Thomas Stanley, translator (1665) Claudius Aelianus His Various History. Book XIV (pages 288-314)


Various History.

The Fourteenth Book.


How Aristotle stood affected as to love of Glory.

Aristotle Son of Nicomachus, a person that really was, as well as esteemed wise, when one took away from him the honours decreed to him at Delphi, writing hereupon to Antipater, said, "As to those things that were decreed for me at Delphi, and of which I am now deprived, I am so affected, as that I neither much care for them, nor care nothing for them." This he said, not through love of glory ; neither can I accuse Aristotle (who was so great a person) thereof. But he wisely considered that there was a great deal of difference betwixt not receiving an honour, and after having received it, to be deprived of it. For it is no great trouble not to obtain it, but a great vexation having obtained it, afterwards to be bereaved of it.

Chap. II.

Of Agesilaus, and the Barbarians breaking their Oaths.

Agesilaus used to commend the Barbarians who broke their Oaths, because, by perjury they made the Gods their Enemies, but Friends and Assistants to him.

Chap. III.

Of Prodigality.

Timotheus inveighing bitterly against Aristophontes for being prodigal, said, "To whom nothing is sufficient, nothing is dishonest."

Chap. IV.

Of Aristides dying of the biting of a Weezel.

Aristides the Locrian being bit by a Tartesian Weezel, and dying, said, That it would have pleased him much better to have died by the biting of a Lion or Leopard, (since he must have died by something) then by such a Beast. He brooked in my opinion the ignomy of the biting much worse then the death it self.

Chap. V.

What persons the Athenians chose for Government.

The Athenians conferred Offices Civil and Military, not onely on native Citizens, but also often preferred strangers before Citizens, and put them in authority over the Commonwealth, if they knew them to be truly good and honest men, and proper for such things. They often created Apollodorus the Cyzicene their General, though a stranger, so likewise Heraclides the Clazomenian ; for having behaved themselves worthily, they were esteemed not unworthy to govern the Athenians. And for this thing the City is to be commended, which betrayed not truth to gratifie the Citizens, but not seldome bestowed the chief dignity even on those who were nothing allied to them, yet in regard of their vertue most worthy of honour.

Chap. VI.

Aristippus his opinion concerning chearfulneß.

Aristippus by strong Arguments advised that we should not be sollicitious about things past or future ; arguing, that not to be troubled at such things, is a sign of a constant clear spirit. He also advised to take care onely for the present day, and in that day, onely of the present part thereof, wherein something was done or thought ; for he said, the present only is in our power, not the past or future ; the one being gone, the other uncertain whether ever it will come.

Chap. VII.

A Lacedemonian Law concerning the Complexion and Constitution of the Body, and such as are too Fat.

There is a Lacedemonian Law which saith thus ; That no Lacedemonian shall be of an unmanly Complexion, or of greater weight then is fit for the Exercises ; for this seemeth to argue Laziness, that, Effeminacy. It was likewise ordered by Law, that every tenth day the young men should shew themselves naked before the Ephori ; If they were of a solid strong Constitution, and molded as it were for Exercise, they were commended ; but if any Limb was found to be soft and tender by reason of fatness accrued by idleness, they were beaten and punished. Moreover the Ephori took particular care every day that their Garments should be looked into, that they should be no otherwise then exact and fit to the Body. The Cooks at Lacedemon might not dress any thing but flesh. He who was skilled in any other kind of Cookery was cast out of Sparta.1 Nauclidas Son of Polybiades, for being grown too fat and heavy through luxury and idleness, they took out of the publick Assembly,2 and threatned to punish him by banishment, unless he alter that blameable and rather Ionick then Laconick course of life : For his shape and habit of body was a shame to Lacedemon and our Laws.

Chap. VIII.

How Polycletus and Hippomachus argued the common people of Ignorance.

Polycletus3 made two Images at the same time ; one at the pleasure of the people, the other according to the rule of Art. He gratified the common people in this manner ; As often as any one came in, he altered the Picture as he would have it, following his direction. He exposed them both together to publick view, one was admired by all, the other laughed at. Hereupon Polycletus said, "Yet this which you find fault with, you your selves made, this which you admire, I."

Hippomachus a Player on the Flute, when one of his Scholars missed in playing, yet was nevertheless commended by the standers by, struck him with a stick, saying, "You played false, otherwise these would not have commended you."4

Chap. IX.

Of the Patience of Xenocrates.

Xenocrates the Chalcedonian, being reproved by Plato for his want of gratefulness, was nothing angry thereat, as is reported, but prudently silenced one who pressed him to answer Plato, saying, This benefits me.

Chap. X.

How Phocion retorted upon Demades.

The Athenians preferred Demades to be their General before Phocion ; who being thus advanced grew high in his own esteem, and coming to Phocion, "Lend me, said he, that sordid Cloak which you used to wear in your Generalship." He answered, "You will never want any thing that is sordid, whilest you continue what you are."5

Chap. XI.

How a King ought to behave himself towards his Subjects.

Philiscus on a time said to Alexander, Study glory, yet be not a Pestilence or great Sickneß, but Peace and Health : Affirming that to govern tyranically and severely, and to take Cities and depopulate Countries is a Pestilence ; but to consult the preservation of Subjects, is Health ; these are the benefits of Peace.

Chap. XII.

How the Persian King employed himself whilest he travelled.

The Persian King whilest he travelled had (to divert the tediousness of his Journey) a little stick, which they call Philyrium,6 and a knife to cut it. Thus were the Kings hands employed. They never had any Books, wherein they might read of something great, memorable, and worthy of Discourse.

Chap. XIII.

Of the Tragedies of Agatho.

Agatho used many Antitheses. Whereupon a person that would have corrected his Writings, told him, that all those should be put out of his Play. He answered, "But you observed not, excellent Sir, that by this means you blot Agatho quite out of Agatho." So much was he pleased with these, and thought these Tragedies upheld by them.

Chap. XIV.

Of Stratonicus a Lutenist.

A certain person received Stratonicus the Lutenist very civilly. He was much pleased with the invitation ; for he had not any friend to entertain him, being come into a strange Countrey. Hereupon he returned great thanks to the man, who so readily had received him under his Roof. But when he saw another come in, and after him another, and perceived that he had made his House free for all that would come ; "Let us get away, Boy, said he to his Servant, for we have got a Wood-pigeon instead of a Dove,7 we have not lighted upon a friends House, but upon an Inne."

Chap. XV.

Of the Discourses of Socrates.

It is a saying that the Discourses of Socrates are like the Pictures of Pauson. For Pauson the Painter being desired to make the Picture of a Horse tumbling on his back, drew him running. And when he who had bespoke the Picture, was angry that he had not drawn it according to his directions, the Painter said, "Turn it the other way, and the Horse which now runneth, will then roll upon his back." So Socrates did not discourse downright, but if his discourses were turned, they appeared very right. For he was unwilling to gain the hatred of those to whom he discoursed, and for that reason delivered things enigmatically and obliquely.

Chap. XVI.

Of the ambition of Hipponicus.

Hipponicus son of Callias would erect a Statue as a Gift to his Countrey. One advised him that the Statue should be made by Polycletus. He answered, "I will not have such a Statue, the glory whereof will redound not to the Giver, but to the Carver. For it is certain that all who see the Art, will admire Polycletus and not me."

Chap. XVII.

Of Archelaus, and of the Pictures of Zeuxis.

Socrates said that Archelaus had bestowed fourty Minæ upon his House, having hired Zeuxis the Heracleote to adorn it with Pictures, but upon himself nothing. For what cause many came from farre out of curiosity to see the House, but none came to Macedonia for the sake of Archelaus himself, unless he allured and invited any by money, with which a vertuous person is not taken.

Chap. XVIII.

How one that was angry threatned to punish his Servant.

A Chian being angry with his Servant, "I, saith he, will not put you into the Mill, but will carry you to Olympia." He thought, it seems, that it was a farre greater punishment to be spectator of the Olympick Game, in the excessive heat of the Sun, then to be put to work in a Mill.

Chap. XIX.

Of the Modesty of Archytas in speaking.

Archytas was very modest, as in all other things, so in speech, avoiding all obscenity of Language. There happened a necessity of speaking something unseemly, he held his peace, and wrote it on a Wall ; shewing that what he was forced to speak, though forced, he would not speak.

Chap. XX.

Of a ridiculous Story.

A Sybarite a Pedagogue (which kind of people were addicted to luxury as well as the rest of the Sybarites,) when a Boy that went along with him found a Fig by the way, and took it up, chid him for so doing ; but most ridiculously took it away from the Boy, and eat it himself. When I read this in the Sybaritick Histories, I laughed, and committed it to memory, not envying others the pleasure of laughing at it too.

Chap. XXI.

Of the Poet Syagrus.

There was a Poet named Syagrus, after Orpheus and Musæus, who is said first to have sung the Trojan War, daring to undertake this which was the greatest subject.

Chap. XXII.

Of a Tyrant forbidding his Subjects to talk together.

Tryzus a Tyrant, that he might prevent Conspiracies and Treasons against him, commanded the inhabitants that they should not speak together, either in publick or private ; which thing was most grievous and intolerable. Hereupon they eluded the Tyrant's command, and signified their minds to one another by actions of the eyes, of the hand, and of the head. Sometimes they beheld one another with a melancholly brow, sometimes with a serene and chearful. But from the looks of every one it was evident, that they brooked ill their oppressed intolerable condition. And this also troubled the Tyrant who conceived that even their silence, by various gestures and looks, contrived some ill against him. Wherefore he prohibited even this likewise by Law. Hereupon one of them, much troubled at this disconsolate manner of life, and instigated with a desire of dissolving the Tyranny, went into the Market-place where standing he wept bitterly ; the people came and stood all round about him, bursting also into tears. The news hereof was brought to the Tyrant, that they used not any signs, but went grievously ; who making hast to prohibit this also, and not onely to enslave their Tongues and Gestures, but even to debarre their Eyes of natural freedome, he went on foot with his Guard to prohibit their weeping. But as soon as ever they saw him, they snatched weapons out of the hands of his Guard, and killed the Tyrant.

Chap. XXIII.

Of Clinias and of Achilles, who used to repress anger by Musick.

Clinias was a vertuous person ; as to his opinion, a Pythagorean. He whensoever he grew angry, and perceived his mind ready to be transported with passion, immediately before anger took absolute possession of him, tuned his Lute and played upon it. To those who asked him the reason, he answered, "It allayeth my anger."8

Achilles also in the Ilias, singing to the Lute, and commemorating in Song the glories of former persons, seems to me to have thereby asswaged his indignation ; and being Musically given, the first thing of the spoils which he seized, was a Lute.9

Chap. XXIV.

Of some persons who have nothing valued Money in regard of their Countrymen. And of some who slew their Creditors.

Of those who despised Money, and declared their own greatness of mind, seeing that whilest they themselves abounded with wealth, their Countrymen were oppress'd with extreme poverty were, at Corinth Theocles and Thrasonides ; at Mitylene, Praxis. These also advised others to relieve such as lay under great want. But the rest refusing, they released such Debts as were due to themselves, and thereby received great advantage, not as to Wealth but the Mind. For they whose Debts were not forgiven rose up in Arms against their Creditours, and excited by rage, invincible poverty, and necessity, slew them.

Chap. XXV.

How one persuaded a State to concord.

On a time the Chians were exceedingly at variance among themselves, and generally infected with that disease. Hereupon, one amongst them, who was naturally a lover of his Country, said to those of his friends, who would that all the adverse party should be cast out of the City, "By no means, said he, but when have obtained the Victory, let us leave some of them, lest hereafter wanting Adversaries, we should War with one another." By which words he appeased them, it seeming to all that he spoke discreetly.

Chap. XXVI.

Of Antagoras railing at Arcesilaus.

Antagoras the Poet meeting Arcesilaus the Philosopher in the Forum, railed at him. But he with an unmoved courage went to that place where he saw there were most men, and discoursed with them, that the Railer might make a publick discovery of his folly. They hearing Antagoras, turned away from him, blaming him as mad.

Chap. XXVII.

Of Agesilaus.

I commend those above all who suppress rising ills, and cut them off before they grow to a head. Agesilaus advised that they should be arraigned and put to death, who had made a Conspiracy privately by night to assault the Thebans.10


Of Pytheas an Oratour.

One reproched Pytheas an Oratour that he was wicked ; he denied it not, being convinced by his conscience ; but answered, he had been wicked the shortest time of any that ever had an interest in the Athenian Government. It seems he pleased himself, in that he had not alwaies been bad, and thought it no disparagement to him, so that he were not reckoned amongst the worst. But this of Pytheas was foolish ; for not onely he who doth wrong is wicked, but he also in my opinion that hath an intention to doe wrong.

Chap. XXIX.

That Lysander brought wealth into Sparta.

Lysander brought wealth into Lacedemon, and taught the Lacedemonians to transgress the Law of God, who charged that Sparta should have no way accessible for Gold or Silver. Hereupon some wise persons, who still retained the Laconick integrity : worthy Lycurgus and Pythius opposed him,11 others who gave way were branded with infamy. And their vertue, which had flourished from the beginning until then, perished.

Chap. XXX.

How Hanno would have Deified himself.

Hanno the Carthaginian through pride would not be contained within the bounds of Mankind, but designed to spread a fame of himself transcending that Nature which was allotted to him. For having bought many singing Birds, he brought them up in the dark, teaching them one Song, Hanno is a God. They hearing no other sound, learned this perfectly, and then he let them loose several waies, conceiving that they would disperse this Song concerning him. But flying abroad, and enjoying their liberty, and returning to their accustomed diet, they sung the notes proper to their kinds, bidding a long farewel to Hanno, and to the Song, which he had taught them when they were kept up prisoners.

Chap. XXXI.

Of Ptolemee surnamed Tryphon.

Ptolemee Tryphon,12 (for so he was called from his manner of living) when a beautiful Woman came to speak with him, said, "My Sister advised me not to admit discourse with a fair Woman." She confidently and readily replied, "You may receive it then from a fair Man" ; which he hearing commended her.

Chap. XXXII.

Of Pimandridas, who praised not his Son for gathering together Riches.

A Lacedemonian named Pimandridas, being to take a Journey, committed the management of his estate to his Son. At his return finding his means encreased much beyond what he had left, he told his Son that he had wronged the Gods, and those of his Family and Guests : For whatsoever abounds in our estates, should by such as are free persons be bestowed upon them. But to seem whilest we live, indigent, and being dead, to be found to have been rich, is the most dishonourable thing amongst men.


Of Plato and Diogenes.

Diogenes being present at a discourse of Plato's, would not mind it, whereat Plato angry said, "Thou Dog, why mindest thou not? Diogenes unmoved, answered, "Yet I never return to the place where I was sold, as Dogs doe" ; alluding to Plato's Voyage to Sicily.13

It is reported that Plato used to say of Diogenes, "This man is Socrates mad."

Chap. XXXIV.

Of whom the Ægyptians learned Laws, and of their Judges.

The Ægyptians affirm that they learnt their Law of Hermes.14 Thus all people magnifie what belongs to themselves. The Judges amongst the Ægyptians were of old the same with their Priests. Of these the eldest was the Chief, and Judged all ; he must be the most Just, and upright of men. He had a Sculpture about his neck of Saphire, which Sculpture was named Truth : but, as I conceive, a Judge should wear Truth not engraved in a Stone, but in his Mind.

Chap. XXXV.

Of Lais.

Lais was called also Axine [An Axe ;] which name implies the cruelty of her disposition, and that she extorted much, especially of Strangers, who were to depart suddenly.15

Chap. XXXVI.

That they are ridiculous who think highly of themselves because of their Parents.

They are to be laughed at who think highly of themselves because of their Parents and Ancestors ; for we know not the Father of Marius, but admire him for his own actions. As likewise Cato, Servilius, Hostilius, and Romulus.16


Of Statues and Images.

Statues which the art of Carving affords us, and Images I use to look upon not carelessly ; for there is much wisedome observable in this Art : which may be argued, besides many other things, from this, that no Carver or Painter did ever represent to us the Muses, in shape feigned, or misbecoming the Daughters of Jupiter : neither was there ever any Artist so mad as to represent them in Armour. Which demonstrateth, that the life of those who are addicted to the Muses, ought to be peaceful, quiet, and worthy of them.17


Of Epaminondas and Pelopidas.

I have been told many excellent sayings of Epaminondas the Theban, amongst the rest this ; He said to Pelopidas that he never went out of the forum every day, until he had gained a new friend to adde to the number of his old.

Chap. XXXIX.

How Antalcidas found fault with a Present perfumed with Unguent.

A King of Persia, (for I will relate to you somthing pleasant) dipping a Garland which was woven of Roses, in sweet Unguents, sent it to Antalcidas who came to him on an Embassy for Peace. But he, "I receive saith he, the gift, and commend the civility ; but you have spoiled the native odour of the Roses with the adulteration of Art."

Chap. XL.

Of the Cruelty of Alexander Tyrant of the Pheræans.

Alexander Tyrant of the Pheræans was thought to be extremely cruel. But when Theodorus the Tragick Poet did with much passion act the Tragedy Aërope, he burst forth into tears, and rising up went out of the Theater : He made an Apology to Theodorus, that he went not away through any slighting or disrespect of him, but that he was ashamed to discover compassion at a Play, not shewing any to his Subjects.18

Chap. XLI.

Of Apollodorus his Madneß in Wine.

Apollodorus drinking Wine more then any man, did not conceal his Vice, or endeavour to hide his drunkenness, and the ill consequence thereof, but being enflamed and enraged with Wine, shewed himself more bloudy, increasing the cruelty of his nature by this corporeal vice.

Chap. XLII.

A Sentence of Xenocrates.

Xenocrates friend of Plato used to say, That it is all one whether we put our feet or our eyes in the house of another man : for he sins as much who looks upon those places which he ought not, as he who enters upon them.

Chap. XLIII.

Of Ptolemee and Berenice.

They say that Ptolemee19 used to pass his time at Dice. In the mean time one standing by, read the names of condemned persons, and the Crimes for which they were condemned, that he might decree who of them should be put to death. Berenice his Wife taking the Book from the Servant, would not suffer him to reade any farther, saying, That when the lives of men were in question, it should not be so slightly considered, but seriously and not at Play : for there is no comparison betwixt Dice and Men. Ptolemee was pleased herewith, and would never after hear Judicial affairs whilest he was playing at Dice.

Chap. XLIV.

A Lacedemonian Law concerning Covetousneß.

A young man a Lacedemonian having bought Land at an under-rate, was cited before the Magistrates and fined. The reason why he was thought worthy punishment, was this ; That being a young-man, he was eagerly bent upon gain. Amongst other things of the Lacedemonians this was very manly, to oppose not onely Enemies but Covetousness.

Chap. XLV.

Of certain Women worthy praise.

We extol of the Grecian Women ; Penelope, Alcestis, and the Wife of Protesilaus : Of Romane, Cornelia, Porcia, and Cestilia.20 I could reckon many more, but I will not, having alledged so few of the Grecians, overwhelm them with Romane names, lest any one should think I gratifie my own Countrey.

Chap. XLVI.

Of the Battel of the Magnetes against the Ephesians.

The Magnetes who border upon Mæander warring against the Ephesians, every Horseman took along with him a Hound, and a Servant that served as an Archer. As soon as they came near, the Dogs falling fiercely upon the Enemy, disordered them, and the Servants advancing before their Masters, shot. The Dogs first routed them, then the Servants did them much harm ; and lastly, they themselves fell upon them.21

Chap. XLVII.

Of Zeuxis his Picture of Helen, and of Nicostratus a Painter.

When Zeuxis the Heracleote had drawn Helen, Nicostratus a Painter was astonished at the sight of the Picture.22 One coming to him, asked what was the reason he so much admired the Workmanship ; He answered, "If you had my eyes you would not ask me." I may say the same of an Oration, if a man hath not learned ears, as an Artist skilful eyes.


Persons of whom Alexander was jealous.

Alexander was jealous of Ptolemee's good fortune, of Arrhius his turbulency, and of Pytho's study of innovation.23

Chap. XLIX.

Why Philip made the Sons of the noblest Persons wait on him.

Philip taking the Sons of the noblest in Macedonia, made them wait upon his person, not in contempt of them, or to affront them, but that he might make them ready and expedite for action. To such of them as were addicted to Luxury, or performed his Commands remissly, he is said to have been very severe. Thus he did beat Aphthonetus, because upon a march, being thirsty, he left his rank, and went out of the way to an Inne. Archedamus he put to death for putting off his Arms, when he had commanded him to keep them on.24

The End.


Stanley's notes are marked by glyphs (e.g., *); other notes are numbered.

1. Stanley here skips a phrase: "as expiation for the harm they did to Spartans".

2. Athenaeus says that he was brought before the public assembly and berated. Following this and some textual indications, editors suggest emending the text of Aelian here to have it say the same thing.

3. Polycletus the famous sculptor; see Chap. 16.

4. Aelian tells the same story in Book II, Chap. 6, only there Hipparchus is teaching wrestling. Perizonius proposes emending the text to have it say "played following all the rules", which would give the story more bite.

5. Demades was known for his luxury and for his flattery (both demanded of those beneath him and given to those above). See also Book V, Chap. 12. Plutarch De amore divit. (de cupiditate divit.) has Antipater say of the elderly Demades, "Demades is like a sacrificed animal: nothing remains of him but a tongue and entrails."

6. φιλύριον, a tablet (of limewood, say Lidell and Scott).

7. See Erasmus Adagia.

8. According to Seneca, De ira III.IX.2 (sorry: no local links in the online text), this was a Pythagorean doctrine: "Pythagoras perturbationes animi lyra componebat".

9. Iliad IX.185-195; the spoils of Eëtion.

10. Not "to assault the Thebans", but "during the assault of the Thebans". Aelian does not specify exactly what these conspirators were planning, nor does Plutarch, who describes the episode in more detail, Life of Agesilaus 32.3-6. Spartan law required that anyone condemned to death have a trial; Agesilaus, in this case on his own and later with the approval of the Ephori, suspended the law. If the intent was to suppress rising ills, it does not seem to have worked, although of course it is not possible to say how much worse things may have gone if Agesilaus had not acted. Or, for that matter, how much better.

11. This is wrong. "Some wise persons, retaining a Laconick integrity worthy of Lycurgus and Apollo [the Pythian god, not a person named Pythius], opposed the introduction of money." Rather than "flourished from the beginning", read "and their original virtue perished little by little" or "insensibly" or "over a long period".

12. This could be Ptolemy Philopator, who, according to Pliny, VII, was surnamed Tryphon. If so, his sister was his wife (not uncommon in the Ptolemaic dynasty).

13. On one of Plato's voyages to Sicily, he angered the tyrant Dionysius, who in response had Plato sold as a slave; see Diogenes Laertius's Life of Plato, XIV. Diogenes Laertius in his Life of Diogenes reports a different response to Plato's tirade: "No doubt: for I have come back to those who sold me". (Diogenes too had been sold into slavery, or would have been if anyone had wanted him.)

14. Aelian has told us this before in Book XII, Chap. 4.

15. On Lais see also Book X, Chap. 2. Aelian tells the same story in Book XII, Chap. 5, where it is credited to Aristophanes of Byzantium.

16. This is nearly the same as Book XII, Chap. 6. Romulus's father, in some versions of the story, was Mars.

17. This is a slightly expanded version of Book XII, Chap. 2. It may be worth pointing out that a painter may well have represented the muses in armor, or bearing arms: but then they would be taken for someone else. The way you tell that they're muses is in part their number and in part their attitudes (unless, of course, they're labelled). So the argument presented here is on its face a petitio principi.

18. For more on the career of Alexander, see Plutarch's Life of Pelopidas. He was eventually murdered by his wife Thebe and three of her brothers; among his many cruelties to her, says Plutarch, he had made her youngest brother his lover.

19. Stanley leaves out a phrase here: "it doesn't matter which one". Of the two Ptolemy's whose wives were named Berenice, the more likely is Ptolemy Euergetes III, whose nature as recorded in history accords better with this story than that of Ptolemy Soter. Euergetes' wife is the Berenice of Berenice's Comb.

20. Penelope and Alcestis need no explanation; Protesilaus's wife was Laodamia. Protesilaus was the first to die in the Trojan war. Allowed briefly to converse with his spirit, Laodamia committed suicide so that they would not be separated again. Cornelia and Porcia are well known. Cestilia is otherwise unrecorded; it is probably a manuscript error for Clelia, the Roman hostage of Lars Porsenna.

21. Magnetes, or Magnesians. See Strabo, XIV.1.40, who says that, though successful in their war against the Ephesians, the Magnesians and their city were later destroyed by a Cimmerian tribe. Strabo, IV.5.2, says that the Celts too used dogs and slaves in warfare, though he doesn't specify how.

22. On the portrait of Helen, see also Book IV, Chap. 12. Nicostratus is otherwise unknown; Perizonius suggests emending to Nicomachos, a painter that Plutarch compares to Zeuxis.

23. See Book XII, Chap. 16 for the beginning of this list. Arrhius, who appears under variant names in different histories, and Python were both officers of Alexander's armies.

24. Stanley leaves untranslated the very difficult passage that ends the chapter. It can be made to read something like "Archedamus thought he had, by his flattery and subservience, gained enough sway over Philip that he did not have to fear punishment."

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