Philemon Holland, translator (1601): C. Plinius Secundus The Historie of the World. Book III. (Pages 50-71)

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The Proëme, or Preface.

Hitherto have wee written of the position and wonders of the Earth, Waters, and Starres: also we have treated in generall tearmes, of the proportion and measure of the whole world. Now it followeth, to discourse of the parts thereof: albeit this also be iudged an infinite peece of worke, nor lightly can be handled without some reprehension: and yet in no kind of enterprise pardon is more due; since it is no marvaile at all, if he who is borne a mortall man, knoweth not all things belonging to man. And therefore, I will not follow one Author more than another, but every one as I shall thinke him most true in the description of each part. For as much as this hath been a thing common in manner to them all, namely, to learne or describe the situations of those places most exactly, where themselves were either borne, or which they had discovered and seene: and therefore, neither will I blame nor reproove any man. The bare names of places shall be simply set downe in this my Geographhie; and that with as great brevitie as I can: the excellencie, as also the causes and occasions thereof, shall be deferred to their severall and particular treatises: for now the question is as touching the whole earth in generalitie, which mine intent is to represent unto your eyes: and thererfore I would have things thus to be taken, as if the names of countries were put downe naked, and void of renowme and fame, and such onely as they were in the beginning, before any actes there done; and as if they had indeed an endument of names, but respective onely to the world and universall nature of all.

Now the whole globe of the earth is divided into three parts, Europe, Asia, and Africa. The beginning we take from the West and the Firth of Gades, even whereas the Atlanticke Ocean breaking in, is sprad into the Inland and mediteranean seas. Make your entrance there, I meane at the Streights of Gibraltar, and then Africke is on the right hand, Europe on the left, and Asia before you just betweene. the bounds confining these, are the rivers Tanais and Nilus. The mouth of the Ocean at Gades (whereof I spake before) lyeth out in length 15 miles, and stretcheth forth in breadth but five, from a village in Spaine called Mellaria, to the promontorie of Africke, called the White, as Turanius Graccula borne thereby, doth write. T. Livius and Nepos Cornelius have reported, that the breadth thereof where it is narrowest, is seven miles over, but ten miles where it is broadest. From so small a mouth (a wonder to consider) spreadeth the sea so huge and so vast as wee see; and withall, so exceeding deepe, as the marvile is no lesse in that regard. For why? in the very mouth thereof, are to be seene many barres and shallow shelves of white sands (so ebbe is the water) to the great terrour of shippes and Sailers paßing that way. And therefore many have called those Streights of Gibraltar, The entrie of the Mediteranean sea. Of both sides of this gullet, neere unto it, are two mountaines set as frontiers and rampiers to keepe all in: namely, Abila for Africke, Calpe for Europe, the utmost end of Hercules Labours. For which cause, the inhabitants of those parts call them, The two pillars of that God; and doe verily beleeve, that by certaine draines and ditches digged within the Continent, the maine ocean, before excluded, made way and was let in, to make the Mediteranean seas, where before was firme land: and so by that meanes the very face of the whole earth is cleane altered.


Of Europe.

And first, as touching Europe, the nource of that people, which is the conquerour of all nations; and besides, of all lands by many degrees most beautifull: which may for right good cause, have made not the third portion of the earth, but the one halfe (dividing the whole globe of the earth intto two parts:) to wit, ffrom the river Tanais unto the Streights of Gades. The Ocean then, at this place above-said, entreth into the Atlanticke sea, and with a greedie current drowneth those lands which dread his comming like a tyrant; but where he meeteth with any that are like to resist, those he passeth juts by, and with his winding turnes and reathes, he eateth and holloweth the shore continually to gaine ground, making many noukes and creekes every where: but in Europe most of all, wherein foure especiall great gulfes are to be seene.

Of which, the first, from Calpe the utmost promontorie (as is above-said) of Spaine, windeth and turneth with an exceeding great compasse, to Locri, and as farre as the promontorie Brutium. Within it lieth the first land of all others, Spaine; that part I meane, which in regard of us at Rome, is the farther off, and is named also Boetica. And anon from the Firth Virgitanus, the hither part, otherwise called Tarraconensis, as farre as to the hills Pyrenæi. That farther part of larger Spaine, is divided into two provinces in the length thereof: for on the North side of Boetica, lyeth Lusitania afront, divided from it by the river Ana.1

This river beginneth in the territorie Laminitanus of the hither Spaine, one while spreading out it selfe into broad pooles or meeres, otherwhiles gathering into narrow brookes: or altogither hidden under the ground, and taking pleasure to rise up oftentimes in many places, falleth into the Spanish Atlantick Ocean. But the part named Tarraconensis, lying fast upon Pyrenæus, and shooting along all the side thereof, and withall, stretching out it selfe overthwart and crosse from the Iberian sea to the Gauls Ocean, is separated from Boetica and Lusitania, by the mountaine Salarius, and the cliffes of the Oretanes, Carpetanes, and Asturians.

Boetica, so called of the river Boetis, that cutteth in the mids, out-goeth all the other provinces for rich furniture, and a certaine plentifull trimnesse and peculiar beautie by it selfe. Therein are held foure solemne Iudiciall great Assizes and Parliaments, according to foure Counties or Shires; to wit, the Gaditane, Cordubian, Astigitane, and Hispalensis. Townes in it are all in number 175; whereof there are Colonies, eight; towned endued with the auncient franchises of Latium 29: with Freedome, sixe; Confederate, foure; Tributarie paying custome, 120. Of which, those that be worth the naming, and are more currant in the Latine tongue, be these under-written: to wit, On the river Ana side and the Ocean coast, the citie Ossonoba, surnamed also Lusturia. There runne betweene, Luxia and Urium, two rivers. The hills Ariani: the river Boetis: the shore corense, with a winding creeke. Over-against which, lyeth Gades, to be spoken of among the Ilands. The Cape or Head of Iuno: the haven Besippo. Townes, Belon, and Mellaria. The Streights or Firth out of the Atlanticke sea. Carteia, called Tertessos2 by the Greekes; and the Mountain Calpe. Then, within the firme land, the towne Barbesula, with the river. Item, the towne Salbula, Suel-Malacha upon the river of our Confederates.3 Next to these, Menoba with a river: Sexi-firmum, surnamed Iulium:4 Selaubina, Abdera, and Murgis the frontier towne of Boetica. All that whole coast, M. Agrippa thought to have had their beginning and discent from the Carthaginians. From Ana, there lyeth against the Atlanticke Ocean, the region of the Bastuli and the Turduli.

M. Varro sayeth, that there entred into all parts of Spaine, the Herians, Persians , Phænicians, Celtes, and Carthaginians or Africanes: for Lusus, the companion of Father Libes or Liba, (which signifieth the franticke furie of those that raged with him) gave the name to Lusitania; and Pan was the governour of it all. But those things which are reported of Hercules and Pyrene, or of Saturne, I thinke to be as vaine and fabulous tales as any other. As for Boetis, in the Tarraconensian province, rising, not as some have said, at the towne Mentesa, but in the chase or forest Tugrensis,5 which the river Tader watereth, as it doth the Carthaginian pale also at Ilorcum, shunneth the funerall fire and sepulchre of Scipio: and turning into the West, maketh toward the Atlantick Ocean, adopting the province and giving it his own name, is at first but smal, howbeit receiveth many other rivers into it, from which it taketh away both their name & their waters. And first being entred from Ossigitania into Boetica, running gently with a pleasant channell, hath many townes both on the left hand and the right, seated upon it. The most famous and populous betweene it and the seacoast in the Mediterranean part thereof, are Segeda surnamed Augurina: Iulia, which is also called Fidentia: Virgao, otherwise Alba: Ebura, otherwise Cerealis:6 Illiberi, which is also Liberini: Ilipua,7 named likewise Laus. Artigi or Iulienses: Vesci the same that Faventia: Singilia, Hegua, Arialdunum, Agla the lesse, Bæbro, Castra Vinaria, Episibrum, Hipponova, Illurco, Osca, Escua, Succubo, Nuditanum, Tucci the old, all which belong to Bastitania, lying toward the sea.8 But within the Countie or jurisdiction of Corduba, about the very river standeth the towne Ossigi, which is surnamed Laconicum:9 Illiturgi called also Forum Iulium: Ipasturgia the same that Triumphale, Sitia:10 and foureteene miles within the countrey, Obulco, which is named Pontisicense. And anon (you shall see) Ripepora, a towne of the confederates,11 Sacili, Martialum, Onoba. And on the right hand Corduba, surnamed Colonia Partitia: and then beginneth Boetis to be navigable, and not before. As you go lower, you shal find towns Carbulo, Decuma, the river Singulis, falling into the same side of Boetis. The towns of the countie Hispalensis be these, Celtica, Axatiara, Arruci, Menoba, Ilipa surnamed Italica.12 And on the left hand, Hispalis a Colonie, surnamed likewise Romulensis.13 But right forward opposite unto it,14 the town Osset, which hath a name besides, Iulia Constantia: Vergentum, which also is the same that Iulii Genitor,15 Hippo Caurasiarum, the river Menoba, which also entreth into Boetis on the right side. But within the washes and downes of Boetis, there is the town Nebrissa surnamed Veneria and Colobona: also Colonies, namely, Asta, which is called Regia. And in the mid-land part, Asido, which is the same that Cæsarina. The river Singulus breaking into Boetis in that order as I have said, runneth hard by the Colonie Astigitania, surnamed also Augusta Firma, and so forward it is navigable. The rest of the Colonies belonging to this Countie, are free and enjoy immunitie of Tribute: namely, Tucci, which is surnamed Augusta Gemella: Itucci, the same that Virtus Iulia, Attubi16 all one with Caretas Iulia [i. excellencie of Iulius.] Urso, which is Genua Urbanorum: and among these, Munda, which together with Pompeies son, was taken.17 Free townes, Astigi the old, and Ostippo. Tributarie, Callet, Calucula, Castra Gemina, Illipula the lesse, Merucra, Sacrana, Obulcula, Oningis. As a man commeth from the coast, neere to the river Menoba, which also will beare a ship, there dwell not farre off the Alontigicili, and Alostigi.18 But all that region which without the forenamed, reacheth from Boetis to the river Ana, is called Beturia: devided into two parts, and as many sorts of people: to wit, the Celtici, who meet with Lusitania, and are within the devision or countie Hispalensis: and the Turduli, who inhabite fast upon Lusitania and Tarraconensis: and they owe service to the Countie-Court of Corduba. As for the Celtici, manifest it is, That they came from the Celtiberians out of Lusitania, as appeareth by their religion, tongue, and names of townes, which in Boetica are distinguished by their additions or surnames, to wit, Seria which is called Fama Iulia: Ucultanicum, which now is Curiga: Laconimurgi, Constantia Iulia, Terresibus is now Fortunales, and Callensibus, Emmanici.19 Besides all these, in Celtica Acinippo, Arunda, Arunci, Turobrica, Lastigi, Alpesa, Sæpona, Serippo. The other Beturia, which we said contained the Turduli, and belonged to the Countie of Corduba, hath townes of no base account, Arsa, Mellaria, and Mirobrica: and regions or quarters, Ostrutigi, and Sisapone. Within the Countie of Gades, there is of Romane cittizens a towne called Regina: of Latines there are Laepia, Ulia, Carisa surnamed Aurelia, Urgia which is likewise named Castrum Iulium: also, Cæsaris Salutariensis. But Tributaries there bee these, Besaro, Belippo,20 Berbesula, Lacippo, Besippo, Callet, Cappagum, Oleastro,21 Itucci, Brana, Lacibi, Saguntia, Andorisippo. The whole length of it, M. Agrippa has set downe 463 miles, and the breadth 257. But for that the bounds reached forward as farre as to Carthage, which cause breedeth oftentimes errours in the taking of the measures, whiles in one place the limits of the provinces were changed, and in another the pases in journying were either more or lesse; also, considering the seas in so long continuance of time have encroched here upon th eland, and the bankes againe gotten there of the sea, and beare farther in; also, for that the reaches of the riers have either turned crooked or gone streight & direct; over and besides, for that some have begun to take their measure from this place, others from that, and gone divers waies: it is by these means come to passe, that no twain accord together in one song, as touching their measure and Geographie.


The length and breadth of Boetica.

The length of Boetica at this day from the bound of the towne Castulo unto Gades, is 475 miles: and from Murgi the maritine coast or lands end, more by 22 miles. The bredth from the edge or border of Carteia, is 224 miles. And verily, who would beleeve, that Agrippa (a man so diligent, and in this worke principally, so curious) did erre, when he purposed to set out a map of the whole worldd openly to be seene of the whole cittie, and namely, when Augustus Cæsar of happie memorie, joined with him? For hee it was that finished the porch or gallerie begun by Agrippæs sister, according to his will appointment and direction, which contained the said pourtraict.


The hither or higher Spaine.

The old forme of the hither Spaine is somewhat changed, like as of many other provinces: considering that Pompey the great in his triumphant trophees which hee erected in Pyrenæus, testifieth, That 846 townes betweene the Alpes and the marches of the farther or lower Spaine, were subdued by him & brought to obedience. Now, is the whole province devided into seven Counties, the Carthaginian, the Tarraconian, Cæsar Augustani, Cluniensis, Asturia, Lucensis, & Bracarum. There are besides Islands, setting aside which, without once naming them, and excepting the citties that are annexed to others, the bare province containeth 294 townes. In which, Colonies there be twelve, townes of Romane cittizens thirteene, of old Latines seventeene, of allies within the league, one; tributarie, a hundred thirtie sixe. The first in the very frontiers thereof, be the Bastulians: behind them in such order as shall bee said: namely, those inlanders that inhabite within-forth, the Mentesaries, Oretanes, and the Carpetances upon the river Tagus. Neere to them, the Vaccæans, Vectones, Celtierians, and Arrebaci. The towns next to the marches, Urci, and Barea laid to Boetica: the countrey Mauritania, then Deitania: after that, Contestania, and new Carthage, a Colonie. From the Promontorie whereof called Saturnes cape, the cut over the sea to Cæsaria a cittie in Mauritania, is of 187 miles. In the residue of that coast is the river Tader: the free Colonie Illici, of which, a firth or arme of the sea tooke the name of Illicitanus. To it owe service and are annexed the Icositanes. Soone after, Lucentum a town of the Latines. Dranium a tributarie, the river Sucro, which was sometime the frontier towne of Contestania. The region Edetania, which retireth inward to the Celtiberians, having a goodly pleasant poole bordering along the front of it. Valentia, a Colonie lying three miles from the sea. The river Turium: and just as farre from the sea, Saguntum, a towne of Romane cittizens, renowned for their fidelitie. The river Idubeda, and the region of the Ilergaones. The river Hebre, yeeding such riches of trafficke and commerce, by reason that it is navigable: which beginneth in the Cantabrians countrey, not farre from the towne Inliobrica, and holdeth on his course 430 miles: and for 260 of them, even from the towne Varia, carrieth vessels of merchandise, in regard of which river, the Greekes named all Spaine Iberia. The region Cossetania, the river Subi, the Colonie Tarraco, built by the Scipioes, like as Carthage by the Affricanes. The countrey of the Illergetes, the towne Subur, the river Rubricatum, and from thence the Lacetanes and Indigetes. After them in this order following: within-forth at the foot of the Pyrenæus, the Ausetanes, Itanes, and Lacetanes: and along Pyrenæus the Cerretanes, and then the Vascones. In the edge or marches thereof, the Colonie Barcino, surnamed Faventia. Townes of Romane cittizens, Bætulo, Illuro, the river Larnum, Blandæ: the river Alba, Emporiæ: two there be of these, to wit, of the old inhabitants, and of the Greekes, who were the off-spring descended from the Phocæans. The river Tichus. From whence to Pyrenæa Venus, on the other side of the Promontorie, are fortie miles. Now besides the forenamed, shall bee related the principall places of marke as they lie in every Countie. At Tarracon there plead in court foure and fortie.22 The most famous and of greatest name among them, be of Romane cittizens the Dertusanes, and Bisgargitanes: of Latines, the Ausetanes and Cerretanes surnamed Iulianes: they also who are named Augustanes, the Sedetanes, Gerundenses, Gessatians, Tearians, and the same that Iulienses. Of Tributaries, the Aquicaldenses, Onenses, and Bætulonenses.23 Cæsar Augusta, a free Colonie, upon which the river Iberus floweth: where the towne before was called Salduba: these are of the region Sedetania, and receiveth 52 States: and among these, of Romane citizens the Bellitanes and Celsenses. And out of the Colonie, the Calaguritanes surnamed also Nascici. The Ilerdians of the Surdaons nation, neer unto whom runneth the river Sicoris. The Oscians of the region Vescetania, and the Turlasonenses. Of old Latins, the Cascantenses, Erganicenses, Gracchuritanes, leonicenses, Ossigerdenses. Of confederates within the league, the Tarragenses. Tributaries besides, the Arcobricenses, Andologenses, Arocelitanes, Bursaonenses, Calaguritanes surnamed Fibularenses, complutenses, Carenses, Cincenses, Cortonenses, Dammanitanes, latrenses, Iturisenses, Ispalenses, Ilumberitanes, Lacetanes, Vibienses, Pompelonenses and Segienses. There resort to Carthage for law 62 severall States, besides the Islanders. Out of the Colonie Accitana, the Gemellenses, also Libisosona surnamed Foroaugustana: which two are endued with the franchises of Italie: out of the Colonie Salariensis, the Oppidanes of old Latium, Castulonenses, whom Cæsar calleth Venales. The Setabitanes, who are also Augustanes, and the Valerienses. But of the Tributaries, of greatest name bee the Babanenses, the Bascianes, the Consaburenses, Dianenses, Egelestanes, Ilorcitani, Laminitani, Mentesani, the same that Oritani; and the Mentesani who otherwise are Bastuli: Oretanes who also are called Germani, the cheefe of the Celtiberians, the Segobrigenses, and the Toletanes of Carpetania, dwelling upon the river Tagus. Next to them the Viacienses and Virgilienses. To the assises or law court Cluniensis, the Varduli bring fourteene nations; of which I list to name none but the Albanenses: but the Turmodigi foure, among whom are the Segisamonenses, Sagisamejulienses. To the same assises, the Carietes and the Vennenses doe goe out of five cities, of which the Velienses are. Thither repaire the Pelendones, with four States of the Celtiberians, of whom the Numantines were famous: like as in the eighteene citties of the Vaccæans, the Intercatienses, Pallantini, Lacobricenses, and Caucenses: for in the foure24 States of the Cantabrici, onely Iuliobrica is named. In the tenne States of the Autrigones, Tritium and Vironesca. To the Arevaci the river Areva gave name. Of them there be seven25 townes, to wit, Saguntia and Uxama, which names be ofen used in other places: besides Segovia and Nova Augusta, Termes, and Clunia it selfe the very utmost bound of Celtiberia. All the rest lie toward the Ocean, & of the abovenamed the Verduli together with the Cantabri. to these there are joined twelve nations of the Astures, devided into the Augstanes & Transmontanes, having a stately cittie Asturica. Among these are reckoned, Giguri, Pesici, Lancienses and Zoclæ.26 The number of the whole multitude ariseth to 240000 pols of free men, besides slaves. The Countie or jurisdiction Lucensis, compriseth sixteene townes (besides the Celtikes and Lebunians) of base condition, and having barbarous names; howbeit, of freemen to the number well neere of 166000. In like manner 24 citties, which affoord 275000 pols, ow service to the court of Bracarum: of whom besides the Bracarians themselves, the Vibali, Celerini, Gallæci, Æquesilici and Quinquerni, may be named without disdaine and contempt. The length of the hither Spain, from Pyrenæus to the bound of Castulo is 607 miles, and the coast therof somewhat more. The breadth from Tarracon to the shore of Alarson, 307 miles. And from the foot of Pyrenæus, where, betweene two seas it is pointed with the streights, and so opening it selfe by little and little from thence, untill it come to touch the farther Spain, it is as much, and addeth somewhat more to the breadth. All Spaine throughout in manner is full of mettall mines, as lead, yron, brasse, silver, and gold: the hither part thereof aboundeth besides with stone glasses, or glasse stones: and Bætica particularly with vermillion. There bee also there quarries of marble. Unto all Spaine throughout, Vespasianus Augustus the Emperour, tossed with the tempests and troubles of the Commonweale, graunted the franchises of Latium. The mountaines Pyrenæi do confine Spaine and Fraunce one from the other, lying out with their promontories into two contrarie seas.


The province Narbonensis.

THAT part of Gallia which is washed and beaten upon with the Mediterranean sea, is called the province Narbonensis, named afore-time Braccata,27 divided from Italie by the river Varus and the Alpes; most friendly mountaines to the Romane Empire: and from the other parts of Gaule, on the northside, by the hils Gebenna and Iura. For tillage of the ground, for reputation of men, regard of civilitie and manners, and for wealth, worthy to be set behind no other provinces whatsoever: and in one word, to be counted Italie more truly than a province. In the edge or marches thereof, lyeth the countrey of the Sardaons; and within, the region of the Consuarones. The rivers be Tecum and Vernodubrum: the townes, Illiberis (a poore relique and simple shew of a citie to that it was in old time) and Ruscio, inhabited by the Latines. The river Atax springing out of Pyrenæus, runneth through the lake Rubrensis and floteth over it. Narbo Martius a Colonie inhabited by the Legionaries of the tenth legion, twelve miles distant from the sea. Rivers, Aratis and Liria. Townes in the other parts, scattering here and there by reason of pooles and meeres lying before them: namely, Agatha, in times past belonging to the Massilians, and the region of Volscæ Tectosages. Also, where Rhoda of the Rhodians was, whereof Rhodanus tooke name, the most fruitfull river by farre of all Gallia, running swiftly out of the alpest through the lake Lemanus, and carrying with it the dead and slow river Araris; and Isara running as fast as it selfe, together with Druentia. The two small mouthes or passages thereof are called Lybica: of which, the one is Hispaniensum, the other Metapinum: a third there is besides, and the same most wide and large, named Massalioticum. There be that write, how the towne Heraclea likewise stood upon the mouth of Rhodanus. Beyond the ditch out of Rhodanus,28 which was the work of C. Marius and bearing his name, there was a notable poole or meere. Moreover, the towne Astromela,29 and the maritime tract of the Avætici: and above it, the stonie plaines carrying the memoriall of Hercules his battailes. The region of the Anatilians, and within-forth, of the Desuviates and Cavians. Aggaine, from the sea; Tricorum, and inward, the region of the Tricollivocantians, Segovellaunes, and anon of the Allobroges: but in the marches, Massilia of Greeke Phocæeans: within the league. The promontorie Citharista, Zaopartus, and the region of the Camatullici.30 After them, the Suelteri; and above them, Verucines. But in the coast along still, Athenopolis under the Massilians, Forum Iulij a Colonie of the ninth legion souldiers, which is also called Parensis and Classica: in it is the river Argenteus: the region of the Oxubij and Ligaunians; above whome, are the Suetri, Quariates, and Adunicates: but in the borders, a Latine towne Antipolis. The region of the Deciates, the river Varus gushing out of an hill of the Alpes, called Acema.31 In the middle part thereof the Colonies, Arelate of the sixth legion souldiers, Bliteræ32 of the seventh, and Arausia of those belonging to the second. In the territorie of the Cavians, Valentia and Vienna, of the Allobroges. Latine towns, Aquæ Sextiæ of the Salyans, and Avenio of the Cavians, Apta Iulia of the Vulgientians, Alebecerriorum of the Apollinares, Alba of the Helvans; Angusta of the Tricostines; Anatilia, Aëria, Bormanni, Comacina, Cabellio, Carcasum, of the Volscane Tectosages: Cessero, Carpentoracte, of the Menines: the Cenicenses, Cambolecti, who are named besides Atlantici, Forom Voconij, Glanum, Livij, Lutevani, who are the same that Foro-neronienses. Nemausum of the Arecomici, Piscenæ, Ruteni, Sanugenses, and Tolosani, of the Tectosages. The neighbour borderers upon Aquitaine, Tasco-dumetari, Canonienses, Umbranici. Two capitall towns of the confederate State of the Vocontians, Vasco and Lucus Augusti. But base townes of no importance nineteene, as 24 more annexed to the Nemausiens, and under their Seignorie. To this charter or Instrument enrolled, Galba the Emperour added of the Alpine inhabitants, the Avantici and Eproduntij; whose towne is named Dima. Agrippa saith, that the length of this province Narbonensis, is 270 miles, and the breadth 248.


Italie, Tiberis, Rome, Campania.

NEXT to them is Italie, and the first of all, the Ligurians: then Hetruria, Umbria, Latium, where be the mouthes of Tiberis and Rome the head citty of the whole earth 16 myles distant from the sea. After it, is the maritime countrey of the Volscians, and Campania: then Picentium, Lucanum, and Brutium, the furthest point in the south, unto which from the crooked mountaines of the Alpes, like in manner to the moone croissant, with some parts higher, other lower, Italie shooteth out in length to the seas: from it, is the sea coast of Græcia, and soone after, the Salentines, Pediculi, Apuli, Peligni, Ferentani, Marrucini, Vestines, Sabines, Picentes, Gaules, Umbrians, Thuscans, Venetians, Carnians, Iapides, Istrians, and Liburnians.

Neither am I ignorant, that it might be thought and that justly, a point of an unthankfull mind and idle withall, if briefly in this sort, and as it were by the way, that land should be spoken of which is the nource of all lands. Shee also is the mother, chosen by the powerfull grace of the gods, to make even heaven it selfe more glorious; to gather into one the scattered empires, to soften and make civile the rude fashions of other countries; and whereas the languages of so many nations were repugnant, wild, and savage, to draw them together by commerce of speech, conference, and parley; to endue man with humanitie; and briefly, that of all nations in the world, there should be one onely countrey. But here, what should I doe? So noble are all the places that a man shall come unto, so exellent is every thing, and each State so famous and renowmed, that I am fully possessed with them all, and to seeke what to say. Rome citie, the onely faire face therein, worthy to stand upon so stately a necke and paire of shoulders, what worke would it aske thinke you, to be set out as it ought? The very tract of Campaine by it selfe, so pleasant and goodly, so rich and happy, in what sort should it be described? So as it is plaine and evident, that in this one place there is the workmanship of Nature wherein she joyeth and taketh delight. Now besides all this, the whole temperature of the aire, is evermore so vitall, healthie, and holesome, the fields so fertile, the hills so open to the sunne, the forrests so harmelesse, the groves so coole and shadie, the woods of all sorts so bounteous and fruitfull, the mountaines yeelding so many breathing blasts of wind; the corn, the vines, the olives so plentifull; the sheep so enriched with fleeces of the best wooll, the bulls and oxen so fat and well fed in the necke; so many lakes and pooles, such store of rivers and springs watering it throughout; so many seas and havens, that it is the very bosome lying open and ready to receive the commerce of all lands from all parts: and yet it selfe full willingly desireth to lye farre into the sea to helpe all mankind. Neither doe I speake now of the natures, wits, and fashions of men; ne yet of the nations abroad subdued with their eloquent tongue, and strong hand. Even the Greekes (a nation of all other most given to praise themselves beyond all measure) have given their judgement of her, in that they called some small part thereof, Great Greece. But in good faith, that which wee did in the mention of the heaven, namely, to touch some knowne Planets and a few starres, the same must we likewise doe in this one part: only I would pray the readers to remember and carry this away, That I hasten to rehearse every particular thing through the whole round globe of the earth.

Well then, to begin, Italy is fashioned like for all the world to an Oke leafe, and much larger in length than breadth: to the left side bending with the top, and ending with the figure and fashion of an Amazonian shield: and where that tract of Calabria lyeth which is called Cocinthos, it putteth foorth into those two promontories or capes like the moones two hornes; the one, Leucopetra on the right hand; the other, Lacinium on the left. In length it reacheth from the foot of the Alpes, through Ostia or Prætoria Augusta, directly tot he citie of Rome, and so forward to Capua, with a direct course leading to Rhegium a towne situate upon the shoulder thereof: from which beginneth the bending as it were of the necke, and beareth 1000 and 20 myles. And this measure would growe to be farre more, if it went as farre as Lacinium, but that such an obliquitie and winding might seeme to decline and beare out too much unto one side. The breadth thereof is diversly taken, namely, 410 miles betweene the two seas, the higher and the lower, and the rivers Vrus and Arsia. The middes of which breadth, (and that is much about the citie of Rome) from the mouth of the river Artemus running into the Adriaticke sea, unto the mouthes of Tiberis, 136 miles, and somewhat lesse: from Novum Castrum by the Adriaticke sea, to Alsium and so to the Tuscane sea: and in no place exceedeth it in breadth 300 miles. But the full compasse of the whole from Varus to Arsia, is 20049 miles. Distant it is by sea from the lands about, to wit, from Istria and Liburnia in some places 100 miles; from Epirus and Illyricum 50 miles; from Africke lesse than 200, as Varro affirmeth; from Sardinia, an hundred and 20 miles; from Sicilie, a mile and a halfe: from Cocyra lesse than 70; from Issa, fiftie. It goeth along the seas, to the Meridionall line verily of the heaven; but if a man examine it exactly indeed, it lyeth betweene the Sunne rising in mid-winter, and the point of the Noone-steed.33

Now will we describe the compasse and circuit thereof, and reckon the cities: wherein, I must needs protest by way of Preface, that I will follow for mine Authour Augustus the Emperour of famous memorie, and the description by him made of all Italie, which be devided into 11 Regions or Cantons. As for the maritime townes, I will set them downe in that order as they stand, according to their vicinitie one to another. But for as much as in so running a speech and hastie pen,34 the rest cannot possibly be so orderly described: therefore in the inland part therof, I will follow him as he hath digested them by the letters of the Alphabet: but mentioning withall, the colonies or chiefe cities by name, which he hath delivered in that number. Neither is it an easie matter to know throughly their positions and foundations, considering that the Ingaune Ligurians (to say nothing of all the rest) were endowed with lands thirtie times, and chaunged their seates. To begin with the river Varus therefore, there offereth to our eye, first the towne Nicæa, built by the Massilians: the river Po;35 the Alpes; the people within the Alpes of many names, but of most marke Capillati, with long haire: the towne Vediantiorum, the cittie Cemelion, or, a towne belonging to the State of the Vediantians, called Cemelion:36 the port of Hercules and Monoecus,37 and so the Ligurian coast. Of the Ligurians, the most renowmed beyond the Alpes, are the Sallij, Deceates, and Oxubij: on this side, the Veneni, and descended from the Caturiges, the Vagienni, Statyelli, Vibelli, Magelli, Euburiates, Casmonates, Veliates, and those, whose townes wee will declare in the next coast. The river Rutuba, the towne Albium Intemelium, the river Merula, the towne Albium Ingaunum, the port or haven towne Vadum Sabatium, the river Porcifera, the towne Genua, the river Feritor, the Port Delphini, Tigulia: within, Segesta Tiguloiorum: the river Macra which limiteth Liguria. Now on the backe side behind all these townes abovenamed, is Apenine, the highest mountain of all Italie, reaching from the Alpes with a continuall ridge of hils, to the streights of Sicilie. From the other side thereof to Padus, the richest river of all Italie, all the countrey shineth with goodly faire townes, to with, Liberna, Dertona a colonie, Iria, Barderates, industria, Pollentia, Carrea, which also is named Polentia, Foro Fulvij the same that Valentinum, Augusta of the Vagienni: Alba Pompeia, Asta, and Aquæ Statyellorum. And this is the ninth Canton, after the Geographie of Augustus. This coast or tract of Liguria containeth between the rivers Varus and Macra 211 miles. To it is adjoined the seventh, wherein is Hetruria from the river Macra: and it ofentimes chaunged the name. In old time the Pelasgians chased the Umbrians from thence: and by them the Lydians did the like, of whose king, named they were Tyrhheni: but soone after, of their ceremonies in sacrificing,38 in the Greekes language Thusci. The first towne of Hetruria, is Luna, famous for the haven; then the Colonie Luca, lying from the sea: and neerer unto it, is Pisæ, betweene the river Auser and Arnus, which tooke the beginning from Pelops and the Pisians, or Atintanians a Greeke nation. Vada Volaterranea, the river Cecinna. Populonium of the Tuscanes in times past, situate onely upon this coast. After these, the rivers Prille, and anone after Umbro, navigable, and of it tooke name; so forward the tract of Umbria, and the port towne Telamon: Coassa Volscientium, a Colonie planted there by the people of Rome, Graviscæ, Castrum Novum; Pyrgi, the river Cæretanus, and Cære it selfe, standing foure miles within, called Agylla by the Pelasgians who built it: Alsium and Frugenæ. The river Tiberis, distant from Macra 284 miles. Within-forth are these Colonies, Falisca descended from Argi (as Cato saith) and for distinction it is called Hetruscorum. Lucus Feroniæ, Russellana, Senensis and Sutriva. As for the rest, these they be, Aretini the old, Areitini Fidentes, Aretini Iulienses, Amitinenses, Aquenses surnamed Taurini: Ulerani, Cortonenses, Capenates, Clusines the old, Clusines the new, Fluentin, fast upon the river Arnus that runneth before them, Fesulæ, Ferentinum, Fescennia, Hortanum, Herbanum, Nepet, Novempagi [i. the nine villages] the Shire-wick called Prefecture Claudia, or Foro Clodij: Pistorucin, Perusia, Suanenses, Saturnini, who beforetime were called Aurinini, Sudertani, Statones, Tarquinienses, Tuscanienses, Vetulonienses, Veientani, Vesentini, Volaterrani surnamed Hetrusci and Volsienienses. In the same part lie the territories Crustuminus and Cæletranus, bearing the names of the oldd townes. Tiberis, beforenamed Tybris, and before that Albula, from the middest well neere of Apennine, as it lieth in length, runneth along the marches of the Aretiens: small and shallow at the first, and not able to beare a vessell without being gathered together, as it were, by fishpooles into an head, and so let goe at sluces: as Tinia and Glanis which run into him, the which are at the same passee, and require nine daies for collection of waters, and so are kept in for running out: in case they have no helpe of raine at all. But Tiberis by reason of the rough, stonie, and rugged channell, for all that devise, holdeth on no long course together, but onely for troughes, to speake more truly, than boats: and thus it doth for a hundred and fiftie miles, not farre from Tisernum, Perusia and Otriculum: dividing as it passeth Hetruria from the Umbrians and Sabines: and so forth untill anon, within thirteene miles of the cittie [Rome] it parteth the Veientian countrey from the Crustumine: and soone after the Fidenate and Latine territories from the Labicane. But besides Tinia and Glanis, hee is augmented with two and fortie rivers, and especially with Nar and Anio: which river being also it selfe navigable, encloseth Latium behind: and neverthelesse so many waters and fountaines are brought thereby into the cittie, whereby it is able to receive any ships, bee they never so great, from the Italian sea; and is the kindest marchant to conveigh all commodities growing and arising in any place of the whole world: it is the onely river of all others, to speake of, and more villages stand upon it and see it, than all other rivers in what lands soever. No river hath lesse libertie than it, as having the sides thereof enclosed on both hands, and yet hee is no quarreeller, nor much harme doth he, albeit he hath many and those suddaine swellings, and in no place more than in the very cittie of Rome doe his waters overflow; yet is he taken to be a prophet rather, and a Counsellor to give warning, yea, and in swelling, more religious and breeding scruple to speake a truth, than otherwise cruell and doing any great harme. Old Latium from Tiberis to Circeios was observed to be in length fiftie miles. So small rootsat the first tooke this Empire. The inhabitants thereof changed often, and held it, some one time, some another; to wit, the Aborigines, Pelasgi, Arcadians, Sicilians, Auruncanes, and Rutilians. And beyond Circeios, the Volscians, Ossigi, Ausonians, from whence the name of Latium did reach soone after, as farre as to the river Liris. In the beginning of it standeth Ostia, a Colonie, brought thither and planted by a Roman king: the towne Laurentum, the grove of Iupiter Indiges, the river Numicius, and Ardea built by Danaë the mother of Perseus. Then the Colonie Antium, sometimes Aphrodisium: Astura, the river and the Island. The river Nymphæus, Clastra Romana Circeij, in times past an Island; yea, and that verily environed with a mightie sea (if we beleeve Homer) but now with a plaine.39 A wonder it is what we are able to deliver, concerning this thing, to the knowledge of men. Theophrastus, who of strangers was the first that writ (anything diligently) somewhat of the Romans (for Theopompus, before whom no man made made mention at all, said onely, That the citie was woon by the Gaules: and Clitarchus next after him, spake of nothing but an embassage sent unto Alexander) this Theophrastus, I say, upon a better ground and more certainetie now than bare hearsay, hath set downe the measure of the Island Circeij to bee eightie Stadia; in that booke which he wrote to Nicodorus the cheefe Magistrate of the Athenians, who lived in the 460 yeer after the foundation of Rome cittie.40 Whatsoever land therefore above tenne miles compasse lieth neere about it, hath beene annexed to the Island.41 But after that, a yeere, another strange and wonderfull thing fell out in Italie: for not far from Circeij, there is a meere called Pomptina, which Mutianus, a man who had beene thrice Consull, reporteth to have beene a place wherein stood 23 citties.42 Then there is the river Ufens,43 upon which standeth the towne Tarracina, called in the Volscian tongue Anxur, and where sometime was the citie Amycle, destroied by serpents. After it is there the place of a cave or peake, the lake Fundanus, and the haven Cajeta. The town Formiæ named also Hormiæ, the auncient seat (as men thought) of the Læstrigones. Beyond it was the towne Pyræ, the Colonie Minturnæ, devided asunder by the river Liris, called Clanius. The utmost frontier towne in this part of Latium laid to the other, is Sinuessa, which as some have said, was wont to be called Sinope. Thence commeth to shew it selfe that pleasant and plentifull countrey Campania. From this vale begin the hils full of vineyards, and famous for drunkennesse, proceeding of strong wine and the liquor of the grape, commended so highly in all countries: and (as they were wont to say in old time) there was the exceeding strife betweene father Liber and dame Ceres. From hence the Setine and Cecubine countries spread forth: and to them joine the Falerne and Calene. Then arise the mountaines, Massici, Gaurani and Surrentine. There the Laborium Champain fields lie along their feet, and the good Wheat harvest to make fine furmentie for dainties at the table.44 The sea-coasts here are watered with hote fountains, and among other commodities throughout all the sea, they beare the name for the rich purple shell fish, and other excellent fishes. In no place is there better or more kind oyle pressed out of the Olive. And in this delightsome pleasure of mankind, the Oscians, Grecians, Umbrians, Tuscanes, and Campanes have striven who could yeeld best. In the skirt and edge thereof, is the river Savo, Vulturnum the towne and river both, Liternum, and Cumo inhabited by Chalcidians, Milsenum, the haven Bajæ, Bauli, the pooles Lucrinus and Avernus, neere unto which was sometime the towne Cimmerium. 45 Then Puteoli, called also the Colonie Dicæarchia: After that, the plaines Phlegræi, and the meere or fenne Acherusia neere to Cumes. And upon the very strond by the sea side Naples, a citie also of the Chalcidians, the same that Parthenope, so called of the tombe of a Sirene or Meeremaid: Herculanium, Pompeij: and where not farre off the mountaine Vesuvius overlooketh, and the river Sernus runneth under the territorie of Nuceria, and within nine miles of the sea, Nuceria it selfe. Surrentum with the promontorie of Minerva, the seat somtime of the Meeremaids. From the cape Circeij lieth the sea open for saile 78 mile. This is counted the first region of Italie, next to Tibris, according to the description of Augustus. Within it are these Colonies, Capua, so called of the Campane country,46 Aquinum; Suessa, Venafrum, Sora, Teanum, named withall Sidicinum and Nola: the Townes bee, Abellinum, Aricia, Alba Longa, Acerrani, Allifani, Atinates, Aletrinates, Anagnini, Atellani, Asulani, Arpinates, Auximates, Avellani, Alfaterni; and they who of the Latine, Hernick, and Labicane territories, are surnamed accordingly: Bovillæ, Calatiæ, Casinum, Calenum, Capitulum, Cernetum, Cementani, who be called also Mariani. Corani descended from Dardanus the Trojane. Cubulterini, Castrimonienses, Cingulani. Fabienses, and in the mount Albane, Foro-populienses. Out of the Falerne territorie, Frusinates, Ferentinates, Freginates, Fabraterni the old, Fabraterni the new, Ficolenses, Fricolenses,47 Foro-Appi, Forentani, Gabini, Interramnates, Succasani called also Lirinates, Ilionenses, Lavinij, Norbani, Nementani. Prenestini, whose cittie was in times past named Stephanus, Privernates, Setini, Signini, Suessulani, Telini, Trebutini surnamed Balinienses, Trebani, Tusculani. Verulani, Veliterni, Ulubrenses, Ulvernates:48 and above also Rome her selfe, the * other name wherof to utter, is counted in the secret mysteries of ceremonies an impious & unlawfull thing: which after that it was abolished, and so faithfully observed to right good purpose and for the safetie therof, Valerius Soranus blurted out, & soon after abid the smart for it. I thinke it not amisse nor impertinent, to insert here in this very place, an example of the auncient religion instituted especially for this Silence: for the goddesse Angerona, whose holiday is solemnly kept with sacrifices the 12 day before the Kalends of Ianuarie, is represented by an Image having her mouth fast tyed and sealed up. This citie of Rome had 3 gates when Romulus left it, or rather foure (if we beleeve the most men that write thereof.) The walls thereof, when the two Vespasians, Emperors and Censors both, to wit, the father and Titus his son, tooke the measure, which was in the yeere after the foundation of it 828, were in circuit ** 13 miles and almost a quarter. It containeth within it, seven mountaines, and is divided in 14 regions, and 265 crosse streets or carrefours, called Compita Larium. The measure of the same equall space of ground, running from the golden pillar Milliarium, erected at the head or top of the Rom. Forum, to everie gate, which are at this day 37 in number, so yee reckon once the 12 gates alwayes open, and over-passe 7 of the old, which are no more extant, maketh 30 miles 3 quarters and better by a straight line: but if the measure be taken from the same Milliarium before-said, through the suburbs to the utmost ends of the houses, and take withall the Castra Prætoria, and the pourprise of all the streets, it commeth to somewhat above 70 miles: whereunto if a man put the heigth of the housen, hee may conceive verily by it, a worthy estimate of the excellencie thereof, and confesse that the statelinesse of no citie in the world, could be comparable unto it. Enclosed it is and fenced on the East side, with the banke or rampier of Tarquinius the Proud; a wonderfull peece of worke as any other, and as excellent as the best: for he raised it full as high as the walles, in that side where the advenue to it was most open and plaine. In other parts, defended it was and fortified with exceeding high walles, or else steepe and craggie hills, but only whereas there are buildings lye out abroad, and make as it were many petie cities. In that first region of Italie there were besides, first for Latium these faire townes of marke, Satricum, Pometia, Scaptia, Pitulum, Politorium, Tellene, Tisara, Cæmina, Ficana, Crustumerium, Ameriola, Medullia, Corniculum, Saturnia, where now Rome standeth. Antipolis, which now is Ianiculum, in one part of Rome: Antemnæ, Camerium, Collatiæ: Amiternum, Norbe, Sulnio: and with these, the States that were wont to receive a dole of flesh in mount Albane, to wit, Albenses, Albani, Aesolani, Acienses, Abolani, Bubetani, Bolani, Casuetani, Coriolani, Fidenates, Forteij, Hortenses, Latinenses, Longulani, Manates, Marales, Mutucumenses, Munienses, Numinienses, Olliculani, Oculani, Pedani, Pollustini, Querquetulani, Sicani, Sisolenses, Tolerienses, Tutienses, Vimitellarij, Velienses, Venetulani, Vicellenses. Thus yee see, how of the old Latium, there be 53 States perished and cleane gone, without any token left behind. Moreover, in the Campaine countrey, the towne Stabiæ continued unto the time that Cn. Pompeius and L. Carbo were Consuls,49 even untill the last day of Aprill; upon which day, L. Sylla a lieutenant in the Allies warre, destroyed it utterly: which now at this day is turned into graunges and ferme-houses. There is decaied also there and come to finall ruine, Taurania. There be also some little relikes left of Casilinum, lying at the point of the last gaspe. Moreover Antias writeth, that Apiolæ a towne of the Latines, was woon by L. Tarquinius the king, with the pillage whereof he began to found the Capitoll. From Surrentum, to the river Silarus, the Picentine countrey lay for the space of 30 miles, renowmed for the Tuscanes goodly temple built by Iason in the honor of Iuno Argiva. Within it, stood the townes Salernum, and Picentia. At Silarus, the third region of Italy, beginneth together with the Lucane and Brutian countries: and there also the inhabitants chaunged not a few times. For held and possessed it was by the Pelasgi, Oenotri, Italy, Morgetes, Sicilians, people all for the most part of great Greece: and last of all by the Lucanes descended from the Samnites, who had to their leader and governour, Lucius. In which, standeth the towne Pæstum, called by the Greekes Posidonia: the Firth or creeke Paestanus, the towne Helia, now Velia. The promontorie Palinurum, from which creeke reetired within-forth, there is a direct cut by water to the columne Rhegia,50 100 miles over. Next unto this, the river Melphes51 runneth: also there, standeth the towne Buxentum, in Greeke Pyxus, and hard by is the river Laus: a towne there was likewise of the same name. And from thence beginneth the sea-coast of Brutium, where is to be seene the towne Blanda, the river Batum, the haven Parthenius belonging to the Phocæans: the Firth Vibonensis, the grove Campetia, the towne Temsa, called of the Greekes Temese: and Terina held by the Crotonians, and the mightie arme of the sea, called the gulfe Terinæus: the towne Consentia. Within-forth in a demie yland, the river Acheron, whereof the townes-men are called Acherontium. Hippo, which now we call Vibovalentia; the Port of Hercules, the river Metaurua, the towne Taurentum, the haven of Orestes, and Medua:52 the towne Scylleum, the river Cratais, mother (as they say) to Scylla. Then after it, the columne Rhegia: the Sicilian streights or narrow seas, and two capes one over-against the other; namely, Cænis from Italie side, and Pelorum from Sicilie, having a mile and a halfe betweene them from whence to Rhegium is 12 miles and a halfe: and so forward to a wood in the Apennine, called Sila; and the promontorie or cliffe called Leucoptera, 12 myles off. From which, Locri (carrying the name also of the promontorie Zephyrium) is from Silarus distant 303 miles. Here is determined the first gulfe of Europe, wherein be named these seas. First, Atlanticum (from which the Ocean sea breaketh in) called of some Magnum: the passage whereat it entreth, is of the Greekes called Porthmost; of us, Fretum Gaditanum, i. [The streights of Gebraltar] when it is once entred the Spanish sea, so farre as it beateth upon the coasts of Spaine: Of others, Ibericum, or Balearicum: and anon it taken the name of Gallicum, or the French sea, right before the province Narbonensis: and after that, Ligusticum: from whence all the way to the Iland Sicilie, it is called Tuscum; which some of the Græcians tearme Notium, others Tyrrhenum, but most of our countreyment Inferum, i. [The nether sea.] Beyond Sicilie as farre as to the Salentines, Polybius calleth it Ausonium: but Eratosthenes nameth all the sea Sardonum, that is betweene the mouth of the Ocean and Sardinia: and from thence to Sicilie, Tyrrhenum: and from it as farre as to Creta, Siculum: from which it is hight Creticum. The Ilands discovered along these seas, were these: The first of all, those which the Greekes named Pityüsæ, of the Pine shrub or plant;53 but now, Ebusus: they are both a State confedererate, and a narrow arme of the sea runneth betweene them: they are 42 miles over. From Dianeüm, they lye 70 stadia: and so many are there, betweene Dianeum and Carthage, by the main land: and as much distance from Pityusæ into the maine Ocean, lye the two Baleare Ilands; and toward Sucro, Colubraria. These Baleares in their warre-service use much the Sling; and the Greeks name them Gymnesiæ. The bigger of them is an hundred miles in length, and in circuit 380. Townes it hath of Romane citizens, Palma and Pollentia: of latines, Cinium and Cunici: as for Bochri, it was a towne confederate.54 From it, the lesser is thirtie miles off, taking in length 60 miles, and in compasse 150. Cities in it, be Iamno, Sanisera, and Mago. From the bigger 12 miles into the sea, lieth the Ile Capraria, which lieth in wait for all shipwracke: and over-against the citie Palma, Menariæ, and Tiquadra, and little Annibalis. The soile of Ebusus chaseth serpents away, but that of Colubraria, breedeth them: and therefore dangerous it is for all that come into it, unlese they bring with them some of the Ebusian earth. The Greekes call this Iland, Ophiusa. Neither doth Ebusus breed any Conies; which are so common in the Baleares, that they eate up their corne.55 There be as it were 20 more little ones among the shelves of the sea. Now in the maritime coast of Gallia in the very mouth of Rhodanus, there is Metina; and soone after, that which is calle Blascon; and the three Stœchades, called so of their neighbours the Massilians, for the order and ranke wherein they stand; and they give them every one a severall name, to wit Prote, Mese (which also is called Pomponiana) and the third, Hypea. After them, are Sturium, Phœnice, Phila, Lera, & Lerina over-against Antipolis; wherein also is a token or memoriall of the town Vergaonum.56


Of Corsica.

IN the Ligurian sea, is Corsica the yland, which the Greekes called Cyrnos, but nearer it is to the Tuscane sea: it lyeth out from the North into the South, and containeth in length an hundred and fiftie miles: in breadth for the more part it beareth fiftie: in circuit 322: distant it is from the Washes or Downes of Volaterræ 62 miles. Cities it hath 35: and these colonies, to wit, Mariana, planted there by C. Marius: Aleria, by Dictatour Sylla. On this side of it, is Oglasa; but within 60 miles of Corsica, there is Planaria, so called of the forme thereof, so flat it is and levell with the sea; and therefore deceiveth many a ship that runneth aground upon it. Bigger than it are Urgo and Capraria, which the Greekes called Ægilos. In like manner Ægilium and Dianium, the same that Artemisia, both lying over-against the coast Cosanum. Other small ones also, as Mænaria, Columbrarie, Venaria, Ilua, with the yron mines, in circuit a hundred miles (ten miles from Populonia) called of the Greekes, Æthalia: from it is Planasia 39 miles off. After them, beyond the mouthes of Tybre in the Antian creeke, is Astura, and anon Palmaria, Sinonia, and just against Formiæ, Pontiæ. But in the Puteolane gulfe, Pantadaria and Prochyta, so called, not of Aeneas his nource, but because it was broken off by the gushing of betweene of the sea from Ænaria.57 Ænaria it selfe took that name of Æneas his ships that lay in rode there,58 called by Homer Inarime, of the Greekes Pithecusa, not for the number of Alps there, as some have thought, but of the work houses and furnaces of potters that made earthen vessels, as tunnes and such like, to furnish Italie with.59 Betweene Pansilypus and Naples, Megaris; and soone after, eight miles from Surrentum, Capreæ, renowmed for the castle there of prince Tyberius; and it beareth in compasse foure hundred miles. Anon you shall see Leucothea: but without your kenning, lyeth Sardinia fast upon the Africke sea, but lesse than nine miles from the coast of Corsica: and still those streights are mde more narrow by reason of small ylands, named Cuniculariæ. Likewise Phintonis and Fossæ, whereof the very se it selfe is named Taphros.


Of Sardinia.

SARDINIA on the East side beareth 188 miles, on the West 170, Southward 74, and Northward 122; so that in all, it taketh up the compasse of 560 miles. It is from the Cape of Carales to Africke 200 miles: from Gades it is distant 14 hundred miles. It hath two ylands on that side where the promontorie Gorditanum standeth, which be called Hercules ylands: of Sulsenses cape side, Enosis; of Caralitanum, Ficaria. Some set not farre from it the ylands Belerides, and Collodes: and another which they call Heras Lutra, i. Iunoes layer, or Hieraca. The States of greatest name therein, be the Ilienses, Balari, and Corsi: and of the foure townes, the chiefe are inhabited by the Sulcitanes, Valentines, Neapolitanes, Bosenses, and Caralitani who are Romane enfranchised citizens, and Norenses. One colonie there is in it and no more, which is called, Ad Turrim Libysonis. This yland Sardinia, Timæus called (of the fashion of a shoe or slipper) Sandaliotis: but Myrsylus, for the resemblance of a footes step, Ichnusa. Over-against the creeke Pæstanum, there is Leucasia, called so of a Meremaid or Sirene there buried. Against Vestia, there lye Pontia and Issia,, both joyntly called by one name Oenotides; a good presumption and argument that Italie was possessed by the Oenotrians. And against Vibo, other little ones, called Ithacesiæ, the watch townes of Ulysses.


Of Sicilie.

BUT Sicilie excelleth all other of these Ilands, named by Thucydides Sicania; by many, trinacria, or Triquetra of the triangle forme. It is in circuit (as Agrippa saith) 198 miles. I time past it grewe to the Brutians contrey, but soone after by the gushing of the sea between, it was plucked from it, and left a Firth of 12 miles in length, and one and a halfe in bredth, neere unto the columne Rhegium. Upon this occasion of opening and cleaving in twaine, the Greekes gave name to the towne Rhegium,60 situate in the edge of Italie. In this narrow sea there is a rocke called Scylla, and likewise another named Charybdis: the sea is full of whirle-pits, and both those rockes are notorious for their rage and mischiefe. The utmost Cape or fore-land of this Iland Triquetra (as we have said) is called Pilorus, bending against Scylla toward Italie. As for Pachynum, it lyeth toward Græcia, and from it is Peloponnesus distant 144 miles. Lilibæum butteth upon Affricke, and between it and the cap of Mercurie there be 180 miles: and from the said Lilybæum to the Cape of Caraleis in Sardinia 120. Now these points and promontories lye asunder one from the other in this distance. By land from Pelorus to Pachynum, 166 miles: from thence to Lilybæum 200 miles: so forward to Pelorum 170. In it, of colonies, townes, and cities, there be 72. From Pelorum side, which looketh toward the Ionian sea, ye have the towne Messana, inhabited by enfranchised Romane citizens, and they be called Mamertini. Also the cape Drepanum, the colonie Taurominium, called before-time Naxos; the river Asines, the mountaine Ætna, miraculous for the fires there in the night season; the hole or open chinke in the top of it is in compasse two miles and a halfe; the imbers and sparkling ashes thereof, flie hot as farre as to Taurominium and Catana: but the cracking noise thereof may be heard as farre as to Maron, and the hilles Gemellis. In this Iland there be also the three rockes of the Cyclopes, the port of Ulysses, the colonie Catanæ, the rivers Symethum and Terias: within the Ile by the plaines and champian fields, Læstrigonij. The towns are these, Leontini, and Megaris: and in it is the river Pantagies: also the colonie Syracusæ, together with the fountaine Arethusa. Albeit there be other springs also in the territorie of Syracusa, that yeeld water for drinke, to wit, Tementnitis, Archidemia, Magæa, Cyane, and Milichre. Moreover, the haven Naustathmos, the river Elorum, the promontorie Pachynum: and on this front of Sicilie, the river Hirminium, the towne Camarina, the river Helas, and towne Acragas, which our countreymen have named Agrigentum. The colonie Thermæ: rivers, Atys and Hypsa: the towne Selinus: and next to it the cape Lilybæum, Drepana, the hill Eryx. Townes there be, Panhormum, Solus, Hymetta with the river, Cephalœdis, Aluntium, Agathirium, Tyndaris a colonie, the towne Mylæ, and whence we began Pelorus. Within-forth, of Latine condition and burgeoisie, the Centuripines, Netines, and Segestines. Tributaries, Assarines, Ætenses, Agyrines, Acestæi, and Actenses: Bidini, Citarij, Caciritani, Drepanitani, Ergetini, Ecestienses, Erycini, Eutellini, Etini, Euguini, Gelani, Galatani, Halesines, Ennenses, Hyblenses, Herbitenses, Herbessenses, Hebulonses, Halicyenses, hadranitani, Imacarenses, Ichanenses, Ietenses, Mutustratini, Magellini, Murgentini, Mutyenses, Menanini, Naxij, Noœni, Pelni, Paropini, Phinthienses, Semellitani, Scherrini, Selinuntij, Symætij, Talarenses, tissinenses, Triocalini, Tiracienses, Zanchæi belonging to the Messenians in the streights of Sicilie. Ilands there be bending to Africke, Gaulos, Melita, from Camerina 84 miles, and from Lilybæum 113: Cosyra, Hieronesus, Cæne, Galata, Lopadusa, Æthusa, which others have written Ægusa, Bucina, and 75 myles from Solus, Osteodes: and against the Paropini, Ustica. But on this side Sicilie over-against the river Metaurus, 12 miles well-neare from Italie, 7 others called Æoliæ. These very same Ilands belonged sometimes to the Lipar'ans, and of the Greeks were called Hephæstiades, and of our men Vulcaniæ, likewise Æoliæ, because Aeolus reigned there in the time that Ilium flourished, and about the Trojan war.


Of Lipara.

LIPARA with a towne of Romane citizens, called so of king Liparus, who succeeded Aeolus, but before-time Melogonis or Meligunis, is 12 myles from Italie, and is it selfe somewhat less in circuit. Betweene this and Sicilie there is another, sometimes named Therasia, now Hiera, because it is consecrated to Vulcan, wherein there is a little hill that belcheth and casteth up flames of fire in the night. A third there is also, named Strongyle, a mile from Lipara, lying toward the sunne-rising (wherein Aeolus reigned) and differeth from Lipara onely in this, that it sendeth foorth more cleere flames of fire: by the smoke thereof, the people of that countrey will tell (by report) three dayes before-hand what winds will blow: whereupon it is commonly thought, that the winds were obedient to Aeolus. A fourth there is besides, named Didyme, lesse than Lipara: and a fift, Eticusa: a sixt, Phœnicusa, left to feed the rest that are next to it: the last and least is Euonymus. And thus much concerning the first gulfe that divideth Europe.


Of Locri, the frontier towne of Italie.

AT Locres beginneth the front of forepart of Italie, called Magna Græcia, retiring it selfe into three creekes of the Ausonian sea, because the Ausones first inhabited thereby. It extendeth 82 miles, as Varro testifieth. But the greater number of writers have made but 72.61 In that coast there bee rivers without number. But those things which are worth the writing of neere unto Locres, be these, Sagra the river, and the reliques of the towne Caulon: Mystia, the castle Consilium, Cerinthus,62 which some think to be the utmost promontorie of Italie, bearing farthest into the sea. Then followeth the creeke or gulfe Scylacensu, and that which was called by the Athenians when they built it, Scylletium.63 Which place, another creeke Terinæus, meeting with, maketh a demie Island: in which, there is a port towne called Castra Annibilis: and in no place is Italie narrower, being but twentie mile broad. And therefore Dionisius the elder would have there cut it off quite from the rest, and laid it to Sicilie.64 Rivers navigable there be these, Cæcinos, Crotalus, Semirus, Arocha, Targines. Within-forth is the towne Petilia, the moutaine Alibanus,65 and promontorie Lacinium: before the coast whereof there is an Island tenne miles from the land, called Dioscoron, and another Calypsus, which Homer is supposed to have called Ogygia. Moreover, Tyris, Eranusa, Meloessa. And this is seventie miles from Caulon, as Agrippa hath recorded.


The second Sea of Europe.

FROM the promontorie Lacinium beginneth the second sea of Europe: it taketh a great winding and compasse with it, and endeth at Acroceraunium, a promontorie of Epirus, from which is is seventie miles distant. In which, there sheweth it selfe the towne Croto, and the river Næathus. The towne Thurium betweene the two rivers, Arathis and Sybaris, where there was a towne of the same name. Likewise, between Siris and Aciris there standeth Heraclea, sometime called Siris. Rivers, Acalandrum, Masuentum: the towne Metapontum, in which the third region of Italie taketh an end. The Inlanders be of the Brutians, the Aprustanes only: but of Lucanes, Thoatinates, Bantines, Eburines, Grumentines, Potentines, Sontines, Sirines, Sergilanes, Ursentines, Volcentanes, unto whom the Numestranes are joined. Besides all these, Cato writeth, That Thebes of the Lucanes, is cleane destroied and gone. And Theopompus saith, That Pandosia was a cittie of the Lucanes, wherein Alexander king of the Epirotes, was slaine. Knit hereunto is the second region or tract of Italie, containing within it the Hirpines, Calabria, Apulia, and the Salentines within a arme of the sea, in compasse 250 miles, which is called Tarentinus of a towne of the Laconians, situate in the inmost nouke or creeke hereof: and to it was annexed and lay the maritime colonie which there was. And distant i tis from the promontorie Lacinium 136 miles, putting forth Calabria like a demie Island against it. The Greekes called it Messapia of their captaines name, and beforetime, Peucetia, of Peucetius, the brother of Oenotrus. In the Salentine countrey betweene the two promontories, there is a hundred miles distance. The bredth of this demie Island, to wit, from Tarentum to Brindis (if you goe by land) is two and thirtie miles, but farre shorter if you saile from the Haven or Bay Sasina. The townes in the Continent from Tarentum, bee Varia, surnamed Apula, Cessapia and Aletium.66 But in the coast of the Senones, Gallipolis, now Auxa, 62 miles from Tarentum. Two and thirtie miles off is the promontorie which they call Acra Iapygia, and here Italie runneth farthest into the sea. Then is there the towne Basta, and Hydruntum in the space of nineteene miles, to make a partition betweene the Ionian and the Adriaticke seas, through which is the shortest cut into Greece overagainst the towne Apollonia, where the narrow sea running betweene, is not above fiftie miles over. This space betweene, Pyrrhus king of Epirus, was the first, that intending to have a passage over on foot, thought to make bridges there: after him M. Varro, at what time as in the Pyrates warre he was Admirall of Pompeies fleet. But both of them were let and stopped with one care or other besides. Next to Hydrus, there is Soletum, a cittie not inhabited: then, Fratuertium: the haven Tarentinus, the garison towne Lupia, Balesium, Cælium, Brundusium fifteene miles from Hydrus, as much renowmed as any towne of Italie for the haven, for the surer sailing, although it be the longer, and the cittie of Illyricum Dyrrhagium is readie to receive the ships: the passage over is 220 miles. Upon Brundusium bordereth the territorie of the Pædiculi. Nine young men there were of them, and as many maids, descended from the Illyrians, who begat betweene them thirteene nations. The townes of these Pædiculi, be Rhudia, Egnatia, Barion, beforetime Iapyx of Dedalus his sonne, who also gave the name to Iapygia. Rivers, Pactius and Aufidus issuing out of the Hirpine mountaines, and running by Canusium. Then followeth Apulia of the Daunians, surnamed so of their leader, father in law to Diomedes. In which is the towne Salapia, famous for the love of an harlot that Anniball cast a fancie unto;67 then, Sipontum and Uria: also the river Cerbalus, where the Daunians take their end: the port Agasus, the cape of the mountaine Garganus, from Salentine or Iapygium 234 miles, fetching a cmpasse about Garganus: the haven Garnæ, the lake Pantanus. The river Frento, full of Baies and havens, and Teanum of the Apulians. In like manner also, Larinum, Aliternia, and the river Tisernus. The commeth in the region Frentana. So there be three kinds of nations, Teani, of their leader, from the Greekes: the Lucanes subdued by Calchas, which quarters now the Atinates hold and occupie. Colonies of the Daunians besides the abovenamed, Luceria and Venusia: townes, Canusium, Arpi, sometime Argo Hippium, builded by Diomedes, but soone after called Argyrippa. There Diomedes vanquished and destroied the whole generation of the Monadians and Dardians, together with two citties, which grew to a merry jeast by way of a by-word, Apina and Trica.68 The rest be more inward in the second region, to wit, one Colonie of the Hirpies called Beneventum, chaunged into a more luckie name, whereas in times past it was cleaped Maleventum:69 the Æsculanes, Aquilonians, and Abellinates, surnamed Protropi: the Campsanes, Caudines, and Ligurians surnamed Cornelians: as also Bebianes, Vescellanes, Deculanes, and Aletrines: Abellinates surnamed Marsi, the Atranes, Æcanes, Aseilanes, Attinates, & Arpanes: the Borcanes, the Collatines, Corinenses: and famous for the overthrow of the Romanes there, the Cannians: the Dirines, the Forentanes, the Genusines, the Hardonians and Hyrines: the Larinats surnamed Frentanes, the Metinates, and out of Garganus the Mateolanes, the Neritines, and Natines, the Rubustines, the Sylvines & Strapellines, the Turmentines, the Vibinates, Venusines, and Ulurtines. Now the In-landers of the Calabrians, the Ægirines, Apanestines and Argentines. The Butuntines and Brumbestines, the Decians, the Norbanes, the Palions, Sturmines, and Tutines. Also of Salentine midlanders, the Aletines, Basterbines, Neretines, Valentines, and Veretines.


The fourth Canton or region of Italie.

NOW followeth the fourth region, even of the most hardie and valiant nations of all Italie. In the coast of the Frentanes, next to Tisernus, is the river Tirinium, full of good havens and harbours. The townes there, be Histonium, Buca, and Ortona, with the river Aternus. More within the countrey, are the Anxanes surnamed Frentanes: the Carentines, both higher and lower, the Lanuenses: of Marrucines, the Teatines: of Pelignians, the Corsinienses, Super-Æquani and Sulmonenses: of Marisans, the Anxantines and Atinates, the Fucentes, Lucentes, and Maruvij; of Albenses, Alba upon the lake Fucinus: of Æquiculanes, the Cliternines and Carseolanes: of Vestines, the Augulanes, Pinnenses, Pelevinates, unto whom are joined the Ausinates on this side the mountaines: of Samnites, whom the Greekes called Sabellians and Saunites, the Colonie Bovianum, the old; and another surnamed Undecumanorum, namely, inhabited by those of the eleventh legion: the Aufidenates, Esernines, Fagisulani, Ficolenses, Sepinates, Treventinates: of Sabines, the Amiternines, Curenses, Forum Decij, Forum-Novum, the Findenates, Interamnates, Nursines, Nomentanes, Reatines, Trebulanes, who are surnamed Mutuscæi, as also Suffenates, the Tiburtes, and Tarinates. In this quarter of the Æquiculæ, there be perished and gone the Comines, Tadianes, Acediles, and Alfaterni. Gellianus writeth, That Accipe, a towne of the Marsians, built by Marsyas a captaine of the Lydians, was drowned and swallowed up by the Lake Fucinus. Also Valerianus reporteth, that a towne of the Vidicines in Picenum, was utterly destroied by the Romanes. The Sabines, as have some have thought, were for their religion and devout worshipping of the Gods called Sevini:70 they dwell hard by the Veline Lakes upon moist and dewie hills. The river Nar draineth them drie with his hote waters of brimstone.71 Which river running from thence toward Tiberis, filleth it: and gliding from the hill Fiscellus, neer unto the groves of Vacuna and Reate, is hidden in the same. But from another side, the river Anio, beginning in the mountaine of the Trebanes, bringeth with it into Tiberis three Lakes of great name, for their delectable pleasantnesse, which gave the name to Sublaquensu. In the Reatine territorie there is the Lake Cutiliæ, wherein there floteth an Island: and this Lake M. Varro saith, is the very middest and centre of Italie. Beneath the Sabines, lieth Latium; on the side, Picenum; behind, Umbria; and the hils of the Apennine on either hand, doe enclose as with a rampier, the Sabines.


The fift region.

THE fifth region is Picene, a nation in times past most populous, 360000 of the Picentes were reduced unto the protection of the people of Rome. They are descended from the Sabines, upon a vow that they made to hold and solemnise a sacred Spring.72 They dwelt by the river Aternus, where now is the territorie Adrianus, and the Colonie Adria, seven miles from the sea. There runneth the river Vomanum and there lieth the Prætutiane and Palmensis territories. Item, Castrum Novum, the river Batinum, Truentum with the river, which is the onely relique of the Liburnians remaining in Italie. More rivers there bee, to wit, Alpulates, Suinum, and Helvinum, at which the Prætutian countrey endeth, and the Picentian beginneth. The town Cupra, a castle of the Firmanes, and above it the Colonie Ascuum, of all Picenum the most renowmed. Within standeth Novana. In the edge or marches without are Cluana, Potentia, and Numana, built by the Sicilians. Next to those is the Colonie Ancona, with the Promontorie Cumerum lying hard unto it, in the very elbow of the edge thereof as it bendeth, and it is from Garganus 183 miles. Within-forth there do inhabite the Auximates, Beregranes, Cingulanes, Cuprenses surnamed the Mountainers, Falariens, Pausulanes, Pleninenses, Ricinenses, Septempedani, Tollentinates, Triacenses, the cittie Salvia, and the Tollentines.73


The sixt region.

TO these adjoineth the sixt region, comprehending Umbria, and the French pale about Ariminum.74 At Ancona begin the French marches, by the name of Togata Gallia. The Sicilians and Liburnians possessed most parts of that tract, and principally the territories, Palmensis, Prætutianus, and Adrianus. Them, the Umbrians expelled: these againe Hetruria drave out: and last of all, the Gaules disseised it. The people of Umbria are supposed, of all Italie to bee of greatest antiquitie, as whom men thinke to have beene of the Greekes named Ombri, for that in the generall deluge of the countrey by raine, they onely remained alive.75 The Tuscanes are knowne to have by warre forced and woon three hundred townes of theirs. At this day in the frontier of it, there are the river Æsus, and Senogallia: the river Metaurus, and the Colonie Fanum Fortunæ. Pisaurum also with the river. In the parts within, Hispellum and Tuder. In the rest, the Amerines, Attidiates, Asirinates, Arnates, and Æsinates. Camertes, Casventillanes, and Carsulanes, Dolates, surnamed Salentines, Fulginates, Foro-flaminienses, Foro Iulienses, named also Concubienses, Foro-bremitiani, Foro-Semponienses, Iguini, Interamnates, surnamed Nartes, Mevanates, Mevanienses, and Matilicates, Narnienses, whose towne beforetime was called Nequinum. Nucerines, surnamed Favonienses and Camelani. The Otriculanes, and Ostranes. The Pitulanes with the addition of Pisuertes, as also others surnamed Mergentines, and the Pelestines, Sentinates, Sarsinates, Spoletines, Suatranes, Sestinates, and Suillates, Tadinates,76 Trebiates, Tuficanes, Tifernates, named withall Tiberines, as also other of them distinguished by the name of Metaurenses. The Vesionicates, the Urbinates, as well they that bee surnamed Metaurenses, as others Hortenses, the Vettonenses, Vindenates, and Visuentanes. In this tract there are extinct the Felignates, and they who possessed Clusiolum above Interamnia: also the Sarranates, withe the townes Acerræ, called besides Vatriæ, and Turecolum, the same that Vettiolum. Semblably the Solinates, Suriates, Fallienates, Apienates. There are gone likewise and cleane lost the Arienates with Crinovolum, also the Usidicanes and Plangenses, the Pisinates and Cælestines. As for Amera above written, Cato hath left in record, that it was built 964 yeeres before the warre against Perseus.77


The eight region.

THE eight region is bounded with Ariminum, Padus, and Apennine. In the borders thereof is the river Crustuminum, the colonie Ariminum, with the rivers Ariminum and Aprusa. Then the river Rubico, the utmost limit sometime of Italie. After it, Sapis the river, Vitis and Anemo, Ravenna a towne of the Sabines with the river Bedeses, 102 miles from Ancona. And not farre from the Umbrians sea, Butrium. Within-forth are these Colonies, Bononie usually called Felsina, when it was the head cittie of Hetruria, Brixillum, Mutina, Parma, Placentia. Townes, Cæsena, Claterna, Forum-Clodij, Livij and Popilij, pertaining to the Truentines: also [Forum] the Cornelij, Laccini, Faventini, Fidentini, Otesini, Pdinates, Regienses a Lepido, Solonates: also the forrests Galliani surnamed Aquinates, Tanetani, Veliates surnamed Vecteri, Regiates and Umbranates. In this tract the Boij are consumed, who had 112 tribes or kinreds, as Cato maketh report. Likewise the Senones, they that tooke Rome.


Of the river Padus.

PADUS issuing out of the bosome of the mountaine Vesulus, bearing up his head aloft into a mightie height, runneth from a marvailous spring worth the seeing, in the marches of the Ligurian Vagienni; and hiding it selfe within a narrow trench, as it were, under the ground, and rising up againe in the territorie of the Forovibians, is inferiour to no other rivers for excellencie. Of the Greekes, called it was Eridanus, and is much spoken of and well knowne, for the punishment of Phaëton. It swelleth about the rising of the Dog-starre, by reason that the snow is then thawed: more unruly and rough unto the fields thereby, than to the vessels upon it: howbeit, nothing stealeth it and carryeth away as his owne, but when hee hath left the fields, his bountie is more seene by the plenty and fruitfulnesse: from his head, hee holdeth on his course 90 miles wanting twaine, above three hundred. In which passage of his, he taketh in unto him, not onely the navigable rivers of the Apennine and the Alps, but huge maine lakes also that discharge themselves into him: so as in all he carryeth with him into the Adriaticke sea, to the number of 30 rivers. The chiefe and most notorious of all them, are these, sent out of the side of Apennine; Tanarus, Trebia, Placentine, Tarus, Nicia, Gabellus, Scultenna, Rhenus. But running out of the Alpes, Stura, Mogus, Duriæ twaine, Sessites, Ticinus, Lambrus, Addua, Olius, and Mincius. And there is not a river againe, that in so little a way, groweth to a greater streame: for over-charged it is and troubled with the quantitie of water, and therefore worketh it selfe a deepe channell, heavie and hurtfull to the earth under it, although it be derived and drawne into the other rivers and goles, betweene Ravenna and Altinum, for 120 miles: yet because he belcheth and casteth them out from him in so great abundance, he is said to make seven seas. Drawne he is to Ravenna by a narrow channell, where is called Badusa, and in times past Messanicus. But the next mouth that he maketh, carryeth the bignesse of an haven, which is named Vatreni: at which Claudius Cæsar as hee came triumphant out of Britaine, entred into Adria, with that huge vessell, more like a mighty great house than a ship. This mouth of it was beforetime called Eridanum: of others, Spineticum of the citie Spinæ neere-by, built by Diomedes (as some thinke) with the treasures of Delphi.78 There the river Vatrenus from out of the territory of Forum Cornelij, encreaseth Padus. The next mouth that it hath, is Caprasiæ, then Sagis, and so forth Volane, which before-time was named Olane. All those rivers and trenches afore-said, the Tuscanes began to make first out of Sagis, carrying the forcible streame of the river acrosse into the Atrian meeres, which are called the seven seas, and made the famous haven of Atria a towne of the Tuscanes; of which the Adriaticke sea tooke the name afore time, which now is called Adriaticum.79 From thence are the full mouthes there of Carbonaria and the Fosses Phylistinæ, which others call Tartarus, but all spring out of the overflowing of the Fosse Physlistina, holpen with Athesis comming out of the Tridentine Alpes, and Togisonus out of the territorie of the Padovans. Part of them made also the next port Brundulum: like as the two Medoaci and the Fosse Clodia, make Edron.80 With these Padus mingleth it selfe, and by these he runneth over, and as it is said by most Writers, like as in Ægypt Nilus maketh that which they call Δelta, so it shapeth a triangle figure betweene the Alpes and the sea coast, two miles in compasse. A shame it is to runne to the Greekes for to borrow of them the Etymologie and reason of any things in Italy: howbeit Metrodorus Scepsius saith, That forasmuch as about the spring and head of this river there grow many pitch trees, called in French Pades, therfore it tooke the name Padus. Also, that in the Ligurian language, the river it selfe is called Bodincus, which is as much to say, as bottomlesse. And to approve this reason and argument, there is a towne therby called Industria, but by an old name Bodincomagum, where in very deed, beginneth the greatest deapth thereof.


Italie beyond Padus, the eleventh Region.

NEXT to it, is the Region called Transpadana, and the eleventh in number: all whole in the mid-land part of Italy, into which the seas bring in all things with fruitfull channell. The townes therein, be Vibi-forum, and Segusta.81 The colonies at the foot of the Alpes, Augusta of the Taurines, an auncient descent from the Ligurians: from whence Padus is navigable. Then, Augusta Prætoria, of the Salassi, neere unto the two-fold gullets or passages of the Alpes, Graijæ and Peninæ: for men say, that the Carthaginians came through the one, and Hercules in at the other, named Graijæ.82 There standeth the towne Eporedia, built by the people of Rome, by direction and commaundement out of the bookes of Sibylla. Now the Gauls in their tongue call good horse-breakers Eporedicæ.83 Also, Vercella of the Lybici, descended from the Salij: Novaria, from the Vertacomacores: which even at this very day is a village of the Vocontij, and not as Cato thinketh, of the Ligurians: of whom, the Levi and Marici built Ticinum, not farre from Padus: like as the Boij comming over the Alpes, founded Laus Pompeia; and the Insubtians, Millaine. That Comus and Bergomus, yea and Licini-Forum, with other nations thereabout, were of the Orobian race, Cato hath reported: but the first beginning and originall of that nation of Orobians, he confesseth, that he knoweth not. Which notwithstanding Cornelius Alexander sheweth to have descended from the Greekes; and this he guesseth by the interpretation of their name, which signifieth, Men living in mountaines.84 In this tract, Barra a towne of the Orobians is cleane destroyed; from whence, Cato saith, the Bergomates tooke their beginning; bewraying even by their name, that they were seated more highly than happily. There are cleane gone and consumed also the Caturiges, banished persons of the Insubrians: likewise Spina, before-named. In like sort, Melpum, a towne of speciall importance for wealth; which (as Nepos Cornelius hath written) was by the Insubrians, Doians, and Senones, rased on that very day, on which Camillus forced Veij.85


Venice, the tenth Region.

NOW followeth the tenth region of Italy, Venice, lying fast upon the Adriaticke sea: the river whereof Silis, commeth foorth of the mountaines Taurisani: wherein also, is the towne Altinum, the river Liquentia issuing from the mountaines Opitergeni; a haven of the same name: the colonie Concordia. Rivers and havens, to wit, Romatinum, Tilaventum, the greater and the lesse: Anassum, wherunto Varranus runneth downe: Alsa, Natiso, with Turrus, running fast by Aquileia, a colonie situate 12 miles from the sea. This is the region of the Carni, joyning unto that of the Iapides: the river Timavus, and the castle Pucinum, so famous for good wine. The vale and Firth Tergestinus, taking name of the Colonie Tergeste, 23 myles from Aquileia: beyond which sixe miles, is the river Fromio, 189 miles from Ravenna: the ancient bound or limit of Italy enlarged: but at this day of Istria, which was so named of the river Ister, flowing out of the river Danubius into Adria: and over-against the same Ister, the gullet or mouth of Padus also entreth thither: by the contrary rushing streames of which two rivers, the sea between both, beginneth to be more mild; as many Authors have reported, but untruly: and Cornelius Nepos also, although hee dwelt just by Padus: for there is no river that runneth out of Danubius into the Adriaticke sea. Deceived (I suppose) they were, because the ship Argos went downe a river into the Adriatcke sea, not farre from Tergeste; but what river it was, is yet unknowne. They that will seeme to be more curious than their fellows, say, That it was carried upon mens shoulders over the Alpes: and that it was set into Ister, and so into Saus, and then Nauportus (which upon that occasion tooke his name) which ariseth between Æmona and the Alpes.



ISTRIA runneth out like a demie Iland. Some have delivered in writing, that it is 40 miles broad, and 122 myles about. The like they say of Liburnia adjoyning unto it, and of the hollow gulfe Flanaticus. But others say, that the compasse of Liburnia is 180 miles. And some there be againe, who hav set out Iapidia, as farre as to the said creeke Flanaticus, behind Istria 130 miles: and so have made Liburnia in circuit 150 miles. Tuditanus, who subdued the Istrians, upon his own statue there set this Inscription; That from Aquileia to the river Titius, were 200 stadia. The townes in Istria of Romane citizens, be Ægida and Parentium. A Colonie there is besides, Pola, now called Pietas Iulia; built in old time by the Colchians. It is from Tergeste 100 miles. Soone after, ye see the towne Nefactium, and the river Arsia, the utmost bound now of Italy. From Ancona to Pola, there is a cut over the sea of 120 myles. In the mid-land part of this tenth region, are these Colonies; Cremona, and Brixia, in the Cenomanes countrey: but in the Venetians countrey, Ateste. Also the townes, Acelum, Patavium, Opitergium, Belunum, Vicetia: Mantua of the Tuscanes is onely left beyond Padus. That the Venetians were the offspring of the Trojanes, Cato hath set downe in writing: also, that the Cenomanes neere unto Massiles, dwell in the Volscians countrey. Fertines, Tridentines, and Bernenses, are townes of Rhetia. As for Verona, it is of Rhetians and Euganeans; but Iulienses be of the Carnians. Then followeth these, whome we need to use no curiositie in naming; alutruenses, Asseriates, Flamonienses, Vannienses, and others surnamed Gulici: Foro Iulienses surnamed Transpadani: Forelani, Venidates, Querqueni, Taurisani, Togienses, Varvani. In this tract there be perished in the borders, Itaminum, Pellaon, Palsicium. Of the Venetians, Atina and Cælina: of the Carnians, Segeste and Ocra: and of the Taurissi, Noreia. Also from Aquileia 12 myles, there was a towne quite destroyed by M. Claudius Marcellus, even maugre the Senate, as L. Piso hath recorded. In this region there be also ten notable lakes and rivers, either issuing forth of them as their children, or else fed and maintained by them, if so be they send them out againe, when they have once received them: as Larius doth Æna, Verbanus Ticinus, Benacus Mincius, Sebinus Ossius,86 Eupilius Lamber, all inhabiting and seated in Padus. The Alpes reach in length ten miles from the upper sea to the lower, as Cælius saith: Timogenes, two and twentie: but Cornelius Nepos draweth them out in breadth an hundred myles: T. Livius saith, three thousand stadia: both of them take measure in divers places: for sometime they exceed an hundred miles, where they disjoyne Germanie from Italie: and in other parts they are so thin, that they make not full out threescore and ten myles; and that by the providence as it were of Nature. The breadth of Italie from Varus under the foot of them, through the shallowes or plashes of Sabatia, the Taurines, Comus, Brixia, Verona, Vicetia, Opitergium, Aquileia, Tergeste, Pola, and Aristia, maketh seven hundred and two miles.


Of the Alpes and Alpine nations.

MANY nations inhabit the Alpes, but those of speciall name from Pola to the tract of Tergestis, are these, the Secusses, Subocrines, Catili, Menocaleni: and neere to the Carnians those who in times past were called Tuaurisci, but now Norici. Upon these there doe confine the Rhetians and Vindelici, all devided into many States. Men thinke that the Rheti are the Tuscanes progenie, driven out by the Gaules, with their leader Rhætus. But leaving these Rhœtians, turning our breast and visage to Italie, wee meet with the Euganean nations of the Alpes, who enjoied the libertie and franchises of the Latines, and whose townes Cato reckoneth to the number of foure and thirtie. Of them, the Triumpilines, both people and lands were sold. After them the Camuni and many such were annexed to the next towneships, and did service as homagers to them. The Lepontions and the Salassians, the same Cato thinketh to be of the Tauricke race. But all others in manner suppose verily that the Lepontians were a residue left behind of Hercules his train and companie; grounding upon the interpretation of the Greek name; as having their bodies seaged with the Alpine snowes as they passed through: that the Graij likewiser were of the same retinue, planted in the very passage, and inhabiting the Alpes Graiæ: also that the Euganei were noblest of birth, wherupon they took their name.87 The head cittie of them is Stonos. Of those Rhœtians the Vennonetes and Sartinetes, inhabite neere the heads of the river Rhenus. And of the Lepontians, those who are called Viberi, dwell by the spring of Rhodanus, in the same quarter of the Alpes. There be also inhabitants within the Alpes, endowed with the libertie of Latium, namely, the Octodurenses, and their neighbor borderers the Centrones, as also the Cottian States. The Caturiges, and those from them descended, to wit, the Vagienni, Ligures, and such as be called the Mountainers: and many kinds of the Capillati, confining upon the Ligurian sea. It seemeth not amisse in this place to set downe an inscription out of a triumphant Trophee erected in the Alpes, which runneth in this forme: Unto the Emperour Cæsar, sonne of Augustus of famous memorie, Arch-bishop,88 Generall foure times, and invested in the sacred authoritie of the Tribunes: the Senate and people of Rome. For that by his conduct and happie fortune, all the Alpine nations which reached from the upper sea to the nether, wer reduced and brought under the Empire of the people of Rome. The Alpine nations subdued, are these, Triumpilini, Camuni,89 Vennonetes, Isarci, Breuni, Naunes, and Fortunales. Of the Vindelici foure nations, to wit, the Consuanetes, Verucinates, Licates, and Catenates. The Abisontes, Suanetes, Calucones, Brixentes, and Lepontij. Viberi, Nantuates, Seduni, Veragri, Salaci, Acitavones, Medulli, Uceni, Caturiges, Brigiani, Sogiontij, Ebroduntij, Nemaloni, Edenates, Esubiani, Veamini, Gallitæ, Triulatti, Ectini, Vergunium, Eguituri, Nementuri, Oratelli, Nerusivelauni, Suetri. Now there were not reckoned among these the twelve Cottian States which were not up in any hostilitie, ne yet those which were assigned to the free-townes to enjoy the burgeoisie of Rome, by vertue of the law Pompeia.90 Behold this is that Italie consecrated to the gods, these are her nations, and these be the towns of her severall States. And more than al this, that Italie, which when L. Æmylius Paulus and Caius Attilius Regulus were Consuls, upon newes brought of a suddaine rising and tumult of the gaules, alone by it selfe, without any forrain aids, and even them, without any nations beyond Padus, armed 80000 horsemen and 700000 foot. In plentie of all metall mines, it giveth place to no land whatsoever. But forbidden it is to dig any by an old act of the Senate, giving expresse order to make spare of Italie.



THE nation of the Liburnians joineth unto Arsia, even as farre as the river Titius. a part thereof were the Mentores, Hymani, Encheleæ, Dudini, and those whome Callimachus nameth Pucetiæ. Now, the whole in generall is called by one name, Illyricum. The names of the nations are few of them either worthie or easie to bee spoken. As for the judiciall courts of Assises at Scordona, the Iapides and foureteene States besides of the Liburnians resort unto. Of which it greeveth me not to name the Lacininans, Stulpinians, Burnistes and Albonenses. And in that Court these nations following have the libertie of Italians, to wit, the Alutæ and Flanates, of whom the sea or gulfe beareth the name: Lopsi, Varubarini, and the Assesiates that are exempt from all tributes: also of Islands, the Fulsinates and Curiolæ. Moreover, along the borders and maritime coasts, beyond Nesactum, these townes; Alvona, Flavona, Tarsatica, Senia, Lopsica, Ortopula, Vegium, Argyruntum, Corinium, the cittie Ænona, the river Pausinus, and Tedanium, at which Iapida doth end. The Islands lying in that gulfe, together with the townes, besides those townes above noted, Absirtium, Arba, Tragurium, Issa, Pharos beforetime Paros, Crexa, Gissa, Portunata. Againe, within the Continent, the Colonie Iaderon, which is from Pola 160 miles. From thence 30 miles off, the Island Colentum; and 18, the mouth of the river Titius.



THE end of Liburnia and beginning of Dalmatia is Scordona, which frontier towne is twelve miles from the sea, situate upon the said river Titius. Then followeth the auncient countrey of the Tariotes, and the castle Tariota, the Promontorie Diomedis, or, as some would have it, the demie Island Hyllis, taking in circuit a hundred miles. Also Tragurium, inhabited by Romane cittizens, well knowne for the marble there: Sicum, into which place, Claudius late Cæsar, sent the old souldiors: the Colonie Salona, 222 miles from Iadera.91 There repaire to it for law those that are described into Decuries or tithings 382: to wit, Dalmatians 22, Decunum 239, Ditiones 69, and Mezæi 52, Sardiates. In this tract are Burnum, Mandetrium, and Tribulium, Castles of name for the battailes of the Romanes. There came also forth of the Islands the Issæans, Collentines, Separians, and Epetines. Besides them, certaine Castles, Piguntiæ and Rataneum, and Narona a Colonie pertaining to the third Countie-Court, 72 miles from Salona, lying hard to a river of the same name, and 20 miles from the sea. M. Varro writeth, That 89 States used to repaire thither for justice. Now, these only in a manner be knowne, to wit, Cerauni in 33 Tithings, Daorizi in 17, Destitiates in 103, Docleates in 34, Deretines in 14, Deremistes in 30, Dindari in 33, Glinditiones in 44, Melcomani in 24, Naresij in 102, Scirtari in 72, Siculotes in 24. And the Vardæi, who sometime wasted and forraied Italie, in twentie decuries & no more. Besides these, there held and possessed this tract Oeni, Partheni, Hemasini, Arthitæ, and Armistæ. From the river Naron a hundred miles, is the Colonie Epidaurum. Townes of Romane citizens be these, Rhizinium, Ascrinium, Butua, Olchinium, which beforetime was called Colchinium, built by the Colchi. The river Drilo, and the towne upon it, Scodra, inhabited by Romane cittizens, eighteene miles from the sea. Over and besdies, many other townes of Greece, yea and strong citties, out of all remembrance. For in that tract were the Labeates, Enderudines, Sassæi, Grabæi, and those who properly were called Illyrij, the Taulantij and Pyræi. The Promontorie Nymphæum in the coast thereof, keepeth still the name: also Lissum a towne of Romane cittizens, a hundred miles from Epidaurus.



FROM Lissum is the province of Macedonie: the nations there, bee the Partheni, and on their backe side the Dassaretes. Two mountaines of Candavia threescore and nineteene miles from Dyrrhachium. But in the borders thereof, Denda, a towne of Romane cittizens: also the Colonie Epidamnum, which for that unluckie namesake was by the Romanes called Dyrrhachium.92 The river Aous, named of some Æas. Apollonia, sometime a Colonie of the Corinthians, situate within the countrey, seven miles from the sea, in the marches whereof is the famous Nymphæum. The borderers inhabiting thereby, are the Amantes and Buliones. But in the verie edge thereof, the towne Oricum built by the Colchi. Then beginneth Epirus, the mountaines Acroceraunia, at which wee have bounded this Sea of Europe. As for Oricum, it is from Salentinum (a Promontorie of Italie) fourescore and five miles.



BEHIND the Cami and Iapides, whereas the great river Ister runneth, the Norici joine unto the Rhæti. Their townes by, Virunum, Celeia, Teurnia, Aguntum, Viana, Æmona, Claudia, Flavium, Toluense.93 Upon the Norici there lie fast the Lake Peiso, the deserts of the Boij. Howbeit, now by the Colonie of the late Emperour Claudius of famous memorie, Salaria and the towne Scarabantia Iulia, they be inhabited and peopled.



THENCE beginneth Pannonia so fruitfull in Mast: wheras the hils of the Alpes, waxing more mild and civile, turning through the middest of Illyricum from the North to the South, settle lower by an easie descent both on the right hand and the left. That part which regardeth the Adriaticke sea, is called Dalmatia, and Illyricum abovenamed. Pannonia bendeth toward the North, and is bounded with the river Danubius. In it are these Colonies, Æmonia, Siscia. And these rivers of speciall name, and navigable, run into Danubius, Draus with more violence out of the Noricke Alpes; and Saus out of the Carnicke Alpes more gently, 115 miles between. As for Draus, it passeth through the Serretes, Serrapilles, Iasians, and Sandrozetes: but Saus through the Colapians and Breuci. And these be the cheefe States of that countrie. Moreover, the Arivates, Azali, Amantes, Belgites, Catari, Corneates, Aravisci, Hecuniates, Latovici, Oseriates, and Varciani. The mount Claudius, in the front whereof are the Scordisci, and upon the backe, the Taurisci. The Island in Saus, Metubarris, the biggest of all the river Islands. Besides, notable goodly rivers, Calapis running into Saus neere Siscia; where, with a double channell it maketh the Island called Segestica. Another river Bacuntius, running likewise into Saus, at the towne Sirmium: where is the statue of the Sirmians and Amantines. Five and fortie miles from thence Taurunum, where Saus is intermingled with Danubius. Higher above there run into it Valdanus and Urpanus, and they ywis be no base and obscure rivers.



UNTO Pannonia, joyneth the province called Mœsia, which extendeth along Danubis unto Pontus. It beginneth at the confluent above-named. In it, are the Dardanians, Celegeri, Triballi, Trimachi, Mœsi, Thranes, and the Scythians bordering upon Pontus. Faire rivers, out of the Dardanians countrey, Margis, Pingus, and Timachis. Out of Rhodope, Oessus: out of Hæmus, Utus, Essamus, and Ieterus. Illyricum where it is broadest, taketh up 325 myles: it lyeth out in length from the river Arsia to the river Drinius, 800 myles. From Drinium to the cape Acroceraunium, 182 miles. M. Agrippa hath set downe all the whole sea comprehending Italy and Illyricum, in the compasse of 1300 miles. In it are two smaller seas or gulfes bounded as I have said: namely, The lower, otherwise called the Ionian, in the fore part: The inner, called Adriaticum, which also they name The upper. In the Ausonian sea, there be no Ilands worth the speaking, but those above-named. In the Ionian sea there are but few, to wit, upon the Calabrian coast before Brundusium; by the object-site whereof, the haven is made: and against the Apulian coast Diomede, famous for the tombe and monument of Diomedes. Another also of that name, called by some, Teutria. As for the coast of Illyricum, it is pestred with more than a thousand; such is the nature of the sea, full of shelves and washes, with narrow chanels running betweene. But before the mouthes of Timavus, there be Ilands famous for hot waters, which ebbe and flowe with the sea. And neere unto the territorie of the Istrians, Cissa, Pullariæ, and those which the Greeks name Absyrtides, of Medeas brother Absyrtis there slaine. Neere unto them, they called the Ilands Electrides, wherein is engendred Ambre, which they call Electrum: a most assured argument to prove the vanitie of the Greeks; for that which of them they meant, was never knowne.94 Against Iader, there is Lissa; and certaine other over-against the Liburnians, called Cretæ: and as many of the Liburnians, Celadusæ. Against Surium, there is Brattia, commended for neat and goats. Issa, inhabited by Romane citizens, and Pharia within the twoen. Next to these, Corcyra, surnamed Melæna, with the towne of the Gnidians, distant 22 miles asunder: betwene which and Illyricum, is Melita; whereof (as Callimachus testifieth) the little dogs Melitæi tooke their name: and twelve miles from thence, the three Elaphites.95 In the Ionian sea from Oricum 1000 miles, is Sasonis, well knowne for the Pirats harbour there.



The running title is "The third Booke of // Plinies Naturall Historie. "

1. For a map, see LacusCurtius: Roman Atlas — Baetica, Map 1.

2. Tertessos: Pliny's (and the Greeks') Tartesos.

3. Item the towne Salbula etc.: straight from Pliny; that is, Salbula, like the town Barbesula, is both a town ("oppidum") and a river (but not "Suel-Malacha", two different places).

4. Sexi-firmum: following the manuscripts, which have "Sexifirmum". Often emended: Sexti Firmum cognomine Iulium, Sexi cognomine Firmum Iulium, etc. In general, I will simply issue a warning to consult the Latin before trusting Holland's translation in this book; sometimes he translates into the modern towns, sometimes transliterates, often inaccurately, the Latin, and sometimes he follows a reading that is probably wrong.

5. Tugrensis: sc. Tugiensis.

6. Virgao: following Dalechamps; Pliny has Urgao. Ebura, otherwise Cerealis: Pliny, Ebora quae Cerialis. See also Ptolomy (see next note).

7. Ilipua: sc. Ilipula. Ptolomy's Ἰλλίπουλα μεγάλη. Possibly Granada.

8. Singulia, Hegua: Holland follows one old and probably inferior reading: Singili, Attegua. Agla the lesse: translating Aglaminor (although Holland leaves "Arialdunum" and "Castra vinaria" untranslated). Nuditanum: the MSS have Unditanum, but many editions correct to Nuditanum, for unconvincing reasons. Tucci the old: the MSS have Tuati vetus, which stood thus until the edition of Frobenius who suggested the emendation since nearly universal.

9. Laconicum: the MSS read Latonium. Ansart notes "In Hispania Laconicos mores et instituta floruisse auctor est Strabo, lib. III, pag. 154, inde illa fortasse cognomina Laconicum et Laconimurgi, quae nunc occurrunt. In MSS. tamen hoc loco Latonium scribitur; Chiffl[et] Laconium. "

10. Iprasturgi, Sitia: "de priore nemo, praeter Plinium, meminit". Μodern editions emend to "Ipra, Isturgi quod Triumphales". Mayhoff emends Stitia to Ucia; but cf. Ptolemy, Σέτια; on the third hand, neither Ucia nor Setia seems to be quite in the right place for the discussion at (the fourth?) hand.

11. Ripepora, a towne of the confederates: Rezonnicus et Brot. Ripa, Epora foederatum legunt ex MS. Reg. 1; prioremque urbem nunc Castro al Rio vocari subjungit Brot. Eporam autem, quae hod dubio Ἔβορα Ptolemaei fuit, lib. II, cap. 4 ["Ebura"], in oppidis Turdulorum mediterraneis, prope Onobam, apud omnes constat hodie esse Montoro, ad ripam fluminis, M. passuum XXVIII, leucis circiter novem, supra Cordubam, ut Antoninus prodidit et confirmat Roder. Carus lib. III, cap. 22. Adde quod in oppido Montoro repertum lapidem vetustum Hier. Surita ait in Anton. Itiner. pag 553, cum inscript. RESPUB. EPORENSIS. Apud Gruterum inscriptio est: ORDO MUN. EPOR.. Thus Ansart and Hardouin. Many modern editors spring for "Ripa, Epora."

12. Towns be these ... Italica. Holland follows (more or less) the edition of Dalechamps, which is highly arbitrary at this point. See an annotated edition of Pliny for the very complicated history of textual variants, emendations, and readings of this passage.

13. Hispalis Romulensis: hodie Seville.

14. Right opposite it: translating "ex adverso", to which Ansart notes "Dextro igitur Baetis latere, seu septemtrionali, nam laevo sita olim Hispalis fuit. Hodie, ut plurimi volunt, oppidum Alcala del Rio vocunt."

15. Vergentum: The manuscripts read Jurgentium. Genitor: most editions read Genitor until Hardouin corrected to Genii.

16. Attubi: the manuscripts read Ucubi.

17. On Munda and Pompey's son, see Florus II, xiii.

18. Alontigicili and Alostigi: the manuscripts are probably corrupt here. Various solutions have been offered.

19. From Pliny's list Holland has omitted Nertobrigae Concordia Iulia and Segidae Restituta Iulia.

20. Besippo: Holland has Besippo, but Pliny has Belippo; and Besippo appears a little later in the list.

21. Cappagum, Oleastro or Cappa with Oleastro (Cappa cum Oleastro). Once again, the readings of this passage vary; see an edition of Pliny with textual variants.

22. Four and fortie: following Dalechamps. Chifflet has XLIII. Some editions have XLII.

23. Bætulonenses: Holland follows an emendation pretty much universally agreed to be in error. All manuscripts read Baeculonenses "non Baetulonenses, a Baetulone oppido superius memorato: Sed a Βαικούλα Ptolemæi, in Ausetanis inter Ausam et Gerundam" (Hardouin).

24. foure States: thus Dalechamps. Or seven (Chifflet) or eight (Mayhoff). Once again, consult a critical edition (although, in this case, editors like simply to present number without explanation).

25. seven: This seems to be Holland's own mistake; the text reads six and six towns follow.

26. Gigur: the MSS have Cigurri; possibly Gigurri. Pesici: read Pæsici. Zoclæ: read Zoelae.

27. Braccata: Hardouin notes "A braccis, sive femoralibus lineis, des brayes ou hauts de chausses: quod vestimenti genus Romanis veteribus inusitatum, ab iis in Gallia Narbonensi primo deprehensum est: quæ inde ab iis Braccata est cognominata, inquit Alcuinus, lib. de Divinis Offic." "Trousered", and therefore barbarian, as opposed to togatus, "gowned" and therefore Roman.

28. Beyond the ditch out of Rhodanus: reading, with Dalechamps, ultra fossam ex Rhodano, rather than ultra fossae ex Rhodano or ultrae, fossae ex Rhodano (!) of other editions.

29. Astromela: read Mastromela.

30. Promontorie Citharista, Zaopartus: Holland here follows Dalechamps, who emends the received Latin text promunturium Zao, Citharista portus following Ptolemy II, 6: ὁ Κιϑαριστὸς τὸ ᾶκρον; but it is supposed that there was both a promontory (perhaps the Cap Cicier?) and a portus (probably La Ciotat) with the same name, thus making emendation unnecessary (although always fun). Read "the promontory Zao, and the port Citharista": probably Cap l'Aigle and La Ciotat.

31. Acema: thus Dalechamps. Other editions Cema and Caenia. "Hodie," says one editor, "Monte-Cemelione."

32. Bliterae: again following Dalechamps. Betterae, say the MSS, or Baeterrae: Beziers. And, while we're at it, and Holland has chosen not to translate or modernize even obvious names: Fréjus = Forum Iulij; Arles = Arelate; and Aurasia is Orange. The remainder of this passage is very much full of Dalechampian readings, many of them unnecessary emendations. Consult a good Latin edition of Pliny to get the names straight.

33. That is to say, it points southeast, not due south.

34. So running a speech and hastie pen: Pliny dictated his work, or at least part of it; thus Pliny the Younger in a letter to Baebius Macer (III.5).

35. The river Po: clearly wrong, if Holland means the modern Po. Mayhoff's text (along with most MSS) reads fluvius Palo; Chifflet Pado; Dalechamps Padus (the Po). Some read Paulo. The Paglione or Paillon, which runs into the Mediterranean at Nice.

36. The towne Vediantiorum ... called Cemelion: Holland is offering us a choice of translations, not Pliny a choice of identities. Cimiez.

37. The port of Hercules and Monoecus: Dalechamps, following Ptolemy, changes the text to imply that there are two ports, one of Hercules, the other of Monoeci; Holland fudges. Cf. Tacitus: Histories III.42: Fabius Valens e sinu Pisano segnitia maris aut adversante vento portum Herculis Monoeci depellitur." In any case, Monaco.

38. See, for instance, Servius on Aeneid 10.164, who derives the word from the frequency of their sacrifices: ἀπὸ τοῦ θύειν.

39. Homer: Odyssey 10.194ff. Not, or at least not necessarily, of this place.

40. Theophrastus: V. cap. 9.

41. Annexed to the Island: The phrase that follows this in most Latin editions, post eum annum accessit Italiae, Dalechamps attaches to the next sentence, so that Holland "neglects" to translate it, and relates it instead to the next sentence "there fell out the next year another miracle in Italy" etc. This is almost certainly not right, but there it is.

42. Pomptine meere: i.e., the Pontine marsh. 23 citties: thus Dalechamps, and Chifflet; other editions, XXXIII or XXIIII. Probably 24.

43. The river Ufens: most modern editions, Aufentum. Hardouin notes: "Ufens. Vibius Seq. pag. 339, Ufens Terracinæ proximus. Sil. Ital. VIII, v. 381: « Liventes cano per squalida turbidus arva Cogit aquas Ufens, atque inficit æquora limo. » In MSS. flumen Ufentum. Amni nomen il Portatore: Terracina suum retinet. De vetusta Anxuris appellatione Festus Liviusque. Hinc Jupiter Anxurus, apus Maronem, Æneid. lib. VII, versu 799."

44. Furmentie: sic, but corrected in subsequent editions. Read frumenty. Translating alic, some kind of grain dish, farina, or frumenty. There are textual problems here aside from the exact identification of alic.

45. The towne Cimmerium: properly Cimmerius, where people dwelt in total darkness. Festus: "Cimmerii dicuntur homines, qui frigoribus occupatas terras incolunt, quales fuerunt inter Baias et Cumas, in ea regione, in qua convallis satis eminenti jugo circumdata est, quæ neque matutino, neque vespertino tempore Sole contegitur." Homer, Odyssey 11.14 ἔνθα δὲ Κιμμερίων ἀνδρῶν δῆμός τε πόλις τε. Homer doesn't say this is in Campania.

46. Capua, so called of the Campane country: that is, Capua is named for the country, campo. Thus, for instance, Diodorus, but the story is unreliable, on phonetic grounds. Strabo V.4.10 says it's from its being the head ("caput") of the local towns. Cf. Livy, IV:37. This is Sta Maria di Capua.

47. Fricolenses: translating Fregallani; if Holland were consistent, this should be Frecallanes or something like that.

48. Ulvanates: or Urvanates or Urbanates.

* Valentia. [Holland's note, as the glyph will tell you.]

** Some read 30.

49. The time that Cn. Pompeius and L. Carbo were Consuls: all editions and all manuscripts read L. Catonem, "ante Hermolaum, qui L. Carbonem importune obtrusit, quem bello Marsico, sive Sociali nullum fuisse consulem scimus. Fuit vero L. Porcius Cato anno secundo ejus belli, U.C. 665, cum Cn. Pompeio Strabone, Cn. Pompeii Magni patre", says Hardouin, not pulling his punches. Read instead L. Cato.

50. The column Rhegia: some mss. have coloniam, but Pliny later refers to columna Rhegia. See, for instance, Pomponius Mela, II.61.

51. Melphes: Holland follows Dalechamps' Melphes rather than the more standard Melpes. The Faraone.

52. Medua: following Dalechamps; read Medma.

53. Pityusae, of the pine shrub or plant: The Greek πίτυς.

54. Bochri, a town confederate: reading, with Dalechamps, Bochri for the textual Bocchorum.

55. Neither doth Ebusus breed Conies, common in the Baleares: Reading nec cuniculos with most editions, although many manuscripts do not have nec. On rabbits eating everything in the Baleares, see also Book VIII, Chap. LV (=LXXXI).

56. Vergaonum: sc. Vergoanum; or Berconus, say some editors.

57. Pantadaria: sic; sc. Pandateria (or Pandateria). Aeneas his nurse: thus Dionys. Antiq. Rom. I.73.3. Aenaria: or Pithecusa; cf. Strabo V.4.9. Cf. Dion. Hal. I.53.2-3: "But Aeneas and his companions, leaving Sicily, crossed the Tyrrhenian sea and first came to anchor in Italy in the harbour of Palinurus, which is said to have got this name from one of the pilots of Aeneas who died there. After that they put in at an island which they called Leucosia, from a woman cousin of Aeneas who died at that place. From there they came into a deep and excellent harbour of the Opicans, and when here also one of their number died, a prominent man named Misenus, they called the harbour after him. Then, putting in by chance at the island of Prochyra and at the promontory of Caieta, they named these places in the same manner, desiring that they should serve as memorials of women who died there, one of whom is said to have been a cousin of Aeneas and the other his nurse."

58. Ænaria: cf. Festus: "Ænaria appellavere locum, ubi Æneas classem a Trojanis veniens appulit."

59. Homer, Inarime: Homer Iliad II. 783, "εἰν Ἀρίμοις", whence Virgil Aeneid IX.716, Inarime. Pithecusa ... Alps: Alps in all editions. Read apes. The Greek πιϑήκος. Potters: as if from πίϑος, a wine-vessel.

60. Hardouin: "Ita Solinus, cap. v, pag. 19 Ἀπὸ τοῦ ῥαγῆναι. Rhegium dictum volunt, quod ibi terra dehiscat interfuso tenui maris euripo. Alii Regium sine aspiratione scripsere, quasi Regiam, hoc est, Βασίλειον. Conf. Strabonem lib. VI, p. 258."

61. 82 miles ... but 72. Holland follows Dalechamps; most editions have 86 and 75. This put in as an opportunity once more to warn about checking the numbers in Holland against a good annotated Latin edition.

62. Cerinthus : sc. Cocynthus. I cannot think where Holland got Cerinthus.

63. Creek Scylacensu ... Scylletium. Holland has this very confused, and omits a word; the text is here is sometimes emended, but Holland's version is simply incorrect. See the Latin.

64. Cut it off: not, as it would sound, with a canal, but with a wall, says Strabo VI.1.10).

65. Alibanus: thus Dalechamps; the manuscripts and most editions read Clibanus.

66. Cessapia and Aletium: Dalechamps reads Cessapia where all manuscripts and most editions read Messapia, now Mesagna. All manuscripts read, probably incorrectly, Sarmadium for Aletium; the emendation is from the geopgraphy: probably Santa Maria dell'Alizza.

67. Hannibal: Appian VIII(338).

68. Mery jeast ... Apina and Trica: Erasmus, Chiliades I.2.43: "Tricae, Apinae. Tricas et Apinas, vulgo res futiles et nugatorias dicebant"; cf. Martial. Epigram. I.113

69. Beneventum was Maleventum: cf. Livy IX.27, although he doesn't say that Maleventum is more unlucky than Beneventum. Benevento, today.

70. Sabines called thus for their religion and devout worship: thus Varro and Festus: "Sabini dicti, ut ait Varro, quod ea gens præcipue colat deos: ἀπὸ τοῦ σέβεσϑαι"; but Cato, Origins, as quoted by Dion. Halic. II.113 derives the name from Sabinus son of Sangus.

71. Hote waters of brimstone: "sulphureous", says Pliny (and Virgil: Aeneid VII.517); Holland adds the hote on his own. The Nera is not hot, but it is a distinctive color.

72. A vow: probably an instance of the ver sacrum (the term Pliny uses here); on which see Smith's Dictionary: Ver Sacrum.

73. The cittie Salvia, and the Tollentines: or, better, Urbesalvia of the Pollentines, now Urbisaglia.

74. French pale: a double anachronism; the Gallic, or Gaulish, fields; Cisalpine Gaul.

75. Ombri: see Herodotus, I.94, Ὀμβρικούς, having to do with rain. On the Roman towns of Umbria mentioned by Pliny, see the numerous links in the Latin text (e.g., Assisi, Spello, Gubbio, Carsulae, Bevagna, Nocera, Narni, etc.).

76. Tadinates: Holland (all editions) has Sadinates, but that must be an uncorrected erratum (there are many).

77. 964 yeeres before the warre against Perseus: which war took place in 171 B.C.; hence, Amera was built about 1035 B.C.

78. The citie Spinæ built with the treasures of Delphi: A possible reading, I suppose, but far more likely, a city built by Diomedes, powerful if we judge from the treasure it deposited at Delphi. See Strabo, V.1.7.

79. Adriaticke ... Adriaticum: i.e., "of which the Atriaticke sea tooke the name afore time, which is now called Adriaticum".

80. Edron: Chioggia.

81. Segusta: Holland, thus all editions; Pliny has Segusio; now Susa in the Piemonte.

82. Graijae and Peninæ ... Carthaginians and Hercules: That is, the "Punics" (Poenos) came in through the one, Poenina (Ptolemy's τὰς Ποινὰς, and the Greek Hercules through the "Greek" Graiias. Fanciful and unlikely etymologies, but good mnemonics.

83. Eporedicæ: following Dalechamps; or Eporedias; other readings, Iporedicas, Puredias.

84. Men living in mountaines as if from Greek ὄρος and βίος: παρὰ τὸ τὸν βίον ἐν ὄρεσι. This seems on its face fairly silly, but why not?

85. Camillus forced Veii: see Livy, V.21.

86. Ossius: thus all editions; probably a compositor's misreading for the correct Ollius.

87. The Greek name: of the Lepontians, as though Lepontii is from λείπω, because they were left behind. Οf the Graii, clear on its face. Οf the Euganei, as though the word is from εὐγένιοι.

88. Arch-bishop: Holland's version of Pontifex Maximus....

89. Camuni, Vennonetes: After the Camuni, Holland leaves out the Venostes, presumably because of the similarity of their name with that of the Vennonetes.

90. Law Pompeia: Holland continues the italicization to this point, as though this sentence were part of the inscription. On the Lex Pompeia, see Smith's Dictionary: Jus Latii.

91. 222 miles: reading with Dalechamps CCXXII for CXII.

92. Unluckie namesake: cf. Pomponius Mela, II.49: "Vrbium prima est Oricum, secunda Dyrrachium, Epidamnos ante erat, Romani nomen mutavere, quia velut in damnum ituris omen id visum est. " Now Durazzo.

93. Flavium, Toluense: read Flavium Solvense; the town's name survives in inscriptions.

94. Greekes ... was never meant: that is, the Greek story of how amber is made (which, stripped of its mythologizing ornaments, is accurate). See Book XXXVII, chap. II (Latin, XXXVII.ii.31).

95. Three Elaphites: or IIII, or VII, depending on the edition. Lots, in any case, and certainly more than three.

This page is by James Eason.