages Graphe

HARPAGINETULI, a sort of decoration for the walls and ceilings of rooms, thus mentioned by Vitruvius, in a passage where he is speaking of irregular and fantastic ornaments (VII.5 § 3), "pro columnis enim statuuntur calami, pro fastigii harpaginetuli striati cum crispis foliis et volutis teneris." The commentators have laboured in vain to explain the term; and it is even very doubtful whether the reading is correct. As the word stands, it seems to refer to some sort of scroll-pattern. (See Schneider, Newton, and the other commentators and translators, l.c., and an addition by Bailey to the article in Forcellini.) [P. S.]

Harpago: see separate page.

HARPASTUM (ἁρπαστόν from ἁρπαζῶ) was a ball, used in a game of which we have no accurate account; but it appears both from the etymology of the word and the statement of Galen (Περὶ μικρᾶς Σφαίρας, c2, p902, ed. Kühn), that a ball was thrown among the players, each of whom endeavoured to obtain possession of it (comp. Pollux, IX.105, 106; Athen. I p14F). Hence Martial (IV.19.6) speaks of the harpasta pulverulenta. The game required a great deal of bodily exertion (Martial, VII.67.4; comp. XIV.48). (See Becker, Gallus, vol. I p276; Krause, Gymnastik und Agonistik der Hellenen, vol. I pp307, 308.) [J.Y.]

Haruspices: see separate page.

Hasta: see separate page.

Hastati: [Exercitus.]

Hecatombaea • Hecatombaeon

Hecatombe: [Sacrificium.]

Hecatompedon: [Pes,º Templum.]

Hecatoste • Hecte • Hectemorii • Hedna • Hegemonia Dicasterious • Hegetoria • Heirgmou Graphe

Helepolis: see separate page.


Heliocaminus: [Domus.]

HELIX (ἔλιξ), anything of a spiral form, whether in one plane, as the spiral curve, or in different planes, as the screw.

1. In architecture, the spiral volutes of the Ionic and Corinthian capitals. The Roman architects, while they used the word volutae for the angular spirals, retained the term helices for the smaller spirals in the middle of each face of the Corinthian capital (Vitruv. IV.1 § 12).

2. In mechanics, the word designates the screw in its various applications; but its chief use was to describe a machine used for pushing or drawing ships in the water from the beach, which was said to have been invented by Archimedes (Athen. V p207A, with Casaubon's Notes).

Hellanodicae • Hellenotamiae • Hellotia • Helotes • Hemera • Hemerodromi • Hemeroscopi

HEMICHRYSUS. [Aurum, Stater.]

Hemicongius: [Congius.]

HEMICYCLIUM (ἡμικύκλιον), a semicircular seat, for the accommodation of persons engaged in conversation, either in private houses or in places of public resort; and also the semicircular seat round the tribunal in a basilica (Plut. Alcib. 17, Nic. 12; Cic. Lael. 1; Vitruv. V.1 § 8, comp. Schneider's Note). [P. S.]

Hemiecteon • Hemilitron

HEMINA (ἡμίνα), the name of a Greek and Roman measure, seems to be nothing more than the dialectic form used by the Sicilian and Italian Greeks for ἡμίσυ (see the quotations from Epicharmus and Sophron, ap. Ath. XI p479AB, XIV p648D, and Hesych. s.v. ἐν ἡμίνᾳ, which he explains as ἐν ἡμίσυ). It was therefore naturally applied to the half of the standard fluid measure, the ξέστης, which the other Greeks called κοτύλη, and the word passed into the Roman metrical system, where it is used with exactly the same force, namely for a measure which is half of the sextarius, and equal to the Greek cotyle (Böckh, Metrol. Untersuch. pp17, 200203). [P. S.]

Hemiobolion • Hemipodion • Hemistater • Hemixeston • Hendeca, hoi • Hephaestia

Heraea: see separate page.

Hereditas: [Heres.]

Heres: see separate page.


Hermaea: see separate page.

Hermathena • Hermeraclae

HERO′NES, baskets or crates of sedge, which were employed, when filled with chalk, for making a foundation in the water (Vitruv. V.12 § 5). Pliny states that the architect of the temple of Diana, at Ephesus, raised to their places immense blocks, which formed the architrave, by means of an inclined plane, constructed of herones filled with sand (Plin. H. N. XXXVI.14 s21). In these and the few other passages where it occurs, the readings of the word are very various. Different modern scholars have adopted one of the three forms, aerones, erones, or herones (See Schneider, ad Vitruv. l.c.). [P. S.]

Heroon • Hestia • Hestiasis • Hetaerae • Hetaeri • Hetaireseos Graphe • Hetairiae

Hexaphorum: [Lectica.]

Hieroduli: see separate page.

Hieromanteia • Hieromenia • Hieromnemones

Hieronicae: [Athletae.]

Hierophantes • Hieropoii • Hierosylias Graphe

Hilaria: see separate page.


Himation: [Pallium.]

Hipparchus • Hipparomstes • Hippicon • Hippobotae • Hippodameia • Hippodromus

HIPPOPE′RAE (ἱπποπήραι), saddle-bags. This appendage owing to the saddle [Ephippium] was made of leather (sacculi scortei, Festus, s.v. Bulgae), and does not appear ever to have changed its form and appearance. Its proper Latin name was bisaccium (Petron. Sat. 31), which gave origin to bisaccia in Italian and besace in French. By the Gauls, saddle-bags were called bulgae (Festus, l.c.; Onomast. Gr. Lat.), because they bulge or swell outwards; this significant appellation is still retained in the Welsh bolgan or bulgan. The more elegant term hippoperae is adopted by Seneca (Epist. 88).

Histion: [Navis.]

Histrio: see separate page.


Holoserica vestis: [Sericum.]

Holosphyration: [Malleus.]


Honoraria actio: [Actio.]

Honorarii ludi: [Ludi.]

Honorarium: [Advocatus, Lex Cincia.]

Honorarium jus: [Edicta.]

Honores: see separate page.


Hoplomachi: [Gladiatores.]

Hora: see separate page.


Hordearium aes: [Aes Hordearium.]


Horologium: see separate page.

Horoscopus: [Astrologia.]

Horrearii: [Horreum.]

Horreum: see separate page.

Hortus: see separate page.

Hospes: [Hospitium.]

Hospitium: see separate page.

Hostia: [Sacrificium.]


Hostis: [Postliminium.]


Hyalus: [Vitrum.]

Hybreos Graphe

Hydraleta: [Mola.]

Hydraula: see separate page.

Hydraulica machina: [Hydraula.]

Hydraulus: [Hydraula.]

Hydria: [Situla.]


Hydromeli: [Vinum.]


Hypaethrus: [Templum.]

HYPASPISTAE — but in the army of the Later Roman Empire, see J. B. Bury, History of the Later Roman Empire, ch. 16, pp77‑78 (including notes).

Hyperetes • Hyperoon • Hypoboles Graphe

Hypocaustum: [Balneae.]

HYPOCOSME′TAE (ὑποκοσμηταί), frequently occur in Athenian inscriptions of the time of the Roman empire, as assistants of the κοσμητής, who at that period was the chief officer who regulated the exercises of the Gymnasium (Krause, Gymnastik und Agonistik, vol. I p212, &c.).


Hypodema: [Calceus.]

Hypogeum • Hypogrammateus


Hypomeiones • Hypomosia

Hyponomus: [Emissarium.]


Hyposcenium: [Theatrum.]

Hypotheca: [Pignus.]

Hypothecaria actio: [Pignus.]



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