PA′CTIO, PACTUM. [Obligationes.]
Paedago′gus: see separate page.
Pae′nula: see separate page.
Pagi: see separate page.
Pala: see separate page.
PALAESTE [Palmus, Mensura, p751B.]
Palaestra: see separate page.
PALATI′NI LUDI [Ludi Palatini.]
PALE (πάλη) [Lucta.]
pp851‑853 PA′LLIUM: see separate page.
Palmus: see separate page.
Paludamentum: see separate page.
Palus: see separate page.
pp856‑857 PANATHENAEA: see separate page.
pp859‑861 PANDECTAE: see separate page.
Pa′ndia: see separate page.
Panelle′nia: see separate page.
PAR IMPAR LUDERE (ἀρτιασμός, ἀρτιάζειν, ἄρτια ἢ περιττὰ παίζειν), the game at odd and even, was a favourite game among the Greeks and Romans. A person held in his hand a certain number of astragali or other things, and his opponent had to guess whether the number was odd or even. (Pollux, IX.101; Plato, Lys. p207; Hor. Sat. II.3.248; Suet. Aug. 71; Nux Eleg. 79; Becker, Gallus, vol. II p233.)
Parabolon • Paracatabole • Paracatathece
Paradisus: see separate page.
Paragauda: see separate page.
Paragraphe • Paralus • Paranoias Graphe • Paranomon Graphe • Paranymphus
Parapherna • Parapresbeia
Parasanga: see separate page.
Parasemon • Parasiti • Parastades • Parastasis • Parastatae • Parazonium • Paredri • Pareisgraphe
Parenta′lia: [Funus, p562B.]
Paries: see separate page.
Parma: see separate page.
Parochi were certain people who were paid by the state to supply the Roman magistrates, ambassadors, and other official persons, when they were travelling, with those necessities which they could not conveniently carry with them. They existed on all the principal stations on the Roman roads in Italy and the provinces, where persons were accustomed to pass the night. But as many magistrates frequently made extortionate demands from the parochi, the lex Julia de Repetundis of Julius Caesar, B.C. 59, defined the things which the parochi were bound to supply, of which hay, fire-wood, salt, and a certain number of beds appear to have been the most important (Hor. Sat. I.5.46; Cic. ad Att. V.16, XIII.2; Heindorf, ad Hor. l.c.).
PARRICI′DA, PARRICI′DIUM [ Lex Cornelia, p687.]
PA′SCUA PU′BLICA [Scriptura.]
Passus: see separate page.
Pasto′phorus: see separate page.
Pa′tera: see separate page.
Pa′tina: see separate page.
Pa′tria potestas: see separate page.
Patri′cii: see separate page.
Patrimi et Matrimi: see separate page.
Patro′nus: see separate page.
Paupe′ries: see separate page.
Pausa′rii: see separate page.
Pecten: see separate page.
Pecua′rii, the name given to persons who pastured their cattle on the public lands (pascua), for which they were bound to pay a tax to the state, called Scriptura. But in the earlier times of the republic many persons supported their cattle on the public pastures without paying this tax at all, or paying less than was legally due; and hence the word pecuarii was frequently employed to signify those persons who thus illegally made use of the public pastures. They were often prosecuted by the aediles and fined (Ov. Fast. V.283‑294; Liv. X.23, 47, XXXIII.42, XXXV.10; Festus, p238, ed. Müller).
Pecula′tus: see separate page.
Pedi′sequi: see separate page.
Pedum: see separate page.
Pelta: see separate page.
Pentathlon: see separate page.
PENTECO′NTERUS [Navis, p784A.]
p885 Pentecoste • Pentecostys
Peplum: see separate page.
PER JUDICIS POSTULATIO′NEM was one of the Legis Actiones. The passage in Gaius is wanting in which this form of action is described. There are some remarks on this Actio by Puchta, Inst. II § 154, 612.
PER MANUS INJECTIO′NEM [Manus Injectio.]
Pera: see separate page.
PERDUELLIO [Majestas, p725.]
PERIACTOS (περίακτος), a theatrical machine, consisting of three scenes, placed in the form of a triangle (or rather, triangular prism) on a revolving platform, so that, by simply turning the machine, the scene could be changed. It was chiefly used when a god was to be introduced with the accompaniment of thunder. The name was also applied to the space which was provided for the machine in the erection of the theatre ( Vitruv. V.7; Pollux, IV.126).
Peri′scelis: see separate page.
PERISTY′LIUM (περιστύλιον), as its name implies, was a continued row or series of rows of columns all round a court or building, in contradistinction to Porticus (στόα), in which the pillars did not surround a space, but were arranged in one or more parallel lines. The enclosed court was also called peristylium. The chief specific use of the word is in relation to the ancient dwelling-houses [Domus, p428A.]
Pero: see separate page.
PERSAE or STATUAE PERSICAE were figures which were used in place of columns, like the Caryatides, Atlantes, and Telamones. The tradition respecting their invention is that they were first used in the Porticus Persica which was built at Sparta out of the spoils of the battle of Plateae (Vitruv. I.1 § 6). Pausanias, however, (III.2) describes the statues of the conquered Persians, as being ἐπὶ τῶν κιόνων.
PE′RTICA, the pole, used by the Agrimensores, was also called Decempeda because it was ten feet long. On account of its use in assigning lands to the members of a colony, it is sometimes represented on medals by the side of the augurial plough (Propert. IV.1.30). [J.Y.]
Pes: see separate page.
PESSI (πεσσοί) [ Latrunculi.]
Petaurum: see separate page.
Plebisci′tum: see separate page.
PLINTHUS (πλίνθος), any rectangular parallelopiped. 1. A brick or tile. [Later.] 2. The quadrangular piece of stone which should properly form the lowest member of the base of a column, and which may be supposed to have originated in it use of a tile or a flat piece of wood to prevent the shaft from sinking into the ground; although very frequently the plinth is wanting, the highest step or other basement forming a sort of continuous plinth or podium. [Spira.] [P. S.]
PLUMARII, a class of persons, mentioned by Vitruvius (VI.7, p177, ed. Bip.), Varro (ap. Nonium, II p716), and in inscriptions. It cannot be decided with certainty what their exact occupation was: their name would lead us to suppose that it had something to do with feathers (plumae). Salmasius (ad Vopisc. Carin. c20) supposes that they were persons who wove in garments golden or purple figures made like feathers. The word, however, probably signifies all those who work in feathers, as lanarii those who work in wool, and argentarii those who work in silver. Seneca (Ep. 90) speaks of dresses made of the feathers of birds (Becker, Gallus, vol. I, pp44‑48).
Plu′teus: see separate page.
Plynteria: see separate page.
PO′CULUM was any kind of drinking-cup. It must be distinguished from the Crater or vessel in which the wine was mixed [Crater], and from the Cyathus, a kind of ladle or small cup, which was used to convey the wine from the Crater to the Poculum or drinking-cup [Cyathus]. Thus Horace (Carm. III.19.11) —
"tribus aut novem
Miscentur cyathis pocula commodis."
PO′DIUM in architecture, is a continued pedestal, for supporting a row of columns, or serving for a parapet, or forming a sort of terrace, as the podium in the theatre and amphitheatre (Vitruv. III.3, V.7, VII.4; Amphitheatrum).
Poena: see separate page.
Polemarchus • Poletae • Politeia • Politophylaces
Polus: see separate page.
Pomoe′rium: see separate page.
Pompa: see separate page.
Pons: see separate page.
Po′ntifex: see separate page.
Populifu′gia: see separate page.
Porta: see separate page.
Po′rticus: see separate page.
Porti′sculus: see separate page.
Porto′rium: see separate page.
Portumna′lia: see separate page.
Poseido′nia: see separate page.
Posse′ssio: see separate page.
Postlimi′nium: see separate page.
Praeco′nes: see separate page.
Praeda: see separate page.
Prae′dium: see separate page.
Praejudi′cium: see separate page.
Praes: see separate page.
Praetor: see separate page.
Praetoria′ni: see separate page.
Proconsul: see separate page.
Procura′tor: see separate page.
Prodi′gium: see separate page.
Proscri′ptio: see separate page.
Protrygaea: see separate page.
Provi′ncia: see separate page.
Publica′ni: see separate page.
Publicia′na in rem actio: see separate page.
Pugila′tus: see separate page.
Pu′gio: see separate page.
Pulvi′nar: see separate page.
Pu′teal: see separate page.
Pyrgus (πύργος), a tower. 1. The towers used in fortification and in war are spoken of under Turris. 2. An army drawn up in a deep oblong column. [Turris, No. VI.] 3. A dice-box, so called from its resemblance to a tower [Fritillus.] 4. The territory of the town of Teos was distributed among a certain number of towers (πύργοι), to each of which corresponded a symmory or section of the citizens (Böckh, Corp. Inscr. No. 3064; and the elucidations of Grote, Hist. of Greece, vol. III pp247, 248).
pp977‑978 Py′thia: see separate page.
Pyxis: see separate page.
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